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INTRODUCTION TO SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY

SEQUENCE BOUNDARY
4TH ORDER
PARASEQUENCES

CONGLOMERATE - LST

TUSCAN SAI, KAZAKHSTAN; LOWER PERMIAN

SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY

SEQUENCE BOUNDARY
4TH ORDER
PARASEQUENCES

CONGLOMERATE - LST

OFFICIAL DEFINITION:
. . . IS THE STUDY OF GENETICALLY RELATED FACIES WITHIN A FRAMEWORK
TUSCAN SAI, KAZAKHSTAN;
LOWER
PERMIAN
OF CHRONOSTRATIGRAPHICALLY
SIGNFICANT
SURFACES.

SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY BASICS


Cycles = repeIIve 4-dimensional paQerns in the straIgraphic succession

bounding
surface

bounding
surface

SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY BASICS


Facies paQerns in the straIgraphic succession the stratal architecture
BOUNDING
SURFACES

0.5 mi.

25 Y

SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY
Its all about cycles and their bounding surfaces

SEQUENCE BOUNDARY
4TH ORDER
PARASEQUENCES

CONGLOMERATE - LST

CYCLES CAN BE:


Complete
Incomplete
TUSCAN SAI, KAZAKHSTAN; LOWER PERMIAN
Symmetric
Asymmetric

SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY ITS ALL ABOUT CYCLES

SEQ-6

SILICICLASTIC CYCLES

CARBONATE CYCLES
SHALLOWING
UPWARDS
SUCCESSIONS

WHAT DRIVES THE CYCLES SEQUENCE STRAT?

CYCLE SCALES

SCALE OF CYCLES
1st and 2nd order cycles

SEQ-11

SLOSS SEQUENCES 2ND ORDER

SLOSS SEQUENCES 2ND ORDER

(con>nents ooded)

3rd order
cycles

SLOSS SEQUENCES 2ND ORDER

TEJAS

ZUNI

ABSAROKA

KASKASKIA

TIPPECANOE

SAUK

3rd ORDER SEQUENCES


----------- 361
Ma

----------- 375
Ma

----------- 380
Ma

3rd ORDER SEQUENCES

Haq & SchuDer (2008) Chronology of Pz Sea-Level


Changes - Sci.

3rd ORDER SEQUENCES

Model Aidaralash Sequence


SEQUENCE BOUNDARY
HIGHSTAND SYSTEMS TRACT
PRODELTA
50 200 m

BRAID PLAIN
OR FAN DELTA

Coarsening upward succession; siltstone and ne


sandstone in lower part, medium to coarse sandstone in
upper part; disUnct channel-ll sandstone in uppermost
porUon; abrupt contact with overlying lowstand
conglomerate.
TRANSGRESSIVE SYSTEMS TRACT
Fining upward succession; dominated by siltstone and
ne sandstone; some coarser sandstone sediment gravity
ow deposits (event beds).
LOWSTAND SYSTEMS TRACT
Pebble to boulder conglomerate and coarse sandstone
and gravel; abundant wood debris; conglomerate
contains Early Permian limestone clasts.

3rd & 4th ORDER CYCLES

4th order cycles, ledges of


limestone within a 3rd order
sequence.

GRINDSTONE MTN, ELKO, NV


PENNSYLVANIAN ELY
LIMESTONE

3rd & 4th ORDER CYCLES


3rd

4th

4.5km

3rd

KHONDUROVSKY, RUSSIA
ASSELIAN-SAKMARIAN BOUNDARY TYPE
SECTION

SEQ-20

3rd & 4th ORDER CYCLES

SEQUENCE BOUNDARY
4TH ORDER
PARASEQUENCES

CONGLOMERATE - LST

TUSCAN SAI, KAZAKHSTAN; LOWER PERMIAN

3rd, 4th, & 5th ORDER CYCLES

SEQ-22

5TH ORDER PARASEQUENCES

6TH Order

BEDSET, BED, LAMINA SET, LAMINA.

LS = LAMINA SET

WIGGLES ON WIGGLES

WIGGLES ON WIGGLES

SEQUENCE STRAT STRATAL UNIT HIERARCHY

4th & 5th order

SEQUENCE STRAT STRATAL UNIT HIERARCHY

RISE & FALL OF SEA LEVEL


RetrogradaIon/ProgradaIon Regression/
Transgression
Eustasy = global sea level rise & fall =
absolute sea level (versus relaIve sea
level).
Predictable changes in straIgraphic
architecture.
Subsidence driven by: tectonic + sediment
load + water load
StraIgraphic architecture = product of
eustaIc sea level rise & fall as modied by
a simple and predicable style and rate of
tectonic subsidence and rate of
sedimentaIon.

ACCOMMODATION
SPACE

ACCOMMODATION SPACE & UNCONFORMITIES


AccommodaIon space = new space available for sedimentaUon as a funcUon of
eustasy, subsidence and sedimentaUon.

EUSTASY + SUBSIDENCE + SEDIMENT SUPPLY

ACCOMODATION SPACE
MulIple frequencies for eustaIc sea level changes.

ACCOMODATION SPACE
Add subsidence to eustaIc curves . . .

Subsidence curve

datu
m

EustaUc sea level


change

ACCOMMODATION SPACE & UNCONFORMITIES

ACCOMMODATION SPACE
(meters)

ACCOMMODATION SPACE & UNCONFORMITIES

LACUNA

SHALLOWING
UPWARDS CYCLES
(PARASEQUENCES)

TIME (kyr)

SEQUENCE BOUNDARY = UNCONFORMITY


SHOREWARD

SUR

HIATUS
(nondeposiIon interval)

CONTINUOUS DEPO
(equivalent surface)

DEGRADATION
VACUITY
(eroded rock)

DISTANCE

ROCK THICKNESS

FACE

TIME

LACUNA
(missing interval strata)

UPPE
R

BASINWARD

PROGRADATIONAL SILICICLASTIC PARASEQUENCES

BEACH - OFFSHORE

SILICICLASTIC PARASEQUENCES
BEACH - NEARSHORE

SILICICLASTIC PARASEQUENCES
BEACH-NEARSHORE HIGH SEDIMENTATION
RATES

SILICICLASTIC PARASEQUENCES
DELTAIC