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In the past, the term curriculum signified a course of studies followed by a pupil in a
teaching institution. In the English-speaking tradition it was used as equivalent to the French
concept programme dtudes. Today, it means in general terms, the contract between
society, the State and educational professionals with regard to the educational activities that
learners should undergo during a certain phase of their lives to learn something desirable.
Definitions of curriculum
Standard dictionaries define curriculum as a course of study offered by an academic
institution. According to Ronald Doll, curriculum is the formal and informal content and
process by which learners gain knowledge and understanding, develop skills, and alter
attitudes, appreciations, and values under the auspices of an academic institution. In other
words, curriculum can be defined as the total experience. From this view point, Curriculum is
not only the content selected and delivered, but also the planned and unplanned activities in
which individuals participate as students.
In educational literature, in short, the word curriculum has been defined in the following

Curriculum is such permanent subjects as grammar, reading, logic, rhetoric,

mathematics, and the greatest books of the Western world that embody essential
Curriculum is those subjects that are most useful for living in contemporary society.
Curriculum is all planned learning for which the institution is responsible.
Curriculum is all the experiences learners have under the guidance of the
Curriculum is the totality of learning experiences provided to students so that they
can attain general skills and knowledge at a variety of learning sites.
Curriculum is a structured series of intended learning outcomes.
Some authors define curriculum as the total effort of the school to bring about
desired outcomes in school and out-of-school situations.
It is also defined as a sequence of potential experiences set up in school for the
purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting.
Curriculum is a structured set of learning outcomes or task that educators usually
call goals and objectives. ( Howell and Evans 1995)
Curriculum is the what of teaching.
Curriculum listings of subjects to be taught in school.

The other terms that are commonly used as synonymous to curriculum are syllabus
and course. But curriculum can refer to any level of an educational experience, from that of
a particular area within a course, to the course itself, to a broader program of study that
comprises a number of different courses around a particular content area. Curriculum is
often used to refer to a focus of study, consisting of various courses all designed to reach a
particular proficiency or qualification; Syllabus refers to the content or subject matter,
instructional strategies and evaluation means of an individual course. The collective syllabus
of a program of study represents a map of the curriculum for that program. A curriculum is
developed through planning for a larger program of study and then building syllabi for
courses to manifest the curriculum design and plan. However, even developing a syllabus for
a specific course can be thought of as a form of curriculum development.

Taking into consideration on the definition on curriculum development as a process
systematically organizes what will be taught, who will be taught, and how it will be taught,
the learner is the target audience in making the curriculum, the reason why the curriculum
was formulated on the first place.
In the development of curriculum, the learners must gain knowledge and understanding,
develop skills, and alter attitudes, appreciations, and values under the auspices of an
academic institution
To understand how to move from passive to active learning, it is important to understand the
different types of learners. There are four primary learning styles: visual, auditory, readwrite, and kinesthetic. People learn using a variety of these methods, but one method is
usually predominant. Familiarity with the characteristics of each learning style and
associated strategies allows you to address the needs of each type of learner.
Visual Learners
They tend to be fast talkers.
They exhibit impatience and have a tendency to interrupt.
They use words and phrases that evoke visual images.
They learn by seeing and visualizing.
Your teaching strategy for visual learners should include the use of demonstrations and
visually pleasing materials, and you should make an effort to paint mental pictures for
Auditory Learners
They speak slowly and tend to be natural listeners.
They think in a linear manner.
They prefer to have things explained to them verbally rather than to read written
They learn by listening and verbalizing.
Your teaching strategy for auditory learners should sound good and should be planned and
delivered in the form of an organized conversation.
Read-Write Learners
They prefer for information to be displayed in writing, such as lists of ideas.
They emphasize text-based input and output.
They enjoy reading and writing in all forms.
Your teaching strategy for read-write learners should include writing out key words in list
form. The learners will learn by silently reading or rewriting their notes repeatedly; writing
out in their own words the ideas and principles that were taught or discussed; organizing
any diagrams, graphs, other visual depictions into statements (e.g., The trend is . . . ); and
putting reactions, actions, diagrams, charts, and flowcharts into words. They like multiplechoice tests.
Kinesthetic Learners
They tend to be the slowest talkers of all.

They tend to be slow to make decisions.

They use all their senses to engage in learning.
They learn by doing and solving real-life problems.
They like hands-on approaches to things and learn through trial and error.
Your teaching strategy for kinesthetic learners should include hands-on demonstrations and
case examples to be discussed and solved.
The teacher's role, behavior, and strategies must stem deliberately from established mission
and goals, the curriculum, and agreed-upon learning principles. In other words, the particular
approaches, methods, and resources employed are not primarily subjective choices or
mere matters of style. They logically derive from the desired student accomplishments and
our profession's understanding of the learning process. The teacher teaches to cause a
result. He or she is successful only if he or she causes learning related to purpose.
A teacher's role involves more than simply standing in front of a classroom and lecturing. In
fact, even though a teacher spends the majority of the day in the classroom, the actual
teaching component is only part of the job. An effective teacher understands that teaching
involves wearing multiple hats to ensure that the school day runs smoothly and all students
receive a quality education.
In many countries, a person who wishes to become a teacher must first obtain specified
professional qualifications or credentials from auniversity or college. These professional
qualifications may include the study of pedagogy, the science of teaching. Teachers, like
other professionals, may have to continue their education after they qualify, a process
known as continuing professional development. Teachers may use a lesson plan to facilitate
student learning, providing a course of study which is called the curriculum.


Learning environment refers to the diverse physical locations, contexts, and cultures in
which students learn. Since students may learn in a wide variety of settings, such as
outside-of-school locations and outdoor environments, the term is often used as a more
accurate or preferred alternative to classroom, which has more limited and traditional
connotationsa room with rows of desks and a chalkboard, for example.
The term also encompasses the culture of a school or classits presiding ethos and
characteristics, including how individuals interact with and treat one anotheras well as the
ways in which teachers may organize an educational setting to facilitate learninge.g., by
conducting classes in relevant natural ecosystems, grouping desks in specific ways,
decorating the walls with learning materials, or utilizing audio, visual, and digital
technologies. And because the qualities and characteristics of a learning environment are
determined by a wide variety of factors, school policies, governance structures, and other
features may also be considered elements of a learning environment.
Educators may also argue that learning environments have both a direct and indirect
influence on student learning, including their engagement in what is being taught, their
motivation to learn, and their sense of well-being, belonging, and personal safety. For
example, learning environments filled with sunlight and stimulating educational materials
would likely be considered more conducive to learning than drab spaces without windows or
decoration, as would schools with fewer incidences of misbehavior, disorder, bullying, and
illegal activity. How adults interact with students and how students interact with one another
may also be considered aspects of a learning environment, and phrases such as positive
learning environment or negative learning environment are commonly used in reference
to the social and emotional dimensions of a school or class.

21st century learning environment

The term learning environment suggests place and space a school, a classroom, a library.
And indeed, much 21st century learning takes place in physical locations like these. But in
todays interconnected and technology-driven world, a learning environment can be virtual,
online, remote; in other words, it doesnt have to be a place at all. Perhaps a better way to
think of 21st century learning environments is as the support systems that organize the
condition in which humans learn best systems that accommodate the unique learning
needs of every learner and support the positive human relationships needed for effective
learning. Learning environments are the structures, tools, and communities that inspire
students and educators to attain the knowledge and skills the 21st century demands of us
all. Experts say 21st century learning must take place in contexts that promote interaction
and a sense of community [that] enable formal and informal learning.

Early Life

My name is Michael L. Lim and I was born in Guadalupe, Cebu City on April 11,
1983 and live there for 30 years.
I am the youngest of the two siblings of Mr. Emmanuel and Guillerma Lim.
My brother is four years older than me.
My father and mother met in Tacloban, Leyte in 1974 while my father was
working there.

Educational Accomplishments
I had my primary and intermediary schooling at the Cebu Normal University,
and finished my secondary education at Blessed John XXIII Seminary.
After graduating my secondary education, I decided to continue my seminary
formation at the San Carlos Seminary College, taking up BS Philosophy up
until third year because I was advised to have a two-year regency, where we
have to leave the seminary for discernment.
I continued my studies at the University of San Jose Recoletos under a
different degree, BS Psychology.

Work Experience
On March 2005, I finished my degree and a few months after, I was hired by
University of Cebu METC for nine years.
For the nine-year employment year, I worked as testing In-charge, giving
psychological testing to students and employees alike.
June 2014, I decided to transfer to University of Cebu Main Campus as a Life

Professional Appraisal

Few Months before my transfer to UC Main Campus, I filed for PRC Licensure
for Psychometrician.
On the later part of December, a resolution from the PRC stated that I am
already a registered Psychometrician.