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ME-201

Using Energy

Introduction

As in the case of a closed system, energy transfer

across the boundary of a control volume can occur by means
of work and heat.

To develop and illustrate the use of the control volume

form of the conservation of mass and conservation of energy
principles. Mass and energy balances are applied to control
volumes at steady state and for transient applications.

Devices such as turbines, pumps and compressors

through which mass flows can be analyzed in principle by
studying a particular quantity of matter (a closed system) as
it passes through the device, it is normally preferable to think
of a region of space through which mass flows ( CV).

Control Volume

Control volume. A volume in space in which one has

interest for a particular study or analysis. The surface of this
control volume is referred to as a control surface and always
consist of a closed surface.
The size and shape of the control volume are
completely arbitrary.
The surface may be fixed, or it may move so that it
expands or contracts.
Mass as well as heat and work can cross the
control surface.

Conservation of Mass and the

Control Volume
Mass in the control volume, as well as the properties
of this mass , can change with time.

it involves mass transfer. Mass carries energy with it, and

thus the mass and energy content of a system change
when mass enters or leaves.
The control volume approach will be used for many
engineering problems where a mass flow rate is present,
such as: Turbines, pumps and compressors, Heat
exchangers, Nozzles and diffusers, etc.

Control Volume

Conservation of Mass and the

Control Volume

Control Mass.
A system of fixed mass is called
a closed system, or control mass .

be fixed.

No mass
boundary.

can

cross

the

closed

system

Energy in the form of heat and work can cross

the closed system boundary
The term control mass is some times used in
place of closed system.

Conservation of Mass

The physical law concerning mass, says that we

cannot create or destroy mass.
The rate of change of mass inside the control
volume equal to mass enters minus mass exit.
i.e Rate of change = + in out

Control Volume

Let us consider the conservation

of mass law as it relates to the control
volume. The law says that we cannot
create or destroy mass. We will express
this law in a mathematical statement
about the mass in the control volume.
To do this we must consider all the
mass flows into and out of the control
volume and the net increase of mass
within the control volume. As a control
volume we consider a tank with a
cylinder and piston and two pipes
attaches as shown in Fig.

Conservation of Mass and the

Control Volume
We know from the first law of thermodynamics for a control
mass,

Rate of energy change in Cm = (Energy that enters into the

Cm Energy that exit from the Cm)

Conservation of Mass and the

Control Volume
For Control volume we can write
Rate of energy change in CV = Energy that enters into the
CV Energy that exit from the CV
... (2)
The rate of change of mass inside the control volume equal
to mass enters minus mass exit.
i.e

Conservation of Mass and the

Control Volume
For several inlet and outlet

............................... ..(3)

Equation 3 is the mass rate balance for control volumes with

several inlets and exits.

The First Law of Thermodynamics

for a Control Volume.
A control volume is shown in
Fig. that involves rate of heat
transfer, rates of work, and
mass flows. The fundamental
physical law states that we
cannot create or destroy
energy such that any rate of
change of energy must be
caused by rates of energy into
or out of the control volume.
dEcv / dt = Energy in Energy out............................................... (3)

The First Law of Thermodynamics

for a Control Volume.
The fluid flowing across the control surface enters or leaves
with an amount of energy per unit mass as

e i = u i + . V 2 + g Zi ( flow liquid energy)

and

e e = u e + . V 2 + g Ze

Whenever a fluid mass enters a control volume at state i, or

exits at state e, there is a boundary movement work
associated with that process. This is called flow work .

Control Volume

Fig. 4

Conservation of Energy for a

Control Volume
Accordingly, the conservation of energy principle applied to a
control volume states:

For the one-inlet and one-exit control volume with onedimensional flow shown in Fig. 4 the energy rate balance is:
.....(3)

Conservation of Energy for a

Control Volume
where,
ECV = Energy of the control volume at time t.

Q and W = The net rate of energy transfer by heat and work

across the boundary of the control volume at t respectively.
Underlined Terms = the rates of transfer of internal, kinetic,
and potential energy of the entering and exiting streams.
If there is no mass flow in or out, the respective mass flow
rates vanish and the underlined terms of Eq. 3 drop out. The
equation then reduces to the rate form of the energy balance
for closed systems.

Conservation of Energy for a

Control Volume
Work is always done on or by a control volume where
matter flows across the boundary, it is convenient to
separate the work term
into two contributions:

Wf = Work associated with the fluid pr as mass is

introduced at inlets and removed at exits i.e flow work.

= Includes all other work effects, such as those

associated with rotating shafts, displacement of the
boundary, and electrical effects.

Conservation of Energy for a

Control Volume
With these considerations, the work term W of the energy
rate equation, Eqn. 3, can be written as
.
Since A = m v / V
............................(4)
Substituting Eq. 4. in Eq. 3 and collecting all terms referring to
the inlet and the exit into separate expressions, the following
form of the control volume energy rate balance results

Conservation of Energy for a

Control Volume

or

....(5)

Eqn 5 is the energy rate balance for single inlet and single
out let.

Conservation of Energy for a

Control Volume
In practice there may be several locations on the boundary
through which mass enters or exits. This can be accounted
for by introducing summations as in the mass balance.
Accordingly, the energy rate balance is

Application of First Law of

Thermodynamics to flow process

At the steady state of a system, any
thermodynamic property will have a fixed value at a particular
location, and will not alter with time. Thermodynamic
properties may vary along space coordinates, but do not vary
with time. `Steady state` means that the state is steady or
invariant with time.
Steady flow` means that the
rates of flow of mass and energy across the control surface
are constant.

Application of First Law of

Thermodynamics to flow process

Assumptions.

The CV does not move relative to the co ordinate

frame i.e the CV is fixed.

The state of the mass at each point in the control

volume does not vary with time.

i.e

dmCV / dt = 0

and

dECV / dt = 0.

Continuity Eqn:

=m

Application of First Law of

Thermodynamics to flow process
and First Law :

Application of First Law of

Thermodynamics to flow process

The rates at which heat and work cross the control

surface remain constant. i.e
heat transfer and work
transfer is fixed. If there is only one flow stream entering and
one leaving the CV.
For this type of process, we can write

Continuity Eqn:

mi = me = m

Application of First Law of

Thermodynamics to flow process

Nozzle and Diffuser. A

nozzle is a steady-state device
which increase the velocity or K.E
of a fluid at the expense of its pr
drop, whereas a diffuser increase
the pr of a fluid at the expense of
its K.E. Fig Shows a nozzle and a
Diffuser. The steady flow energy
eqn of the control surface gives
The steady flow energy eqn of the control surface gives
QCv+ m [ hi + Vi2 +gZi] = Wcv+ m [ he+ Ve2 + gZe] ....... (1)

Assumption.
a.

b.

Change in P.E is negligible i.e P.E =0.

c.
Nozzle is insulated i.e no heat enters or leaves the
QCv = 0
d.

Example of Steady Flow Process

So energy eqn for nozzle and diffuser becomes
m ( hi + Vi2 ) = m ( he + Ve 2)
or, ( hi + Vi2 ) = ( he + Ve 2)
or, Ve 2 = Vi2 + 2 ( hi he)
or Ve = Vi2 + 2 ( hi he) [ Vi is very small as compare to Ve]
or Ve = 2 ( hi he)

Example of Steady Flow Process.

Throttling Process.
A throttling process occurs
when a fluid flows through a constricted passage, like a
partially opened valve, an orifice or a porous plug with a
significant drop in pr. This is a SSSF process with no heat
transfer to or from CV. There is no means for doing work and
little or no change in PE.
Here, PE = 0,
KE = 0,
QCv = 0
and WCv = 0

Example of Steady Flow Process.

Throttling Process

Turbine

Example of Steady Flow Process

Problem-1
Steam enters a convergingdiverging nozzle operating at steady
state with p1 = 40 bar, T1 = 4000C, and a velocity of 10 m/s. The steam
flows through the nozzle with negligible heat transfer and no significant
change in potential energy. At the exit, p2 =15 bar, and the velocity is 665
m/s. The mass flow rate is 2 kg/s. Determine the exit area of the nozzle, in
m2.

Solution-1

Solution-1

Solution-1

Problem-2
Steam enters a turbine operating at steady state with a mass flow
rate of 4600 kg/h. The turbine develops a power output of 1000 kW. At the
inlet, the pr is 60 bar, the temperature is 4000C, and the velocity is 10 m/s.
At the exit, the pr is 0.1 bar, the quality is 0.9 (90%), and the velocity is 50
m/s. Calculate the rate of heat transfer between the turbine and
surroundings, in kW.

Solution-2

Solution-2