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Solutons Manual

1.3 Classify the following substances (maintained at constant temperature):


(a)
du/dy, rad/s

,1b/ft2

du/dy, rad/s

0.5 1.1 1.8

,N/m

du/dy, rad/s

0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2

,1b/ft2

(b)

(c)

Solution
(a) Non Newtonian.
Hysteresis suggests thixotropy.
(b) Nay Newtonian
(c) Newtonian (linear relationship between and

du
)
dy

The constant slope of the line gives the absolute viscosity

80
lb s

6.67
1.2 0
ft 2
du

dy

1.4 A Newtonian liquid flows down an inclined plane in a thin sheet of thickness
t(Fig. 1.8). The upper surface is in contact with air, which offers almost no resistance
to the flow. Using Newtons law of viscosity, decide what the value of du/dy, y
measured normal to the inclined plane, must be at the upper surface. Would a linear
variation of u with y be expected?
Solution
Since air offers no resistance to the flow, =0.

At free surface : =0

At the plane : 0

du
dy

du
dy

0
y t

0
y 0

Therefore, since we have change in

du
(slope) the relationship
dy

between and y is non-linear.


1.11 Does the weight of a 20 N bag of flour at sea level denote a
force or the mass of the flour? What is the mass of the flour in
kilograms? What are the mass and weight of the flour at a location
where the gravitational acceleration is one-seventh that of the
earths standard?
Solution
The weight always denotes force.
W
20 N
W m g m m
m 2.04kg
g
9.806m / s 2
The mass is the same under any conditions.
1
1
20 N
W ' m g ' m g W W '
W ' 2.86 N
7
7
7
1.12 A Newtonian fluid is in the clearance between a shaft and a concentric sleeve.
When a force of 600 N is applied to the sleeve parallel to the shaft, the sleeve attains a
speed of l m/s. If a 1500 N force is applied, what speed will the sleeve attain? The
temperature of the sleeve remains constant.
Solution

du
u
F
;
dy
t
A

Therefore : F

A
u u =constant
t

F1 1 and F2 2
and :
F2
1500
m
1
(1) 2 2.5
F1
600
s

1.16 Determine the viscosity of fluid between the shaft and sleeve in Fig. 19.
Solution

du
u

dy
t

F
A

A=DL
Therefore:
F t
F t

A u ( D L)

0.003

lb S
12
0.02387 2
3 8
ft
3.14
12 12

(20)

(0.4)

1.17 A flywheel weighing 600 N has a radius of gyration of 300 mm. When it is
rotating at 600 rpm, its speed reduces 1 rpm/min owing to fluid viscosity between the
sleeve and shaft. The sleeve length is 50 mm; shaft diameter is 20 mm; and radial
clearance is 0.05 mm. Determine the fluid viscosity.
Solution
I = mass moment of inertia
K = radius of gyration
T = torque
and :

I = mk2 ; T I

dw
T
;
dt
A r

A = 2rL ; u wr ;

t
u

Therefore :
mk 2t
dw

3
2 wr L dt
2

300
0.05
600

9.806 1000
1000
2 3.14 1

3
60
60
2 3.14
10

50
2 3.14 600

60 1000
1000

N S
0.0243 2
m
0.0243

N S
m2

1.18 A 25-mm-diameter steel cylinder 300 mm long falls, because of its own weight,
at a uniform rate of 0.1 m/s inside a tube of slightly larger diameter. A castor-oil film
of constant thickness is between the cylinder and the tube. Determine the clearance
between the tube and the cylinder. The temperature is 38. The specific gravity of
steel = 7.85.
Solution
D 2
F W
L
4

du
u

dy
t

F
; A =DL
A

So :
t

A u D L u 4 u

D2
F
D

L
4

Therefore :
N S

m
4 2.8 101 2 0.1
m
s 5.82 105 m
t
25
7.85 9806

1000
so : t = 5.82 10-5m = 0.06mm
Note : for T = 38 from figure C.1 we find that : = 2.8 10-1 NS/m2
1.20 A 12 kg cube slides down an inclined plane making an angle of 30 with the
horizontal. A fluid film 0.1 mm thick separates solid and surface.
The fluid viscosity is 0.04 Ns/m2. Assuming the velocity
distribution in the film is linear, find the terminal velocity of the
block. The area of the cube in contact with the film is 0.25 m2.
Solution
Assume that the cube has reached
its terminal velocity (u) and
that the temperature (T) is constant.

du
u
F
;
; F = Wsin 30
dy
t
A

Therefore :

w sin 30
F
u
u
A
t
A

12 9.806 sin 30
o

so :

(0.04)(0.25)

0.1

1000
u 0.59m / s

1.24 A body weighing 120 lb with a flat surface area of 2 ft2 slides down a lubricated
inclined plane making a 30 angle with the horizontal. For viscosity of
0.002 lbs/ft2 and body speed of 3 ft/s, determine the lubricant
film thickness.

Solution
W = 120 lb
A = 2ft2
= 0.002 lbs/ft2
u = 3 ft/s

du
u
F
;
; F = W sin 30
dy
t
A

Therefore :
F
u
u A
u A
t

A
t
F
w sin 30o
so : t (0.002)

(3)(2)
t 0.0002 ft
120 sin 30o

or t = 0.0024 in.
1.25 What is the viscosity of gasoline at 25 in poises? Use Fig. C.1,
Appendix C.
Solution
From figure C.1 : T = 25 = 6 10-6 lbs/ft2
so :

6 106 479 poise 2.874 10 3 poise


1.26 A liquid has a specific weight of 48 lb/ft3 and a dynamic viscosity of 3.05
lbs/ft2. What is the kinematic viscosity?
Solution

48lb / ft 3 ; 3.05lb s / ft 2
g

so :

g 3.05 32.174

2.044 ft 2 / s

48

1.27 What is the specific volume in cubic feet per pound mass and cubic feet per slug

of a substance of specific gravity 0.75?


Solution
s

1
1
1
ft 3

s 0.02136
s (0.75)(62.43)
lbm

and
s

1
1
1
ft 3

s 0.687
s (0.75)(1.94)
sluy

1.29 The density of a substance is 2.94 g/cm3. In SI units, what is its (a) specific
gravity, (b) specific volume, and (c) specific weight?
Solution

2.94

g
103 kg
kg

2.94
2.94 103 3
3
3
cm
m
102 m3

2.94 103

S 2.94
(a) S
w
103
(b) s

1
1
m3

3.4014
s
2.94 103
kg

(c) g 2.94 103 9.806 28.83

KN
m3

1.42 Three wastewater samples were taken from the same site at the same time, and
after analyzing them in the laboratory the following results were obtained
Sample

Volume (mL)

Mass suspended solids (g)

1
2
3

75
83.2
80

23.0
35.6
Glass container broken

The three samples are of the same density (), and the first one contains
solids of specific gravity 1.93. Find the density and the
concentration of the suspended solids in the three samples. Take the
mass fraction of solids in Sample 3 to be the average of the first
two.

Solution
Sample 1 :

s 1 1.93 1000 1930kg / m3

1 75mL 75 106 m3 ; ms 1 23 g 23 10 3 kg

Now

m
s
; ws s 1
ws 1 ws 1.93
1

Therefore :

0.93 ms 1
s
1.93 0.93ws
1.93 1.93 1

1930 0.93 23 103


kg

1147.8 3
6
1.93 1.93 75 10
m

All three samples have the same density .

Cs 1

Cs 2

ms 1
1

ms 2
2

Now : ws 1

ws 2

ms 2
m

23 103 kg
kg

Cs 1 306.7 3
6
3
75 10 m
m

35.6 103 kg
kg
Cs 2 427.9 3
6
3
83.2 10 m
m

ms 1
m

23 103

0.26717
1147.8 75 106

35.6 103

0.37279
1147.8 83.2 106

Therefore :

ws 3

1
1
ws 1 ws 2 0.26717 0.37279

2
2

ws 3 0.31998

and :

ws 3

ws 3
3

Cs 3

ws 3
3

ws 3

Finally :

Cs 3 ws 3 (1147.8)(0.31996)
Cs 3 367.27

kg
m3

1.47 A gas with molecular weight 28 has a volume of 4.0 ft3 and a
pressure and temperature of 2000 psfa (lb/ft2 abs) and 600R,
respectively. What are its specific volume and specific weight?
Solution
R

1545 1545
ft lb

R 55.179 o
M
28
lbm R

1 R T (55.179)(600)

P
2000

s 532.60 ft 3 / slug 16.554 ft 3 / lbm


1
32.174
lb
g g
0.06041 3
s
532.60
ft

1.53 An open tank contains water at 22 with 32.7-percent (by


weight) suspended solids of specific gravity 2.32. If the volume of
the mixture is 1.2 m3, calculate the concentration of the solids in
1bm/ft3 and kg/m3.
Solution
ws 0.327 ; m 1.2m3 ; T=22oC

From equation (1.5.8) for T=22 we find that : w 997.783kg / m3


Therefore: s (2.32)(997.783) s 2314.86

s
ws 1 ws

m 1225.86

s
w

kg
m3

2314.86
0.327 (1 0.327)(2.32)

kg
m3

(mixture) mm mm (1225.86)(1.2) mm 1471kg


(solids) ms ws mm (0.327)(1471) ms 481.02kg
Therefore : Cs

ms 481.02
kg

Cs 400.85 3
m
1.2
m

Now : 1lbm 0.453592kg ; 1m 3.28084 ft


lbm
0.453592
16.02kg / m3
and : 1 ft 3
3
1/ 3.28084
Or 1kg / m3 0.0624lbm / ft 3
so: Cs (400.85)(0.0624) Cs 25.01

lbm
ft 3

1.58 A steel container expands in volume 1-percent when the pressure


within it is increased by 10,000 psi. At standard pressure, 14.7 psi
absolute, it holds 0.5 slug of water; = 1.94 slug/ft3. For K =
300,000 psi, when it is filled, how many slugs of water must be added
to increase the pressure to 10,000 psi ? What is the weight of the
water added?
Solution
o p 14.7 psi

mo 0.5

o 0.258 ft 3
0 1.94

1 p 10, 000 psi 1.01o 1 0.261 ft 3


Now : o

p
10000
slug
(1.94)
0.065 3
k
300000
ft

and

1 o 1.94 0.065 1 2.005

slug
ft 3

mo o o (1.94)(0.258) mo 0.5slug
m1 11 (2.005)(0.261) m1 0.5233slug
m m1 mo 0.5233 0.5 m 0.0233slug
Therefore 0.0233 slug of water must be added.
W = gm = (32.174) (0.0233) W = 0.75 lb
1.62 What is the isothermal bulk modulus for air at 0.4 MPa abs?
Solution
k

dp
mRT
; p
d /

so :

dp
m RT
dp
m R T

p
2
d

d /

Therefore : K = P = 0.4MPa abs. The relation K = P holds for any


ideal gas, at any pressure.
1.66 A small circular jet of mercury 0.1 mm in diameter issues from
an opening. What is the pressure difference between the inside and
outside of the jet when at 20 ?
Solution
at T = 20 from table
we find : = 0.51 N/m
Now :

F = 2L

(1)

FP = PDL

(2)

H should be FP = F

2
So : P D L 2 L p
D
Therefore : p

(3)

2(0.51)
p 10200 N / m 2
3
0.1 10

Or P = 10.2 KPa
1.69 Using the data given in Fig. 1.6, estimate the capillary rise of
tap water between two parallel glass plates 0.20 in. apart.
Solution
For the two parallel plates (figure) :
p A 2 ( L) cos a
p (W L) 2 L cos a

(1)

P = H

(2)

and

From (1) and (2) :

cos a

2 H W

For a vertical tube : h

cos 2 cos

2
hr
h D

or :

(3)

2
cos
r
(4)

where D is the tube diameter. From (3) and (4) we find :


cos a
D

W 2 cos

H h

(5)

Now letting a= and D=W, equation (5)


gives : H

h
2

From figure 1.6, for D 2 101 m we find that h = 0.09in (T = 68)


So : H

0.09
0.045in. H 0.045in.
2

1.70 A method of determining the surface tension of a liquid is to find the force
needed to pull a platinum wire ring from the surface (Fig. 1.10). estimate the force
necessary to remove a 20-mm-diameter ring from the surface of water at 20.

Solution
Let D be the ring diameter.
The wire diameter is not important.
Assume that the surface is vertical at the
breaking point A.
2
From table C.1 : 7.36 10

N
m

20
2
7.36 10
1000

F 2 D 2(3.14)
F 9.24 103 N

1.71 Calculate the capillary rise h in the tube of Fig. 1.11 in terms
of ,,, and r.
Solution
If F 2r cos is the
Component of surface tension down,
then a force Balance gives :
0
2 r cos W
p2 p1 p
r 2
But p = h
So : h

2 cos
2
h
cos
r
r

1.73 What vertical force due to surface tension would be required to


hold the tube of Fig. 1.11? Consider the tube wall thickness to be
very small.
Solution
The total force required
to hold the tube is :
F 2 F 2 2r cos

Therefore :

F 4 r cos

1.75 Develop a formula for capillary rise h between two concentric


glass tubes of radii R and r and contact angle .
Soution
The pressure force is :
Fp p A p A
Where : p h
A ( R 2 r 2 )
2
2
Therefore : Fp h R r

(1)

The total force due to surface tension down is :


F (2r 2 R ) cos

(2)

Neglecting the weight W of the fluid between the two tubes, a force
balance gives:
Fp F h R 2 r 2 2 ( R r ) cos
or : h R r R r 2 R r cos
h

2
cos
R r

2.3 What is the pressure at a point 10 m below the free surface in a fluid that has a
variable density in kilograms per cubic meter given by = 450+ah, in which
a=12 kg/m4 and h is the distance in meters measured from te free
surface ?
Solution
h 10m ; b ah ; a 12

kg
kg
; b 450 3
4
m
m

dp dy ( dh) g dh (b ah) g dh

(1)

From (1) by integration we obtain:


p

ah 2
dp

g
(
b

ah
)
dh

g
bh

o
o
2

(2)

Substitute the values for g, a, b and h, and find :

12 102
2
p (9.806) 450 10
p 50 KN / m
2

2.10 Express a pressure of 50 kPa in (a) millimeters of mercury, (b)


meters of water, (c) meters of acetylene tetrabromide, S = 2.94.
Solution
p h S w h ,

w 62.4lb / ft 3 9806 N / m3

(a) S=13.57
hHg 50 / 13.57 9806 hHg 375.75mm
So : p 50kpa 375.75mmHg
3
(b) hH 2O 50 10 / 9806 hH 2O 5.1m

So : p 50kpa 5.1mH 2O
3
(c) ha 50 10 / 294 (9806) ha 1.734m

P = 50kPa = 1.734m acetylene tetrabromide


2.11 A Bourdon gage reads 2 psi suction, and the barometer is 29.5
in. Hg, Express the pressure in six other customary ways.
Solution
2

lb
lb 4.448 N
1in
2 2 2 2

13788.83 pa
in
in
1lb 0.0254m
2

lb
34 ft 0.3048m
2 psi
1.410mH 2O 0.104mHg
2
in
147 psi 1 ft

For absolute pressures : Pabs Pbar Pgage

24.5in

2 12 0.0254m
0.646mHg abs

(0.435)(13.6)
1in

0.646mHg abs 13.6 8.786mH 2O abs


8.786 9806 86155.5Pa abs

2.12 Express 4 atm in meters of water gage with a barometer reading


of 750mm Hg.
Solution
Pbar 750mmHg

750
13.6 10.2mH 2O
1000

psi 144 psf


1

atm 1 psi
62.4lb / ft 3

Pabs 4atm 14.7

So : Pabs = 135.63ft = 41.34m


Pgage 41.34 10.2 Pgage 31.14mH 2O
2.15 The container of Fig. 2.41 holds water and air as shown. What is
the pressure at A, B, C, and D in pounds per square foot and in
pascals.
PA h 62.4(1 3)
249.6 psf
N
lb
2
m
0.3048 ft 2

lb
249.6 2
ft

4.448

11950 Pa
PB PA 3 1 1
249.6 62.4 5 62.4 psf 2987.70 Pa
Pc PB ; PD PC 1 1 3 62.4 62.4 5 374.4 psf 17926.27 Pa

2.23 In Fig.2.11a S1 = 1.0, S2 = 0.95, S3 = 1.0, h1 = h2 = 280 mm, and


h3 = 1 m.
Compute PA PB in millimeters of water.
Solution
hA hB h1S1' h2 S 2' h3 S3'
280 1 280 0.95 1000 1
454mmH 2O
Therefore :
P PA PB 454mmH 2O
2.24 In Prob. 2.23 find the gage difference h2 for pA pB = -350 mm
H2O.
Solution
From problem 2.23
h3 h1 h2 AB 1000 280 280 AB
AB 440mm
Then h3 h1 h2 440
The manometer equation is :
hA hB h1S1' h2 S 2' h3 S3' 350mm
Thus :

h1 h3 h2 0.95 350 h2 440 0.95h2 350


h2 1800mm
2.30 In Fig. 2.12 determine R, the gage difference, for a difference
in gas pressure of 9 mm
H 2O, 2 9.8kN / m3 , and a / A 0.01.
Solution
From equation 2.4.1

a
PC P R 3 2 1 1
A

Since 1 2 and 1 3
(that is, 1 0 )
We find that :
R

3 2 1

2h

a
3 2 1

h
3
a
1
2
A

Therefore :
R

9mm
10.5
1 0.01
9.8

R 110.53mm

2.31 The inclined manometer of Fig. 2.13 reads zero when A and B are
the same pressure. The reservoir diameter is 2.0 in. and that of the
inclined tube is 1/4 in. For =30 and gage fluid S = 0.832, find pA
pB in pounds per square inch as a function of gage reading R in
feet.
Solution

A y a R ;

h R sin ; PA
h
y PB

Combination of the above equations yields:


a

PA PB R
sin
A

1
a 4 4
1
Where :

A 2 2 64

4
Therefore :
1

1
p R 62.4 0.832 0.5

64 144

p 0.1859 R ( ft ) in psi
2.35 The container shown in Fig. 2.48 has a circular cross section.
Determine the upward force on the surface of the cone frustum ABCD.
What is the downward force on the plane EF ? Is this force equal to
the weight of the fluid? Explain.
Solution

D1 2 ft ; D2 4 ft ; h1 2 ft ; h2 1 ft ; h3 8 ft
D D2 D1 / 2 1 ft

3.14 4
D22
1
h1 h2
4
4
3.14 2
D12
2
h1
4
4
3

2 1 1 37.68 ft 3

2 2 6.28 ft 3

2
2
1 D1 D2 D1D2
h2 3 7.327 ft 3
3
4

The force up on the come frustum ABCD is:


FABCD (62.4)(37.68 6.26 7.327)

FABCD 1502.16lb
The weight of the water in the container is :
3.14 4 2

W T 62.4
2 1 5

62.4 100.46 37.68 6.26 7.327


W 4767.80lb
FEF

3.14 4
D22
p A h1 h2 h3
62.4 8
4
4

FEF 6270lb . So : FEF W FABCD


2.38 A vertical right-angled triangular surface has a vertex in the
free surface of a liquid (Fig. 2.50). Find the force on one side (a)
by integration and (b) by formula.
Solution

(a)

x y
b
x y ; dA x dy
b h
h
h

b
y dy
h

F pdA y xdy y
A

b
b y 3
F y 2 dy
h
h 3
o
h

Therefore : F

bh 2
3

bh 2
3

2 1
h bh
3 2

(b) F pG A h A
F

bh 2
3

2.39 Determine the magnitude of the force acting on one side of the
vertical triangle ABC of Fig. 2.51 (a) by integration and (b) by
formula.
(a) The low of cosines gives:
32 42 52 2 4 5 cos B
B 36.87o
and H 4sin B H 2.4 ft
From similar triangles:

x 5 H Y

, so :
5
H

x 2.0833(7.4 y )
and :
y2

7.4

y1

F yxdy

(55 y) 2.0833(7.4 y)dy

F 1914lb
2.4 3 4

F hA (55) 5

(b)
3
2

F 1914lb
2.40 Find the moment about AB of the force acting on one side of the
vertical surface ABC of Fig. 2.50. 9000 N / m3 .
Solution

M AB x p dA xydA I xy ; p y
A

Now from Appendix A :


I x' y '

b2h2

24

I x' y '

b2h2

24

For figure 2 then : I xy

b2 h2
h bh


72
3 2

b2h2
72

Then for our problem (figure 3) we have :


b 2 h 2 2 b bh
I xy I xy x y A
h
72 3 3 2

b2 h 2

Finally :
b 2 h 2
9800 2 2
b h M AB 1125b 2 h 2

8
8

M AB

Where MAB in Nm and b, h in m


(y axes in Figures 2 and 3 point to opposite directions)
2.42 Find the moment about AB of the force acting on one side of the
vertical surface ABC of Fig. 2.51.
Solution
From equation (2.5.10)
yp

IG
y
y A

IG

bh3
36

1
4 3 6 ft 2
2

The law of cosines give :

32 42 52 2 4 5 cos B B 36.8oF
Then : H 4sin B 4sin(36.87 o) H 2.4 ft
y 5

1
2.4 5.8 ft y 5.8 ft
3

IG

1
3
5 2.4 I G 1.92 ft 4
36

yp

1.92
5.8 y p 5.855 ft
5.8 6

55 5.8 6

F pG A y A

F 1914
lb

Finally :
M AB F arm F y p 5 1914 5.855 5
and : M AB 1636.47lb ft
2.43 Locate a horizontal line below AB of Fig. 2.51 such that the
magnitude of pressure force on the vertical surface ABC is equal
above and below the line.
Solution
Let F1 be the force on the area between AB and EF, and F2 on the area
below EF. We need to find y* such that F1 = F2.
Using the results from problem 2.34 we have :
F

H = 2.4 ft;

y2

2.0833 7.4 y y dy
2

(1)

y1

From equation (1) :


y*

7.4 y 2 y 3
F1 (2.0833 ) 7.4 y y dy 2.0833

3
2
5

y*

7.4 y 2 y 3
F2 (2.0833 ) 7.4 y y dy 2.0833

3
2
y*
7.4

7.4

y*

Therefore for F1 = F2 we find that :


7.4 y 2 y 3
2 3

y*

7.4 y 2 y 3

7.4

y*3 11.10 y*2 177.56 0


y*

Solving the latest equation by trial ' error we find :


y* 5.774 ft
or that EF is 0.774 ft below AB
2.48 Locate the distance of the pressure center below the liquid
surface in the triangular area ABC of Fig. 2.51 (a) by integration
and (b) by formula.
Solution
The law of cosines gives :
32 42 52 2(4)(5) cos B
B 36.87o
So : H = 4 sin B = 2.4 ft
(a) From similar triangles
x 5 H y

x 2.0833(7.4 y )
5
H
Now
7.4

yp

y 2 dA
ydA

2
y x dy

y x dy

7.4 y y dy
2

5
7.4

7.4 y ydy
5

97.805
5.8552 y p 5.8552 ft
16.704

(b) y p y

IG
h
2.4
; y 5 5
5.8 ft
3
3
y A

2.4 I 1.92 ft 4
bh3
IG
5
G
36
36
3

1
2.4 5 A 6 ft 2
2

Therefore :

y p 5.8

1.92
y p 5.8552 ft
5.8 6

2.49 By integration locate the pressure center horizontally in the


triangular area of ABC of Fig. 2.51.
Solution

From problem 2.46 ; H = 2.4 ft ; B = 36.87


Now AD AC 2 DC 2

1/2

32 2.42

1/2

AD 1.8 ft

DB AB AD 5 1.8 DB 3.2 ft
x1

3.2
2.4 y ; x12 1.778 5.76 4.8 y y 2
2.4

x2

1.8
2.4 y ; x22 0.5625 5.76 4.8 y y 2
2.4

Take moments about CD :


dM hx1dA hx 2 dA 5 y x1
Then :

x1
x
dy 5 y x2 2 dy
2
2

2.4

M CD

2 5 y x

2
1

2.4

x22 dy

55
5 y 1.778 0.5625 5.76 4.8 y y 2 dy
2

862.4lb ft
: F = 1914 lb, so : x

From problem 2.39

M CD
0.4506 ft
F

2.51 Determine by integration the pressure center for Fig. 2.50.


Solution
From similar triangles :
x y
b
x y
b h
h
and
b
h

dA xdy

F y p M x 0

y dy

and M y y dA , so :
A

b
dy
3
h
0
A
yp
h
h
A y dA y 2 b dy 4
h
0

y y dA y

F x p M y 0

x
and M y dA , so :
2
A
h

y b
x
A 2 y dA 0 2 h y
xp

h
b

dA

A
0 y y h

b
y dy

h
dy

3
b
8

2.52 Locate the pressure enter for the annular area of Fig. 2.54.
Solution
Ro 1m

Ri 500mm

500
m 0.5m
1000

yp

IG
y
y A

IG

4
R0 Ri4

A R02 Ri2
Therefore :

IG 1 2
R0 Ri2
A 4
1 2
R0 Ri2

yp 4
y
y

Finally :

1 2
1 0.52

4
2
2
2.1564m
or :

y 2m

y p 2.1564m

2.53 Locate the pressure center for the gate of Fig. 2.55.
Solution
yp

IG
y
y A

IG

1
bh3
12

A b h
where : b = 4ft
y

h = 6ft

1
h 3 ft from A or y 3 4 7 ft
2

3
1
4 6
12
yp
7 y p 7.43 ft
7 4 6

2.56 Locate the pressure center for the vertical area of Fig. 2.56.
Solution
Ix
y A

yp

I xy

xp

y A

1
h
A b h ; y
2
3
Ix

1 3
1
bh ; I xy b 2 h 2
12
24

Therefore :
1 2 2
bh
b
24
xp
xp
4
h 1
bh
3 2

yp

1
3
bh
h
12

yp
h 1
2
bh
3 2

2.59 Determine the pivot location y of the rectangular gate of Fig.


2.59 so that it will open when the liquid surface is as shown.
Solution
want y at pressure center
(critical location) measured
from the free surface.
1
3
1 1
IG
yp y
1.5 12
y A
1.5 11
= 1.5556 m
Therefore : y = 2-1.556 y = 0.444 m
2.66 The gate of Fig. 2.62 weighs 300 lb/ft normal to the paper. Its

center of gravity is 1.5 ft from the left face and 2.0 ft above the
lower face. It is hinged at O. Determine the water-surface position
for the gate just to start to come up. (The water surface is below
the hinge.)
Solution

W = 300 lb/ft
h
F h A h 1
2
M o W arm F arm
1
h

300 2 h 2 5
2
3

and M o 0

(for equilibrium)

Therefore :

1
h
9806 5 h2 600
2
3

Which yields : h = 2.116 ft


2.70 For linear stress variation over the base of the dam of Fig.
2.64 (a) locate where the resultant crosses the base and (b) compute
the maximum and minimum compressive stresses at the base. Neglect
hydrostatic uplift.
Solution
(a)
1
F1 h 2 364.5 ; F2 7 3 21
2

1
F3 (20)(3 ) 30
2
F4 4 27 2.5 270
F5

3
20 2.5 75
2

F6

11
20 2.5 275
2

Rx F1 364.5
Ry F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 671
Take moments about A :
27
364.5 1.5 21 1 30
3
2 3 270 3 1 75

M A 0 671 x

11

3 4 275
3

Which yields : x = 11.588m


(b) Taking moments about A :

x 11.588

min 18

18
18 2 18
max min
2
2
3
18
max min
2

which gives : max 13.563 min


1
Also : max min 18 Ry 671
2
Therefore : max 5.12 ; min 69.436
2.71 Solve Prob. 2.70 with the addition that the hydrostatic uplift
varies linearly from 20 m at A to zero at the toe of the dam.
Solution
Refere to problem 270

(a)
Ry 671

1
20 18 491
2
27

M A 0 491 x 364.5
21 1.5 30 1

270 5 75 2

11

275 7 0
3

x 13.636m

(b)

x 13.636

min 18

18
18
2
max min 18
2
2
3
18
max min
2

The above equation yields : max 4.6675 min


18
max min Ry 491
2

Also :

Therefore :

min 14.875 ; max 69.431

2.74 To what height h will the water on the right have to rise to
open the gate shown in Fig. 2.67? The gate is 5 ft wide and is
constructed of material with specific gravity 2.5. Use the pressureprism method.
Solution

w 2.5 62.4 3 4 5 w 9360lb

F1
F2

1
3 3 5 F1 1404lb at 3ft below 0
2

h 4 h
4 5 F2 20 62.4 h 2 62.4 20
2
F2 1248h 2496

The line of action of F2 is at

2 3h 4
below 0
3 h 2

For equilibrium it should be : M o 0


So :
F1 arm F2 arm w arm 0
1404 3 1248h 2496

2 3h 4
2
9360 4 0
3 h 2
3

h 2 5.021 h 2.71 0
Therefore : h1 = 0.615 ft
If h h1
h h2

and

h2 = 4.406 ft

then the gate will open to the right

then the gate will open to the left

For h 4 ft we choose

h = 4.406 ft

2.78 (a) Determine the horizontal component of force acting on the


radial gate (Fig. 2.70) and its line of action. (b) Determine the
vertical component of force and its line of action. (c) What force F
is required to open the gate, neglecting its weight? (d) What is the
moment about an axis normal to the paper and through point O?
Solution
(a)
h 3 1 4m
A 2 2 4m 2

9806 N / m3

Therefore :
FH hA (9806)(4)(4) 156896 N
1
(2)(2)3
IG
IG
yp y
h
4 12
(4)(4)
y A
h A
y p 4.0833m
And : b y p 3 b 1.0833m
(b)

(2) 2
Fv (9806) 2 3 2
2
4

179284.91N
2 2
4 2
a 18.283 1 2 3 2

3
4
a 0.948m
2

(d) Since the pressure force is normal to the surface, the resultant
of FH and FV has to pass through O. Taking moments about O, we see
that F = O (For equilibrium M o 0 ).
check
Mo 0
2 F 156896 1.0833 179284.91 0.948 0
F 0
(d) Answered in question (c)
Mo = 0
2.80 What is the force on the surface whose trace is OA of Fig. 2.53?
The length normal to the paper is 3 m and 9kN / m3
Solution

9000 N / m3
L 3m (width)

Fv L ydx L

x2
dx
8

3 8
x3 x3
L A o 3
24
24

Where x A 8 ; xo 0
FH yA 1.5
The resultant fore is :
F Fv2 FH2 2 8 1.52 2 3.202
F (3.202)(9000) 28814 N
1

Or : F = 28814 N = 28.814 KN
2.84 Calculate the force F required to hold the gate of Fig. 2.74 in
a closed position when R = 2 ft.
Solution
Taking moments about A
we see that Fx = 0
Hence F = horizontal
Component of liquid force
F 4 h 2
23 4
1
0.9

8(62.4) (0.9)
F 549.12lb

2.85 Calculate the force F required to open or hold closed the gate
of Fig. 2.74 when R = 1.5 ft.
Solution
From problem 2.84 :

1
r
2

p'

'
p R S 2 0.9 4 1 (62.4)
81.12 psf

F Lr

Therefore :
1
62.4 0.9 2 81.12
2

F 199.68lb
F (4)(2)

2.89 A log holds back water and oil as shown in Fig. 2.76. Determine
(a) the force per meter pushing it against the dam, (b) the weight of
the cylinder per meter of length, and (c) its specific gravity.
Solution
(a) First observe that the horizontal forces
due to water cancel out. Therefore,
the horizontal force, Fx, is due to oil only.
Consider unit length perpendicular to paper.
Fx hA (9806 0.8)(1)(2 1)
Fx 15689.6

N
m

(b) The vertical force up, Fy is :


Fx

r2
S 2r 2
2

oil

on lower half due to water + oil head added

r 2
S r

2
(9806)
(0.8 9806)(2 2 2 )
2

(2) 2
(9806 0.8) (2) 2
4

Fy 117637.28 N

on upper tourth (left) due to

(c)
weight perfoot
unit volume
117637.28

9366.025
(2) 2 (1)

cyl . S

Therefore : S

9366.025
S 0.955
9806

2.91 The hemispherical dome in Fig. 2.78 is filled with water. The
dome arrangement as shown weighs 28 kN and is fastened to the floor
by bolts equally spaced around the circum-ference at the base. Find
the total force required to hold down the dome.
Solution
Let Fv be the vertical force (due to water) on the dome.
Fv (3 1.5) (1.5) 2

1

2

2
/ 4
100

3
4
1.5
3

9806 N / m3
So : Fv = 242.47 kN (up)
The net force pulling up is :
FNet Fv w 242.47 28 FNet 214.47kN
Therefore the total force required to hold down the dome is : 214.47
kN
2.92 A cable and semicircular ring suspend a spherical container by
the small piezometer tube, Fig. 2.79. The top of the tube is open to
the atmosphere. Calculate (a) the force on the bottom half of the
sphere, (b) the force on the top half of the sphere, and (c) the

total tension in the cable. Neglect the weight of the container.


Solution
(a)
FB 1 S2
(9806) (0.6) 2 (0.6 0.4)
1 4
3
(0.6)
2 3

(2.9)(9806)

FB 23.943kN
(b)
FT (0.6) 2 (0.6 0.4)
1 4

(0.6)3
2 3

FT 6.651kN
(assume that the diameter of the tube is very small)
(c) T FB FT 23.943 6.651 17.3kN
So : T = 17.3 kN
2.99 The cylinder gate of Fig. 2.80 is made from a circular cylinder
and a plate hinged at the dam. The gate position is controlled by
pumping water into or out of the cylinder. The center of gravity of
the empty gate is on the line of symmetry 4 ft from the hinge. It is
at equilibrium when it empty in the position shown. How many cubic
feet of water must be added per foot of cylinder to hold the gate in
its position when the water surface is raised 3 ft?
Solution
The shaded area has volume, 1 :

1 1 r 2
4

(per foot of length)

r 2
and : a
2.33 ft
3 4
Consider the moments about H added when the liquid level in the
reservoir is raised 3ft : +7
M (water in cylinder) = 5
M (add, head on projection AA) = 3 8 4 96
2

M (shaded area, vertical) 1 3 5 2.33 14.157


4

M (shaded area, horizontal) 1.5 3 1 4.5


Now :
MH 0
5 4.5 14.157 96 0
17.27 ft 3
2.100 A sphere 250 mm in diameter, S = 1.4, is submerged in a liquid
having a density varying with the depth y below the surface given by
= 1000+ 0.03y kg/m3. Determine the equilibrium position of the
sphere in the liquid.
Solution
In general, any homogeneous body completely submerged in a fluid with
a linear density gradient will float such that the fluid density at
the depth of the centroid is equal to the body density. Let the
subscripts B and L indicate body and liquid. Given that L o y ;

o 1000 and = 0.03 we have,


wB B d L d o d yd or : B o yd . Let

d A( y )dy . Centroid is such that : yc

y2

A( y) y

dy , hence

y1

B o yc
so : yc B o / and it is independent of the body shape.
Complete submergence must be Confirmed before using this approach.
Then :
yc (1.4 1000 1000) / 0.03 yc 13.3m
2.102 A cube 2 ft on an edge has its lower half of S = 1.4 and upper
half of S = 0.6. It is submerged into a two-layered fluid, the lower
S = 1.2 and the upper S = 0.9. determine the height of the top of the
cube above the interface.
Solution

a 3 ' a 3 ''
w xa S1 a a x S 2 S S
2
2
2

drop and solve for x :


s ' s ''
s2 / s1 s2
2

x 1.334 ft
x a

0.6 1.4

1.2
2


0.9 1.2
2

2.103 Determine the density, specific volume, and volume of an object


that weights 3 N in water and 4 N in oil, S = 0.83.
Solution

Subscripts O, A, W refer to oil, air and water respectively.


WA = actual weight (in air)
ww wA w

So :

A w ;

wo wA o ;

wo ww
w o

4 N 3N
5.9987 104 m3
N
9806 3 1 0.83
m

wA wo o ww w 3N 9806 5.9987 104


wA 8.882 N

wA
8.882
kg

1.51103 3
4
g (5.9987 10 )(9.806)
m

3
1
4 m
vs 6.623 10

kg

2.104 Two cubes of the same size, 1 m3, one of S = 0.80 and the other
of S = 1.1, are connected by a short wire and placed in water. What
portion of the lighter cube is above the water surface, and what is
the tension in the wire?
Soution
From static equilibrium, the weight of the cubes (w) must equal the
buoyant force FB
FB 2a 3 a 2 x
w a 3 s1 a 3 s2 , therefore
a 2 2a x a 3 s1 s2 x a 2 s1 s2
3
3
Since 1 2 a 1m , then a 1m

So : x 1 2 1.1 0.8 x 0.1m 10cm


The tension in wire is :
F s1 1 a 3 (0.1)a 3 980.6 N
2.113 A wooden cylinder 600 mm in diameter, S = 0.50, has a concrete
cylinder 600 mm long of the same diameter, S = 2.50, attached to one
end. Determine the length of the wooden cylinder for the system to
float in stable equilibrium with axis vertical.
Solution
To float it should be :
AL S1 Al S 2 A( L l )
So : L l
L

s2 1
1 s1

(600)(2.5 1)

1 0.5

L 1800mm

L
l
l AL S1 Al S 2
2
2
Taking moments :
ZG
AL S1 Al S 2

L2 1200 L 1.8 106


in mm
2 L 6000

Weigth 2 Z B A LS1 lS 2 A
2Z B LS1 lS 2
hence : Z B (0.5 L 600 2.5) / 2 ( L 3000) / 4
Then : GB Z G Z B

L2 3600 L 5.4 106


4( L 3000)

I
4 / 4
45000
MB

2
r 2 Z B L 3000
L2 3600 L 5.58 106
MG MB GB
4( L 3000)
Set MG 0 to obtain the max. value of L :
L2 3600 L 5.58 106 0
Therefore : L = 4769.85 mm (maximum)
2
2.120 In Fig. 2.86, ax 12.88 ft / s and ay = 0. Find the imaginary free

liquid surface and the pressure at B, C, D, and E.


Solution
The plane of zero pressure has slope :
tan

ax 12.88

0.4
g 32.174

21.8o
BM

1
2.5 ft
tan

NC 0.2 ft
p A 0 ; pB 0.8 62.4 /144 0.347 psi
Pc 0.2 0.8 62.4 /144 0.069 psi
pD

(0.2 3) 0.8 62.4


1.109 psi
144

PE

2 0.8 62.4
0.693 psi
144

2.121 In Fig. 2.86, ax = 0 and ay = -8.05 ft/s2. Find the pressure at


B, C, D, and E.
Solution

p 1 y y
g

8.05

p 0.8 62.4 1
y
32.174

P = -37.43y
Where p(psf) and y(ft)
PB = -37.43 (-1) = 37.43 psf = 0.26 psi
PC = -37.43 (-1) = 37.43 psf = 0.26 psi
PD = -37.43 (2) = -74.86 psf = -0.52 psi
PE = -37.43 (2) = -74.86 psf = -0.52 psi
2.123 In Fig. 2.87, ax = 9.806 m/s2 and ay = 0. Find the pressure at
A, B, and C
Solution
tan

ax
ay g

ax = 9.806 m/s2 = g
ay = 0
tan

ax
1 45o
g

Consider unit length normal to paper


air const 0.3m 1.3m 1m 0.39m3
1 2
x 0.39 x 0.8832m AN 1.3 0.8832 0.4168m
2
p A 0.4168m 9806 N / m3 4087.14 N / m 2

(or Pc)

PB (1.3 0.4168) m 9806 N / m3 16834.94 N / m 2


pc 0.4168m 9806 N / m3 4087.14 N / m 2

2
2
2.124 In Fig. 2.87, ax 4.903m / s and a y 9.806m / s . Find the

pressure at A, B, and C.
Solution
ax 4.903m / s 2 g / 2
a y 9.806m / s 2 g
tan

ax
g /2 1

g ay g g 4

14.04o
1
1.3
air const. 0.39m3 1.3 y 1.3
0.39
2
4
So y = 0.1375 m
a

p 1 y y 9806(1 1) y 19612 y
g

PA = 0
PB = (1.3-0.1375) 19612 = 22,798.95 Pa
1.3

pc 1.3 0.1375 19612 16, 425.05 pa


4

2.127 The tube of Fig. 2.88 is filled with liquid, S = 2.40. When it
is accelerated to the right 8.05 ft/s2, draw the imaginary free
surface and determine the pressure at A. For PA = 8 psi vacuum
determine ax.
Solution
a)
tan

ax 8.05 1

g 32.2 4

14.036o

a 1 2 tan 0.5 ft
p A a S 0.5 62.4 2.4 74.88 psf 0.52 psi
b)
Given PA = 8 psi
b

vacuum = b s

8 144
7692 ft
62.4 2.4

tan

1 b 8.692

4.346
2
2

77.042o
and
ax g tan 139.95 ft / s 2
2.133 The U tube of Fig. 2.88 is rotated about a vertical axis 6 in.
to the right of A at such a speed that the pressure at A is zero
gage. What is the rotational speed?
Solution
r1 = 0.5 ft
r2 = 2.5 ft
h = 1 ft
Method is the same as for problem 2.132
w

2 gh
2 32.174 1

3.275
2
1
2.52 0.52
2
2

rad/sec

or
w = 31.27 rpm.
2.134 Locate the vertical axis of rotation and the speed of rotation
of the U tube of Fig. 2.88 so that the pressure of liquid at the
midpoint of the U tube and at A are both zero.
Solution

Due to symmetry dist.


from A to axis equals dist.
from mid-point to axis
thus r1 = 1.5 ft and r2 = 0.5 ft
Now equate PB and PO , Pc and Po
w2 r12
2g

pB po H h
w2 r22
pc po h
2g
hence H

and

w2 r12 w2 r22 w2 (r12 r22 )

2g
2g
2g
2 gH
2 32.174 1

5.672 rad/s
2
2
r1 r2
1.52 0.52

or w = 54.16 rpm
2.144 The U tbue of Fig. 2.88 is rotated about a vertical axis
through A at such a speed that the water in the tube begins to
vaporize at the closed end above A, which is at 70. What is the
angular velocity? What would happen if the angular velocity were
increased?
Solution
P = 14.7 psi = 2116.8 psf
p h pr

w2 r 2
h
2g

then :

p pr 2 g

Thus

r2

(2116.8 52.33) 2 32.174

62.3 22

w = 23.09 rad/sec = 220.5 rpm

If w increases then a vapor pocket will form.