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www.elsevier.com/locate/solener

J. Cadafalch

Universitat Polite`cnica de Catalunya (UPC), Departament de Ma`quines i Motors Te`rmics (MMT), Institut Polite`cnic Campus Terrassa (IPCT),

Ctra. Nac. 150, km 14.5, 08227 Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain

Received 29 April 2009; accepted 19 August 2009

Available online 25 September 2009

Communicated by: Associate Editor Brian Norton

Abstract

A one-dimensional transient numerical model for at-plate solar thermal devices is here presented.

The model permits the analysis of dierent congurations and components such as multiple-glazing, transparent insulation, air-gaps,

surface coatings, opaque insulation and energy accumulation in water or PCM internal stores.

In order to obtain information of practical interest, the solar thermal devices are modelled following virtual testing procedures in

accordance to the experimental test methods described by European and International standards.

This paper describes the basis of the model and shows some comparison of numerical and experimental data as an example of the

validation process that has been carried out in order to assess the credibility of the numerical model. For simplicity, the explanation

is restricted to standard multiple-glazed at-plate collectors. The use of the model in other more complicated congurations as in transparently insulated covers or integrated collector storage devices with phase change materials will be presented in other separate papers.

2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Solar collectors; Domestic water heating systems; Modelling

1. Introduction

System and components research in modern thermal

engineering is based on the combination of numerical

and experimental techniques. Numerical models permit to

nd-out solutions on a computer (virtual prototyping) with

no need to construct large and expensive series of prototypes. Once these solutions are found, they have to be validated by comparison to experimental data obtained from

ad hoc experimental set-ups or prototypes.

Numerical models for virtual prototyping must be

detailed enough to be able to deal with all dominant physical phenomena, and simple enough to give results in a

short time. Therefore, the set of governing equations

addressing the conservation of physical quantities (mass,

URL: http://www.upc.edu

0038-092X/$ - see front matter 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.solener.2009.08.013

be simplied by means of some assumptions.

Due and Beckman (1991) developed a model for atplate solar collectors that has been widely used for design

and prediction. Heat transfer is assumed one-dimensional

from the thermal uid to the ambient. Temperature at

the absorber, back plate and covers are calculated at steady

state conditions from an analogy between one-dimensional

heat transfer and electrical grids.

Eorts have been done to develop models accounting

for more physical and geometrical complexity, see for

example Schnieders (1997), Kamminga (1995), Isakson

(1995), de Ron (1980) and Fraisse and Plantier (2003).

Most of them are based on an extension of the electrical

analogy adopted by Due and Beckman. They are still

restricted to specic geometries and materials, and their

generalization to account for other phenomena such as

phase change and radiative heat transfer in participating

media is quite complicated. These models are currently

2158

Nomenclature

thermal capacity per unit of area J=m2 K

specic heat at constant pressure J=kg K

double glazed collector

global solar irradiance over collector plane

W=m2

beam solar irradiance over collector plane

Gtb

W=m2

Gtdiff diuse solar irradiance over collector plane

W=m2

h

heat transfer coecient W=m2 K

habsf absorber to thermal uid heat transfer coecient W=m2 K

eective heat transfer coecient from the back

hba

to the ambient including thermal radiation and

convection W=m2 K

eective heat transfer coecient from the cover

hca

to the ambient including thermal radiation and

convection W=m2 K

PCM phase change material

q_

heat ux or heat source W=m2

abs

heat ux from the absorber to the cover W=m2

q_ c

abs

heat ux from the absorber to the back W=m2

q_ b

abs

heat ux lost through the edges referred to the

q_ e

absorber area W=m2

abs

heat ux transferred to the thermal uid in the

q_ f

absorber W=m2

q_ v

energy source per unit of area W=m2

sg

single glazed collector

T

temperature (C)

ambient or surrounding air temperature (C)

Ta

mean temperature of the heat transfer uid (C)

T av

TIM

transparent insulation material

edges heat loss coecient referred to the absorUe

ber area W=m2 K

U e0 ; U e1 U e linearisation coecients W=m2 K;

W=m2 K2 ; U e U e0 U e1 T abs in C

c

cp

dg

Gt

TRNSYS (1994) and T-Sol (1999).

With the improvement of both computational algorithms and computers, is now possible to calculate more

and more complex phenomena and geometry in a reasonable computation time. To do so, improved models have

to be developed.

The author presents a one-dimensional transient model

for at-plate solar thermal devices based on control volume

computational heat transfer techniques. With this

approach dierent congurations and materials can be

investigated including multiple-glazings, transparent insulation, phase change materials, air-gaps, coatings, opaque

insulation and water storage tanks. The inputs of the model

are the conguration and the basic thermophysical and

radiative properties of the materials being used.

d

Dt

DT av

g

K

k

r

q

s

h

thickness m

time increment (s)

temperature dierence between T av and T a (C)

hemispherical thermal emittance

collector eciency for normal incidence referred

to the absorber area

heat transfer coecient W=m2 K

thermal conductivity W=m K

StephanBoltzmann constant 5:67 108

W=m2 K4

density kg=m3 , solar reectivity

solar transmittance

solar radiation incidence angle ()

Subscripts

conv

convection

dif

radiation property for diuse incidence

i

layer index (from 1 to N), interlayer index (from

0 to N) and control volume index (from 0

to N)

j

index of the number of layers in a component

N

number of layers

sr

solar radiation

h

radiation property for beam incidence at the

incidence angle h

thr

thermal radiation

Superscripts

abs

absorber

ag

air gap

co

component

gl

glazing

om

opaque material

o

value at the previous time step

guessed value in the convergence procedure

virtual solar thermal devices are calculated under virtual test

conditions following European and International standard

testing procedures described in EN12975 (2006), ISO98061 (1994), ISO9459-2 (1995) and ISO9459-5 (1996).

Previous versions of the model have already been used

in several projects focused on the design of solar collectors

and integrated collector storage devices, see for example

Oliva et al. (2000), Maestre et al. (2004), Maestre et al.

(2003) and Martnez et al. (2005). See also some details

of the model in a previous stage in Cadafalch and Oliva

(2003).

In the last few-years the author has improved the model

in order to simplify it and to make it usable by other members of the solar community. In this paper the principles of

the model are described. The explanation includes a con-

pile of components, the modelling of the components and a

description of the global numerical algorithm. Some comparison of numerical and experimental data is also

reported to show in part the validation study that has been

carried out in order to assess the credibility of the model.

For clarity, the explanation here has been restricted to

multiple-glazed at-plate collectors with standard materials. The use of the model to study other congurations

and materials such as transparently insulated covers or

integrated collector storage devices with phase change

material stores, will be reported in more extent in separate

papers.

2. The model

The geometry of a at-plate solar thermal device can be

seen as a pile of components. A standard single glazed collector, for instance, may have the following six components: the back plate, the back insulation, the air gap

between the back insulation and the absorber, the absorber, the cover air gap and the glass pane.

Heat transfer through the components is essentially onedimensional. Some bi-dimensional and three-dimensional

eects always occur due to the inuence of the edges, or

because some of the components are not perfectly uniform.

For example, in a n-and-tube like absorber there are temperature gradients in both the longitudinal and transversal

directions. However, main heat transfer ow remains onedimensional.

Heat ows from one component to another due to convection, thermal radiation, solar radiation and conduction.

Inside the components energy can be accumulated due to

thermal inertia, can be removed or can be generated. For

example, the thermal uid in the absorber in normal conditions removes energy from the absorber. On the other

hand, if during the night hot thermal uid circulates

through the absorber, it can be seen as a generation of

energy inside the absorber.

This physical phenomena can be well represented by the

multilayer energy model described in the appendix. The

one-dimensional domain is discretised in dierent zones

named layers. They are characterised by the parameters

K, c and q_ v that account for heat transfer, thermal inertia

and energy generation in the layer, respectively.

To solve the multilayer model, appropriate Neumann

boundary conditions (i.e. heat transfer coecient and

external temperature) are required at the two external layers. The ambient temperature T a and eective heat transfer coecients from the cover hca and back plate hba

to the surroundings are used. The eective heat transfer

coecients account for both thermal radiation and

convection.

The value of the parameters and number of layers

depend on the components that congure the solar thermal

device and the models used to evaluate each of them. The

models that are currently being used by the author to eval-

2159

are described in Section 2.3. Their main features are:

Temperature dependent thermophysical properties.

Conductive heat transfer in the solids parts.

Convective heat transfer in the air or uid cavities.

Energy accumulation due to thermal inertia.

Heat loss through the edges is evaluated as an energy

loss in the absorber.

Diuse thermal radiation.

Time dependent weather data. Both ideal and real data

can be used.

Diuse and angular dependent beam solar radiation are

considered. Solar radiation absorbed at each component

is calculated from the model described in Section 2.4,

and is then introduced as an energy gain in the corresponding layers.

2.1. Virtual tests

The model is run under dierent testing procedures in

order to obtain information of practical interest for the

design and optimisation such as thermal eciency or the

maximum temperature than can be reached in some components of the solar thermal device. These procedures are

called virtual tests. Some of them, as for example the steady

state eciency test for solar collectors, are based on the

experimental tests proposed by the European Committee

for Standardisation and the International Organisation

for Standardisation, see EN12975 (2006), ISO9806-1

(1994), ISO9459-2 (1995) and ISO9459-5 (1996).

2.2. Global algorithm

A schematic representation of the global algorithm

implemented is shown in Fig. 1. Main ow of the algorithm

follows the path in black. Weather data has to be updated

as a function of the current simulation time. This is represented in the scheme with the dark grey path. A third path

represented in clear grey stands for the data ow from a

data base with weather, thermophysical properties and

radiative properties data, to the procedures of the black

and dark grey path.

The rst step of the algorithm is the denition of the

input data consisting of:

Conguration of the solar thermal device, i.e. all the

components with their geometry, materials and specic

features.

Weather data. They can be real or ideal data such as a

constant ambient temperature and a constant radiation

level.

Simulation control. It includes:

Numerical parameters: level of spatial and temporal

discretisation, solvers, convergence criteria, etc.

Testing procedure: type of virtual test.

2160

Once all inputs are set, computation can start. The core

of the computation consist of three main loops. The external loop account for those virtual tests requiring multiple

simulations. For example, in the steady state eciency test

for solar collectors, eciency is to be measured (calculated)

for dierent levels of the thermal uid temperature. The

second loop accounts for the time marching. Finally, the

internal loop is needed to achieve convergence for each

time of simulation. The convergence loop is necessary

because most components models require a guess of the

current temperature distribution due to, for instance, temperature dependence of the thermophysical properties. Calculations inside the internal loop are divided in two major

steps. In the rst, the multilayer parameters K, c and q_ v of

each layer i are calculated according to the components

models, the current guess of the temperature distribution

T i , and the current weather data. In the second step, the

temperature distribution T i is calculated by means of the

multilayer model. When dierences between the current

and guessed temperature distribution accomplish the convergence criteria requested by the user, i.e. convergence criteria is reached, the calculation of the next time step starts.

Output data at the end of the whole computation are the

evolution in time of the temperature distribution and of all

the heat uxes and energy terms. Typically, some post-pro-

from the engineering point of view. In the case of the steady

state eciency curve of solar collectors, all eciency points

are t into a rst or second order eciency curve according

to the CEN procedure described in EN12975 (2006).

The components take account of the solar energy

absorbed by an internal energy gain indicated by q_ sr in

the parameters q_ v of the corresponding layers. The values

of the terms q_ sr are calculated for each simulation time step

according to the current weather data and the solar radiation properties of the components. The solar radiation

model used to perform this calculation is described in Section 2.4. Some components models and the boundary conditions of the multilayer model also require time updated

values of other weather parameters like the ambient temperature T a and the eective heat transfer coecient at

the cover and the back including convection and thermal

radiation, hca and hba . The instantaneous weather data

generator of the dark grey path in Fig. 1, generates all

the required weather data from ideal or real weather data

of the weather data base.

The data base also supplies the values of the solar radiation properties to the solar radiation model and the values

of the thermal radiation properties and the thermophysical

properties to the components models.

Each one of the components of the at-plate solar thermal device becomes one or several layers in the multilayer

model with appropriate values of the parameters K, c and

q_ v . The procedures currently being used by the author to

evaluate the components of standard at-plate solar collectors are discussed in this section. A summary is also given

in Table 1. The modelling of other components as transparent insulation materials and water or phase change materials internal stores will be described in some extent in

separated papers.

2.3.1. The absorber

The absorber model is based on a global energy balance

at the absorber, assuming that it is an isothermal thin at

plate at a temperature T abs and neglecting energy accumulation eects.

The net solar irradiance absorbed by the absorber, q_ abs

sr ,

is transferred to the thermal uid circulating through the

_ abs

_ abs

and to

absorber, q_ abs

f , to the cover, q

c , to the edges q

e

abs

the back, q_ b . Therefore, the instantaneous energy balance

at the absorber reads

_ abs

_ abs

_ abs

_ abs

q_ abs

sr q

f q

c q

b q

e

area.

Eq. (1) is the at-plate energy balance in which the wellknown model of Due and Beckman (1991) for at-plate

solar collectors is based. They developed a model that permits to predict in detail the thermal performance of atplate collectors with single or multiple covers.

The model here presented is an extension of the model

of Due and Beckman (1991) where the terms of Eq. (1)

and q_ abs

related to the cover and the back, q_ abs

c

b , are calculated in more detail using the multilayer model, see Appendix A, and the solar energy absorbed q_ abs

sr is evaluated from

the solar radiation model described in Section 2.4. This

approach permits the analysis of at-plate solar thermal

devices with non-standard congurations such as transparently insulated covers, and energy storage in the back of

the absorber by means of rectangular water or phase

change material stores.

To solve the absorber as a component in the multilayer,

one single layer is used. As energy accumulation is

Table 1

Parameters of the multilayer model corresponding to each component.

The subindex j is used as a counter of layers in those components

requiring more than one layer, and N co indicates the number of layers

required by each component.

Components

Absorber

Glazing

Air gap

Opaque

material

N co

1

1

1

N om

1 to

N om

0

0

0

qj cpj dj

1

kgl =dgl

ag

hag

convi hthri

kj =dj

q_ abs

sr

q_ gl

sr

0

0

q_ abs

f

q_ abs

e

2161

isothermal thin at plate is imposed by setting the Ki

parameter to 1. The terms q_ abs

and q_ abs

in Eq. (1) are

c

b

directly calculated in the multilayer model. The remaining

terms are introduced as a source term of the layer. Therefore, the multilayer parameter accounting for internal

energy gains reads:

_ abs

_ abs

q_ vi q_ abs

sr q

f q

e

variations in the source term of the layer corresponding to

the absorber. Sub relaxation of the variations of q_ vi helps

overcoming this problem.

and q_ abs

The terms q_ abs

f

e are calculated in terms of a heat

transfer coecient and a dierence of temperature as

follows

abs

T av

q_ abs

f habsf T

q_ abs

e

U e T

abs

T a U e0 U e1 T

3

abs

abs

T a

In Eq. (3), habsf is the heat transfer coecient from the absorber plate to the thermal uid circulating through the absorber, and T av is the mean temperature of the heat transfer

uid. In Eq. (4), T a is the ambient temperature, and the

heat loss coecient of the edges of the collector referenced

to the absorber area, U e , is linearised in terms of the

absorbing surface temperature T abs (in C). Parameters

habsf ; T av ; U e0 and U e1 are calculated according to Due

and Beckman (1991).

2.3.2. Air-gaps

Only one layer is necessary to evaluate air-gaps. No

thermal inertia nor participation of the air in the radiation

heat transfer are considered. The heat transfer parameter in

the air gap takes account of convective heat transfer by

means of the coecient hag

convi and of thermal radiation

between the limiting surfaces of the air gap with the coecient hag

thri . The convective heat transfer coecient is calculated from correlations of the Nusselt number available in

the literature, see Rohsenow et al. (1985) and Schweiger

(1997). Thermal radiative heat transfer is evaluated assuming grey diuse innite surfaces, see Due and Beckman

(1991), resulting into the following equation:

hag

thri T i1 T i

1

r T 4i1 T 4i

1

i 1

i1

1

hemispherical thermal emittance of the limiting surfaces,

and T i1 and T i the temperatures of the limiting surfaces.

2.3.3. Glazings

A single layer is used for each glazing. Heat transfer

coecient K in the glazings takes account of conduction

and is calculated from the thermal conductivity of the glazing kgl and the thickness of the glazing, dgl , resulting in

Ki kgl =dgl . No thermal inertia is considered, i.e. ci 0.

2162

The absorbed solar irradiance q_ sri in the glazing is considered in the source term q_ vi parameter. See the description

of the radiative heat transfer model used in Section 2.4.

2.3.4. Opaque material (opaque insulation)

It is divided in N om parts with a thickness dj , where the

subindex j is a counter of the parts ranging from j 1 to

j N om . A layer of the multilayer model is assigned to each

part. The multilayer parameters are calculated from the

thermophysical properties of the opaque material q; cp

and k and the thickness d, see Table 1.

2.4. Solar radiation model

The solar irradiance absorbed at the glazings, the absorber and at the honeycomb-like transparent insulation (if

any) is calculated by means of the algorithm for multilayer

systems described by Platzer (1998) assuming that there is

no diuse scattering in the layers.

The absorption of the beam and diuse part of the solar

irradiance at each layer are calculated separately. The

parameters required to perform the calculation of the beam

part are the solar transmittance, sh , of each layer and the

reection of solar radiation of all the interlayer surfaces

including the absorber, qh . They are both a function of

the angle of incidence of the solar irradiance h. The value

of these radiative properties at the glazings and absorbers

are obtained from the technical information supplied by

the manufacturers of the cover components.

The calculation of the diuse part requires diuse values

of the solar transmittance and reection in the layers and

interlayer surfaces, sdif and qdif . They are calculated from

an averaging of sh and qh over all the hemisphere.

The total solar irradiance absorbed at each layer including the beam and diuse part, q_ sri , is introduced as a source

term in the discretised energy equations corresponding to

each layer, see Table 1.

3. Results

Previous versions of the model here presented have

already been used in dierent projects focused on the

design and optimisation of at-plate solar thermal devices,

see for example Maestre et al. (2004), Maestre et al. (2003)

and Martnez et al. (2005). In the framework of these projects many collectors and integrated collector storage

devices have been constructed and tested in detail. The

comparison of these experimental results with the numerical data predicted with the model has served to assess the

credibility of the model.

Specic studies have also been carried out to verify the

dierent procedures used in the model, such as the multilayer model, the solar radiation model, the data supplied

by the data base and each one of the components models.

As an example of what can be obtained from the model,

some numerical and experimental data corresponding to

two dierent collectors are presented hereafter. One is a sin-

according to EN12975 (2006).

Modulo Solar. The other, is the same collector in which the

cover has been changed by a double glazed cover.

The experimental steady state eciency curve of the single glazed collector was obtained by a certication center

according to EN12975 (2006). The numerical curves have

been obtained from the model following the same standard

procedure. Results are shown in Fig. 2 and Table 2. Fig. 2

shows the numerical curve, the experimental measurements

and the experimental curve obtained from the t of the

experimental measurements.

Dierences between the numerical and experimental eciency of the single glazed collector are always below 2% in

the whole range of analysis. This good agreement between

the experimental and numerical indicates not only that the

model is able to properly predict the experimental eciency

curve, but also that the input data used in the model, i.e.

the geometry of the collectors and the thermophysical

and radiative data provided by the company Modulo

Solar, were certain.

4. Conclusions

This paper describes in detail the fundamentals of a

model for the design and optimisation of at-plate solar

thermal devices. The model consists of an extension of

the simple model of Due and Beckman (1991) where

the components of the solar device in the cover and back

Table 2

Experimental and numerical steady state eciency curves obtained

according to EN12975 (2006).

Prototype

Data type

Experimental

Numerical

0:80 3:89 0:0064DT av DT av =Gt

Numerical

2163

Acknowledgements

The author wishes to thank the company Modulo Solar

that has provided all technical information of the commercial collector used in the section Results. The author also

wishes to point out that previous research to the work here

presented was funded in part by the European Commission

under the framework of dierent CRAFTS projects in

which the Centre Tecnolo`gic de Transfere`ncia de Calor

(CTTC) of the Universitat Polite`cnica de Catalunya

(UPC) participated.

Appendix A. The multilayer model

transfer through N layers with internal source terms.

new congurations, concepts and materials such as covers

with transparent insulation material and heat storage in

phase change materials.

The explanation in this paper has been limited to those

components used in standard at-plate solar collectors.

The modelling of other components as transparent insulation materials and water or phase change materials internal

stores will be described in some extent in separated papers.

The model can be run under dierent testing procedures

called virtual tests in order to obtain useful data for optimisation and design purposes. Some of these virtual tests

reproduce the standard testing procedures described in

EN12975 (2006), ISO9806-1 (1994), ISO9459-2 (1995)

and ISO9459-5 (1996).

Previous versions of the model have already been used

in the framework of several projects focused on the development of new at-plate solar collectors and integrated

collector storage systems. Prototypes constructed in these

projects have been tested in detail and the resulting experimental data has been compared to the numerical data

obtain with the model. This validation process has permitted to assess the credibility of the model.

As an example of the validation process that has been

carried out, the numerical and experimental steady state

eciency curve of a commercial single glazed at-plate collector has been presented. Absolute dierences of the

numerical and experimental eciency in the whole range

of analysis were never beyond 2%.

transfer through N dierent layers with internal heat

sources. Each layer is characterised by a heat transfer coefcient K in W=m2 K, a thermal capacity c in J=m2 K, and a

heat source q_ v in W=m2 . See Fig. 3.

To identify each layer a subindex i is used form i 1 to

i N corresponding to the bottom and top layers,

respectively.

Linear temperature distribution in each layer is

assumed. Therefore, the distribution of temperatures

through all the multilayer is a polyline with the vertexes

at the interlayer surfaces.

Numerating the temperature of the dierent interlayer

surfaces from 0 (bottom) to N (top), the temperature of

limiting surfaces of the layer i are T i1 and T i .

The temperature T i at each interlayer surface is evaluated by solving the energy conservation law in a control

volume made up by half of the two touching layers. The

resulting discretised equation, using an implicit temporal

discretisation and a rst order scheme for the time derivatives, reads as follows

T i T oi

0:5 q_ vi q_ vi1 Ki T i1 T i

0:5ci ci1

Dt

Ki1 T i T i1

6

where Dt is the time increment and the superindex o in T oi

means that it is the value of the temperature T i at the previous time step.

See as the use of the parameters K; c and q_ v makes Eq.

(6) independent of the thickness of the layer.

The bottom and top layers are related to the surroundings of the multilayer by means of a heat transfer coecient

and a surrounding (or ambient) temperature, Kbot and T bot

for the bottom, and Ktop and T top for the top.

Temperatures at the boundaries of the multilayer system, T 0 and T N , are calculated by solving the energy conservation law in a control volume consisting of the

external half of the layer and considering the appropriate

boundary conditions. See the boundary control volumes

indicated in Fig. 3. For example, the discretised equation

in the bottom boundary control volume reads

T 0 T o0

0:5q_ v1 Kbot T bot T 0 K1 T 0 T 1

7

0:5c1

Dt

2164

If Kbot or Ktop are set to 1, the temperature at the corresponding boundary of the multilayer is set to T bot or T top ,

respectively.

As a result, a set of N 1 non-linear algebraic equations

with N 1 unknowns, the temperatures, is drawn. Nonlinearity of the equations arises from possible temperature

dependence of the parameters K; c and q_ v . A iterative solver

based on a tridiagonal matrix algorithm is used to solve the

resulting equation system Patankar, 1980.

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