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Anda di halaman 1dari 22

Dr Ben Cazzolato

3 May 2008

Please note that a great deal of the material has been copied directly from the Quanser Users Manual for

the 3DOF Hover, in particular the background material. Some of the material in the manual has not been

reproduced here. Users of the rig should refer to the manual for safe operation.

Executive Summary

The purpose of the experiment is to design a controller that allows you to command a

desired pitch, roll and yaw angle of a model hovering platform. The model was purchased

with the financial assistance of the Sir Ross and Sir Keith Smith Fund.

You will examine the performance of the system with an operator in the loop. A joystick is

supplied that allows you to command the motors in open loop in order to compare human

operator performance with computer control. The joystick will also be used in conjunction

with a closed loop controller, which improves operator performance and makes the system

easier to use.

1. Introduction

The 3D Hover system (shown in Figure 1) consists of a frame with 4 propellers mounted

on a 3 DOF pivot joint such that the body can freely roll, pitch and yaw. The propellers

generate a lift force that can be used to control the pitch and roll angles. The total torque

generated by the propeller motors causes a yaw to the body as well. Two propellers in the

system are counter-rotating propellers such that the total torque in the system is balanced

when the thrusts of the 4 propellers are approximately equal.

Motion about the three degrees of freedom is measured using three encoders.

All electrical signals to and from the body are transmitted via a slipring thus eliminating the

possibility of tangled wires and reducing the amount of friction and loading about the

moving axes.

Page 1 of 22

Left

Motor

Pitch

Front

Motor

Yaw

Right

Motor

Back

Motor

Roll

2. Mathematical Modelling

A complete mathematical model including propeller dynamics, forces generated by the

propellers, static and dynamic friction of the bearings, etc, is very difficult to obtain. We will

instead develop a simplified model.

Page 2 of 22

Consider the diagram in Figure 2. The pitch is defined as a rotation about the body Y-axis.

It is measured using an encoder. Assuming the roll is zero, then the pitch axis torque is

controlled by the forces, Ff and Fb , generated by the Front and Back propellers

respectively, resulting in a torque balance equation

&& l (Ff Fb )

Jp p

(1)

where J p is the moment of inertia of the body about the pitch axis and l is the distance

from the pitch axis to either prop centre. Equation (1) may be rewritten in terms of pitch

&& , and input motor voltage:

angular acceleration, p

p

Jp

Jp

(2)

where K fn is the force constant that relates the forces generated by the props when the

voltages Vf and Vb are applied to the Front and Back motor respectively, that are

operating in a Normal rotational direction (as opposed to a counter-rotational direction).

Page 3 of 22

Consider the diagram in Figure 2. The roll is defined as a rotation about the body X-axis

and is also measured using an encoder. Assuming the pitch is zero, then the roll axis

torque is controlled by the forces, Fr and Fl , generated by the Right and Left propellers

respectively. Note that this axis uses counter-rotating propellers and thus the motor must

rotate in the opposite direction than the Front and Back motors to achieve lift. The reason

for using two types of propellers is that this balances the net torque in the yaw direction. If

all motors spun in the same direction, then the drag from the propellers would create a

bias torque in the yaw. The resulting torque balance equation for roll is

Jr r&& l (Fr Fl )

(3)

where Jr is the moment of inertia of the body about the roll axis and l is the distance from

the roll axis to either prop centre. Equation (3) may be rewritten in terms of roll angular

acceleration, r&& , and input motor voltage:

lK

l

r&& = (Fr Fl ) = fc (Vr Vl )

Jr

Jr

(4)

where K fc is the force constant that relates the forces generated by the props when the

voltages Vr and Vl are the applied to the Right and Left motor respectively, when

operating in a Counter rotational direction.

Page 4 of 22

Consider the diagram in Figure 2. The yaw is defined as the rotation about the body Zaxis. Note that this angle is not directly measured but rather the yaw of the entire body

relative to the base is measured using an encoder. The only time the body yaw is

accurately given by the encoders is when the roll and pitch angles are zero. The torque

about the Yaw-axis is the sum of the torques generated by the motors of all 4 propellers.

The resulting in a torque balance equation for yaw is

Jy y&& T =Tf + Tb + Tr + Tl

(5)

where J y is the moment of inertia of the body about the yaw axis and T is the torque from

each of the motors. Equation (5) may be rewritten in terms of yaw angular acceleration

(relative to body frame), y&& , and input motor voltages:

K

K

y&& = tn (Vf + Vb ) + tc (Vr + Vl )

Jy

Jy

(6)

where K tn and K tc are the torque constants that relates the torque generated by the prop

when a voltage is applied to the motor (for normal-rotational direction and counterrotational direction respectively).

The equations we have just derived can be written as a state space equation of the form:

y& 0

y&& 0

p& 0

&& =

p 0

r& 0

&&

r 0

0

1 0 0 0 0 y K t

0 0 0 0 0 y& J y

0 0 1 0 0 p 0

+ l K fn

0 0 0 0 0 p& J

p

0 0 0 0 1 r 0

0 0 0 0 0 r& 0

0

Kt

Jy

0

l K fn

Jp

0

0

0

Kt

Jy

0

0

0

l K fc

Jr

Vf

Vb

0 V

r

0 Vl

l K fc

J r

0

Kt

Jy

0

(7)

Assuming that the normal and counter-rotating motors and propellers are the same (apart

from the blade pitch), then K fn = K fc = K f and Ktn = Ktc = Kt .

The output equation is given by

y

y&

Vf

y

1

0

0

0

0

0

0 0 0 0

p = 0 0 1 0 0 0 p + 0 0 0 0 Vb

p&

V

r 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 r

r

Vl

&

r

Page 5 of 22

(8)

The equations of motion for a proper model of the system are actually considerably more

complex than the equations derived previously. Some of the simplifications we have made

are:

a) Many of the moments generated are functions of pitch and roll. We have assumed

that the pitch and roll is small.

b) We have assumed that the lift is a linear function of motor drive voltage. In practice

it is not.

c) There is gyroscopic coupling between the axes. This has been neglected by

assuming that the rotational velocities are small.

d) The response to a voltage input does not result in immediate response of the

propeller speeds and thus output force: the time constants of these sub-systems

are considered to be much faster than the body dynamics and can also be

neglected.

e) Centrifugal forces during a yaw rotation will affect the pitch and roll axes.

f) Air turbulence around the body will result in unknown disturbances.

g) Friction, both static and dynamic, has been completely ignored, despite the friction

in the yaw being significant.

h) The center of gravity of the system is not coincident with the pitch and roll axes,

thus a load appears about the pitch and roll rotation axes that is dependent on the

angles of rotation. The manual says that the CofG is below the rotation axis, but it is

actually above, thus making the roll and pitch unstable when uncontrolled.

i) The Yaw joint is not absolutely friction free mainly due to the sliprings contacts.

j) The wires protruding from the body offer some resistance which results in a

constant disturbance.

k) The system is not exactly balanced when initialized.

Despite all the approximations, the model is sufficient to design a working controller.

For those that are interested, a full derivation of the non-linear equations are presented in

Appendix D.

Page 6 of 22

We will now augment the system to allow us to command the yaw, pitch and roll as well as

remove steady state errors. This augmentation is also necessary given that there is a

gravitational disturbance term g (acting on the pitch and roll). We define three new states

, and resulting in the following augmented state space representation:

y&

y&&

p&

&&

p

r& =

&&

r

&

&

&

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 0

0

0 0 0 y K t

0 0 0 y& J y

0 0 0 p 0

l K f

0 0 0 p&

Jp

0 0 0 r + 0

0 0 0 r& 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

0

0 0 0

0

0 0 0

0

0 0 0

V

0

0 f 0 0 0 ry Gd , p

Vb

0

0 V 0 0 0 rp + 0 g

l K f l K f r 0 0 0 rr Gd ,r

0

Jr

Jr Vl 1 0 0

0

0 0 0 0

0

0 1 0

0 0 0 0

0

0 0 1

0 0 0 0

0

Kt

Jy

0

l Kf

Jp

0

0

Kt

Jy

0

0

Kt

Jy

0

(9)

where

, and are the integral of the yaw, pitch and roll setpoint error respectively,

ry , rp and rr are the desired yaw, pitch and roll (setpoint) respectively

l = 0.1969m is the distance from the prop centre to the pivot point,

J p = 0.0552kg.m 2 is the moment of inertia about the pitch axis,

K f = 0.594N / V is the force constant and is equal to the force generated from the

fans per unit voltage into the amplifier,

likewise K t = 0.0180 Nm / V is the torque constant and is equal to the torque

generated by the fans (in the body yaw) per unit voltage into the amplifier.

Gd , p and Gd ,r are constants that relate the gravitational field to the rotational

acceleration in pitch and roll respectively. These non-linear terms are a function of

pitch and roll and are very difficult to model.

The sub-matrices in the state matrix and control matrix are simply the matrices prior

to state augmentation, in other words Equation (7).

If you are wondering what such a system may look like, please jump ahead to Figure 3,

which is a Simulink block diagram of what we are about the design and build.

Page 7 of 22

3. Questions

3.1 Matlab Modelling

Question 1

Enter the non-augmented state and control matrix in Matlab. Let the state matrix be A m

and the control matrix be B m . Ignore the gravitational disturbance.

What are the poles of the open loop system? Describe what this means in relation to the

physical system.

Question 2

Determine the condition number of the controllability matrix. From this determine if the

system is controllable, noting how controllable it is.

Question 3

From the earlier discussion, the encoders provide us with pitch, roll and yaw. Determine

the output matrix C m for the original system.

Question 4

Determine the condition number of the observability matrix. From this determine if the

system is observable, noting how observable it is.

Question 5

We can now proceed in designing a full-state feedback controller for the system.

build the augmented state space system in Matlab.

Using an optimal LQR controller with a state weighting matrix given by

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

10000 0

0

100

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 20000 0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

500

0

0

0

0

0

0

Q= 0

0

0

0 20000 0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

500

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 20000

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

20000

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

20000

Page 8 of 22

(10)

First

1

0

R=

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

(11)

determine the optimal (4x9) controller gains K = [K m , K i ] . Note the (4x6) gain vector, K m ,

for the feedback controller and the (4x3) controller gains, K i , for the integral command

tracking.

Question 6

Determine the poles of the feedback system alone. This means determining the poles of

A m B mK m , where A m is the original state matrix prior to augmentation and B m is the

original control matrix prior to augmentation.

Question 7

Now build the augmented control system using full state feedback and integral command

tracking. This will require you to define a new [9x3] state input matrix for the command

inputs.

Using the step command, look at the plant response to a 1 radian command into the yaw,

pitch and roll. In particular, look at the settling time of the angles. Also quantify the

maximum control voltages into the fan motors. This requires additional rows in the state

output matrix.

Question 8

Now we will build an estimator. Using pole placement, determine the (6x3) observer gain

matrix L to place the poles of the estimator at 10 times the poles of the feedback system

(determined in Question 6).

Building a regulator and then feeding it back into the plant becomes very difficult in Matlab,

especially keeping tracking of all the states and inputs. We will now move to Simulink as

this allows us to model the same system using block diagrams.

Page 9 of 22

Now that the controller is designed we can see what happens in a fully developed Simulink

model.

Open the Simulink model called hover_model_estim_bsc.mdl. It should look like the

model shown in Figure 3.

Command or

Reference

Input

for the Quanser 3DOF Hover rig.

Written by B. Cazzolato 1/3/05.

Before this simulation can be run, you must

run the file "d_hover_bsc_new.m"

0

Yaw SP

pi/8

Pitch SP

Manual Switch

Setpoint

Error

Ki* uvec

1

s

Plant

Motor

Input

Voltage

Augmented

States

Voltage

Scope

Motor

Input

Voltage

Integrator

Ki

x' = Ax+Bu

y = Cx+Du

State-Space

Actual

States

Cm* uvec

C

State Scope

0

Roll SP

Controller

Actual

States

Km* uvec

Km

y aw, pitch, roll

Manual Switch

Double click to select

Full state control or

Observer based control

JoyStick Output

Observer

Motor

Input

Voltage

Bm* u

1

s

x^_dot

B_est

x^

Cm* u

Integrator1

Am* u

y^

C_est

x^

ye

A_est

L* u

L

x^

x^

Estim State

Scope

Y aw, Pitch & Roll

Figure 4: Simulink state space model of 3DOF Hover with integral command following using an estimator. The

red constant boxes are the setpoints for the yaw, pitch and roll. The orange gain blocks are the feedback

controller and the integral tracking controller. The plant is modelled in light blue. The observer is yellow. The

magenta blocks are scopes to allow you to view the control signals, states and state estimates. The manual switch

allows one to change from full-state control to a control system using an estimator. This can be done by double

clicking the block.

To run the Simulink model you will need to ensure that the terms you have used match

those in the model.

You can view the response of the system using the VRML (virtual reality model) by double

clicking on the block. The model is shown in Figure 5. Please note that if you have a

joystick on you, then you can control the plant using this.

Page 10 of 22

Question 9

First look at the response of a pitch setpoint of 1 radian using full-state feedback. If you

have done everything correctly, the settling times should be in the order of 4 seconds.

Look at system output and the input control voltage. Note the maximum of each. This

should match your answers from Question 7.

Now repeat this when using an observer to estimate the states. Note the system output

and control voltages as done before and comment as to why they might be different from

full state feedback.

Page 11 of 22

Now for the fun stuff. If all looks well in the Simulink model, then you are ready to try the

real thing.

A modified version of the Simulink model in Figure 4 has been compiled to run on a realtime control system called Quanser WinCon. This platform allows for rapid prototyping

and testing of real-time controllers. The Quanser control board takes the inputs from the

encoder and a block converts the pulses generated by the encoder to angles for the yaw,

pitch and roll. The computer processes the control algorithm before outputting analog

voltages to drive the fans via the power amplifiers.

Please note that the Hover rig is an expensive piece of equipment. Please be careful and

do not abuse it.

The controller running on the platform is both a full state controller and an observer based

controller. For full-state feedback, the angular velocities are estimated using an

approximate derivative. This is not recommended in practice unless the model of plant is

extremely poor (which in this case it is). You will note that by differentiating the angular

outputs from the encoder we get very spiky angular velocity estimates which of course is

undesirable as these feed into the control signal (since the control signal is proportional to

the sum of the weighted states).

Question 10

With the controller turned off, and running the system in open loop try to control the yaw,

pitch and roll using the joystick. When in open loop the joystick position simply controls fan

speed. Comment on the ease or difficulty of this.

Question 11

Now turn on your feedback controller. Use the joystick to change the angular position

setpoint, or alternatively type a setpoint in directly.

Compare the settling times for the real system against the Simulink model, and comment

as to why they might differ. Please note that the input into the amplifiers is limited to 5V.

Note if there has been an improvement in the ease of control compared to the open loop.

Look at the controlled system when using the estimator. Note if the performance is better

or worse than before.

Finally, look at the fan control voltages when using full state feedback and when using

control vie the state estimates. Comment on any differences you see.

Page 12 of 22

Component Description

Symbol

Total mass of body

Structure

M = 4m

Mass per propeller

m

section

Distance from pivot

l

point to motor

Moment of inertia about J p

pitch axis

Moment of inertia about Jr

roll axis

Moment of inertia about J y J p + J r

yaw axis

Motor Pittman

Propeller

9234S004

Motors

Motor Mass

Armature Resistance

Inductance

Torque Constant

Rotor Moment of Inertia

Viscous Damping

Damping Constant

Rated Voltage

Running Voltage

Graupner 8-6 2 Bladed

Propellers

Diameter (8)

Pitch (6)

Force Constant at motor K fm

Force Constant at Amp

Kf

(5 times gain)

Torque Constant at

K tm

motor

Torque Constant at Amp K t

(5 times gain)

Yaw (in Quadrature)

Encoders

Pitch (in Quadrature)

Roll (in Quadrature)

Page 13 of 22

Value

2.85

0.7125

Units

kg

kg

0.1969

0.0552

Kg.m2

0.0552

Kg.m2

0.1104

Kg.m2

0.286

0.83

0.63

0.0182

4.2E-06

2.6E-06

4.5E-04

12

<22

kg

Ohms

mH

Nm/Amp

Kgm2

N.m.s

N.m.s

V

V

203

152

0.1188

0.5940

mm

mm

N/V

N/V

0.0036

Nm/V

0.0180

Nm/V

8192

8192

8192

Counts/Rev

Counts/Rev

Counts/Rev

Transforming from the Base coordinate frame to the Body coordinate frame

In the previous section you will have noted that commanding the yaw axis results in a yaw

about the yaw encoder axis - not the body yaw axis. This is because the feedback is from

the yaw encoder and the command in the yaw axis is compared to the yaw axis encoder

measurement to generate the feedback error signal. If we would like to command a yaw

about the body yaw axis, we have to develop a transformation as discussed next.

Consider the diagram in the figure below. This shows the sequence of rotations as they

occur in the base of the system. These are true joint rotations in the base.

Figure 6 : Coordinate transformations from the base frame to the body frame

transformation matrix:

cos(y ) sin( y )

Ty = sin( y ) cos( y )

0

0

0

0

1

Page 14 of 22

The rotation about the y-axis is the pitch transformation given by:

cos( p) 0 sin( p)

Tp = 0

1

0

sin( p) 0 cos( p)

0

0

1

Tr = 0 cos(r ) sin(r )

0 sin(r ) cos(r )

Tmeasured = TyTpTr

cos( y ) cos( p) sin( y ) cos(r ) + cos( y ) sin( p) sin(r ) sin( y ) sin(r ) cos( y ) sin( p) cos(r )

cos( y ) sin(r ) sin( y ) sin( p) cos(r )

= sin( y ) cos( p) cos( y ) cos(r ) + sin( y ) sin( p) sin(r )

sin( p)

cos( p) cos(r )

cos( p) sin(r )

Now consider the rotations about the body frame. In order to command yaw about the

body Z axis, we need to perform the same transformations but in a different sequence.

We need to perform the Yaw transformation after we perform the pitch and roll transforms.

Tbody = TpbTrbTyb

Therefore in the imaginary body frame the final transform is given by:

with the transforms being the same in nature but with the angles referenced to the body

frame. That means

Tpb = Tp |p = pb

Trb = Tr |r =rb

Tyb = Ty |y = y b

Tbody =

cos( pb ) cos( y b ) + sin( pb ) sin(rb ) sin( y b ) cos( pb ) sin( y b ) + sin( pb ) sin(rb ) cos( y b ) sin( pb ) cos(rb )

cos(rb ) sin( y b )

cos(rb ) cos( y b )

sin(rb )

sin( pb ) cos( y b ) cos( pb ) sin(rb ) sin( y b ) sin( pb ) sin( y b ) cos( pb ) sin(rb ) cos( y b ) cos( pb ) cos(rb )

We can now solve for y , p and r for a given y b , pb and rb . The solution to this can be

found be equating each term in Tbody and Tmeasured . The following expression coverts from

the body frame to the base frame:

Page 15 of 22

cos(rb ) sin( y b )

arctan 2

y

cos( pb ) cos( y b ) + sin( pb ) sin(rb ) sin( y b )

p =

arcsin(sin( pb ) cos( y b ) cos( pb ) sin(rb ) sin( y b ))

r

arctan 2((tan( pb ) sin( y b ) + sin(rb ) cos( y b )) / cos(rb ))

The following expression coverts from the base frame to the body frame:

cos( p) sin( y )

arctan 2

+

r

y

y

p

r

cos(

)

cos(

)

sin(

)

sin(

)

sin(

)

y b

p = arctan 2 sin( y ) sin(r ) + cos( y ) sin( p) cos(r )

b

cos( p) cos(r )

rb

arcsin( cos( y ) sin(r ) + sin( y ) sin( p) cos(r ))

incorporated into a WinCon controller. You need to mex the file to use it in a simulation

(See Simulink manuals).

Using the above transformation, we can now command the system in the body coordinate

frame and obtain commands in the base - or measurement coordinate frame. We then

feed these commands into the controller implemented in the previous section.

Page 16 of 22

Never lift the system using the body. Always carry from the base with one hand and

stabilize the body with the other hand. Please take care of the system. Although robust,

you should treat it delicately.

Note: Rotating propellers can injure fingers.

The rig should already be assembled. You may need to connect the rig to the amplifiers

and control board. To do this:

1. Plug in the cable for the pitch encoder. Attach the flat 5 pin encoder connector to

the elevation encoder as labeled. Align connector pin #1 (GND) with the encoder

body labeled GND and insert the connector.

2. Plug in the cable for the roll encoder. Attach the flat 5 pin encoder connector to

the elevation encoder as labeled. Align connector pin #1 (GND) with the encoder

body labeled GND and insert the connector.

3. Plug in the cable for the motors. Attach the 6 pin DIN cable protruding from the

body to the connector on the base.

Page 17 of 22

4. Balance the system. Use the supplied weight clips to balance the system such

that it is horizontal when no power is applied to the motors. Move the clips around

the edge of the circular frame. The system is supplied already balanced but you

may have to re-adjust the weights as the wires from the body to the base do affect

the balance.

5. Motor connections to amplifiers. Connect the motor drive cables from the rig to

the power amplifiers as per table below.

From Power

Modules

UPM2405 # 0

UPM2405 # 0

UPM2405 # 0

UPM2405 # 0

To Experiment

Cable

Gain

Front Motor

Back Motor

Left Motor

Right Motor

6 Pin Din x 4 Pin Din

6 Pin Din x 4 Pin Din

6 Pin Din x 4 Pin Din

5

5

5

5

Page 18 of 22

From MultiQ

Terminal board

Analog Output D/A

#0

Analog Output D/A

#1

Analog Output D/A

#2

Analog Output D/A

#3

Results in

Cable

UPM2405 #0

UPM2405 #1

UPM2405 #2

UPM2405 #3

To UPM

From

D/A

7. Joystick connections to the amplifier. Attach the joystick to the quick connect

module on UMP#1, X to S3 & Y to S4. The joystick voltages are measured in the

simulink block using Analog Input Channels 2 (X) & 3 (Y). They may be used to

create commands to the system instead of the square waves.

8. Analog input connections to the amplifier. Attach from the UPM which has the

joystick attached a cable from To A/D to channels 0, 1 2 & 3 of the MultiQ

Terminal board Analog inputs. ( S1 to 0, S2 to 1, S3 to & S4 to 3. (Cable: 5 Pin Din

to 4 x RCA)

Page 19 of 22

The equations of motion for the rig are considerably more complicated than presented in

the beginning of this document. The following is an attempt to better capture the true

dynamics. The derivation below has used pages 54-55 in Franklin, Powell and EmamiNaeini Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems and also a paper by Tayebi & McGilvray

Attitude stabilization of a four-rotor aerial robot, in 43rd IEEE CDC Conference, 2004.

If we start with the torque balance from the DC motor, then we have the following nonlinear equation:

(D1)

J m&&m + m&m + kD | &m | &m = kT i a

where

Jm is the moment of inertia of the propeller and motor rotor

m is the viscous friction in the motor rotor

k (& ) 2 is the reactive torque, in free air, by the prop due aerodynamic drag

D

k D > 0 is the drag constant of the props, which is a factor of the air density, the prop

dimensions and other factors

kT is the torque constant of the motor

i a is the armature current

m is the angular position of the rotor

Another system of equations that governs the dynamics is the electrical equation of the

DC motor:

La i&a + Ra i a = Va k e&m

(D2)

where

La is the armature inductance

Ra is the armature resistance

k e is the back EMF constant and is equal to the torque constant of the motor when

in SI units

Va is the voltage applied to the motor

We then have the state equations which govern the body as a whole:

& = I G +

(D3)

If

f

a

a

where

the first term represents the inertial acceleration, the second term is the gyroscopic

moments due to the airframe itself and the third term is the gyroscopic moments

from the interaction of the rotors and the frame,

If 3 x 3 is a symmetric positive definite constant inertia matrix of the airframe with

respect to the body-fixed frame A whose origin is at the center of mass,

A = {e1, e2 , e3 } is the frame of the body, where e1 is the axis joining the front and

rear fans, e2 is the axis joining the right and left fans and e3 is the vertical axis,

I = {e x , e y , ez } is the inertial frame,

denotes the angular velocity of the airframe expressed in the body-fixed frame A ,

denotes the vector cross-product,

Page 20 of 22

rotation of the airframe and the four rotors, and is given by

4

Ga = I r ( ez )( 1)i +1&m,i

i =1

a = ( a,1, a,2 , a,3 ) are the airframe torques generated by the rotors, given by

T

k l > 0 is the lift constant of the props, which is a factor of the air density, the prop

dimensions and other factors.

Now, if the airframe velocity is low, then the gyroscopic terms are negligible leaving us with

a simplified expression for Equation D3,

& =

(D4)

If

a

In many cases the relative effect of the inductance is negligible compared to the

mechanical motion and can be neglected in Equation D2. This leaves us with

Ra i a = Va k e&m

(D5)

Combining this with Equation D1, we get

k

J m&&m + m&m + k D (&m ) 2 = T (Va k e&m ) (D6)

Ra

Rearranging we are left with an expression for the rotor speed in terms of applied voltage

k k

k

Jm&&m + m + T e &m + k D (&m )2 = T Va (D7)

Ra

Ra

This expression is non-linear and must be simplified. There are a number of ways that this

can be done. One way is to choose an operating speed for the rotor, say &m,0 , the torque

from the drag then becomes a linear function of speed, ie k (& ) 2 k & & , thus D7 is

D

D m m ,0

linearised,

k k

k

J m&&m + m + T e + k D&m,0 &m = T Va

Ra

Ra

(D8)

Equation D4 can also be linearised using a similar approach on the airframe torques

T

a = ( a,1, a,2 , a,3 ) , ie

a,1 = lk l&m,0 &m,right &m,left

= lk & &

&

a ,2

(

(

(&

m ,0

m,front

a,1 = k D&m,0

m,front

m,back

Page 21 of 22

(D9)

Finally, many of the terms in D8 are small if the fan speed is high enough. The intertial

term J m&&m can be neglected, leaving us with

Va =

Ra

kT

k k

m + T e + k D&m,0 &m

Ra

(D10)

Equations D9 and D10 are the linearised state equations used in the front part of this

report.

Page 22 of 22

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