Anda di halaman 1dari 9

TRYOUT NASIONAL MASUK PERGURUAN TINGGI NEGERI

TONAM PTN 2014


TES BIDANG STUDI DASAR
BIDANG ILMU
TANGGAL
WAKTU
JUMLAH SOAL
Keterangan

: MATEMATIKA DASAR nomor 46 sampai dengan nomor 60


BAHASA INDONESIA nomor 61 sampai dengan nomor 75
BAHASA INGGRIS nomor 76 sampai dengan nomor 90

MATEMATIKA DASAR
Gunakan PETUNJUK A untuk menjawab soal nomor
46 sampai dengan nomor 60!
46. Jika diketahui xyz = 26 dan (2log x)(2log yz) +
(2log y)(2log z) = 10 dengan x, y, z 0, maka
=
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
47. Jika

+ = 1, maka tentukanlah

b.

c.

d. 3
3
49. Jika a dan b merupakan akar-akar dari
persamaan kuadrat dari 11 4 2 = 0
Hitunglah nilai-nilai dari
(1 + + + )(1 + + + ) =
e.

a.

2
3
4
5
6

b.
c.
d.
+

a. -2
b. -1
c. 0
d. 1
e. 2
48. Perhatikan gambar berikut !

Luas daerah yang diarsir (total segitiga sama sisi


dengan sisi sepanjang a) jika pola bintang
segienam sama sisi berurutan dari besar sampai
kecil tanpa batas adalah ....
a.

11

: MATEMATIKA DASAR, BAHASA INDONESIA, BAHASA INGGRIS


: 12 JANUARI 2014
: 60 MENIT
: 45

e.
50. Diketahui f(x) = 3,5 + 2 cos x cos (x 60).
Nilai minimum dan maksimum f(x) adalah
a. 3 dan 5
b. 4 dan 6
c. 2 dan 4
d. 5 dan 7
e. 3 dan 7
51. Jumlah semua akar-akar persamaan
10( 12)
adalah
a. -2
b. -1
c. 0
d. 2
e. 1

= (x-4)2 (x+3)2

52. Himpunan penyelesaian dari 1 <

adalah ....
a. x 2 atau x 3
b. 2 x 3
c. x 1 atau x 6
1

d. 1 x 6
e. x : R
53. f(x) = 2n + 3n + ( + 2) + 8. jika jumlah
kuadrat akar-akarnya adalah , f-1(-1) =
a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

c.

e.

55. Jika , , sudut-sudut segitiga ABC. Tinjau


persamaan dibawah ini

Maka nilai

b.

d.

54. Suatu kapal dalam 6 jam dapat mengangkut


penumpang sebanyak 240 orang. Penumpang
kelas utama boleh membawa bagasi seberat 60
kg dan kelas ekonomi sebanyak 20 kg. Kapal
tersebut hanya dapat mengangkut bagasi
seberat 7200 kg. Harga sebuah tiket kelas
utama adalah Rp. 100.000,00 dan kelas
ekonomi Rp. 75.000,00. Pendapatan maksimum
yang bisa diperoleh pengusaha kapal dari hasil
penjualan tiket dalam satu minggu jika di setiap
hari kapal berhenti beroperasi selama 6 jam
kecuali di hari Minggu selama 12 jam adalah
....... (dalam rupiah)
a. 360.000.000
b. 370.000.000
c. 380.000.000
d. 390.000.000
e. 400.000.000

sin
cos

a.

cos
sin

cos
sin

sin
cos

= sin
1

1
2
0

cos

adalah

a. 90o
b. 120o
c. 180o
d. 360o
e. 210
56. Variabel a dan b ialah perkalian suatu deret,
dimana

(1 + tan 1) (1 + tan 2)
57. Nilai
dari
(1 + tan 3) (1 + tan 44)
(1 + tan 45)
a. 2
b. 2
c. 2
d. 2
e. 2
58. Tentukan nilai dari

a. 5
b. 4
c. 3
d. 2
e. 1
59. Lima siswa Mika, Titis, Yanuar, Rigen dan Binar
berada pada satu kelompok dalam lomba lari
estafet. Jika Rigen tidak bisa berlari pertama
dan Mika tidak bisa berlari terakhir, maka
banyaknya susunan yang mungkin adalah
a. 120
b. 114
c. 93
d. 78
e. 72
60. Dari 5 buah bilangan, bilangan yang terkecil 45
dan terbesar 85. Jika mediannya 60 dan ratarata x, maka x adalah
a. 57 X 66
b. 58 X 67
c. 59 X 68
d. 58 X 66
e. 59 X 67
BAHASA INDONESIA
Gunakan PETUNJUK A untuk menjawab soal nomor
61 sampai dengan nomor 75!

Berapa nilai dari

61. Selama masa mudik 2012, terdapat korban


meninggal 908 orang, 1.505 orang luka berat,
dan 5.139 orang luka ringan. Sedangkan korban
2

bencana tahun lalu tercatat 641 orang meninggal


dan 226 orang hilang. Pada 2012, tejadi 13
bencana.
Tahun ini, Korps Lalu Lintas Polri mencatat, dalam
Operasi Ketupat yang baru berlangsung dua hari
selama 2-3 Agustus 2013, terdapat 224 kasus
kecelakaan yang menelan 60 korban meninggal.
Sebagian besar korban meninggal akibat
kecelakaan
sepeda
motor.
(Tempo.com)
Pernyataan berikut yang tidak sesuai dengan
teks diatas adalah
a. Korban bencana pada tahun 2012 tercatat
ada 867 orang meninggal dan orang hilang.
b. Jumlah korban meninggal akibat mudik
lebih besar daripada korban akibat
bencana.
c. Kebanyakan korban meninggal akibat
kecelakaan dialami oleh pengendara
sepeda motor.
d. Terdapat 60 korban meninggal dari 224
kasus kecelakaan pada tahun 2013.
e. Korban 641 orang meninggal diakibatkan
oleh 13 bencana pada tahun 2012.

Akan tetapi, jika anak-anak ini diminta untuk


tinggal di rumah penampungan, tidak lama
kemudian,mereka kembali lagi ke jalan. Alasan
mereka, jalanan adalah rumah mereka yang
sesungguhnya. Anak-anak berkeliaran di jalan
dan sebagian dari mereka hidup dari memintaminta. Kehadiran mereka di jalan sangat
mengkhawatirkan karena setiap saat mereka
terancam mengalami kecelakaan.
Secara singkat dapat dikatakan bahwa
a. penanganan anak jalanan tidak mudah
karena
kehadiran
mereka
sangat
mengkhawatirkan
b. anak-anak jalanan sulit ditangani karena
setiap saat mereka terancam mengalami
kecelakaan
c. anak-anak jalanan hidup dari memintaminta
d. Menangani masalah anak jalanan tidak
mudah karena mereka menganggap bahwa
jalanan adalah rumah mereka
e. Penanganan anak jalanan tidak mudah
karena mereka selalu kembali lagi ke jalan

62. Penulisan tanda baca yang sesuai EYD adalah,


kecuali .
a. Ikhsan berkata, Apakah kamu mendengar
suara kring kring kring tadi?
b. Pasal 36 UUD 1945 berbunyi, "Bahasa
negara ialah Bahasa Indonesia."
c. Pelajaran yang diajarkan tadi ada di buku
dari halaman 67-82.
d. Bacalah "Bola Lampu" dalam buku Dari
Suatu Masa, dari Suatu Tempat.
e. Sajak "Berdiri Aku" terdapat pada halaman
5 buku itu.

65. Dalam berbagai penelitian klinis, madu telah


terbukti efektif dalam mengobati radang
tenggorokan dan batuk. Madu pun bisa
dikonsumsi secara langsung atau dicampur
dengan air lemon untuk mendapatkan khasiat
sehat lainnya.
Kutipan diatas tentang .
a. Cara mengonsumsi madu
b. Penacarian madu
c. Manfaat madu dalam kesehatan
d. Madu mengobati radang tenggorokan dan
batuk
e. Kiat-kiat sehat dengan madu

63. Pak Andi sudah lama membangun kariernya


sebagai nahkoda. Dia dengan terampilnya
mengendalikan kapal untuk mencari rezeki untuk
istri dan anak-anaknya.
Penulisan kata yang salah dari kalimat diatas
adalah
a. Karier
b. Nahkoda
c. Terampil
d. Rezeki
e. Istri
64. Menangani masalah anak jalanan memang tidak
mudah. Seharusnya, mereka tidak hidup di jalan.

66. Penulisan gabungan kata di bawah ini benar


semuanya, kecuali
a. Halalbihalal, Kacamata, Kasatmata
b. Belasungkawa, Bertanggung jawab, Hancur
lebur
c. Menandatangani, Tata Bahasa, Walikota
d. Pemberitahuan, Sapu Tangan, Radioaktif
e. Daripada, Dukacita, Kosakata
67. (1) Mi instan sudah menjadi makanan yang
umum di Indonesia, terutama bagi anak kos. (2)
Mi instan dengan harga yang murah sesuai
dengan kantong anak kos yang jauh dari
rumahnya. (3) Cara masak yang mudah, hanya
3

dengan merebusnya dan diberi bumbubumbunya. (4) Dan rasa yang nikmat serta
mengenyangkan membuat makanan cepat saji ini
digemari banyak orang. (5) Akan tetapi jangan
keseringan, karena ada bahaya kesehatan yang
mengintai di balik nikmatnya semangkuk mi
instan.
Kalimat utama pada kutipan teks diatas
terdapat pada nomor
a. (1)
b. (2)
c. (3)
d. (4)
e. (5)
68. Keterampilan membaca kamus merupakan
keterampilan yang penting dimiliki. Keterampilan
itu akan sangat membantu Anda dalam mencari
dan menemukan arti kata secara cepat. Jika hal
itu tidak dimiliki, bisa jadi Anda akan
menghabiskan waktu setengah jam atau lebih
hanya untuk mencari arti sebuah kata.
Kalimat berikut yang tepat mengakhiri
paragraf tersebut adalah
a. Oleh karena itu, beli dan milikilah kamus
agar mudah menemukan arti kata.
b. Dengan demikian, keberadaan kamus di
perpustakaan sekolah sangat penting.
c. Jadi, Anda perlu mengoleksi berbagai
kamus agar mudah mencari arti kata.
d. Dengan demikian, milikilah kamus dan
biasakan membaca kamus dengan cermat.
e. Oleh sebab itu, biasakanlah membaca
kamus secara tepat dan cepat
69. Fenomena pekerja anak di Indonesia semula lebih
berkaitan dengan tradisi atau budaya membantu
orang tua. Sebagian besar orang tua
beranggapan bahwa memberi pekerjaan kepada
anak-anak merupakan upaya proses belajar,
yaitu belajar menghargai pekerjaan, dan belajar
bertanggung jawab terhadap pekerjaan. Selain
dapat melatih dan memperkenalkan anak
kepada dunia kerja, mereka juga berharap dapat
mengurangi beban kerja keluarga. Namun,
sejalan dengan perkembangan waktu, fenomena
anak yang bekerja banyak berkaitan erat dengan
alasan ekonomi keluarga dan kesempatan
memperoleh pendidikan. Orang tua tidak mampu
lagi menutupi kebutuhan hidup keluarga. Di
pihak lain, biaya pendidikan di Indonesia yang
relatif tinggi telah ikut memperkecil kesempatan
mereka untuk mendapatkan pendidikan.

a.

b.
c.
d.

e.

Intisari kutipan di atas adalah .


Selain berkaitan dengan tradisi atau
budaya membantu orang tua, anak-anak
menjadi pekerja karena alasan ekonomi
keluarga.
Orangtua mempekerjakan anak lebih
karena masalah ekonomi.
Masalah pekerja anak berkaitan dengan
masalah ekonomi dan pendidikan.
Pekerja anak merupakan fenomena yang
berkaitan dengan upaya proses belajar,
yaitu belajar menghargai pekerjaan, dan
belajar bertanggung jawab terhadap
pekerjaan.
Orangtua yang anaknya bekerja tidak
mampu lagi menutupi kebutuhan hidup
keluarga

70. Pemerintah daerah kami kekurangan dana untuk


melanjutkan pembangunan. Kata yang tepat
untuk menggambarkan situasi ini adalah .
a. inflasi
b. deflasi
c. devaluasi
d. defisit
e. divestasi
71. Sebagai seorang yang profesional, seorang
perancang pesawat harus sesuai dengan etika
seorang engineer.
Kalimat tersebut merupakan perluasan dari
a. Seorang perancang pesawat
b. Seorang engineer
c. Sebagai seorang yang profesional
d. Perancang pesawat harus mengikuti etika
engineer
e. Etika engineer yang harus diketahui
72. Bahasa pemrograman adalah teknik komunikasi
standar
untuk
mengekspresikan perintah
kepada
komputer. Bahasa pemrograman
dikelompokkan menjadi bahasa tingkat rendah,
menengah, dan tinggi. Bahasa pemrograman
melayani seorang programmer secara tepat
menetapkan data apa yang sedang dilakukan
oleh komputer selanjutnya, bagaimana data
tersebut disimpan dan dikirim, dan apa yang
akan dilakukan apabila terjadi kondisi yang
berbeda-beda. Tingkatan bahasa dari rendah ke
tinggi menunjukkan semakin dekatnya dengan
bahasa manusia.
4

Kata yang paling tepat mengganti kata


bercetak tebal diatas adalah .
a. Petunjuk, Dibagi, Memudahkan, Tidak
terduga
b. Instruksi, Dibagi, Memfasilitasi, Tidak
terduga
c. Petunjuk,
Dibedakan,
Memudahkan,
Variatif
d. Instruksi, Diklasifikasikan, Memfasilitasi,
Variatif
e. Petunjuk, Dibedakan, Memudahkan, Tidak
terduga
73. Pada 1991, sekelompok insinyur Sun dipimpin
oleh Patrick Naughton dan James Gosling
ingin merancang bahasa komputer untuk
perangkat konsumer seperti cable TV Box.
Dikarenakan
perangkat
tersebut
tidak
memiliki banyak memori, bahasa harus
berukuran kecil dan mengandung kode yang
liat. Juga karena manufaktur-manufaktur
berbeda memilih processor yang berbeda
pula,
maka
bahasa
harus bebas dari
manufaktur manapun. Proyek pengerjaan ini
diberi nama kode Green.
Kalimat dibawah ini yang sesuai dari kutipan
diatas adalah .
a. Perancangan program yang berukuran
kecil dan liat
b. Perancangan perangkat cable TV Box
c. Perancangan
processor
yang
bisa
digunakan untuk manufaktur apapun
d. Perancangan manufaktur yang sesuai
dengan kebutuhan
e. Perancangan bahasa pemrograman yang
berukuran kecil dan liat
Gunakan petunjuk C untuk menjawab soal nomor 74
sampai dengan nomor 75!
74. Penulisan tanda petik dibawah ini yang benar
menurut EYD adalah
(1) Bang Komar sering disebut pahlawan;
ia sendiri tidak tahu sebabnya.
(2) Bang Andi diberikan julukan Pembawa
sial, karena dia sering mendapat
kesialan.
(3) Waktu kubuka pintu depan, kudengar
teriak anakku, Ibu, Bapak pulang, dan
rasa letihku lenyap seketika, ujar Pak
Hamdan.

(4) Pekerjaan itu dilaksanakan dengan cara


coba dan ralat saja.
75. Penulisan kalimat yang baku dibawah ini adalah

(1) Walaupun banyak mendapat protes,


namun
pemerintah
tetap
akan
menaikkan harga BBM.
(2) Walaupun banyak mendapat protes,
pemerintah tetap
akan menaikkan
harga BBM.
(3) Walaupun banyak mendapat protes,
tetapi pemerintah tetap
akan
menaikkan harga BBM.
(4) Pemerintah tetap akan menaikkan
harga BBM, walaupun banyak mendapat
protes.

BAHASA INGGRIS

Gunakan PETUNJUK A untuk menjawab soal nomor


76 sampai dengan nomor 90!
Text below is for number 76-78
TEXT 1
Education is often viewed as school in a
traditional, formal sense. Many people believe that
true learning can only take place in a formal
classroom setting. Others feel education occurs in
many different forms and environments. There may
not be a definitive answer to the question of,
What is education? However, we can start
thinking about the purpose of education. Is it to
educate youth to be responsible citizens? Is it to
develop individuals, as well as society, in order to
ensure a societys economic success? Or is it to
simply focus on developing individual talents and
intelligence? Perhaps it is the balance of all three
that defines education? While our answers may
differ, we can perhaps agree that education is a
basic human right. When that right is granted
growth and development, the society as a whole is
more likely to improve in areas such as health,
nutrition, general income and living standards and
population fertility rates.
As global citizens it is our responsibility
to critically think about the issues and attempt to
5

come up with solutions to the problems plaguing


education. In 1990 UNESCO launched EFA, the
movement to provide quality education for all
children, youth, and adults by the year 2015. The
unfortunate reality is that for many countries,
larger issues come before improving the quality of
education. How can we achieve the goals of EFA
when numerous countries around the world are
faced with challenges that seem far too impossible
to overcome? The answer lies in attempting to
bridge some of the gaps that prevent developing
nations to compete with developed nations. One
example is that of providing greater access to
technology and narrowing the ever widening digital
divice. In many ways the most basic access to
technology can serve as a valuable educational tool.
Individuals who are not afforded this access are at
a disadvantage when trying to grasp opportunities
to make life better for themselves, their families,
and their community.
76. The authors main concern in the first
paragraph of the passage is ....
a. there is no exact definition about education.
b. education is a fundamental individuals right.
c. everyone has the right to get quality education.
d. education occurs in any place not just schools.
e. development can be gained through education.
77. The situation the author shows in the passage
is best described as a follows ..
a. quality education fundamentally ensures quality
living in all sectors.
b. education is essentially everyones right yet it
still has its challenges.
c. there are problems in education in spite of its
significant role.
d. as long as nations compete, education cannot
progress.
e. absence of an exact definition causes problems
in education.
78. The part following the passage above would
likely discuss
a. lack of access to technology in developing
countries to support educational practices.
b. needs of modem digital technology to back up
the implementation of EFA in education.
c. roles of technology in providing individuals with
cheap and accessible quality education.

d. inability of developing nations to compete with


developed countries in technology.
e. governments roles and responsibilities in
managing education for their citizens.

Text below is for number 79-81


TEXT 2
The ability of light to provide the energy
for chemical reactions enables life to exist on our
planet. Green plants absorb sunlight and, with the
help of chlorophyll, convert carbon dioxide and
water into carbohydrates (e.g., sugars and
cellulose), which are essential constituents of the
food chain. However, not all effects of sunlight are
so beneficial.
As you know, light packs energy thats
proportional to its frequency, and if the photons
that are absorbed by a substance have enough
energy, they can rupture chemical bonds and
initiate chemical reactions. Light that is able to do
this has frequencies in the ultraviolet (UV) region
of the electromagnetic spectrum, and the sunlight
bombarding the earth contains substantial amounts
of UV radiation. Fortunately, a layer of ozone (O3)
in the stratosphere, a region of the atmosphere
extending from about 45 to 55 km altitude,
absorbs most of the incoming UV, protecting life
on the surface. However, some UV radiation does
get through, and the part of the spectrum of most
concern is called UV-B with wavelengths
between 280 and 320 nm.
What makes UV-B so dangerous is its
ability to affect the DNA in our cells. Absorption
of UV radiation causes constituents of the DNA,
called pyrimidine bases, to undergo reactions that
form bonds between them. This causes
transcription errors when the DNA replicates
during cell division, giving rise to genetic mutations
that can lead to skin cancers. These skin cancers
fall into three classesbasal cell carcinomas,
squamous cell carcinomas, and melanomas (the last
being the most dangerous). Each year there are
more than 1 million cases of skin cancer diagnosed.
It is estimated that more than 90% of skin cancers
are due to absorption of UV-B radiation.
In recent years, concern has grown over
the depletion of the ozone layer in the
stratosphere apparently caused by the release of
gases called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which
6

have been widely used in refrigerators and air


conditioners. Some scientists have estimated a
substantial increase in the rate of skin cancer
caused by increased amounts of UV-B reaching the
earths surface due to this ozone depletion.
79. What is the best title of the passage?
a. The Benefit of Sunlight for Humans Life
b. The Ability of Sunlight
c. The Side Effect of Sunlight on Humans Life
d. Types of Cancer
e. The Main Cause of Cancer
80. The word squamous in paragraph 3 can be
replaced by .....
a. Hexagonal
b. Scaly
c. Spherical
d. Spiral
e. Filamentous
81. Which of the following statements about the
passage is false?
a. Skin cancer class above is based on the shape of
the cell
b. The increased amounts of UV-B radiation is
because of humans act
c. The most dangerous class of skin cancer is
melanomas
d. There is UV radiation that can get through the
ozone layer
e. Photons can rupture chemical bonds and initiate
chemical reactions if they have
enough energy

Text below is for number 82 and 83


TEXT 3
In their latest paper, published in the
journal Nature Climate Change, Prof. Philip
Munday and colleagues report world-first evidence
that high CO2 levels in sea water disrupts a key
brain receptor in fish, causing marked changes in
their behavior and sensory ability. They began by
studying how baby clown and damsel fishes
performed alongside their predators in CO2
enriched water. They found that, while the
predators were somewhat affected, the baby fish
suffered much higher rates of attrition.

Our early work showed that the senses


of smell of baby fish was harmed by higher CO2 in
the water, meaning they found it harder to locate a
reef to settle on or detect the warning smell of a
predator fish. But we suspected there was much
more to it than the loss of ability to smell, says
Prof. Munday. The team then examined whether
fishs senses of hearing which are used to locate
and hone in on reefs at night, and avoid them
during the day was affected. The answer is, yes it
was. They were confused and no longer avoided
reef sounds during the day. Being attracted to reef
during daylight would make them easy meat f or
predators
Their work showed the fish also tended
to lose their natural instinct to turn left or right
which is an important factor in schooling behaviour
which also makes them more vulnerable, as lone
fish are easily eaten by predators. Prof. Munday
further explains, All this led us to suspect it wasn't
simply damage to their individual senses that was
going on -but rather, that higher levels of carbon
dioxide were affecting their whole central nervous
system.
82. Paragraphs 2 and 3 are related in that the first
....
a. Argues for causes; the latter deals with
conclusion.
b. Describes loss of senses; the latter loss of
reactions.
c. Deals with causes; the latter presents further
evidence.
d. Theorizes the role of O2; the latter describes
the effect.
e. Lists the results of the study; the latter explains
the results.
83. The following is relevant with the idea of the
role of the fishs senses and instinct described in
the passage except... .
a. Mice avoid poisons by smelling it.
b. Dogs sniff rubbles to identify disaster victims.
c. People recognize others from their voices.
d. Babies learn to speak by imitating sound.
e. Pigeons send letter to an address.

Text below is for number 84-87


TEXT 4
7

The ballpoint pen is the universal writing


instrument of the twentieth century. When the
tiny metal ball at the writing tip is drawn across a
sheet of paper. It rotates within a housing at the
end of an ink reservoir and is coated with ink
which it transfers to the paper.
The first ballpoint pen was invented by
John Loud in 1888. Loud has been working on a
design for a nonleaking pen to mark leather and
fabrics and, although his cumbersome design was
similar in essence to the modern item, it was never
manufactured in large quantities and the patent
was allowed to expire. The first workable design
was patented in 1938 and became widely accepted
in 1942 when the United States Army required a
pen that would not leak in high flying aircraft.
The ball of the pen is fitted into a socket
so that it rotates freely. Several internal ducts in
the socket feed ink to the ball; the other end of
the socket fitted into a metal or plastic tube that
contains the ink. When the ball is pressed on paper
and moved, the capillary action draws the ink from
the reservoir. In effect, the ball fuctions as a valve
to prevent overflow, and on rotation it acts as a
suction pump drawing out the ink.
One problem was that as some of the ink
ran out, a partial vacuum was formed between the
back of the ball and ink reservoir, which cut off the
supply. This was solved by making a small hole in
the far end of the reservoir. As the ink at the tip is
sucked out , more ink from the tube is drawn into
the socket to fill its place, the vacuum being
prevented by air that is drawn through the vent.
Disposable ballpoints have improved
considerably in efficiency and reability since 1938.
Further improvements made recently include the
production of the pen that wrotes at any angle,
even upside down, and the development of a new
ink that is erasable.
84. The word housing in line 2 is closest in
meaning to....
a. Point
b. Residence
c. Case
d. Orbit
e. Board

85. It can be inferred from the passage that there


was interest in designing a new type of the
pen because the old ones....
a. Were too big
b. Were expensive
c. Leaked
d. Cracked
e. Cant write at any angle
86. Which of the following statements is true of
the ball in a ballpoint pen?
a. It is fitted directly into the tube.
b. It controls the flow of the ink.
c. It has a small hole.
d. It contains a reservoir of ink
e. It improve ink flow to the tip of the pen
87. Until recently one limitation of ballpoint pen
was....
a. The formation of a partial vacuum when some
of the ink ran out
b. Their inability to function upside down
c. The cost of replacing empty reservoirs
d. The fragility of the point
e. Corrosion due to the ink

Text below is for number 88-90


TEXT 5
The Comstock Lode in Nevada was the
scene of one of the biggest silver mining booms in
the history of the opening up of the North
American West. It was discovered in 1859, but
productivity did not reach its peak until the 1870s
when many large silver deposits were discovered.
A large number of mines are scattered along the
five-kilometer length of the lode, which is basically
mineralized fault zone, separating geologically
young andesite and dacite lavas from older rocks.
The lode forms a flattish sheet, inclined at about 40
degrees to the horizontal, and reaches a maximum
thickness of 120 meters and a depth of 1000
meters, although most of the richest ore was
found well above this level.
As in so many worlds mines, the mining
operation of the Comstock Lode were severely
hampered by water flooding into the workings. At
Comstock, though, the problems were particularly
8

acute, since the water was extremely hot, reaching


64 degrees Celcius in some places. Geologically,
the presence of such large volumes of hot water
was immensely significant, since it implied that
beneath the Comstock Lode there was still large
mass of hot igneous rock that might be producing
more mineralization. For a long while this near
scalding water made it impossible to mine much
below 1000-meter level, and many miners were
killed by it, either directly by falling into the water
or indirectly through the effect of overexertion in
the very high temperatures of the mine galleries.
No fewer than 53 miners died in one period of 22
months ending in May 1877. To combat this it was
decided to dig-six-kilometers-long-tunnel to drain
and ventilate the upper parts of the mine workings.
This tunnel, which became known as the Sutro
Tunnel, took many years of extremely hard work
to complete, and the succession of physical
obstacles and financial crises that were successfully
overcome in its construction have
become
legendary, comparable in some ways with the
heroic engineering involved in the laying of the
first transcontinental railway across the United
States.

d. To transport ore to the surface


e. A tunnel as a source of ore which will be
exploited
90. The author compares the construction of the
Sutro Tunnel to the first transcontinental railroad
in North America because both projects....
a. were very useful in drainint and ventilating
the upper parts of the mine workings
b. employed young workers
c. were challenging to complete
d. lost money
e. were accomplished quickly

88. What is the main idea of the second paragraph?


a. The Comstock Lode mines were the most
successful in North American history
b. The Comstock Lode mines had severe
problems affecting their operation
c. The transcontinental railroad made mines
profitable
d. Thousands of workers were employed in
the Comstock Lode mines
e. The general condition of Comstock Lode

89. What was the purpose of the Sutro Tunnel?


a. To relieve flooding and bring air into the
mine
b. To get miners to the Comstock Lode
quickly
c. To pump hot water out of the mine and
bring cold water in to cool it
9