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ArabSpring
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

ThisarticleisaboutthedemonstrationsandrevoltsintheArabworldinearly2010s.ForotherArabrevolts,seeArabRevolt(disambiguation).
TheArabSpring(Arabic:
,arrabalarab)wasarevolutionarywaveof
demonstrationsandprotests(bothnonviolentandviolent),riots,andcivilwarsintheArab
worldthatbeganon17December2010inTunisiawiththeTunisianRevolution,andspread
throughoutthecountriesoftheArabLeagueanditssurroundings.Whilethewaveofinitial
revolutionsandprotestsfadedbymid2012,somestartedtorefertothesucceedingandstill
ongoinglargescalediscourseconflictsintheMiddleEastandNorthAfricaastheArabWinter.
ThemostradicaldiscoursefromArabSpringintothestillongoingcivilwarstookplaceinSyria
asearlyasthesecondhalfof2011.

ArabSpring

BytheendofFebruary2012,rulershadbeenforcedfrompowerinTunisia,[1]Egypt,[2]Libya,[3]
andYemen[4]civiluprisingshaderuptedinBahrain[5]andSyria[6]majorprotestshadbroken
outinAlgeria,[7]Iraq,[8]Jordan,[9]Kuwait,[10]Morocco,[11]andSudan[12]andminorprotests
hadoccurredinMauritania,[13]Oman,[14]SaudiArabia,[15]Djibouti,[16]WesternSahara,[17]and
Palestine.WeaponsandTuaregfightersreturningfromtheLibyanCivilWarstokeda
simmeringconflictinMaliwhichhasbeendescribedas"fallout"fromtheArabSpringinNorth
Africa.[18]
Theprotestssharedsometechniquesofcivilresistanceinsustainedcampaignsinvolvingstrikes,
demonstrations,marches,andrallies,aswellastheeffectiveuseofsocialmedia[19][20]to
organize,communicate,andraiseawarenessinthefaceofstateattemptsatrepressionand
Internetcensorship,mostnotablyusedbytheyouthmembersoftheArabpopulation.[21][22]
ManyArabSpringdemonstrationsweremetwithviolentresponsesfromauthorities,[23][24][25]as
wellasfromprogovernmentmilitiasandcounterdemonstrators.Theseattackswereanswered
withviolencefromprotestorsinsomecases.[26][27][28]Amajorsloganofthedemonstratorsin
theArabworldisAshsha`byuridisqatannizam("thepeoplewanttobringdownthe
regime").[29]
SomeobservershavedrawncomparisonsbetweentheArabSpringmovementsandthe
Revolutionsof1989(alsoknownasthe"AutumnofNations")thatsweptthroughEastern
EuropeandtheSecondWorld,intermsoftheirscaleandsignificance.[30][31][32]Others,
however,havepointedoutthatthereareseveralkeydifferencesbetweenthemovements,such
asthedesiredoutcomes,theeffectivenessofcivilresistance,andtheorganizationalroleof
InternetbasedtechnologiesintheArabrevolutions.[33][34][35][36]

Clockwisefromtopleft:ProtestersinTahrir
SquareinCairoDemonstratorsmarchingthrough
AvenueHabibBourguibainTunisPolitical
dissidentsinSana'aProtestersgatheringinthePearl
RoundaboutinManamaMassDemonstrationin
DoumaDemonstratorsinBayda.
Date

Causes

Contents
1Etymology
2Background
2.1Causes
3Timeline
3.1Summaryofconflictsbycountry
4Majorevents
4.1Tunisia
4.2Egypt
4.3Libya
4.4Yemen
4.5Syria
4.6Bahrain
5Minorevents
6Aftermath
7Analysis
7.1Ethnicscope
7.2Concurrentevents
7.3Internationalreactions
7.4SocialmediaandtheArabSpring
8Seealso
9References
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Spring

17December201026October2013

Location Arabworld

Goals

Methods

Authoritarianism
Demographicstructuralfactors
Politicalcorruption
Humanrightsviolations
Inflation
Imperialism
Kleptocracy
Sectarianism
Unemployment
SelfimmolationofMohamed
Bouazizi

Democracy
Freeelections
Humanrights
Employment
Regimechange
Islamization

Civildisobedience
Civilresistance
Defection
Demonstrations
Insurgency
Internetactivism
Protestcamps
Revolution
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10Furtherreading
11Externallinks

Riots
Selfimmolation
Silentprotests
Sitins
SocialMedia
Strikeactions
Urbanwarfare
Uprising

Etymology
Theterm"ArabSpring"isanallusiontotheRevolutionsof1848,whichissometimesreferred
toasthe"SpringtimeofNations",andthePragueSpringin1968.IntheaftermathoftheIraq
WaritwasusedbyvariouscommentatorsandbloggerswhoanticipatedamajorArabmovement
towardsdemocratization.[37]ThefirstspecificuseofthetermArabSpringasusedtodenote
theseeventsmayhavestartedwiththeAmericanpoliticaljournalForeignPolicy.[38]Marc
Lynch,referringtohisarticleinForeignPolicy,[39]writes"ArabSpringatermImayhave
unintentionallycoinedinaJanuary6,2011article".[40]JosephMassadonAlJazeerasaidthe
termwas"partofaUSstrategyofcontrolling[themovement's]aimsandgoals"anddirectingit
towardsAmericanstyleliberaldemocracy.[38]DuetotheelectoralsuccessofIslamistparties
followingtheprotestsinmanyArabcountries,theeventshavealsocometobeknownas
"IslamistSpring"or"IslamistWinter".[41][42]

Background

Status

Ended:
Tunisia:PresidentZineElAbidineBen
Aliousted,andgovernmentoverthrown.
Egypt:PresidentHosniMubarakousted,
andgovernmentoverthrown.
Libya:LeaderMuammarGaddafikilled
followingacivilwarthatsawaforeign
militaryintervention,andgovernment
overthrown.
Yemen:PresidentAliAbdullahSaleh

Causes
TheArabSpringiswidelybelievedtohavebeeninstigatedbydissatisfactionwiththeruleof
localgovernments,particularlybyyouthandunions,thoughsomehavespeculatedthatwide
gapsinincomelevelsmayhavehadahandaswell.[43]Numerousfactorshaveledtothe
protests,includingissuessuchasdictatorshiporabsolutemonarchy,humanrightsviolations,
politicalcorruption(demonstratedbyWikileaksdiplomaticcables),[44]economicdecline,
unemployment,extremepoverty,andanumberofdemographicstructuralfactors,[45]suchasa
largepercentageofeducatedbutdissatisfiedyouthwithintheentirepopulation.[46][47]Catalysts
fortherevoltsinallNorthernAfricanandPersianGulfcountrieshaveincludedthe
concentrationofwealthinthehandsofautocratsinpowerfordecades,insufficienttransparency
ofitsredistribution,corruption,andespeciallytherefusaloftheyouthtoacceptthestatus
quo.[48]SomeprotesterslookedtotheTurkishmodelasanideal(contestedbutpeaceful
elections,fastgrowingbutliberaleconomy,secularconstitutionbutIslamistgovernment).[49]
Morebroadly,increasingfoodpricesandfamineratesassociatedwithclimatechangemayhave
actedas"stressors"thatcontributedtounrestintheregion.[50][51][52]

ousted,andpowerhandedtoanational
unitygovernment.
Syria:PresidentBasharalAssadfaces
civiluprisingagainsthisrulethat
deterioratesintoarmedrebellionand
eventualfullscalecivilwar.
Bahrain:Civiluprisingagainstthe
governmentcrushedbyauthoritiesand
Saudiledintervention.
Kuwait,LebanonandOman:
Governmentchangesimplementedin
responsetoprotests.
MoroccoandJordan:Constitutional
reformsimplementedinresponseto
protests.
SaudiArabia,Sudan,Mauritania,and

TunisiaexperiencedaseriesofconflictsduringthethreeyearsleadinguptotheArabSpring,the
otherArabcountries:Protests.
mostnotableoccurringintheminingareaofGafsain2008,whereprotestscontinuedformany
months.Theseprotestsincludedrallies,sitins,andstrikes,duringwhichthereweretwo
Casualties
fatalities,anunspecifiednumberofwounded,anddozensofarrests.[53][54]InEgypt,thelabor
Death(s) 169,307174,339+(Internationalestimate,
movementhadbeenstrongforyears,withmorethan3,000laboractionssince2004,and
ongoingseetablebelow)
[55]
providedanimportantvenuefororganizingprotestsandcollectiveaction. Oneimportant
demonstrationwasanattemptedworkers'strikeon6April2008atthestateruntextilefactories
ofalMahallaalKubra,justoutsideCairo.Theideaforthistypeofdemonstrationspreadthroughoutthecountry,promotedbycomputerliterate
workingclassyouthsandtheirsupportersamongmiddleclasscollegestudents.[55]AFacebookpage,setuptopromotethestrike,attractedtensof
thousandsoffollowersandprovidedtheplatformforsustainedpoliticalactioninpursuitofthe"longrevolution."[47]Thegovernmentmobilizedto
breakthestrikethroughinfiltrationandriotpolice,andwhiletheregimewassomewhatsuccessfulinforestallingastrike,dissidentsformedthe"6
AprilCommittee"ofyouthsandlaboractivists,whichbecameoneofthemajorforcescallingfortheantiMubarakdemonstrationon25Januaryin
TahrirSquare.[55]
InAlgeria,discontenthadbeenbuildingforyearsoveranumberofissues.InFebruary2008,UnitedStatesAmbassadorRobertFordwroteina
leakeddiplomaticcablethatAlgeriais'unhappy'withlongstandingpoliticalalienationthatsocialdiscontentpersistedthroughoutthecountry,
withfoodstrikesoccurringalmosteveryweekthatthereweredemonstrationseverydaysomewhereinthecountryandthattheAlgerian
governmentwascorruptandfragile.[56]Somehaveclaimedthatduring2010therewereasmanyas'9,700riotsandunrests'throughoutthe
country.[57]Manyprotestsfocusedonissuessuchaseducationandhealthcare,whileotherscitedrampantcorruption.[58]
InWesternSahara,theGdeimIzikprotestcampwaserected12kilometres(7.5mi)southeastofElAainbyagroupofyoungSahrawison9
October2010.Theirintentionwastodemonstrateagainstlabordiscrimination,unemployment,lootingofresources,andhumanrightsabuses.[59]
Thecampcontainedbetween12,000and20,000inhabitants,buton8November2010itwasdestroyedanditsinhabitantsevictedbyMoroccan
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securityforces.ThesecurityforcesfacedstrongoppositionfromsomeyoungSahrawicivilians,andriotingsoonspreadtoElAainandother
townswithintheterritory,resultinginanunknownnumberofinjuriesanddeaths.ViolenceagainstSahrawisintheaftermathoftheprotestswas
citedasareasonforrenewedprotestsmonthslater,afterthestartoftheArabSpring.[60]
ThecatalystforthecurrentescalationofprotestswastheselfimmolationofTunisianMohamedBouazizi.Unabletofindworkandsellingfruitata
roadsidestand,on17December2010,amunicipalinspectorconfiscatedhiswares.Anhourlaterhedousedhimselfwithgasolineandsethimself
afire.Hisdeathon4January2011[61]broughttogethervariousgroupsdissatisfiedwiththeexistingsystem,includingmanyunemployed,political
andhumanrightsactivists,labor,tradeunionists,students,professors,lawyers,andotherstobegintheTunisianRevolution.[53]

Timeline
Mainarticle:TimelineoftheArabSpring
TheseriesofprotestsanddemonstrationsacrosstheMiddleEastandNorthAfricathatcommencedin2010hasbecomeknownasthe"Arab
Spring",[62][63][64]andsometimesasthe"ArabSpringandWinter",[65]"ArabAwakening"[66][67][68]or"ArabUprisings"[69][70]eventhoughnotall
theparticipantsintheprotestsareArab.ItwassparkedbythefirstproteststhatoccurredinTunisiaon18December2010inSidiBouzid,following
MohamedBouazizi'sselfimmolationinprotestofpolicecorruptionandilltreatment.[71][72]WiththesuccessoftheprotestsinTunisia,awaveof
unrestsparkedbytheTunisian"BurningMan"struckAlgeria,Jordan,Egypt,andYemen,[73]thenspreadtoothercountries.Thelargest,most
organiseddemonstrationshaveoftenoccurredona"dayofrage",usuallyFridayafternoonprayers.[74][75][76]Theprotestshavealsotriggered
similarunrestoutsidetheregion.
AsofSeptember2012,governmentshavebeenoverthrowninfourcountries.TunisianPresidentZineElAbidineBenAlifledtoSaudiArabiaon
14January2011followingtheTunisianRevolutionprotests.InEgypt,PresidentHosniMubarakresignedon11February2011after18daysof
massiveprotests,endinghis30yearpresidency.TheLibyanleaderMuammarGaddafiwasoverthrownon23August2011,aftertheNational
TransitionalCouncil(NTC)tookcontrolofBabalAzizia.Hewaskilledon20October2011,inhishometownofSirteaftertheNTCtookcontrol
ofthecity.YemeniPresidentAliAbdullahSalehsignedtheGCCpowertransferdealinwhichapresidentialelectionwasheld,resultinginhis
successorAbdalRabMansuralHadiformallyreplacinghimasthepresidentofYemenon27February2012,inexchangeforimmunityfrom
prosecution.
Duringthisperiodofregionalunrest,severalleadersannouncedtheirintentionstostepdownattheendoftheircurrentterms.SudanesePresident
OmaralBashirannouncedthathewouldnotseekreelectionin2015,[77]asdidIraqiPrimeMinisterNourialMaliki,whosetermwasendingin
2014,[78]althoughtherewereviolentdemonstrationsdemandinghisimmediateresignationin2011.[79]ProtestsinJordanhavealsocausedthe
sackingoffoursuccessivegovernments[80][81]byKingAbdullah.[82]ThepopularunrestinKuwaithasalsoresultedinresignationofPrime
MinisterNasserMohammedAlAhmedAlSabahcabinet.[83]
Thegeopoliticalimplicationsoftheprotestshavedrawnglobalattention.[84]Someprotesterswerenominatedforthe2011NobelPeacePrize.[85]
TawakkolKarmanfromYemenwascorecipientofthe2011NobelPeacePrizeduetoherroleorganizingpeacefulprotests.InDecember2011,
Timemagazinenamed"TheProtester"its"PersonoftheYear".[86]AnotherawardwasnotedwhentheSpanishphotographerSamuelArandawon
the2011WorldPressPhotoawardforhisimageofaYemeniwomanholdinganinjuredfamilymember,takenduringtheciviluprisinginYemen
on15October2011.[87]

Summaryofconflictsbycountry

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Governmentoverthrown Governmentoverthrownmultipletimes Civilwar Protestsandgovernmentalchanges


Majorprotests Minorprotests OtherprotestsandmilitantactionoutsidetheArabworld

Country

Datestarted

Statusofprotests

Outcome

Deathtoll

Situation

OverthrowofZineElAbidineBenAliBenAli
fleesintoexileinSaudiArabia

Tunisia

18December2010

Government
overthrownon14
January2011

ResignationofPrimeMinisterGhannouchi[88]
Dissolutionofthepoliticalpolice[89]
DissolutionoftheRCD,theformerrulingparty
ofTunisiaandliquidationofitsassets[90]
Releaseofpoliticalprisoners[91]
ElectionstoaConstituentAssemblyon23
338[94]
October2011[92]
20132014protestsagainsttheinterim
Islamistledgovernment.
Adoptionofanewconstitution

Government
overthrown

OnOctober2014,electionofaparliament,end
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ofthetransition,Tunisia,becomesa
unicameralparliamentaryrepublic.[93]

Algeria

Jordan

Oman

29December2010

14January2011

17January2011

EndedinJanuary
2012

Liftingofthe19yearoldstateof
emergency[95][96]

Ended

OnFebruary2011,KingAbdullahIIdismisses
PrimeMinisterRifaiandhiscabinet[98]
OnOctober2011,AbdullahdismissesPrime
MinisterBakhitandhiscabinetafter
complaintsofslowprogressonpromised
reforms[99]
OnApril2012,astheprotestscontinues,Al
3[102]
Khasawnehresigned,andtheKingappoints
FayezalTarawnehasthenewPrimeMinister
ofJordan[100]
OnOctober2012,KingAbdullahdissolvesthe
parliamentfornewearlyelections,and
appointsAbdullahEnsourasthenewPrime
MinisterofJordan[101]

Protestsand
governmental
changes

EndedinMay2011

EconomicconcessionsbySultan
Qaboos[103][104]
Dismissalofministers[105][106]
GrantingoflawmakingpowerstoOman's
electedlegislature[107]

Protestsand
governmental
changes

8[97]

2
6[108][109][110]

Majorprotests

OverthrowofHosniMubarak,whoislater
convictedofcorruptionandorderedtostandtrial
fororderingthekillingofprotesters.

Egypt

25January2011

Thegovernments
overthrownon
February2011,the
EgyptianCrisis
follows

ResignationofPrimeMinister(s)Nazifand
Shafik[111]
AssumptionofpowerbytheArmedForces[112]
SuspensionoftheConstitution,dissolutionof
theParliament[113]
DisbandingofStateSecurityInvestigations
Service[114]
DissolutionoftheNDP,theformerrulingparty
ofEgyptandtransferofitsassetstothe
state[115]
846+[122]
ProsecutionofMubarak,hisfamilyandhis
[116][117][118]
formerministers
Liftingofthe31yearoldstateof
emergency[119]
DemocraticelectionheldtoreplaceMubarak
asthenewpresidentofEgyptMohamed
Morsielectedandinaugurated[120]

Government
overthrown

Sinaiinsurgency
EgyptianArmedForceslaunchantiterror
militaryoperationsintheSinai.
Increaseinviolenceandattacksbyinsurgents
sincetheousterofMorsi.[121]
OverthrowofAliAbdullahSalehSalehgranted
immunityfromprosecution.

Yemen

27January2011

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Spring

Government

ResignationofPrimeMinisterMujawar
ResignationofMPsfromtherulingparty[123]
OccupationofseveralareasofYemeni

overthrownon

territorybyalQaedaandHouthirebels

2000+[126]

Government
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February2012.
YemeniCrisis
follows.

Restructureofthemilitaryforcesbysacking
severalofitsleaders[124]
ApprovalofSaleh'simmunityfrom
prosecutionbyYemenilegislators[125]
PresidentialelectionheldtoreplaceSalehas
thenewpresidentofYemenAbdRabbuh
MansurAlHadielectedandinaugurated

2000+[126]

overthrown

Djibouti 28January2011

EndedinMarch2011

2[127]

Minorprotests

Somalia 28January2011

Ended

Minorprotests

Sudan

Iraq

30January2011

26October2013

12February2011[131] Ongoing

Bahrain 14February2011

18March2011

PresidentBashirannounceshewillnotseek
anothertermin2015[128]
200+[130]
PresidentBashirneverthelesschosenasRuling
Partycandidatefor2015election[129]

Majorprotests

PrimeMinisterMalikiannouncesthathewill
notrunfora3rdterm[132]
Resignationofprovincialgovernorsandlocal
authorities[133]
TwothirdwageincreaseforSahwamilitia
members
Releaseof3,000prisoners,[134]including600
femaleprisoners
CrackdownbySecurityForcesresultsin
renewedviolenceinAnbar
ISISlaunchesoffensivesinnorthernIraq
20,000+[138]
capturingMosulandlargeswathesofterritory
Regionalandextraregionalhegemonicpowers
includingIranandtheUnitedStatesenterthe
waronthesideoftheIraqigovernmentto
defeatISIS
PrimeMinisterHaideralAbadiandtheIraqi
parliamentreformthegovernmentalstructure
byreducingthesizeofthecabinet,eliminating
variousgovernmentalpositions,merging
ministries,andremovingsectarianquotasin
politicalappointments.[135][136][137]

Civilwarand
governmental
changes

EconomicconcessionsbyKingHamad[139]
Releaseofpoliticalprisoners[140]
NegotiationswithShiarepresentatives[141]
GCCinterventionattherequestofthe
GovernmentofBahrain
HeadoftheNationalSecurityApparatus
removedfrompost[142]
FormationofacommitteetoimplementBICI
reportrecommendations[143]

Sustainedcivil
disorderand
government
changes

120[144]

OverthrowofMuammarGaddafiGaddafikilled
byrebelforces

Libya

17February2011

Government
overthrownon23
August2011,crisis
continues

Kuwait

19February2011

EndedinDecember
2012

Governmentdefeatedbyarmedrevoltwith
UNmandatedmilitaryintervention[145]
40,000+[147]
AssumptionofinterimcontrolbytheNational
TransitionalCouncil
Beginningofsporadiclowlevelfightingand
clashes[146]

ResignationofPrimeMinisterNasser
MohammedAlAhmedAlSabah[148]
DissolutionoftheParliament[149]

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0[150]

Civilwar

Protestsand
governmental
changes
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DissolutionoftheParliament

PoliticalconcessionsbyKingMohammed
VI[151]
Referendumonconstitutionalreforms
Respecttocivilrightsandanendto
corruption[152]

6[153]

Protestsand
governmental
changes

Ended

3[154]

Minorprotests

EndedinDecember
2011

Protestsand
governmental
changes

Ended

EconomicconcessionsbyKing
Abdullah[155][156]
Maleonlymunicipalelectionsheld29
September2011[157][158]
KingAbdullahannounceswomen'sapproval
tovoteandbeelectedin2015municipal
electionsandtobenominatedtotheShura
Council[159]

24[160]

Minorprotests

26January2011

Civiluprising
transformedinto
SyrianCivilWarafter
August2011

Releaseofsomepoliticalprisoners[161][162]
DismissalofProvincialGovernors[163][164]
ResignationoftheGovernment[165]
EndofEmergencyLaw
ResignationsfromParliament[166]
LargedefectionsfromtheSyrianarmyand
clashesbetweensoldiersanddefectors[167]
FormationoftheFreeSyrianArmyandfull
scalecivilwar

2,2062,654

Civiluprising

Iranian
Khuzestan

15April2011

Endedon18April
2011

Bordersof
Israel

15May2011

Endedon5June
2011

Morocco

Mauritania
Lebanon

Saudi
Arabia

Syria

20February2011

EndedinMarch
April2012

25February2011
27February2011

11March2011

Arrestsmadeinthe
nameofnational
securityandsome
activistshadtheir
nationalityrevoked.
Someactivists
deported.[170][171]

UAE

Palestinian
Authority

10February2011

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5October2012

12

Majorprotests

67[168][169]

Majorprotests

Minorprotests

ThenPalestinianprimeministerSalamFayyad
statesthatheis"'willingtoresign"[172]
Fayyadresignson13April2013butbecause
0
ofpoliticaldifferencesbetweenhimandthe
PalestinianpresidentMahmoudAbbasoverthe
financeportfolio[173]

Minorprotests

ArabdemonstrationsonthebordersofIsrael

377,085

Six
governments
overthrown
(Egypttwice
andYemen
twice)
Fiveprotests
leadingto
governmental

377,089+

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Totaldeathtollandotherconsequences: (International
estimate,
ongoing,>
80%inSyria)

Fiveminor
protests
Fivemajor
protests
Onecivil
disorder
leadingto
governmental
changes
Threecivil
wars(Syria,
Iraq,Libya)

Majorevents
Tunisia
Mainarticle:TunisianRevolution
FollowingtheselfimmolationofMohamedBouaziziinSidiBouzid,aseriesofincreasinglyviolentstreet
demonstrationsthroughDecember2010ultimatelyledtotheoustingoflongtimePresidentZineElAbidine
BenAlion14January2011.Thedemonstrationswereprecededbyhighunemployment,foodinflation,
corruption,[174]lackoffreedomofspeechandotherformsofpoliticalfreedom,[175]andpoorliving
conditions.TheprotestsconstitutedthemostdramaticwaveofsocialandpoliticalunrestinTunisiainthree
decades,[176][177]andhaveresultedinscoresofdeathsandinjuries,mostofwhichweretheresultofaction
bypoliceandsecurityforcesagainstdemonstrators.BenAlifledintoexileinSaudiArabia,endinghis23
yearsinpower.[178][179]
ProtestersonAvenueHabib
AstateofemergencywasdeclaredandacaretakercoalitiongovernmentwascreatedfollowingBenAli's
Bourguiba,downtownTunison14
departure,whichincludedmembersofBenAli'sparty,theConstitutionalDemocraticRally(RCD),aswell
January2011,afewhoursbefore
asoppositionfiguresfromotherministries.However,thefivenewlyappointednonRCDministersresigned
presidentZineElAbidineBenAli
[180][181]
almostimmediately.
Asaresultofcontinueddailyprotests,on27JanuaryPrimeMinisterMohamed
fledthecountry
Ghannouchireshuffledthegovernment,removingallformerRCDmembersotherthanhimself,andon6
Februarytheformerrulingpartywassuspended[182]later,on9March,itwasdissolved.[183]Following
furtherpublicprotests,Ghannouchihimselfresignedon27February,andBjiCadEssebsibecamePrimeMinister.

On23October2011,citizensvotedinthefirstpostrevolutionelectiontoelectrepresentativestoa217memberconstituentassemblythatwouldbe
responsibleforthenewconstitution.[184]TheleadingIslamistparty,Ennahda,won37%ofthevote,andmanagedtoelect42womentothe
ConstituentAssembly.[185]
On26January2014,anewconstitutionwaselected.[186]Theconstitutionisseenasprogressive,increaseshumanrights,genderequality,
governmentdutiestowardpeople,laysthegroundforanewparliamentarysystemandmakesTunisiaadecentralizedandopengovernment.[186][187]
On26October2014,thecountryhelditsfirstparliamentaryelectionssincethe2011ArabSpring[188]anditspresidentialsonNovember23,
2014,[189]finishingitstransitiontoademocraticstate.TheseelectionswerecharacterizedbythefallinpopularityofEnnahdha,forthesecular
NidaaTounesparty,whichbecame,thefirstpartyofthecountry.[190]

Egypt
Mainarticles:EgyptianRevolutionof2011andEgyptianCrisis(201114)
InspiredbytheuprisinginTunisiaandpriortohisentryasacentralfigureinEgyptianpolitics,potentialpresidentialcandidateMohamed
ElBaradeiwarnedofa"Tunisiastyleexplosion"inEgypt.[191]
ProtestsinEgyptbeganon25January2011andranfor18days.Beginningaroundmidnighton28January,theEgyptiangovernmentattempted,
somewhatsuccessfully,toeliminatethenation'sInternetaccess,[22]inordertoinhibittheprotesters'abilityusemediaactivismtoorganizethrough
socialmedia.[192]Laterthatday,astensofthousandsprotestedonthestreetsofEgypt'smajorcities,PresidentHosniMubarakdismissedhis
government,laterappointinganewcabinet.MubarakalsoappointedthefirstVicePresidentinalmost30years.
TheU.S.embassyandinternationalstudentsbeganavoluntaryevacuationneartheendofJanuary,asviolenceandrumorsofviolence
escalated.[193][194]

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On10February,MubarakcededallpresidentialpowertoVicePresidentOmarSuleiman,butsoon
thereafterannouncedthathewouldremainasPresidentuntiltheendofhisterm.[195]However,protests
continuedthenextday,andSuleimanquicklyannouncedthatMubarakhadresignedfromthepresidency
andtransferredpowertotheArmedForcesofEgypt.[196]ThemilitaryimmediatelydissolvedtheEgyptian
Parliament,suspendedtheConstitutionofEgypt,andpromisedtoliftthenation'sthirtyyear"emergency
laws".Acivilian,EssamSharaf,wasappointedasPrimeMinisterofEgypton4Marchtowidespread
approvalamongEgyptiansinTahrirSquare.[197]Violentprotestshowever,continuedthroughtheendof
2011asmanyEgyptiansexpressedconcernabouttheSupremeCounciloftheArmedForces'perceived
sluggishnessininstitutingreformsandtheirgriponpower.[198]

CelebrationsinTahrirSquareafter
OmarSuleiman'sstatement
concerningHosniMubarak's
resignation

HosniMubarakandhisformerinteriorministerHabibalAdliwereconvictedtolifeinprisononthebasisof
theirfailuretostopthekillingsduringthefirstsixdaysofthe2011EgyptianRevolution.[199]Hissuccessor,
MohamedMorsi,wassworninasEgypt'sfirstdemocraticallyelectedpresidentbeforejudgesatthe
SupremeConstitutionalCourt.[200]FreshprotestseruptedinEgypton22November2012.On3July2013,themilitaryoverthrewthereplacement
governmentandPresidentMorsiwasremovedfrompower.[201]

Libya
Mainarticle:LibyanCivilWar(2011)
AntigovernmentprotestsbeganinLibyaon15February2011.By18Februarytheoppositioncontrolled
mostofBenghazi,thecountry'ssecondlargestcity.Thegovernmentdispatchedelitetroopsandmilitiainan
attempttorecaptureit,buttheywererepelled.By20February,protestshadspreadtothecapitalTripoli,
leadingtoatelevisionaddressbySaifalIslamGaddafi,whowarnedtheprotestorsthattheircountrycould
descendintocivilwar.Therisingdeathtoll,numberinginthethousands,drewinternationalcondemnation
andresultedintheresignationofseveralLibyandiplomats,alongwithcallsforthegovernment's
dismantlement.[202]
AmidstongoingeffortsbydemonstratorsandrebelforcestowrestcontrolofTripolifromtheJamahiriya,
theoppositionsetupaninterimgovernmentinBenghazitoopposeColonelMuammarGaddafi's
rule.[203][204]However,despiteinitialoppositionsuccess,governmentforcessubsequentlytookbackmuch
oftheMediterraneancoast.

Thousandsofdemonstratorsgatherin
Bayda

On17March,UnitedNationsSecurityCouncilResolution1973wasadopted,authorisinganoflyzoneoverLibya,and"allnecessarymeasures"to
protectcivilians.Twodayslater,France,theUnitedStatesandtheUnitedKingdomintervenedinLibyawithabombingcampaignagainstpro
Gaddafiforces.Acoalitionof27statesfromEuropeandtheMiddleEastsoonjoinedtheintervention.Theforcesweredrivenbackfromthe
outskirtsofBenghazi,andtherebelsmountedanoffensive,capturingscoresoftownsacrossthecoastofLibya.Theoffensivestalledhowever,and
acounteroffensivebythegovernmentretookmostofthetowns,untilastalematewasformedbetweenBregaandAjdabiya,theformerbeingheld
bythegovernmentandthelatterinthehandsoftherebels.Focusthenshiftedtothewestofthecountry,wherebitterfightingcontinued.Aftera
threemonthlongbattle,aloyalistsiegeofrebelheldMisrata,thethirdlargestcityinLibya,wasbrokeninlargepartduetocoalitionairstrikes.
ThefourmajorfrontsofcombatweregenerallyconsideredtobetheNafusaMountains,theTripolitaniancoast,theGulfofSidra,[205]andthe
southernLibyanDesert.[206]
InlateAugust,antiGaddafifighterscapturedTripoli,scatteringGaddafi'sgovernmentandmarkingtheendofhis42yearsofpower.Many
institutionsofthegovernment,includingGaddafiandseveraltopgovernmentofficials,regroupedinSirte,whichGaddafideclaredtobeLibya's
newcapital.[207]OthersfledtoSabha,BaniWalid,andremotereachesoftheLibyanDesert,ortosurroundingcountries.[208][209]However,Sabha
fellinlateSeptember,[210]BaniWalidwascapturedafteragruelingsiegeweekslater,[211]andon20October,fightersundertheaegisofthe
NationalTransitionalCouncilseizedSirte,killingGaddafiintheprocess.[212]

Yemen
Mainarticle:YemeniRevolution
ProtestsoccurredinmanytownsinboththenorthandsouthofYemenstartinginmidJanuary2011.Demonstratorsinitiallyprotestedagainst
governmentalproposalstomodifytheconstitutionofYemen,unemploymentandeconomicconditions,[213]andcorruption,[214]buttheirdemands
soonincludedacallfortheresignationofPresidentAliAbdullahSaleh,[214][215][216]hadbeenfacinginternaloppositionfromhisclosestadvisors
since2009.[217]
Amajordemonstrationofover16,000protesterstookplaceinSana'aon27January2011,[218]andsoonthereafterhumanrightsactivistand
politicianTawakelKarmancalledfora"DayofRage"on3February.[219]AccordingtoXinhuaNews,organizerswerecallingforamillion
protesters.[220]Inresponsetotheplannedprotest,AliAbdullahSalehstatedthathewouldnotseekanotherpresidentialtermin2013.[221]On3
February,20,000protestersdemonstratedagainstthegovernmentinSana'a,[222][223]othersparticipatedina"DayofRage"inAden[224]thatwas
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calledforbyTawakelKarman,[219]whilesoldiers,armedmembersoftheGeneralPeople'sCongress,and
manyprotestorsheldaprogovernmentrallyinSana'a.[225]ConcurrentwiththeresignationofEgyptian
presidentMubarak,YemenisagaintooktothestreetsprotestingPresidentSalehon11February,inwhathas
beendubbeda"FridayofRage".[226]Theprotestscontinuedinthedaysfollowingdespiteclasheswith
governmentadvocates.[227]Ina"FridayofAnger"heldon18February,tensofthousandsofYemenistook
partinantigovernmentdemonstrationsinthemajorcitiesofSana'a,Taiz,andAden.Protestscontinued
overthefollowingmonths,especiallyinthethreemajorcities,andbrieflyintensifiedinlateMayintourban
warfarebetweenHashidtribesmenandarmydefectorsalliedwiththeoppositionononesideandsecurity
forcesandmilitiasloyaltoSalehontheother.[228]

ProtestsinSana'a

AfterSalehpretendedtoacceptaGulfCooperationCouncilbrokeredplanallowinghimtocedepowerin
exchangeforimmunityonlytobackawaybeforesigningthreeseparatetimes,[229][230]anassassinationattempton3Junelefthimandseveralother
highrankingYemeniofficialsinjuredbyablastinthepresidentialcompound'smosque.[231]SalehwasevacuatedtoSaudiArabiafortreatment,but
hehandedoverpowertoVicePresidentAbdalRabMansuralHadi,whohaslargelycontinuedhispolicies[232]andorderedthearrestofseveral
Yemenisinconnectionwiththeattackonthepresidentialcompound.[231]WhileinSaudiArabia,Salehkepthintingthathecouldreturnanytime
andcontinuedtobepresentinthepoliticalspherethroughtelevisionappearancesfromRiyadhstartingwithanaddresstotheYemenipeopleon7
July.[233]OnFriday13August,ademonstrationwasannouncedinYemenas"MansouronFriday"inwhichhundredsofthousandsofYemenis
calledforAliAbdullahSalehtogo.Theprotestersjoiningthe"MansouronFriday"werecallingforestablishmentof"anewYemen".[234]On12
September,SalehissuedapresidentialdecreewhilestillreceivingtreatmentinRiyadhauthorizingVicePresidentAbdalRabMansuralHadito
negotiateadealwiththeoppositionandsigntheGCCinitiative.[235]
On23September,threemonthssincetheassassinationattempt,SalehreturnedtoYemenabruptly,defyingallearlierexpectations.[236]Pressureon
SalehtosigntheGCCinitiativeeventuallyledtohissigningofitinRiyadhon23November,inwhichSalehagreedtostepdownandsetthestage
forthetransferofpowertohisvicepresident.[237]Apresidentialelectionwasthenheldon21February2012,inwhichHadi(theonlycandidate)
won99.8percentofthevote.[238]HadithentooktheoathofofficeinYemen'sparliamenton25February.[239]By27February,Salehhadresigned
fromthepresidencyandtransferredpowertohissuccessor,howeverheisstillwieldingpoliticalcloutastheheadoftheGeneralPeople'sCongress
party.[240]ThereplacementgovernmentwasoverthrownbyHouthirebelson22January2015.

Syria
Mainarticle:CiviluprisingphaseoftheSyrianCivilWar
ProtestsinSyriastartedon26January2011,whenapoliceofficerassaultedamaninpublicat"AlHareeka
Street"inoldDamascus.Themanwasarrestedrightaftertheassault.Asaresult,protesterscalledforthe
freedomofthearrestedman.Soona"dayofrage"wassetfor45February,butitwasuneventful.[241][242]
On6March,theSyriansecurityforcesarrestedabout15childreninDaraa,insouthernSyria,forwriting
slogansagainstthegovernment.Soonprotestseruptedoverthearrestandabuseofthechildren.Daraawas
tobethefirstcitytoprotestagainsttheBa'athistgovernment,whichhasbeenrulingSyriasince1963.[243]
ThousandsofprotestersgatheredinDamascus,Aleppo,alHasakah,Daraa,DeirezZor,andHamaon15
March,[244][245][246]withrecentlyreleasedpoliticianSuhairAtassibecominganunofficialspokespersonfor
Antigovernmentdemonstrationsin
the"Syrianrevolution".[247]Thenextdaytherewerereportsofapproximately3000arrestsandafew
Baniyas
martyrs,buttherearenoofficialfiguresonthenumberofdeaths.[248]On18April2011,approximately
100,000protesterssatinthecentralSquareofHomscallingfortheresignationofPresidentBasharalAssad.
ProtestscontinuedthroughJuly2011,thegovernmentrespondingwithharshsecurityclampdownsandmilitaryoperationsinseveraldistricts,
especiallyinthenorth.[249]
On31July,Syrianarmytanksstormedseveralcities,includingHama,DeirEzZour,AbuKamal,andHeraknearDaraa.Atleast136peoplewere
killed,thehighestdeathtollinanydaysincethestartoftheuprising.[250]On5August2011,anantigovernmentdemonstrationtookplaceinSyria
called"Godiswithus",duringwhichtheSyriansecurityforcesshottheprotestersfrominsidetheambulances,killing11peopleconsequently.[251]
BylateNovemberearlyDecember,theBabaAmrdistrictofHomsfellunderarmedSyrianoppositioncontrol.BylateDecember,thebattles
betweenthegovernment'ssecurityforcesandtherebelFreeSyrianArmyintensifiedinIdlibGovernorate.CitiesinIdlibandneighborhoodsin
HomsandHamabeganfallingintothecontroloftheopposition,duringthistimemilitaryoperationsinHomsandHamastopped.
BymidJanuarytheFSAgainedcontroloverZabadaniandMadaya.BylateJanuary,theFreeSyrianArmylaunchedafullscaleattackagainstthe
governmentinRifDimashq,wheretheytookoverSaqba,Hamoreya,HarastaandothercitiesinDamascus'sEasternsuburbs.On29January,the
fourthregimentoftheSyrianArmyledbythepresident'sbrotherMaheralAssadandtheSyrianArmyduginatDamascus,andthefighting
continuedwheretheFSAwas8kmawayfromtheRepublicanpalaceinDamascus.FightingbrokeoutnearDamascusinternationalairport,butby
thenextdaytheSyriangovernmentdeployedtheRepublicanGuards.Themilitarygainedtheupperhandandregainedalllandtheopposition
gainedinRifDimashqbyearlyFebruary.On4February,theSyrianArmylaunchedamassivebombardmentonHomsandcommittedahuge
massacre,killing500civiliansinonenightinHoms.BymidFebruary,theSyrianarmyregainedcontroloverZabadaniandMadaya.Inlate
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February,ArmyforcesenteredBabaAmrafterabigmilitaryoperationandheavyfighting.Followingthis,theoppositionforcesbeganlosing
neighborhoodsinHomstotheSyrianArmyincludingalInshaat,Jobr,KarmelZaytoonandonlyHoms'soldneighborhood's,includingAl
Khalidiya,Homs|alKhalidiya,remainedinoppositionhands.
ByMarch2012,thegovernmentbeganmilitaryoperationsagainsttheoppositioninIdlibGovernorateincludingthecityofIdlib,whichfelltothe
ArmybymidMarch.SaraqibandSarminwerealsorecapturedbythegovernmentduringthemonth.Still,atthistime,theoppositionmanagedto
capturealQusayrandRastan.HeavyfightingalsocontinuedinseveralneighborhoodsinHomsandinthecityofHama.TheFSAalsostartedto
conducthitandrunattacksintheproAssadAleppoGovernorate,whichtheywerenotabletodobefore.Heavytosporadicfightingwasalso
continuingintheDaraaandDeirezZorGovernorates.
BylateApril2012,despiteaceasefirebeingdeclaredinthewholecountry,sporadicfightingcontinued,withheavyclashesspecificallyinAl
Qusayr,whererebelforcescontrolledthenorthernpartofthecity,whilethemilitaryheldthesouthernpart.FSAforceswereholdingontoAl
Qusayr,duetoitbeingthelastmajortransitpointtowardtheLebaneseborder.ArebelcommanderfromtheFarouqBrigadeinthetownreported
that2,000FarouqfightershadbeenkilledinHomsprovincesinceAugust2011.Atthispoint,thereweretalksamongtherebelsinAlQusayr,
wheremanyoftheretreatingrebelsfromHomscity'sBabaAmrdistricthadgone,ofHomsbeingabandonedcompletely.On12June2012,theUN
peacekeepingchiefinSyriastatedthat,inhisview,Syriahasenteredaperiodofcivilwar.[252]

Bahrain
Mainarticle:Bahrainiuprisingof2011
TheprotestsinBahrainstartedon14February,andwereinitiallyaimedatachievinggreaterpolitical
freedomandrespectforhumanrightstheywerenotintendedtodirectlythreatenthe
monarchy.[5][253](pp1623)LingeringfrustrationamongtheShiitemajoritywithbeingruledbytheSunni
governmentwasamajorrootcause,buttheprotestsinTunisiaandEgyptarecitedastheinspirationforthe
demonstrations.[5][253](p65)Theprotestswerelargelypeacefuluntilapredawnraidbypoliceon17February
toclearprotestorsfromPearlRoundaboutinManama,inwhichpolicekilledfourprotesters.[253](pp734)
Followingtheraid,someprotestersbegantoexpandtheiraimstoacallfortheendofthemonarchy.[254]On
18February,armyforcesopenedfireonprotesterswhentheytriedtoreentertheroundabout,fatally
woundingone.[253](pp778)ThefollowingdayprotestersreoccupiedPearlRoundaboutafterthegovernment
orderedtroopsandpolicetowithdraw.[253](p81)[255]Subsequentdayssawlargedemonstrationson21
FebruaryaprogovernmentGatheringofNationalUnitydrewtensofthousands,[253](p86)[256]whilston22
FebruarythenumberofprotestorsatthePearlRoundaboutpeakedatover150,000aftermorethan100,000
protestersmarchedthereandwerecomingunderfirefromtheBahrainiMilitarywhichkilledaround20and
injuredover100protestors.[253](p88)On14March,GCCforces(composedmainlyofSaudiandUAEtroops)
wererequestedbythegovernmentandenteredthecountry,[253](p132)whichtheoppositioncalledan
"occupation".[257]

Over100,000peopletakingpartin
the"MarchofLoyaltytoMartyrs",
honoringpoliticaldissidentskilledby
securityforces

KingHamadbinIsaAlKhalifadeclaredathreemonthstateofemergencyon15Marchandaskedthe
militarytoreassertitscontrolasclashesspreadacrossthecountry.[253](p139)[258]On16March,armed
soldiersandriotpoliceclearedtheprotesters'campinthePearlRoundabout,inwhich3policemenand3
protesterswerereportedlykilled.[253](pp1334)[259]Later,on18March,thegovernmenttoredownPearlRoundaboutmonument.[253](pp150)[260]After
theliftingofemergencylawon1June,[261]severallargerallieswerestagedbytheoppositionparties.[262]Smallerscaleprotestsandclashesoutside
ofthecapitalhavecontinuedtooccuralmostdaily.[263][264]On9March2012,over100,000protestedinwhattheoppositioncalled"thebiggest
marchinourhistory".[265][266]
Thepoliceresponsehasbeendescribedasa"brutal"crackdownonpeacefulandunarmedprotestors,includingdoctorsandbloggers.[267][268][269]
ThepolicecarriedoutmidnighthouseraidsinShianeighbourhoods,beatingsatcheckpoints,anddenialofmedicalcareina"campaignof
intimidation".[270][271][272][273]Morethan2,929peoplehavebeenarrested,[274][275]andatleastfivepeoplediedduetotorturewhileinpolice
custody.[253](p287,288)On23November2011,theBahrainIndependentCommissionofInquiryreleaseditsreportonitsinvestigationoftheevents,
findingthatthegovernmenthadsystematicallytorturedprisonersandcommittedotherhumanrightsviolations.[253](pp415422)Italsorejectedthe
government'sclaimsthattheprotestswereinstigatedbyIran.[276]Althoughthereportfoundthatsystematictorturehadstopped,[253](pp417)the
Bahrainigovernmenthasrefusedentrytoseveralinternationalhumanrightsgroupsandnewsorganizations,anddelayedavisitbyaUN
inspector.[277][278]Morethan80peoplehaddiedsincethestartoftheuprising.[279]

Minorevents
Mainarticle:ArabSpringconcurrentincidents
DuringtheArabSpring,protestsflaredupintherestoftheregion,somebecomingviolent,somefacingstrongsuppressionefforts,andsome
resultinginsmalltomoderatepoliticalchanges.
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Aftermath
Mainarticle:ArabWinter
ArabWinter[280]orIslamistWinter,[281]isthetermforthewidescaleviolenceandinstability,evolvingintheaftermathoftheArabSpringprotests
inArabWorldcountries.TheArabWinterischaracterizedbyextensivecivilwars,generalregionalinstability,economicanddemographicdecline
oftheArabLeagueandoverallreligiouswarsbetweenSunniandShiaMuslims.Asofsummer2014,theArabWinterhasproducedaboutquartera
milliondeathsandmillionsofrefugees.
Forexample,YemenwasseenasasuccessstoryoftheArabSpringbutthenewgovernmentwasdestabilisedbytheHouthis,aShiarebelgroup,
whichthreatenthefragilenewregime.[282]Inspring2015theconflictinYemenhasescalatedfollowingthesuicidebombingsinYemenicapital
Sana'a.NeighbouringcountrieshaveswiftlyreactedtothecrisisandSaudiArabialedamilitaryinterventionwhichhasfurtherdeepenedthe
divisionsinYemenifactions.[283]

Analysis
Ethnicscope
Manyanalysts,journalists,andinvolvedpartieshavefocusedontheprotestsasbeingauniquelyArabpeoplephenomenon,andindeed,protests
anduprisingshavebeenstrongestandmostwidereachinginmajorityArabicspeakingcountries,givingrisetothepopularmonikerofArabSpring
aplayonthesocalled1968PragueSpring,ademocraticawakeninginwhatwasthencommunistCzechoslovakiatorefertoprotests,
uprisings,andrevolutionsinthosestates.[284][285][286]However,theinternationalmediahasalsonotedtheroleofminoritygroupsinmanyofthese
majorityArabcountriesintherevolts.
InTunisia,thecountry'ssmallJewishminoritywasinitiallydividedbyprotestsagainstBenAliandthe
government,buteventuallycametoidentifywiththeprotestersinoppositiontotheregime,accordingtothe
group'spresident,whodescribedJewishTunisiansas"partoftherevolution".[287][288]Whilemanyinthe
CopticminorityinEgypthadcriticizedtheMubarakgovernmentforitsfailuretosuppressIslamic
extremistswhoattacktheCopticcommunity,theprospectoftheseextremistgroupstakingoverafteritsfall
causedmostCoptstoavoidtheprotests,withthenPopeShenoudaIIIoftheCopticOrthodoxChurchof
Alexandriacallingforthemtoend.[289]TheinternationalmediapointedtoafewCoptswhojoinedthe
protests.[290][291]

Bahrain'sShiaprotestersshotby
securityforces,February2011

BecausetheuprisingsandrevolutionseruptedfirstinNorthAfricabeforespreadingtoAsianArab
countries,andtheBerbersofLibya[292]participatedmassivelyintheprotestsandfightingunderBerberidentitybanners,someBerbersinLibya
oftenseetherevolutionsofNorthAfrica,westofEgypt,asareincarnatedBerberSpring.[293][294][295]InMorocco,throughaconstitutionalreform,
passedinanationalreferendumon1July2011,amongotherthings,AmazighastandardizedversionofthethreeBerberlanguagesofMorocco
wasmadeofficialalongsideArabic.[296]DuringthecivilwarinLibya,onemajortheaterofcombatwasthewesternNafusaMountains,wherethe
indigenousBerberstookuparmsagainsttheregimewhilesupportingtherevolutionaryNationalTransitionalCouncil,whichwasbasedinthe
majorityArabeasternhalfofthecountry.[297][298]
InnorthernSudan,hundredsofnonArabDarfurisjoinedantigovernmentprotests,[299]whileinIraqandSyria,theethnicKurdishminorityhas
beeninvolvedinprotestsagainstthegovernment,[300][301]includingtheKurdistanRegionalGovernmentintheformer'sKurdishmajoritynorth,
whereatleastoneattemptedselfimmolationwasreported.[302][303][304]

Concurrentevents
Mainarticle:ImpactoftheArabSpring
TheregionalunresthasnotbeenlimitedtocountriesoftheArabworld.TheearlyuprisingsinNorthAfricawereinspiredbythe20092010
uprisingsintheneighboringstateofIran[305][306]theseareconsideredbymanycommentatorstobepartofawaveofprotestthatbeganinIran,
movedtoNorthAfrica,andhassincegrippedthebroaderMiddleEasternandNorthAfricanregions,includingadditionalprotestsinIranin2011
2012.[307]
InthecountriesoftheneighboringSouthCaucasusnamelyArmenia,[308]Azerbaijan,[309]andGeorgia[310]aswellassomecountriesinEurope,
includingAlbania,[311]Croatia,[312]andSpain[313]countriesinsubSaharanAfrica,includingBurkinaFaso,[314]andUganda[315][316]andcountries
inotherpartsofAsia,includingtheMaldives[317]andthePeople'sRepublicofChina,[318]demonstratorsandoppositionfiguresclaiminginspiration
fromtheexamplesofTunisiaandEgypthavestagedtheirownpopularprotests.TheprotestsintheMaldivesledtotheresignationofthePresident.
InIndia,thewidespreadanticorruptionprotestsledbyAnnaHazarewereheldforanticorruptionlegislaturein2011.Itwasfollowedbyanother
waveofprotestsin2012.Finallytheanticorruptionlegislaturewaspassedbytheparliamentin2013.

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ThebidforstatehoodbyPalestineattheUNon23September2011isalsoregardedasdrawinginspirationfromtheArabSpringafteryearsof
failedpeacenegotiationswithIsrael.IntheWestBank,schoolsandgovernmentofficeswereshuttoallowdemonstrationsbackingtheUN
membershipbidinRamallah,Bethlehem,NablusandHebronechoingsimilarpeacefulprotestsfromotherArabcountries.[319]
The15October2011globalprotestsandtheOccupyWallStreetmovement,whichstartedintheUnitedStatesandhassincespreadtoAsiaand
Europe,drewdirectinspirationfromtheArabSpring,withorganizersaskingU.S.citizens"AreyoureadyforaTahrirmoment?"[320]Theprotesters
havecommittedtousingthe"revolutionaryArabSpringtactic"toachievetheirgoalsofcurbingcorporatepowerandcontrolinWestern
governments.[321]
Also,theOccupyNigeriaprotestsbeginningthedayafterGoodluckJonathanannouncedthescrapofthefuelsubsidyinoilrichNigeriaon1
January2012,weremotivatedbytheArabpeople.[322]
TheTunisianRevolutionalsobroughtaboutimportantchangestotheintersectionofartandpoliticsinpost2011Tunisia.

Internationalreactions
Mainarticle:InternationalreactionstotheArabSpring
ProtestsinmanycountriesaffectedbytheArabSpringhaveattractedwidespreadsupportfromthe
internationalcommunity,whileharshgovernmentresponseshavegenerallymet
condemnation.[323][324][325][326]InthecaseoftheBahraini,Moroccan,andSyrianprotests,theinternational
responsehasbeenconsiderablymorenuanced.[327][328][329][330]
SomecriticshaveaccusedWesterngovernmentsandmedia,includingthoseofFrance,theUnitedKingdom,
andtheUnitedStates,ofhypocrisyinthewaytheyhavereactedtotheArabSpring.[331][332][333]Noam
ChomskyaccusedtheObamaadministrationofendeavoringtomuffletherevolutionarywaveandstifle
populardemocratizationeffortsintheMiddleEast.[334]
TheInternationalMonetaryFundsaidoilpriceswerelikelytobehigherthanoriginallyforecastdueto
unrestintheMiddleEastandNorthAfrica(MENA),majorregionsofoilproduction.[335]Startingin2010
globalinvestorshavesignificantlyreducedtheirstakesinMENAregionholdingssinceDecember2010
resultinginsignificantdeclinesinregionlinkedstockindexes.[336]

U.S.SecretaryofStateJohnKerry
shakeshandswithBahrainiCrown
PrinceSalmanbinHamadAl
Khalifa,Washington,D.C.,onJune
6,2013

AccordingtoGallupsurveysin26Africancountriesin2013,70%inSubSaharanAfricareportedthattheyhadnotfollowedArabSpringevents
closelyatall.AmongAfricanswhodidpayattention,majoritiesinmostAfricancountriessaidthattheArabSpringhashadmoreofanegative
effectontheirowncountry.[337]
KenanEngin,aGermanKurdishpoliticalscientist,identifiedthenewuprisinginArabandIslamiccountriesasthe"fifthwaveofdemocracy"
becauseofevidentfeaturesqualitativelysimilartothe"thirdwaveofdemocracy"inLatinAmericathattookplaceinthe1970sand1980s.[338][339]
DonaldBlinken,formerUSAmbassadortoHungary,attributedthefailuretoestablishafunctioningregimefollowingArabuprisingstothelackof
leadershipwithnorespectedoradmiredfigureemergingfromthemassprotestsinTunisia,Egypt,Libya,Syria,AfghanistanandIraq.[340]

SocialmediaandtheArabSpring
Mainarticle:SocialmediaandtheArabSpring
InthewakeoftherecenteventsoccurringinSyria,EgyptandTunisia,aconsiderableamountofattentionhasbeenfocusedontheconceptof
democracyandcollectiveactivism,whichcontinuestounravelinfrontofWesterneyesacrossmassmedia.
Equallyimportanthasbeentheroleofsocialmediaanddigitaltechnologiesinallowingcitizenswithinareasaffectedby'theArabUprisings'asa
meansforcollectiveactivismtocircumventstateoperatedmediachannels.[341]
NineoutoftenEgyptiansandTunisiansrespondedtoapollthattheyusedFacebooktoorganizeprotestsandspreadawareness.[342]Furthermore,
28%ofEgyptiansand29%ofTunisiansfromthesamepollsaidthatblockingFacebookgreatlyhinderedand/ordisruptedcommunication.
TheinfluenceofsocialmediaonpoliticalactivismduringtheArabUprisingshasbeenmuchdebated.[19][20][343]Somecriticshavearguedthat
digitaltechnologiesandotherformsofcommunicationvideos,cellularphones,blogs,photosandtextmessageshavebroughtabouttheconceptof
a'digitaldemocracy'inpartsofNorthAfricaaffectedbytheuprisings.[344]Othershaveclaimedthatinordertounderstandtheroleofsocialmedia
duringtheArabUprisings,itmustbefirstbeunderstoodthatinthecontextofhighratesofunemploymentandcorruptpoliticalregimensledto
dissentmovementswithintheregion.[345][346]
RevolutionsthatwerepreviouslystartedonFacebookalonewererapidlyquashedbysecretpoliceinthosecountries,somuchsothatinEgypta
prominentactivistgroupalwayshad"DonotuseFacebookorTwitter"onthefrontandbacksoftheirrevolutionarymaterial.[347]
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FurtherevidencethatsuggestsanimportantroleofsocialmediaontheuprisingsisthatsocialmediausemorethandoubledinArabcountries
duringtheprotests.Someresearchhaveshownhowcollectiveintelligence,dynamicsofthecrowdinparticipatorysystemssuchassocialmedia,
havetheimmensepowertosupportacollectiveactionsuchasfomentapoliticalchange.[348][349]
ThegraphdepictingthedatacollectedbytheDubaiSchoolofGovernmentillustratesthissharpincreaseinInternetusage.Theonlydiscrepancyin
thetrendiswiththegrowthrateinLibya.[342]Thereportproposesareasonableargumentthatexplainssuchdiscrepancy:manyLibyansfledthe
violence,andthereforemovedtheirsocialmediausageelsewhere.
ThisinfluxofsocialmediausageindicatesthekindofpeoplethatwereessentiallypoweringtheArabSpring.Youngpeoplefueledtherevoltsof
thevariousArabcountriesbyusingthenewgeneration'sabilitiesofsocialnetworkingtoreleasethewordofuprisingtonotonlyotherArab
nations,butnationsallovertheworld.Asof5April2011,theamountofFacebookusersintheArabiannationssurpassed27.7millionpeople,[342]
indicatingthattheconstantgrowthofpeopleconnectedviasocialmediaactedasanassetwherecommunicationwasconcerned.
Othershavearguedthattelevision,specificallytheconstantlivecoveragebyAlJazeeraandthesporadiclivecoveragebyBBCNewsandothers,
washighlyimportantfortheEgyptianRevolutionof2011asthecamerasprovidedexposureandpreventedmassviolencebytheEgyptian
governmentinTahrirSquare,asopposedtothelackofsuchlivecoverageandthemorewidespreadviolenceinLibya.[350]Theabilityofprotesters
tofocustheirdemonstrationsonasingleareaandbecoveredlivewasfundamentalinEgypt,butwasnotpossibleinLibya,BahrainandSyria.
Differentsortsofmediasuchasimageandvideowerealsousedtoportraytheinformation.Imagessurfacedthatshowedcurrentevents,which
illustratedwhatwasgoingonwithintheArabiannations.ThevisualmediathatspreadthroughouttheInternetdepictednotonlysingularmoments,
butshowedtheArabiannations'history,andthechangethatwastocome.[351]Throughsocialmedia,theidealsofrebelgroups,aswellasthe
currentsituationsineachcountryreceivedinternationalattention.Itisstilldebatedwhetherornotsocialmediaactedasaprimarycatalystforthe
ArabSpringtogainmomentumandbecomeaninternationallyrecognizedsituation.Regardless,ithasstillplayedacrucialroleinthemovement.

Seealso
ArabWinter
ArabRevolt
AtlanticRevolutions
Colourrevolution
DemocracyintheMiddleEast
ListofmodernconflictsinNorthAfrica
ListofmodernconflictsintheMiddleEast
Listofongoingarmedconflicts
Listofongoingprotests
Protestsof1968
Revolutionsof1820
Revolutionsof1830
Revolutionsof1848
Revolutionsof191723
Revolutionsof1989
WaronTerror
WomenintheArabSpring

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Furtherreading
Aa.Vv.(2011),TheNewArabRevolt:WhatHappened,WhatItMeans,andWhatComesNext,CouncilonForeignRelations,ForeignAffairs,Maggio
Giugno.
Abaza,M.(2011),RevolutionaryMomentsinTahrirSquare,AmericanUniversityofCairo,7May2011,www.isasociology.org.
Abdih,Y.(2011),ArabSpring:ClosingtheJobsGap.HighyouthunemloymentcontributestowidespreadunrestintheMiddleEastFinance&Development,
inFinance&Development(InternationalMonetaryFund),Giugno.
Anderson,L(MayJune2011)."DemystifyingtheArabSpring:ParsingtheDifferencesbetweenTunisia,Egypt,andLibya".ForeignAffairs90(3).
Beinin,J.Vairel,F.(2011),(acuradi),SocialMovements,Mobilization,andContestationintheMiddleEastandNorthAfrica,Stanford,CA,Stanford
Universitypress.
Brownlee,JasonMasoud,TarekReynolds,Andrew(2013).TheArabSpring:thepoliticsoftransformationinNorthAfricaandtheMiddleEast.Oxford:
OxfordUniversityPress.
Browers,Michaelle(2009).PoliticalIdeologyintheArabWorld:AccommodationandTransformation.NewYork:CambridgeUniversityPress.ISBN978
0521765329.
Cohen,R.(2011),ARepublicCalledTahrir,inNewYorkTimes.
Dabashi,Hamid.TheArabSpring:TheEndofPostcolonialism(PalgraveMacmillan2012)182pages
Darwish,Nonie(28February2012).ThedemonWeDon'tKnow:TheDarkSideofRevolutionsintheMiddleEast(https://books.google.com/books?
id=VjiKZwEACAAJ).JohnWiley&Sons.
Davies,ThomasRichard.(2014)."ThefailureofstrategicnonviolentactioninBahrain,Egypt,LibyaandSyria:politicaljujitsuinreverse"
(http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14781158.2014.924916),GlobalChange,PeaceandSecurity,vol.26,no.3,pp.299313.ISSN14781158EISSN14781166.
Gardner,David(2009).LastChance:TheMiddleEastintheBalance.London:I.B.Tauris.ISBN9781848850415.
Gause,F.G.(2011),WhyMiddleEastStudiesMissedtheArabSpring:TheMythofAuthoritarianStability,inForeignAffairs,July/August.
Goldstone,JackA.Hazel,JohnT.,Jr.(14April2011)."UnderstandingtheRevolutionsof2011:WeaknessandResilienceinMiddleEasternAutocracies"
(http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67694/jackagoldstone/understandingtherevolutionsof2011).ForeignAffairs.
Haddad,BassamBsheer,RosieAbuRish,Ziad,eds.(2012).TheDawnoftheArabUprisings:EndofanOldOrder?.London:PlutoPress.ISBN9780
745333250.
Kaye,DaliaDassa(2008).MoreFreedom,LessTerror?LiberalizationandPoliticalViolenceintheArabWorld.SantaMonica,CA:RANDCorporation.
ISBN9780833045089.
Lutterbeck,Derek.(2013).ArabUprisings,ArmedForces,andCivilMilitaryRelations.(http://afs.sagepub.com/content/39/1/28.abstract)ArmedForces&
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Spring

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Society,Vol.39,No.1(pp.2852)
Ottaway,MarinaChoucairVizoso,Julia,ed.(2008).BeyondtheFaade:PoliticalReformintheArabWorld.Washington,DC:CarnegieEndowmentfor
InternationalPeace.ISBN9780870032394.
Pelletreau,RobertH.(24February2011)."TransformationintheMiddleEast:ComparingtheUprisingsinTunisia,EgyptandBahrain"
(http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67546/roberthpelletreau/transformationinthemiddleeast).ForeignAffairs.
Phares,Walid(2010).ComingRevolution:StruggleforFreedomintheMiddleEast.NewYork:Simon&Schuster.ISBN9781439178379.
Posusney,MarshaPripsteinAngrist,MichelePenner,ed.(2005).AuthoritarianismintheMiddleEast:RegimesandResistance.Boulder:LynneRienner.
ISBN1588263177.
Steinitz,ChrisandMcCants,William(2014).ReapingtheWhirlwind:GulfStateCompetitionaftertheArabUprisings
(https://www.academia.edu/8395293/Reaping_the_Whirlwind_Gulf_State_Competition_after_the_Arab_Uprisings).Arlington,VA:CNACorporation.
Struble,Jr.,Robert(22August2011)."LibyaandtheDoctrineofJustifiableRebellion"(http://catholiclane.com/libyaandthedoctrineofjustifiable
rebellion/).CatholicLane.
Tausch,Arno(2015).Globalization,theenvironmentandthefuture"greening"ofArabpolitics.(https://ideas.repec.org/p/pra/mprapa/64511.html)
Connecticut:REPEC.
Tausch,Arno(2015).ALookatInternationalSurveyDataAboutArabOpinion.MiddleEastReviewofInternationalAffairs,Vol.17,No.3(Fall2013),57
74(http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2388627).NewYork:SSRN.
UnitedStates.Congress.Senate.CommitteeonForeignRelations.SubcommitteeonInternationalOperationsandOrganizations,HumanRights,Democracy,
andGlobalWomen'sIssues.(2012).WomenandtheArabSpring:JointHearingbeforetheSubcommitteeonInternationalOperationsandOrganizations,
HumanRights,Democracy,andGlobalWomen'sIssuesandtheSubcommitteeonNearEasternandSouthandCentralAsianAffairsoftheCommitteeon
ForeignRelations,UnitedStatesSenate,OneHundredTwelfthCongress,FirstSession,November2,2011.(http://purl.fdlp.gov/GPO/gpo18547)
Washington,D.C.:U.S.G.P.O.
TamilAmandaJacoby.(2013)."Israel'srelationswithEgyptandTurkeyduringtheArabSpring:WeatheringtheStorm".IsraelJournalofForeignAffairs,
VII(2),2942

Externallinks
ArabSpring(http://www.teluguaspirant.com/arabspringbackgroundcausesimpactpresentsituationetc/1575/)
RighttoNonviolence(http://www.righttononviolence.org/)
ArabSpring,ChristianFall?ThesituationofChristianminoritiesintheMiddleEastaftertheArabSpring
(http://www.ict.org.il/Article/998/Arab_Spring_Christian_Fall)
UnitedStatesInstituteofPeace(http://www.usip.org/)
CivilMovements:TheImpactofFacebookandTwitter(http://www.thenational.ae/news/uaenews/facebookandtwitterkeytoarabspring
uprisingsreport)
Thefirstanniversaryofthe"ArabSpring"Whatkindofchangehavetakenplacesincethen(http://www.scribd.com/doc/127201195/The
firstanniversaryofthe%E2%80%9EArabSpring%E2%80%9D%E2%80%93Whatkindofchangehavetakenplacesincethen%20)
MiddleEastConstitutionalForum(http://www.righttononviolence.org/mecf)
Liveblogs
MiddleEast(http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/)atAlJazeera
MiddleEastprotests(http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/worldmiddleeast12480844)atBBCNews
ArabandMiddleEastprotests(http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/blog+world/middleeast)liveblogatTheGuardian
MiddleEastProtests(http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/)atTheLedeblogatTheNewYorkTimes
MiddleEastprotestslive(http://live.reuters.com/Event/Middle_East_Protests)atReuters
Ongoingcoverage
A(Working)AcademicArabSpringReadingList
(https://docs.google.com/document/d/1DU8AOlkTV6F0ZyoGcbk_060iBZG5tWKwj_n97EJPe9M/edit)collectedpeerreviewedacademic
articlesontheimpactofsocialmediaontheArabSpring
ConstitutionalTransitionsTimeline(http://www.righttononviolence.org/mecf/timelineme)Collectedlegalandpoliticalchangesandshort
analysisatMiddleEastConstitutionalForum(http://www.righttononviolence.org/mecf/)
UnrestintheArabWorld(http://www.carnegieendowment.org/topic/?fa=list&id=839)collectednewsandcommentaryatCarnegie
EndowmentforInternationalPeace
IssueGuide:ArabWorldProtests(http://www.cfr.org/egypt/issueguidearabworldprotests/p23929),CouncilonForeignRelations
MiddleEastprotests(http://www.ft.com/indepth/middleeastprotests)collectednewsandcommentaryatTheFinancialTimes
UnrestintheArabWorld(http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2011/arab.unrest/)collectedmap,newsandcommentaryatCNN
ArabandMiddleEastunrest(http://www.theguardian.com/world/arabandmiddleeastprotests)collectednewsandcommentaryatThe
Guardian
ArabandMiddleEastunrestinteractivetimeline(http://www.theguardian.com/world/interactive/2011/mar/22/middleeastprotest
interactivetimeline)collectednewsandcommentaryatTheGuardian
RageontheStreets(http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/t.php?t=uprising)collectednewsandcommentaryatHurriyetDailyNewsand
EconomicReview
MiddleEastUnrest(http://www.thenational.ae/news/worldwide/syriapresidentappointsnewgovernmentordersprotestersfreedfromjail)
collectednewsandcommentaryatTheNational
MiddleEastUprisings(http://www.showdownmideast.com/)collectednewsandcommentaryatShowdownintheMiddleEastwebsite
TheArabRevolution(http://www.spiegel.de/international/topic/the_arab_revolution//)collectednewsandcommentaryatSpiegel.de
TheMiddleEastinRevolt(http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/0,28757,2045328,00.html)collectednewsandcommentaryatTime
Other
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Spring

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TheArabSpringOneYearLater:TheCenSEIReportanalyzeshow2011'sclamorfordemocraticreformmet2012'sneedtosustainits
momentum.(http://www.scribd.com/doc/90470593/TheCenSEIReportVol2No6February13192012#outer_page_23)TheCenSEI
Report,13February2012
InterfacejournalspecialissueontheArabSpring(http://www.interfacejournal.net/2012/05/interfacevolume4issue1theseasonof
revolutionthearabspringandeuropeanmobilizations/),Interface:ajournalforandaboutsocialmovements,May2012
"TheShoeThrower'sindex(AnindexofunrestintheArabworld)"
(http://www.economist.com/blogs/dailychart/2011/02/daily_chart_arab_unrest_index).TheEconomist.9February2011.
"InterviewwithTariqRamadan:'WeNeedtoGetaBetterSenseoftheTrendswithinIslamism' "
(http://en.qantara.de/webcom/show_article.php/_c478/_nr1164/i.html).Qantara.de.2February2011.
SadekJ.AlAzm,"TheArabSpring:WhyExactlyatthisTime?"ReasonPapers33(Fall2011)
(http://www.reasonpapers.com/pdf/33/rp_33_18.pdf)
Trackingthewaveofprotestswithstatistics(http://www.revolutiontrends.org/),RevolutionTrends.org
Arabuprisings:10keymoments(http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/worldmiddleeast20626645)fromBBCMiddleEastEditorJeremyBowden
(10December2012)
Canthe"ArabSpring"presentarealthreattoEurope?(http://www.scribd.com/doc/241476196/CantheArabSpringpresentarealthreatto
Europe)
ThefirstanniversaryoftheArabSpringWhatkindofchangehavetakenplacesincethen
(http://knbsz.gov.hu/hu/letoltes/szsz/2012_2_spec.pdf)
ArabSpring,ChristianFall?ThesituationofChristianminoritiesintheMiddleEastaftertheArabSpring
(http://www.ict.org.il/Article/998/Arab_Spring_Christian_Fall)
Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Arab_Spring&oldid=679762319"
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