Anda di halaman 1dari 22

The post war era: Liberalism

Liberal in favor of progressive and social reforms supported by the state (in US). A liberal in US is
most likely to be a Democrat or close to a Democratic Party.
The liberals believe that the federal state should protect people.
Conservative self- help
New Deal Era President F. Roosevelt (1930s) A democrat leading the United States during a time of
worldwide economic depression and total war.
His program for relief, recovery and reform, known as the New Deal, involved the great expansion of the
role of the federal government in the economy. A dominant leader of the Democratic Party, he built the
New Deal Coalition that united labor unions, big city machines, white ethnics, African Americans, and
rural white Southerners. The Coalition realigned American politics after 1932, creating the Fifth Party
System and defining American liberalism for the middle third of the 20th century.
Post War Era 2 presidents associated with liberalism:
1. John Fitzgerald Kennedy (JFK, 60-63) The New Frontier
The term New Frontier was used by liberal, Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy in his
acceptance speech in the 1960 United States presidential election. The phrase developed into a label for
his administration's domestic and foreign programs. Kennedy entered office with ambitions to eradicate
poverty and to raise Americas eyes to the stars through the space program.
Amongst the legislation passed by Congress during the Kennedy Administration:
-unemployment benefits were expanded,
-aid was provided to cities to improve housing and transportation.
-A significant amount of anti-poverty legislation was passed by Congress, including increases in social
security benefits and in the minimum wage, several housing bills, and aid to economically distressed
-Improvements were made in Social Security;
2. Lyndon Baines Johnson (LBJ, 63- 68) The Great Society
The Great Society was a set of domestic programs in the United States launched by Democratic President
Lyndon B. Johnson in 196465. The main goal was the elimination of poverty and racial injustice. He
believed that the government is obliged to fight actively poverty. So to end it, he launched an
"unconditional war on poverty" in the first months of his presidency with the goal of eliminating hunger
and deprivation from American life. (a direct connection to Obamas program):
1. Medicare (1966) provides health insurance for Americans aged 65 and older who have worked
and paid into the system. It also provides health insurance to younger people with disabilities, end
stage renal disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
2. Medicaid (1965) is a social health care program for families and individuals with low income
and limited resources.
To end the racial injustice Civil Rights movement and legislation

These 2 programs were the only programs that have ever existed before Obamas program.

The 1980s: Conservatism

1970s During the 70s, the Vietnam War had just concluded and the U.S. economy was hurting. The
golden age is over and the U.S. entered a recession. Many problems were starting to pop up and it was
overwhelming the American people. The new problems were the energy shortage, high inflation, and
high unemployment, industry falls down, factories shut down.
President Ronald Reagan (81-89) republican party a return of conservative ideas ( a conservative

Against Big Government, he promoted self- help;

Reaganomics defines what happened under Reagan in the American economy:
1. Tax cuts (25%)
2. Reduction of gov spending (cuts) and action (deregulation)
3. Trickle- down theory you focus the benefits on the top of the society, the richest, and
their well- being will influence /trickle down to the middle and low classes.
The Conservative Revolution
1. Less gov intervention in society equality
2. 70s/80s Equal Rights Amendment and Affirmative Action equal rights especially to
women (salaries, jobs), but the Amendment did not pass so it was abolished afterwards.

President William Jefferson Clinton (Bill) (1992- 2000) New Democrat

In 1992 he pledged to introduce a national health care reform, its goal was to come up with a
comprehensive plan to provide universal health care for all Americans. The core element of the proposed
plan was an enforced mandate for employers to provide health insurance coverage to all of their
employees. It was not voted by the Congress.
He passed welfare reform and the State Children's Health Insurance Program, providing health coverage
for millions of children.

Recent debates
George W Bush (2001- 2009) Republican
Eight months into Bush's first term as president, the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks occurred. Bush
responded by launching the War on Terror, an international military campaign which included the war
in Afghanistan (launched in 2001) and the war in Iraq (launched in 2003). He also promoted policies on
the economy, health care, education, social security reform, and amending the Constitution to prohibit
same-sex marriage. He signed into law broad tax cuts, the Patriot Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, the
Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Medicare prescription drug benefits for seniors, and funding for the AIDS
relief program known as PEPFAR. In December 2007, the United States entered its longest post-World

War II recession, often referred to as the "Great Recession" ( a supreme financial crisis, bail-out 20082009).
President Barack Obama 2009, Republican
October 1, 2008 Emergency Economic Stabilization Act (Paulson Plan) - commonly referred to as a
bailout of the U.S. financial system, is a law enacted in response to the crisis authorizing the United States
Secretary of the Treasury to spend up to $700 billion to purchase distressed assets and supply cash
directly to banks. The funds were mostly redirected to inject capital into banks and other financial
institutions. -> Bipartisan law (both Dem and Rep voted for it)
February 2, 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act injection of 7 billion $ in the American
economy (passed).
March 23, 2010 Affordable Care Act (Obamacare) - the most significant regulatory overhaul of the U.S.
healthcare system since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965.

No gov intervention
Measures very difficult to pass
A conservative measure
Private insurance
By 2014 everyone must be insured this is liberal

Inside the Republican Party, there is a strong conservative movement called The Tea Party Movement.
It becomes a defining force in the political life. It opposes to taxes and they want small government (they
want less Washington, lower taxes).
How much state do Americans want? The number of persons who are pro and against is equal.

Key notions:
1. War on poverty - the unofficial name for legislation first introduced by United States President
Lyndon B. Johnson during his State of the Union address on January 8, 1964. This legislation was
proposed by Johnson in response to a national poverty rate of around nineteen percent.
2. Medicaid - is a social health care program for families and individuals with low income and
limited resources.
3. Medicare- provides health insurance for Americans aged 65 and older who have worked and paid
into the system. It also provides health insurance to younger people with disabilities, end stage
renal disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
4. Reaganomics - the economic policies of the former US president Ronald Reagan, associated
especially with the reduction of taxes and the promotion of unrestricted free-market activity. "the
claim that cutting taxes generates more revenue was a key element of Reaganomics"
5. New Democrat - an ideologically centrist faction within the Democratic Party that emerged after
the victory of Republican George H. W. Bush in the 1988 presidential election. They were an
economically liberal and "Third Way" faction which dominated the party for around 20 years
starting in the late 1980s after the US populace turned much further to the political right.
6. Affordable Care Act - (Obamacare) - the most significant regulatory overhaul of the U.S.
healthcare system since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965.
7. Bail- out - term for giving financial support to a company or country which faces serious
financial difficulty or bankruptcy.

Lecture 2: American Diversity Territory

E pluribus unum to make one out of many
How to overcome tension between diversity and ?


Global approach of the American territory

Detailed approach of the American territory
Regions: northeast, Midwest, south, west
Other categories: rustbelt, sunbelt, new sunbelt
Recent stakes and current issues: the economic crisis and the American territory.

Key notions
New Sunbelt
The service economy


A global look at the American territory : the American specificity

(Very diverse, large)
US has 3 major costs to other continents: to Pacific, Asia,
US is the 3rd largest territory after Russia and Canada- offers much resources
How do you unite something that is so vast? Transportation. Transportation is the key to
the development of economy.
Cars are central to the way of life and economy. Civilization.
Part of development:
railroads (the connection of east and west coast),
cattle breeding, the processing of meat in Chicago;
the connection of agriculture thanks to railroads;
also emigration.

How many geographical areas?


A detailed look at the American territory. The American diversity.

4 main regions of the Census for the economy as well:


The Northeast

The oldest and the richest region today. Early emigration concentrated. Today it remains
because of this historical weight a decision center- in economy (NYC- Wall street, Manhattan:
business center; Baltimore projects; Washington; the most important company headquarters are

High concentration of population

A metropolis
High levels of disparity contrasted wealth and economic environment.
Conclusion: a region of wealth but also a region that displays inequality.
The Midwest

(Rustbelt) includes the states around the Great Lake, Lake Michigan, the states west to the
lake. A large area that is both very rural, agricultural, heavily industrial especially around Lake
Michigan. Formerly heavy industrial region, declined industry in present. (The industrial
heartland). This is where the immigrants were asked to come, they needed labor, and the industry
was the key to success.
2 main sectors that gave an identity to the region:

The car industry Detroit (Motown= Motor+ town); music of the working culture: hip
hop and rap; Motown is in Los Angeles today.
The metals (steel industry) Pennsylvania, Ohio.
Huge fields of corn especially; which means that Midwest is also the rustbelt and the
Bread Basket of America.

Rustbelt and Sunbelt- the proof of coexistence of the 2 regions that could not exist one
without another and the dynamicity of the economy. From Rustbelt to Sunbelt => A move
from the industrial sector to the service sector.

A census takes place in US every 10 years. The country is growing, the population is booming
(young and increasing).
The sectors of the economy:
1. Primary sector: everything related to natural resources: agriculture, cattle breeding,
fishing, and timber
2. Secondary sector: everything industrial manufactures and factories (cars, textile)
Chemical industry (along the Gulf of Mexico, south), oil refineries (south and west,
California), aerospace (Seattle, north-west), energy.
3. Tertiary sector: services
Services to the population: banking (Wall Street), health, education, insurance, real estate
(Sunbelt) entertainment (Hollywood, west coast).
Services to businesses : software (Silicon Valley) ; banking, consulting, advertisement
Computers, e commerce, IT (California, Sunbelt)

The service economy- is when a tertiary sector becomes predominant.

South and west = Sunbelt


Agriculture : cotton in deep South (slavery in the south) and fruit in California
(emigration in the west: Mexicans)
Industry the flourishing one,
ex: the chemicals and oil (Gulf of Mexico and LA)
Aerospace (FLA),
aeronautics (Seattle),
defense industry (military and heavy weapons in Denver)
Silicon Valley

Recent stakes and current issues: the economic crisis and the American territory.

Suburbia is a cultural and economic model. Access to property (pursuit of happiness)/Federal

loans in the 1950s. Along with road network development and malls (shopping centers).

Suburbia in crisis: foreclosures (lead by crisis in 2008, they hit the worst in Nevada, Florida
Sunbelt, because it was developing fast, too fast)

Diversity and unity

Re-thinking categories
To qualify
The mobility of the American population

The reasons of decline in Detroit:


The shift from industry to services. Dont put all your eggs in one basket. Everybody was
linked to the auto- industry, when it declined everybody had suffered.
The oil crisis
Big tensions between white and black people. (White people working in start-ups, blacks
poor) strikes -> white people left to live in suburbia.
White flight wealthy people leave, no taxes payed (losing tax base), no funding for
NOW black flight - Because of the crime rate, the blacks leave to suburbia too, leaving
the very poor ones, who do not pay taxes and the schools suffer (local taxes pay for
RESULT: Jobs lost, high crime, school suffer, past political corruption

Key notions:
Rustbelt the heavily industrial area of the northeastern US containing the older industries and
factories, that is in decline today. (Midwest of the US)
Sunbelt the southern and the southwestern region of the US. (Population growth since 1960;
industries such as aerospace, defense, oil; major cities: LA, Dallas, Houston, Miami, Atlanta, etc)
New Sunbelt the Melting pot (California, Texas, NY, Florida) grows through immigration,
Heartland (Arizona, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Tennessee,
Suburbia suburbs thought of as a group and considered (as a community) in terms of the
social and cultural aspects of life.
The service economy the increased importance of the service sector in industrialized

Lecture 3: Diversity in population

1. Thinking about diversity
2. Immigration reform
3. Demography: racial diversity in the US

Key notions:
1. Melting Pot - melt down our differences into 1 common culture
2. Multiculturalism - several cultures can co-exist = salad bowl
3. Preference system (immigration Act 1990) refers to the 9 classes or categories
under which the family- sponsored and employment- based immigrant preference
system visas are granted or distributed since 1992.
4. Immigration and nationality Act (1965) the act that abolished the National Origins
Formula that had been in place in the US since the Emergency Quota Act of 1921.
(abolished the quota system)
5. Nativism the policy of protecting the interests of native- born or established
inhabitants against those of immigrants.
6. Ethnic enclave an area with high ethnic concentration, characteristic cultural
activity and economic activity.
7. Model minority whose members are often perceived to achieve higher degree of
socioeconomic success than the population average.
8. Bipartisan an agreement or cooperation between 2 political parties that usually
oppose each others policies.


Melting pot melt down our differences into 1 common culture
Multiculturalism several cultures can co-exist = salad bowl

The population is evaluated by the federal government every 10 years to determine:

Political representation
The distribution of federal funds
The make-up of the population people are asked many questions including their race; it
is a way of talking about education levels, who lives in a house, etc.
Regional demographics

In the congress 2 chambers:

house of representatives depends of the size of the population; more population =>more
senate 2 people per state, each state 2 senators

Ethnic Enclave
Key notion:

immigrant neighborhood
English may not be spoken
Economic activities conducted in other languages, allow immigrants a possibility to enter
US economy without speaking English
Debate: a gentle integration or a ghetto?

France: statistics on race illegal

US: statistics on race legal in order to measure inequalities
Self- identification
2000 a new category Multiracial
134% expansion between 2000 and 2010



Top sending countries over time: ???

Nativists nativism born in the country but have fear of foreigners

1882 Chinese Exclusion Act (targeting of Chinese people, they managed to convince lawmakers to keep the Chinese out of the country by making rules)
1. To set up a quota system (immigrants bringing new religions undesirable by the
nativists, so they set up a quota system, targeting some races)
1921 Emergency Quota Act
1924 National Origins Act
Quota system = keep out undesirables

During the Cold war, the soviet brought up that Americans are racist so:

LB Johnson president of US
Eliminated the Discriminatory Quotas
Introduced Ceiling on total immigration
- 170 000 from Eastern Hemisphere
- 120 000 from Western Hemisphere
Unlimited immigration for parents or children of American citizens (family reunification)

Preference System
- Family reunification unlimited: the Brothers and Sisters Act
- Job skills or exceptional talent: doctors, nurses, engineers (1960s early 70s from
India and south Asia)
- Refugee status: from a communist country until 1980s. After the 80s, US criticized,
so they accepted everyone running from their government.

Legal permanent Residents by Category of Entry, 2013

Immediate relatives 44% (Mexico, Philippines) mom, dad, children under 21 y.o.
Family preference 26% (Mexico)
Employment 13% (from India)
Refugees 12%
Diversity 5%


Unexpected : increased immigration

Family preference : immediate family members (spouse, widower, children, parents)
Leads to chain migration
About 1 million immigrants per year from the 1990s to the present
A new demographic make-up for US society:
1820- 1960: 85% Europe, 13% Latin America, 3% Asia
1980s: 10% Europe, 45% Latin America, 41% Asia

1990 Reform: diversity Visas

Raised the total number of immigrants to 700 000 (rather than 500 000) and stressed
diversity visas (55 000) gives visas to individuals who participate in a lottery
Eligible: only countries who have sent fewer than 50 000 immigrants over past 5 years.

Immigration reform under Obama

11 million undocumented immigrants

June 2013: Obama endorsed a bipartisan proposal from 8 senators

June 2013: the Border Security Economic Opportunity and Immigration Modernization
Bill of 2013 (Senate)
- Strengthens border security
- Provides path to citizenship for undocumented
But bill must pass in BOTH Senate and House of Representatives

Current immigration Debates

Republican Presidential Primary (Donald Trump)

- Fighting for the Latino Vote
- Racist
- Targets Mexicans and Muslims


36% of Americans identify with a minority group

Data on race in 2010:


Non- Hispanic whites: 63,7% but its dropping rapidly

African- Americans : 12,2%
Latinos 16,4%
A diverse group Mexicans, Central America, Carribean
Cuban immigration:
*1959 upper classes republican, anti-Castro
*1965- 73 middle class, economic immigrants
*1980 Marielito poor and unskilled
Asian 4,7 % , the fastest growing minority group in the US


considered the model minority by the Media

- Self employment in Ethnic enclaves
- Fewer single parent families
- Median income for Asians higher than for whites
- High educational attainment

Majority entered due to skills after 1965 reform

Most were urban, educated, English- speaking BEFORE immigrating

YET Vietnamese different in 1970s (refugee status) and 1980s (poor and rural)
Higher poverty rate than whites


land of opportunity and nation of immigrants

13,1 % foreign born
How do we live together? (Melting pot (people who believe in it think that there should
be an official language) or multiculturalism)
Nativists (pro official language)
What about class?
Diversity is a political issue: Republicans and Immigration!

I part of the exam: summary


To keep the tone of the text + point of view

II part of the exam:

Background of the text:

Key notions

Lecture 4: US Politics and the Media

Key notions:

Culture wars
Religious right
NY Times
Washington Times

1. History of the media in US
2. Media and politics
3. New developments


History of the media in US

Books 1638
Newspapers 1721
Magazines 1740s
Movies : widespread in 1920s 30s
Radio : widespread in 1920s
Television : 1939, widespread in 1950s
Computers : 1944, widespread in 1980s
Internet: 1961, widespread in the 1990s


Freedom of press 1791, Bill of rights

Spreads during 19th century
Investigative journalism late 19th ;
Muckrakers (1906) - write exposes , people who dig out through the mug (ex: food
safety, child labor in factories)
Objective Journalism? (late 19th) - neutrality
Who, what, when, where, why, how
Multiple points of view
Impartiality : Code of Ethics codified in 1920s

3 most popular newspapers in the US:

1. Wall Street Journal (stock market, pro- business, a slight republican bias)
- 1889 (Business Press, Conservative)
- 2.3 million viewers online or paper
2. New York Times (Key Notion) (a NY based vision; a center left orientation)
- 1851
- 2.2 million
3. USA Today (very accessible to people, more superficial, shorter articles, a national point
of view provided by high technology, more for middle class people)
- 1984: aimed at national readership, the most popular

3.3 million


1948 (after the 2 WW) : 2% of Households; 1960: 90%

Unifying force: creating imagined community (Anderson)
National broadcast era (1950s- 1990s)
- Time- bound activity (people had to be home from work to watch a tv show)
Post broadcast era (1990s- present) cable TV
- Niche Market- more channels targeting special categories of people
- Endless activity (no more a time bound activity)

The Internet

Email (mid- 1990s) very important people function with each other
Cloud computing software (1990s) data can be uploaded and downloaded from
different locations. A major factor in globalization. (you can hire somebody who lives in
Social media
- Wikipedia 2001
- Facebook 2003
- YouTube 2005
- Twitter 2006


Media and Politics

Culture wars (kn)
James D. Hunter wrote the book Culture wars, that the bigger issue is the attitude
towards the social issues; liberal support some social issues, conservative others- an
internal war.
Liberals (kn)
Social issues: gun control (conservative against it), abortion (conservative against it;
liberal pro- choice, conservative pro- life), same sex marriage (conservative opposed
to it), separation of church and state (some conservatives believe that there should be
prayer in school)
Is the media objective?

Conservatives and Media

Religious right (kn) (1960s a period of liberation, starting the 70s conservative feel
excluded from the shaping of the nation, Jerry Falwell started a movement , a television
to preach to people, wanted to spread the Christian politicians; they voted Reagan and
after he won, there was a low in 1987 to present both sides on the radio and he repealed
- Televangelism TV channel
- Jerry Falwell, Pat Robinson
Reagan (1981- 1988)
- Fairness Doctrine, repealed in 1987
Conservative talk radio
- Rush Limbaugh (1988) feminazi, he hates Hillary Clinton, besides Hillary bashing
- Glen Beck (2002)
Press : Washington Times (1982) conservative, gives only one side; Washington post
Magazine: The national Review 1955
TV: Fox News 1966 claims to be neutral, but they are very conservative
Internet: Drudge Report (1998), The Blaze (2011) extremely conservative

Liberals and the Media

- National Public Radio (1971)
- The Nation (1865, end of the civil war)
- The New Republic (1914)
- The New Yorker (1925) top quality in US
Washington Post (1877)
Television: CNN (1980)
Internet: Huffington Post (2005)


Elections and the Net

2008: Obama vs McCain The Facebook election
Obama- 2 million fb fans
McCain: 600 000 fb fans
Exit Polls: 70% of youth under 25 voted for Obama
Political power: Reconfigured

2016 Elections and the Media


Hillary Clinton: email scandal overplayed in media? Is she disliked by the US Media?
Donald Trump: Fox News Debate Backfired? (during the debate on fox news, he lost
some of his supporters; making some vulgar comments on a woman)
Social media counts, but so do live television Debates
Role of the media in this election will be as important as in 2008 and 2012


Culture wars: still relevant

TV: post- broadcasting era
o based on niche markets
Internet : web 2.0
o Social media
US political life: influenced by media

Lecture 5: Political parties and elections (p. 62-87)

Key notions:
Republican Party
Democratic Party
Primaries (2016)
Midterm elections (2014)
Tea party movement
Black caucus
(Ballot) initiatives and propositions
A two party system


The protagonists of the American elections: parties, voters, elected officials

The electoral process: timeline, key moments, key places


Primaries 2016: specific issues, current stakes


The protagonists of the American elections: parties, voters, elected officials

a. Political parties: democrats and Republicans

Democrats hold the White House (blue)

Republicans hold the Congress (red, symbol: elephant; also called the GOP- the Grand Old
Party; they are conservative; they have the majority in the House of representatives and in the
Senate= the Congress)

247 republicans, 138 democrats the House of Representatives. Total 435

representatives, according to the population of the state.
In the Senate: 54 republicans, 44 democrats, 2 independents. Each state gets 2
senators. Total 100 senators.
When losing population, the state loses power or representatives in the House of
Legislative branch by the Republicans, the democrats - ?
A two-party system in America

Tea Party Movement


A movement within the Republican Party, less taxes, less government spending, more
conservative views on morals.
Within this party, influence is significant in the form of a caucus : Tea Party Caucus
(48 members in the House of Representatives who influence law making)
Caucus: a group to vote together to

Libertarian Party

They dont have representatives, but they are usually present in the presidential
Ideology: they borrow the fiscal and economic conservatism from the Republicans
and social liberal, in favor of civil liberties and in favor of the state not intervening in
the lives of individuals.

b. American voters
American citizens over 18 can vote in federal elections

Non-citizens do not vote, even they stay legally in US

Exceptions: in local elections, in few places like Chicago, non- citizens with a legal
status can vote in local elections, example: the school boards that have to be elected
The right to vote was gradually granted : gradual voting rights
The consequences of slavery:
1870 15th Amendment- male African Americans (not women) were granted the right
to vote; but it was just on paper in the majority of states.
1965 Through the Voting rights act, Johnson and The Great Society, after that
Kennedy- they truly gained the right to vote. A federal protection in every state.
June 2013 this ruling was overturned, today the state does not need a federal
agreement to change the voting disposition (p.125)
1920 Women were granted the right to vote
The Turnout the participation of voters, taux de participation
In 2000 51, 21% of the American citizens voted (turned out)
In 2008 28, 23% a breaking record (triggered by Obamas participation)
In 2012 54, 8%
Midterm elections
36% to 39%; Swing voters voters who do not vote, who vote exceptionally, who
are not regular voters or supporters, how to convince them, swinging them to vote for
one or another or whether to change their choices. The case of Obama, who attracted
new kind of voters.
c. Elected officials

Because in the US are different levels of governments: federal/ state/ local

Federal level: for the president (every 4 years) and members of the Congress (senators for 6
years, congressmen every 2 years)
At the State level: governor, members of the State Congress, Justices of State courts
At the local level: sheriffs, school boards, judges
You also answer questions Ballot Initiatives and Propositions (Local laws are directly
submitted to the voters)


The electoral process

Elections in November 2016

a. Timeline
1. Primaries March to June 2016 the official candidate for each of the parties

2. Convention/Nomination August 2016; in US you vote for the ticket that includes
the president and his/hers vice- president
3. Election Day November 2016 the actual choice of the ticket; the president is
officially elected in December while in the Congress takes place the official reporting
of the vote; and he becomes officially the president in January.
b. Popular vote vs electoral vote
In November The Popular Vote = citizens/voters
December electoral College = electors
The Winner takes all- whoever wins gets all the votes (the votes reported in December
in the Congress are state by state; the candidate who gets most of the votes in the statewins the state and the most electors.
- For each state: the number of electoral votes= number of representatives+ number of
- Single uninominal ballot
Specific issues, current issues
a. Diversity a multicultural approach to the politics
- 2012 election Vote for Obama and Biden
93% African Americans, they represent 13% of voters
71% of Hispanic voters 10% they are swing voters, they do not vote usually for
73% of Asian Americans
60% of American voters between 18- 29 y.o.
Romney won the majority of voters over 49

Congressional Black Caucus in the Congress, all republicans (43) they gather in
order to defend collectively specific issues for their community
Hispanic Caucus (26)
Congressional Hispanic Conference (12)
Color- blind society

b. Campaign spending
2012 election the most expensive ever about $1 billion (980- 990 millions)
2014 midterms, most expensive midterm election (total of $4 billions)
Citizens United a decision of the supreme court in 2012 that allowed unlimited amount of
money to be collected and spent without restrictions who can give money (people, companies)
justified by freedom
Super PACS (political action committee) organizations, they can also collect money, they
cannot defend a candidate, but an idea or a reform (ex: the defense of Obamacare)

Bush vs Clinton