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Lesson 4.

1 Polynomial Function
Objectives:
1. Identify a polynomial function from a given set of functions.
2. Determine the degree of a polynomial function.
Study Guide:
In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression of finite length constructed from
variables (also known as in determinates) and constants, using only the operations of
addition, subtraction, multiplication, and non-negative integer exponents. It is a function
that can be written in a form
P(x) = a0xn + a1xn-1 + a2xn-2 + + an
P(x) has the following properties:
a0 the first non-zero coefficient
n the highest exponent is the degree

is

called

the

leading

coefficient

an the constant term


Exercise 4.1
A. Identify which of the following are polynomial functions. Explain your answer.
1.
P(x) = 4x-2
2.
P(x) = 2x
3.
P(x) = 7x3+4x-3
4.

f(x) =

5.

g(x) = (x-3)3
h(x) = 10x+2
f(x) = 5+7x-3x2-4x3
P(x) = 25-4x2

6.
7.
8.
9.

f(x) =

10.

h(x) =

B. For each function, determine the leading coefficient (LC), the leading term (LD),
constant term (CT) and the degree (D) of each of the given polynomials.
LC
4

f(x) = 3x +5x +17x -25x+10


f(x) = 2x3+3x2-2x-5
f(x) = x5-5x3+6x-2

LD

CT

4.2 Synthetic Division


Objectives:
1. Use synthetic division to find the quotient and the remainder wh a polynomial is
divided by a linear expression of the form (x-c)
Study Guide:
Synthetic Division is also called Horners Method. Following are the steps in
finding the quotient of P(x) divided by x-c using synthetic division:
a. Arrange the coefficients in descending powers of x in the first row, placing zeros
for the missing terms.
b. Bring down the leading coefficient in the third row.
c. Multiply the entries in the third row by c, put the result in the second row under
the next column, and add. Put the sum in the third row under the present column.
d. Repeat the third step until the column of the constant term is reached.
e. Write the quotient, Q(x), using the entries in the third row as the coefficient of the
terms of x. The quotient is 1 degree lower than the degree of the dividend. The
entry in the last column is the value of R(x).
Exercises 4.2
Divide P(x) by D(x) using long division then express P(x) in the form P(x) = Q(x)D(x)
+R(x)
1. P(x) = x4+5x3-2x+8
D(x) = x-2
2. P(x) = 2x5-7x4+5x3-4x2-x+5
D(x) = x+1
3. P(x) = 3x5+5x4-3x3+x2+5x-2
D(x) = x+2
4. P(x) = 3x6+2x5-4x4+7x3-5x2+8x+1
D(x) = 3x-1
5. P(x) = 4x5-5x3+9
D(x) = 2x+3
Critical Thinking
What must be multiplied by x-1 to get x4-x3-3x2+10x-7? Explain your answer.

4.3 The Remainder Theorem and the Factor Theorem


Objectives:
1. State and illustrate the Factor Theorem
2. Find P(r) by synthetic Division and Remainder Theorem
Study Guide:
In Algebra, the polynomial remainder theorem is an application of polynomial
long division. It states that the remainder of a polynomial f(x) divided by a linear divisor
x-a is equal to f(a).
Exercises 4.3
A. Answer the following questions below and put your answer to the corresponding by:
*Note: To check your answer, make sure that the sum of vertical, horizontal and
diagonal is equal to 15.
A.

7
9

D.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

B.

C.

1
3

E.

(5x3+3x2-10x+2)/(x-2)
(x4-5x3+7x2+9x-8)/(x-5)
(x3-12x2+8x+60)/(x-10)
(2x3+3x2-4x+5)/(x+2)
(3x4-4x2+3x-2)/(x+1)

6 = 212
2 = 34
8 = -6
4=9
5 = -60

B. Determine if the given binomial is a factor of the given polynomial, then choose the
letter of the correct answer.
1. f(x) = 5x4+16x3-15x2+8x+16

A. x-2

2. f(x) = x3+2x2-5x-6

B. x-3

3. f(x) = x5-2x4+3x3-6x2-4x+8

C. x+4

4. f(x) = 2x3+3x2-8x-12

D. x+1

5. x3-3x2+4x-12

E. 2x+3

C. Write YES f it is a factor and NO if it is not.

1. Is x-1 a factor of f(x) = 2x4+3x2-5x+7?


2. Is (2x-3)(x-1) are factors of f(x) = 2x2-5x+3?
3. Is (x+2) a factor of f(x) = x4-3x-5?
4. Is (x+3) a factor of 2x4+5x3-2x2+5x+3
Critical Thinking
1. Determine the value of k so that x-2 is a factor of x 4+3x3+kx2+x-14?
2. If x-1 and x-2 are both factors of x4+Ax2-5x2+Bx+4, what are the values of A and
B? Why?

4.4 Roots and their Multiplicities


Objectives:
1. Find the zeros of polynomial functions of degree greater than 2 using the factor
theorem, synthetic division, Depressed Equations and Factoring.
Study Guide:
Example: Find the zeros of P(x) = (x-2)2(x+1)3(x+3)
Let (x-2)2(x+1)3(x+3)=0
Since the polynomial is already in factored form, then just equate each factor to zero
and solve for x.
(x-2)2 = 0

(x+1)3 = 0

x+3 = 0

x-2 = 0

x+1 = 0

x = -3

x=2

x = -1

It can be observed that x=2 is a zero of multiplicity of 2 of P(x) since (x-2)2 is a


factor of P(x), while x=-1 is a zero of multiplicity 3 since (x+1)3 is also a factor of P(x).
Therefore, the zeros of P(x) = (x-2)2(x+1)3(x+3) are 2 of multiplicity 2, -1 of multiplicity 3
and -3.
Exercises 4.4
A. Find all zeros of each polynomial function with their multiplicities.
1.

P(x) = (x-3)(x+2)2

2.

P(x) = (x+1)2(x-3)2(x+5)2

3.

P(x) = x2(x+3)2(x-5)3

4.

P(x) = (2x+3)2(3x-4)3(x+4)

5.

P(x) = (x+4)2(x2-9)

6.

P(x) = (2x-5)4(x2-2x-15)

7.

P(x) = (4x-1)2(x-4)3(x2+5x-14)

8.

P(x) = x3(5x+2)(2x2+5x+3)

9.

P(x) = x(x-4)2(3x+2)3

10.

P(x) = x2(3x-4)2(5x2-9x+4)

B. Use the factor theorem, synthetic division or factoring techniques to determine all the
zeros of the following polynomial functions.
1.

P(x) = x3+4x2-11x-30

2.

P(x) = x4-x3-7x2+x+c

3.

P(x) = x5-6x4+x3-40x2+16x

4.

P(x) = x3-2x2-29x+42

5.

P(x) = x4-5x3-14x2

Critical Thinking:
Determine the polynomial function of lowest integral coefficient if one of the zeros of
P(x) is

. Justify your answer.

4.5 The Rational Roots Theorem and Descartes Rule of Signs


Objectives:
1. State and illustrate the Rational Zero Theorem
2. Use Descartes Rule of Signs in finding the possible number of positive and
negative real zeros of a given polynomial function
Study Guide:
The Rational Zero Theorem states that the possible rational zeros of a
polynomial must be equal to a factor p of the constant term divided by a factor of the
leading coefficient. This means that the possible rational zeros are equal to p/q.
Descartes Rule of Signs
1. The number of positive real zeros of f(x) is either equal to the number of sign
changes or variations in signs of f(x) or is less than that number by an even
integer. Note that if there is only one sign change in f(x), then f(x) has exactly one
positive real zero.
2. The number of negative real zeros of f(x) is either equal to the number of sign
changes or variations in signs of f(-x) or is less than that number by an even
integer. Note that if f(-x) has only one sign change, then f(x) has exactly one
negative real zero.
Exercises 4.5
A. Determine all the possible zeros of the following polynomials.
1. P(x)=2x4-4x3-x2+4x-1
2. P(x)=4x3+11x2-2x+6
3. P(x)=4x4-3x3-10x2+3x-6
4. P(x)=2x5+2x4+3x3-3x2-6x-1
5. P(x)=5x6-45x4+14x3-90x+27
B. Make a chart summarizing the possible combinations of positive, negative and
imaginary roots of each polynomial equations using Descartes Rule of Signs.
Number of Positive Real
Roots

1.
2.
3.
4.

x2-x-5=0
x3-x2+3x+4=0
x3+4x2-x-12=0
3x4+4x3-x2+x+4=0

Number of Negative Real


Roots

Number of Imaginary Roots

5. 4x4-2x3+x2+2x-4=0

4.6 The Graphs of Polynomial Functions


Objective:
1. Draw the graphs of polynomial functions of degree greater than 2.
Study Guide:
The graph of polynomial function is a curve with turning points depending upon
the degree of the polynomial.
Exercises 4.6
A. Prepare a table of values then sketch the graph of each polynomial function.
1.

P(x)=x3+x2-5x+3

2.

P(x)=-10-3x+6x2-x3

3.

P(x)=x4-4x3-2x2+12x+9

4.

P(x)=x4-8x3+22x2-24x+9

5.

P(x)=8x2+4x3-2x4-x5

B. Communicating Mathematics
1. Based on the graphs in A, describe the graph of the polynomial function when:
a. The degree of the polynomial is even and a n0.
___________________________________________________________________
b. The degree of the polynomial is even and a n0.
___________________________________________________________________
c. The degree of the polynomial is odd and a n0.
___________________________________________________________________
d. The degree of the polynomial is odd and a n0.
___________________________________________________________________
2. At most, how many zeros does a polynomial functions have? Is it possible for a
polynomial to have no zero? Explain.

CHAPTER 5: EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS


5.1 The Nature of Exponential Functions
Objective:
1. Identify real-life relationships which are exponential in nature.
Study Guide:
A certain situation or occurrence shows exponential change of the original
amount is multiplied by a fixed factor.
Exercises 5.1
A. Tell whether the situations show exponential change or not by completing the tables
below.
1. A man buys a pair of signature pants worth P3000 with his credit card on condition
that he pays his bill within a month or he will be charged an interest of 1% per month
accumulated over the period he does not pay his bill.
Time (months)

Amount of Bill

2. A faucet leaks such that water drips from it at a fixed rate of 12 droplets per minute.
Time (minutes)

No. of Droplets

12

B. Analyze each situation and tell whether it is related to exponential change or not.
1. A new convenience store has initially 20 costumers and each week 2 new
customers are coming.
2. A population of months increases by half of its population size every week.
3. If a student forgets to return a library book on the date it is due, he is fined P5 on
the first day and P2 more each day thereafter.
4. The population of a certain type of microorganism doubles every hour.

5. A man accepts a position at P12000 a month with the understanding that he will
receive P500 increase every year.

5.2 Other Exponential Functions


Objectives:
1. Describe some properties of the exponential function.
2. Sketch the graph of an exponential function.
Study Guide:
Domain is the set of all first elements of the ordered pairs in a relation. Range is
the set of all second elements of the ordered pairs in a relation. Intercept is the
intersection of the graph with either the x-or-y-axis.
Exercises 5.2
A. 1. Consider a piece of string. Fold it into two then cut it. . Observe that there are now
two pieces of string. Put the two pieces of string together, fold them again into two
then cut the pieces. How many pieces of string are there now.
No. of folds (x)

No. of string y=f(x)


2.Draw the graph of the table above.
3.What mathematical sentence describes the relationship above?
4.What is the domain of the function?
5.Describe the graph obtained.
B. Sketch the graph of the exponential function of the form f(x)=a x , where a1 and x is a
real number for the domain -3x3.
1. Draw the graphs of f(x)=2x, f(x)=3x and f(x)=4x on one set of axes.
x

-3

-2

-1

f(x)=2x
f(x)=3x
f(x)=4x

2.What do the three graphs have in common?

C. Draw the graphs of f(x)=(1/2)x, f(x)=(1/3)x and f(x)=(1/4)x on one set of axes.
x
f(x)=(1/2)x
f(x)=(1/3)x
f(x)=(1/4)x

-3

-2

-1

5.3 Solving Exponential Equations


Objectives:
1. Use the law of exponents to transfer exponential equations into algebraic
equations.
2. Solve exponential equations.
Study Guide:
Laws of Exponents

An exponential equation is an equation involving exponential functions. To solve


an exponential equation, express both sides of the equation in the same base and solve
for the value of the missing term.
A. Determine the solution/s to each exponential equation.
1. 3x=812x+5

6. 22x=1/128

2. 2x+1=32-2x+5

7. 3x^2+4x=1/27

3. 162x-1=645x+3

8. 53x=125-x

4. 253x+1=125x+3

9. 42x64x=1/512

5. 7x+5=1/49

10. 125=(1/5)x+5

B. Solve for x.
1.

2.
3.

4.

6.

5.

C. Communicating Mathematics
1. Can you find a value of x such that f(x)=2 x will be equal to zero? Justify your answer.
______________________________________________________________________
2. For any exponential function, f(x)=a x, is there any value of x so that ax=0? Explain
your answer.
______________________________________________________________________

5.4 Inverse Functions


Objectives:
1. Define inverse functions
2. Determine the inverse of a given function.
Study Guide:
Two functions f and g are inverse functions if and only if f(g(x))=x and g(f(x))=x.
The inverse function of f is often denoted as f -1.
Exercises 5.4
A. Show the inverse of each of the following functions. Is the inverse still a function?
1. {(-2,4),(-1,1),(0,0),(1,1),(2,4)}

__________

2. {(0,1),(1,2),(2,4),(3,8),(4,16)}

__________

3. {(-2,-8),(-1,-1),(0,0),(1,1),2,8)}

__________

B. Find the inverse of each relation.


1. f(x)= 5x-2
2. f(x)=

7. f(x)=
8. f(x)=

3. f(x)= 1/5(x-2)
4. f(x)=x2+2x-2-4
5. f(x)=
6. f(x)= 5(3x)

9. f(x)=

10. f(x)=

5.5 The Logarithmic Function


Objectives:
1. Define the logarithmic function as the inverse of the exponential function is the
same base.
2. Describe the properties of logarithmic functions.
Study Guide:
The mathematics of logarithms and exponentials occurs naturally in many
branches of science. It is very important in solving problems related to growth and
decay. Therefore, we need to have some understanding of the way in which logs and
exponentials work.
The formula y=logbbx is said to be written in logarithmic form and x=by is said to
be written in exponential form. In working with these problems, it is most important to
remember that y=log bx and x=by are equivalent statements.
Exercises 5.5
Table Completion: Complete the table by converting the exponential to logarithmic form
in Table A while convert the following logarithm to exponential form in Table B. Write the
correct answer on the table.
A.
Exponential Form

Logarithmic Form

49=7

1.

(1/9)-=3

2.

23=8

3.

(1/5)-2=25

4.

42=16

5.

33=1/27

6.

(1/4)-1=4

7.

43/2=8

8.

zy=x

9.

64=9

10.

B.
Logarithmic Form

Exponential Form

log366=

1.

log82=1/3

2.

log 327=3

3.

log 1/749=-2

4.

log3/41=0

5.

log100.01=-2

6.

log2=-1

7.

log10100=2

8.

log264=6

9.

log1/8=3

10.

5.6 The Laws of Logarithms


Objective:
1. State and apply the laws of logarithms.
Study Guide:
Four Basic Properties of Logarithms
1. logbxy = logbx + logby
2. logb = logbx-logby
3. logbxn = nlogbx
4. logbx = logax/logab
Exercises 5.6
A. Choose your best answer. Write your answer before the number. LETTER ONLY.
A. logarithm of product

D. logarithm of quotient

G. log7

B. Logarithm of root

E. logarithm of power

H. log72

C. logarithm

F. log20

I. log6

1. It is logarithm that is equal to p times the logarithm of number.


2. It is logarithm that is equal to the logarithm of the dividend minus the logarithm of
the divisor.
3. log5+log4 = x
4. log14-log2 = x
5. It is logarithm that the two numbers equals the sum of the logarithms of the
numbers.
6. log2+log3 = x
7. What do call to another name for an exponent?

8. 2log3+3log2 = x
9. It is logarithm that is equal to the logarithm of the number divided by r.

B. Direction: Express the following as single logarithms. Reach the star to get a bonus
of 5 points. Write your answer on the box.
1. log 5 + log 4=
2. log 14 log 2=
3. 2log 3 + 3log 2=
4. 2log 6 + log 2=
5.
6. log 7 + log 3=
7. log 10 log 2=
8. 2log 10 log 5=
9. 4log 6 2log 2=
10. 3log 3 + 2log 5=

5.7 Common Logarithms


Objective:
1. Compute common logarithms using a:
a. Calculator
b. Table of logarithms
Study Guide:
A logarithm to the base 10 is called the common logarithm. TO simplify the
rotation needed to write them, we shall agree that when the base of a logarithm is not
written, it is understood to be 10. That is:
log y = log10y
If log x = y, then x is called the antilogarithm of y. in symbols, x = antilog y.
Exercises 5.7
A. Between what two consecutive integers do each of the following logarithms lie? Do
not use calculator.
1. log 236

6. log 0.03

2. log 178

7. log 2.3

3. log 67

8. log 0.005

4. log 3002

9. log 1.1

5. log 12000

10. log 7.5

B. Determine the value of each of the following common logarithms to six decimal
places.
1. log 5

6. log 17.7

2. log 11

7. log 245

3. log 3.48

8. log 387

4. log 5.12

9. log 14320

5. log 23.42

10.
Communicating Mathematics
1. Your calculator displays an error when you try to find log 0. Why?
2. Why does your calculator display an error when you try to find log(-10)?
5.8 Solving Logarithmic Equations
Objectives:
1. Solve logarithmic equations.
2. Use the laws of logarithms to solve logarithmic equations.
Study Guide:
Logarithmic equations are equations involving logarithmic functions. To solve
logarithmic equations, apply the laws of logarithms/exponents.
Exercises 5.8
A. Solve for the unknown
1. logx27 = 3
2. log2/3x = 2
3. loge20 = x
4. log1080 = x
5. log4(x+3) = 2
6. log (2x-1) = log (4x-3) log x
7. log y = log 5x
8. log2x = 4.5
9. log23x = 4.5
10. log9x = 1
B. Loop the words that have a connection in logarithm.
Q

5.9 Problem Solving with Logarithmic and Exponential Equations


Objective:
1. Solve problems involving logarithms and exponential equations.
Study Guide:
Exponential and logarithmic functions have many applications not only in science
but also in business.
The use of calculator is a great help in solving many of the problems involving
exponential and logarithmic functions.
Exercises 5.9
Solve the following problems.
1.
Principal

Rate (%)

Time in Years

Compounded

1. P60000

Every 6 mos.

2. P120000

10

1.5

Yearly

3. P240000

Every 2 mos.

4. P15000

2.5

Yearly

Amount

2. If P50000 is invested at 5% today, how much will it be worth at the end of 3 years if it
is compounded
a. annually?
b. semi-annually?
c. quarterly?
d. monthly?

3. On her 7th birthday, Princess parents placed P20000 in time deposit at 5% interest
compounded monthly. In ten years, how much money would be available for her
educational expenses?
4. A certain city has a population of 2000 and a growth rate of 2.5%. What will be the
expected population after 5 years?
5. If the half-life of a certain radioactive substance is 100 years, what fraction of the
original amount of substance will remain after 400 years? after 600 years?
CHAPTER 6: Circular Functions
6.1 Measuring Angles in Radians
Objectives:
1. Convert angle measures from degrees to radians, and vice versa.
2. Illustrate angles in standard position.
3. Determine the coterminal angle or angles and the reference angle of an angle.
Study Guide:
A central angle whose arc is equal in length to the radius of the circle is called a
radian. The radian measure of is defined to be the ratio of the arc length S to radius r:
where r is the radius, S is the arc length and is the measure of the angle in
radians.
If is a complete revolution, S=2r and

If is a complete revolution, the degree measure of is 360.


Exercises 6.1
A. Radian. The Snowman.
The snowman picture has a unit circle for its base. You are to label 16 points in
the unit circle with the radian measure inside the circle and the coordinates of the
points outside the circle. Then color and decorate the snowman.

B. Wrute True in the space provided if the underlined statement is correct, if not write
False.
1. Radian is the ration between the length of an arc and its radius.
2. Radian is the standard unit of angular measure.
3. It is widely used in English.
4. The unit was formerly an SI complementary unit.
5. The radian is represented by the symbol dian.
6. Radian describes the plane angle subtended by a circular arc as the length of the
arc divided by the radius of the arc.
7. Radian is credited to Roger Cotes.
8. The term radian first appeared in print on June 5, 1873.
9. Radian is a false number.
10. The magnitude in radians of such a subtended angle is equal to the ratio of the
arc length to the length of the radius of the circle.
C. Convert the following Radians to Degrees.
1. 5
2. 321

7.

3. 12
4. 412
5. 2
6.

8.

9.

10.

D. Convert the following Degrees to Radians.


1. 0

6. 120

2. 30

7. 135

3. 45

8. 150

4. 60

9. 180

5. 90

10. 360

6.2 The Sine and Cosine Functions


Objectives:
1. Define the sine and cosine functions of an angle , given a point P() on the unit
circle.
2. Evaluate the sine and cosine functions of special angles, and use identities to
quickly derive the others.
Study Guide:
Given a right triangle, ABC with its parts labeled, the ratio of the side opposite to the
hypotenuse is called the sine of the measure of .

The ratio of the side adjacent to the hypotenuse is called the cosine of the measure of
.

Exercise 6.2
A. Fill the table with the correct values of special angles.

sin

cos

tan

sec

csc

cot

30
45

60
90

2
1

6.4 The Other Circular Functions


Objectives:
1. Define the four other circular functions.
2. Evaluate the circular functions of special angles

Study Guide:
We define the other four circular functions-tangent function, cosecant function,
secant function and cotangent function in terms of the sine and cosine functions.

Exercise 6.4
A. Direction: Match the given trigonometric functions on column A with the given
values on column B.
6. sin 30
COLUMN A

7. sec 45

1. cos 90

8. sec 60

2. csc 60

9. tan 90

3. sin 45

10.

4. cot 30
5. sec 0

COLUMN B

csc 0

a. Undefined

f. 0

b.

g.

c. 1
d. 2
e.

h.

i.

B. Illustration
Direction: Draw, label and put description on the given angle of triangles.
1-3. 60-30-90
4-6 45-45-90
7-10. 30-60-90

6.5 Graphs of Other Circular Functions


Objective:
1. Sketch the graphs of the circular functions.
Study Guide:
The secant and cosine functions are reciprocals. Hence the secant function can
be graphed by making use of the cosine since

(cos0).

Exercise 6.5
1. Complete the table.
Function

Domain

Range

Period

Amplitude

Sine
Cosine
Tangent
Cotangent
Secant
Cosecant
2. Complete the table.
Function
y = 2 sin 3
y = sin /2

y = 4 sin 5
y = 3 cos /3
y = cos 4
3. Sketch the graph of each of the following functions on the interval 0 2. Give
the period and amplitude of each function.
a. y = sin 3

d. y = csc 3

b. y = cos /2

e. y = -cos

c. y = sec 2
4. Sketch the graph of each of the following functions on the interval .
a. y = tan 2

d. y = cot 2

b. y = tan

e. y = -2 tan

c. y = 3 tan

6.6 The Fundamental Trigonometric Identities


Objective:
1. State the fundamental trigonometric identities and use them to prove other

identities.
Study Guide:
A trigonometric identity is an equation involving trigonometric functions that can
be solved by any angle. Trigonometric identities have less to do with evaluating
functions at specific angles than they have to do with relationships between functions.
Reciprocal Identities:

Quotient Identities:

Pythagorean Identities:
sin2 + cos2 = 1

tan2 + 1 = sec2

1 + cot2 = csc2

cos(-) = -cos

tan(-) = -tan

Negative-Angle Identities:
sin(-) = -sin
Exercises 6.6:

A. For each trigonometric expression in Column A, choose the expression from Column
B that completes a fundamental identity.
Column A

Column B
a. sin2 x + cos2 x

1.

b. cot x

2. tan x

c. sec2 x

3. cos(-x)
4. tan2 x + 1

d.

5. 1

e. cos x

B. Direction: Use the fundamental identities to get an equivalent expression then


simplify it.
1. cot sin
2. cos csc
3. sin2 (csc2 1)
4. tan + cot
5. sin (csc sin )
6. sin2 + tan2 + cos2
7. sec cot sin
8. cot2 (1 + tan2 )
9. (sec 1)(sec + 1)
10. (sec + csc )(cos sin )

Lesson 6.7 Other Common Identities


Objective:
1. State other trigonometric identities.

Study Guide:
The following identities are derived from the fundamental trigonometric identities:
sin csc = 1
cos sec = 1
tan cot = 1
tan cos = sin
cot sin = cos

Exercises 6.7
Direction: Verify the following:
1.

2.

3. 1 + cot = csc (cos + sin )


4. sec4 sec2 = tan4 + tan2

Lesson 6.8 Double-Angle, Half-Angle, Sum-to-Product, and Product-to-Sum


Formulas
Objectives:
1. Use the appropriate identities to evaluate expressions containing circular
functions.
Study Guide:
Double-Angle Identities:
cos 2A = cos2 A sin2 A

sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A

cos 2A = 1 2 sin2 A
cos 2A = 2 cos2 A 1
Half-Angle Identities

Exercises 6.8
Directions: Use the identities to complete the following and simplify.

1.
5.
2.
3. cos 14 = 1 2 sin2 ____

6.

4.

Lesson 6.9 Trigonometric Equations


Objective:
1. Solve simple trigonometric equations.
Study Guide:
Conditional equations with trigonometric (or circular) functions can usually be
solved by using algebraic methods and trigonometric identities. For example:
2 sin + 1 = 0
2 sin = -1
sin = -
Exercises 6.9
Directions: Solve each equation for solutions in the interval (0, 2) by first solving for the
trigonometric function.
1. 2 cot x + 1 = -1
2. 2 sec x + 1 = sec x + 3
3. 2 cos4 x = cos2 x
4. sin x + 2 = 3
5. tan2 x + 3 = 0
6. -2 sin2 x = 3 sin x + 1
7. 2 sin x + 3 = 4

8. sec2 x + 2 = -1
9. cos2 x + 2 cos x + 1 = 0
10. tan3 x = 3 tan x

Lesson 6.10 Functions Derived from the Sine and the Cosine Functions
Objective:
1. Describe the properties of functions derived from the sine and cosine functions.
Study Guide:
Sum and Difference Identities:
sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B
sin(A B) = sin A cos B cos A sin B
cos(A + B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B
cos(A B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B
Exercises 6.10
Directions: Find the value of the following.
1. cos 15
2. cos 75
3. sin 105
4. sin 165
5. sin (-345)