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EXPERIMENT 2 WOODEN PENDULUM

ABSTRACT
This experiment was conducted in order to determine the mass moment of inertia at the centre of
gravity, IG and at the suspension points, IO1 and IO2 by oscillation. From the experiment conducted, the
finding is that there are some differences between the values of I O and IG from the experiment data and
also from theoretical value. The potential factors that cause to the differences in values are further
discussed. The finding is that the wooden pendulum oscillates in non-uniform motion especially when
it is suspended at IO2. Based on the experiment, it is found out that the value of IG and IO from both
suspension points is totally different although they share the same value of mass of the wooden
pendulum. The period is also different for both points setting. After the data was taken, the period of
oscillation, T1 and T2 are obtained from the two different suspension points. Hence, after getting T
value, then the value of IG and IO can be measured. The errors that occur might be due to disturbing
from surrounding and human error. The time for 10 oscillations was taken manually by using
stopwatch. By the end of this experiment, the values of IG and IO are able to be calculated by using the
theory

INTRODUCTION
`A simple pendulum consists of a point-mass hanging on a length of a string assumed to be
weightless. A small weight hanging by a string from a retort stand illustrates this condition. If the
mass is displaced slightly from its equilibrium position, the mass will perform simple harmonic
oscillation. An extended solid object that is free to swing on an axis is called a physical pendulum,
whose period is now dependant on the mass moment of inertia about the rotational axis and it distance
from the centre of mass. A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing freely.
When a pendulum is displaced from its resting equilibrium position, it is subject to a restoring force
due to gravity that will accelerate it back toward the equilibrium position. When released, the
restoring force combined with the pendulum's mass causes it to oscillate about the equilibrium
position, swinging back and forth. The time for one complete cycle, a left swing and a right swing, is
called the period. A pendulum swings with a specific period which depends mainly on its length.
From its discovery around 1602 by Galileo Galilei, the regular motion of pendulums was used for
timekeeping, and was the world's most accurate timekeeping technology until the 1930s. Pendulums
are used to regulate pendulum clocks, and are used in scientific instruments such accelerometers and
seismometers. Historically they were used as gravimeters to measure the acceleration of gravity in
geophysical surveys, and even as a standard of length. The word 'pendulum' is new Latin, from the
Latin pendulus, meaning hanging.

THEORY
The simple pendulum is an example of mathematical model due to weight at one end of any supports
which hanged at a pivot (fixed) point. It will exhibits a swing of backward and forward with constant
amplitude due to the gravitational force as it gives an initial release at 10 o freedom (angle of
displacement). The amplitude of swings would tend to declines compared with the real pendulum
which is mainly subject to friction and surrounding ambient
On this experiment we had used a wooden pendulum as rigid body suspended from some point which
is it was acted as a physical pendulum which is located on its centre of mass.it is a simply rigid object
which is swings freely above some pivot point. The physical pendulum may be compare with a simple
pendulum, which is consists of a small mass suspended by a string. For this situation the pendulum is
stick with a pivot at a fixed point at the centre of mass. Via this experiment, an equation of motion
was developed in order to find the mass moment of inertia whether at centre of gravity, I G or at
suspension point, IO by oscillation with the deflection angle of 10o

Ax
IA
800m
G
Free Body Diagram
of Wood
m

Free Body Diagram of Wood Pendulum

For small displacement, the period of T of a physical pendulum is independent of its amplitude which
is

T =2

W is represent as a harmonic oscillator

W=

I
mgr

Where I is the rotational inertia of the pendulum about its rotation axis, m is the total mass of the
pendulum, g is the acceleration of gravity and r is the distance from the rotation.

I1 = 1/12 m1L12 + m1d12

I2 = 1/4 m2r22 + m2d22

I3= 1/12 m3l32 +m3d32

m = mass of the body (Kg)


L = length of the composite body (m)
d = distance from x axis to the centroid location (m)
I = mass moment of inertia (kg.m2)

The formula used for the calculation of mass moment of inertia (experimental)

To determine L

T =2

L
g

To find RG

RG =

x (L2x )
L1 + L22 x

To calculate Io

I O I G mL2

To find IG1

To find the value of IG2

RG

I G 1m
L1 =

xRG 2

I G 2+ m
L2=

T = Time taken to complete one oscillation (period), t (sec)


L = Length, l (m)
g = Gravitational acceleration (ms-2)
RG = Distance from suspension point to centre of gravity (m)
X = Fix length, 0.7m
Io = Moment of inertia about point O at suspension point 1 & 2
IG = Moment of inertia about the centre of gravity (kg.m2)

EXPERIMENT 3 FORCE VIBRATION

ABSTRACT
The forced vibration experiment was carried out to determine the resonance of Spring-Dashpot
System in different damping conditions. There are 4 data that has been tabulated into table. The
information that has been collected is the value of amplitude according to the frequency that has been
specified. The experiment is carried out by using Universal Vibration System Apparatus TM155. The
frequency that has been used are from 5 Hz to 14 Hz. There are two types of damping system has
been used for this experiment, the damped and no damped system. The damped system that has been
run is set up into two which are closed and open. These two conditions will be give different result in
amplitude readings. The damper also is located into 4 distances which are different. This damper
distance will give impact to the shape of amplitude and its value. The data that has been collected will
be plotted into the graph of amplitude versus frequency. The graph that has been plotted can be
compared with the theoretical graph. The resonance frequency and natural frequency also has been
calculated to achieve the objective of the experiments.

INTRODUCTION
Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point.
The oscillations may be periodic such as the motion of a pendulum or random such as the movement
of a tire on a gravel road. Vibration is occasionally desirable. For example the motion of a tuning fork,
the reed in a woodwind instrument or harmonica, or mobile phones or the cone of a loudspeaker is
desirable vibration, necessary for the correct functioning of the various devices.
More often, vibration is undesirable, wasting energy and creating unwanted sound noise. For
example, the vibrational motions of engines, electric motors, or any mechanical device in operation
are typically unwanted .The study of sound and vibration are closely related. Sound, or pressure
waves are generated by vibrating structures, these pressure waves can also induce the vibration of
structures. Hence, when trying to reduce noise it is often a problem in trying to reduce vibration.
Free vibration occurs when a mechanical system is set off with an initial input and then
allowed to vibrate freely. Examples of this type of vibration are pulling a child back on a swing and
then letting go or hitting a tuning fork and letting it ring. The mechanical system will then vibrate at
one or more of its natural frequency and damp down to zero. Forced vibration is when a time-varying
disturbance such as load, displacement or velocity is applied to a mechanical system. The disturbance
can be a periodic, steady-state input, a transient input, or a random input. The periodic input can be a
harmonic or a non-harmonic disturbance. Examples of these types of vibration include a shaking
washing machine due to an imbalance, transportation vibration is caused by truck engine, springs,
road, or the vibration of a building during an earthquake. For linear systems, the frequency of the
steady-state vibration response resulting from the application of a periodic, harmonic input is equal to
the frequency of the applied force or motion, with the response magnitude being dependent on the
actual mechanical system.
In physics, resonance is the tendency of a system to oscillate with greater amplitude at some
frequencies than at others. Frequencies at which the response amplitude is a relative maximum are
known as the system's resonant frequencies, or resonance frequencies. At these frequencies, even

small periodic driving forces can produce large amplitude oscillations, because the system stores
vibration energy.

THEORY
Vibration is the one of the type of force that have a particular frequency that has in a periodic input of
force. Force vibration can be divided into two conditions which are in damped situation or undamped
situation. Based on this situation it has a different value that we can get from that experimental value
or in theoretical value. Undamped forced vibration, we can classified it as the most vibration motion
in engineering analysis. Affect from that we can used its principles and operation which is to describe
of various types of machines and structure.
Based on the experiment, we can make a draft which is to describe where its position their length and
also their position that located on that beam

Ma

Fs
=
Fd

Mat
W

a
L/
b

Fm = Force motor
Fd= Force
damping
Fs= Force spring
Moment

M=

Based on that sketch, we can define and derive some equation that we can get the value of the theory
that we can make which is to find the value of the resonance of Spring-Dashpot system in different
damping conditions. It has some of equation that we can get the value of the theoretical for this
experiment.

Ma= Ma(refference)

[ ][ ]
[] []

+ m at
F d a+ w

L
2

L
2

L
L
+ Fm
F s b=I
2
2

kb=F m L
+ ca +
2
1
m L2
3

()

By defining through that equation we can get the value of the theoretical value. The value of force
time with distance was put into that equation to get thats value. Finally we can get the value of the W b
which is the value of the resonance of the spring-dashpot system in different damping conditions.

Wb =

kb
m c2

K = Value of the (kb)

1
2

the ( ca ) m = Value of the ( 3 m L )

C = Value of