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Chapter 23

The Transformation of Europe


MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. Luthers initial stimulus for formulating the Ninety-Five Theses was
a. his excommunication from the Roman Catholic church.
b. the sale of indulgences.
c. his time spent in England during the English Reformation.
d. the turmoil caused by having two popes during the Great Schism.
e. the influence of John Calvin.
Answer: b
Page: 493
2. The author of the Ninety-Five Theses was
a. John Calvin.
b. Erasmus.
c. Voltaire.
d. Martin Luther.
e. Henry VIII.
Answer: d
Page: 493
3. The Catholic church dramatically pushed the sale of indulgences in the sixteenth century
because of the
a. need to match the resurgence of the Byzantine empire.
b. threat posed by Islam.
c. need for Henry VIII to pay off the national debt.
d. expense associated with translating original Greek classics.
e. need to raise funds for the construction of St. Peters basilica.
Answer: e
Page: 493
4. Who said, I cannot and will not recant anything, for it is neither safe nor right to act against
ones conscience. Here I stand. I can do no other?
a. Martin Luther
b. Jesus
c. John Calvin
d. Sima Qian
e. Henry VIII

Answer: a
Page: 493

5. Henry VIIIs reformation in England


a. was based on the ideas of the Anabaptists.
b. was much more politically driven than Luthers reformation.
c. was inspired more by John Calvins thought than by Luthers thought.
d. made far more profound changes in theology than Luthers reformation did.
e. ignored Luther and instead pushed for change within Catholic guidelines.
Answer: b
Page: 495
6. The event that inspired Henry VIII to confront the pope was
a. Henrys frustration with the popes inability to bring about church reform.
b. Henrys desire to gain a divorce.
c. Henrys desire to unify all of Europe for a new round of crusades.
d. Henrys belief that the pope was secretly backing the French in the latest war.
e. a new English translation of the Bible.
Answer: b
Page: 495
7. The author of the Institutes of the Christian Religion was
a. Calvin.
b. Luther.
c. Zwingli.
d. Henry VIII.
e. Paul III.
Answer: a
Page: 495
8. The city that stood as John Calvins model Protestant community was
a. Avignon.
b. Paris.
c. Geneva.
d. Wittenberg.
e. London.
Answer: c
Page: 495
9. Which one of the following was NOT one of the pillars of the Catholic Reformation?
a. the philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas
b. the Council of Trent

c. the Society of Jesus


d. the efforts of St. Ignatius Loyola
e. the religious fervor of the Renaissance popes
Answer: e
Page: 495-496

10. The council that helped define and advance the Catholic Reformation took place in
a. Trent.
b. Pisa.
c. Wittenberg.
d. Rome.
e. Milan.
Answer: a
Page: 496
11. The Council of Trent
a. rooted out the Arian heresy.
b. successfully reached a compromise in the early Protestant movement between Luther and
Calvin.
c. played a key role in Henry VIIIs break with the Catholic church.
d. took steps to reform the Catholic church.
e. launched the witch-hunts of the sixteenth century.
Answer: d
Page: 496
12. Ignatius Loyola was instrumental in
a. creating the Society of Jesus.
b. calling together the Council of Trent.
c. making astronomical discoveries that called into question the Ptolemaic universe.
d. the formation of Spanish absolutism.
e. claiming the Philippines for Spain.
Answer: a
Page: 496
13. The explosion of witch-hunting in the sixteenth century was most probably caused by
a. a dramatic increase in the practice of demonology.
b. the publication of Copernicuss theories.
c. the conquest of Spain by Islamic forces.
d. tensions between Catholics and Protestants.
e. the fear caused by the prominent role that women were increasingly playing in the Catholic
church.
Answer: d

Page: 496-497
14. Eighty-five percent of the condemned witches were
a. men.
b. Catholics.
c. Protestants.
d. women.
e. Muslims.
Answer: d
Page: 497
15. The Spanish leader who sent an armada against England in 1588 was
a. Philip II.
b. Don Juan.
c. Fernando.
d. Charles V.
e. Dom Henrique.
Answer: a
Page: 497
16. The leader of England during the attempted invasion of the Spanish Armada was
a. Henry VIII.
b. Charles II.
c. Mary I.
d. James II.
e. Elizabeth I.
Answer: e
Page: 497
17. The most destructive European conflict before the twentieth century was
a. the Thirty Years War.
b. the Seven Years War.
c. the Hundred Years War.
d. the Franco-Prussian War.
e. the War of the Spanish Succession.
Answer: a
Page: 497
18. Charles V was the
a. pope who called the Council of Trent to address abuses in the Catholic church.
b. Spanish king who attempted to invade England in 1588.
c. English king who broke with the Catholic church for political reasons.
d. Portuguese leader who supported exploration down Africas west coast.

e. leader who tried, but failed, to centralize authority in the Holy Roman Empire.
Answer: e
Page: 498-499
19. Which of the following factors was NOT one of the reasons for Charles Vs failure to build a
centralized, sovereign state in the Holy Roman Empire?
a. frequent invasions by England
b. internal religious tensions between Protestants and Catholics
c. external pressure from the French
d. German nobles who refused to bend to Charless will
e. external pressure from the Ottomans
Answer: a
Page: 498-500
20. The Spanish Inquisition was first established in 1478 by
a. Charles V.
b. Don Carlos.
c. Fernando and Isabel.
d. Philip II.
e. Philip III.
Answer: c
Page: 500
21. Which of the following states developed constitutional governments in the seventeenth
century?
a. England and France
b. Spain and the Netherlands
c. Russia and Italy
d. the Netherlands and France
e. England and the Netherlands
Answer: e
Page: 501
22. The English civil war ended with the trial and decapitation of
a. James I.
b. Charles I.
c. Elizabeth I.
d. James II.
e. Charles II.
Answer: b
Page: 502
23. The architect of French absolutism was

a. John Locke.
b. Cardinal Richelieu.
c. Charles II.
d. Montesquieu.
e. Louis XVIII.
Answer: b
Page: 503
24. The individual associated with the phrase ltat, cest moi was
a. Charles V.
b. Philip II.
c. Cardinal Richelieu.
d. Charles I.
e. Louis XIV.
Answer: e
Page: 503
25. Which of the following was not one of the policies pursued by Louis XIV?
a. the maintenance of a huge standing army
b. an attempt to make the nobles an active part of the government
c. use of the more dependable middle class as officials
d. the creation of the palace at Versailles
e. the promotion of economic development
Answer: b
Page: 503-504
26. Versailles was the magnificent royal palace of
a. Charles I.
b. Frederick the Great.
c. Peter the Great.
d. Francis I.
e. Louis XIV.
Answer: e
Page: 503-504
27. Catherine the Greats attempts at reform in Russia were essentially ended by
a. the Great Northern War.
b. the Time of Troubles.
c. the English civil war.
d. Pugachevs rebellion.
e. the Old Beliefs schism.
Answer: d
Page: 505-506

28. The most important consequence of the Peace of Westphalia was in


a. laying the foundation for English control of most of the world.
b. combining the Spanish and French thrones.
c. promoting the notion that the European nations viewed each other as sovereign and equal.
d. ending the carnage of the Seven Years War.
e. establishing an Anglo-French alliance that would last until World War I.
Answer: c
Page: 506-507
29. Which of the following conflicts is the largest war to unfold in the wake of the Peace of
Westphalia?
a. the English civil war
b. the Thirty Years War
c. the Hundred Years War
d. the Seven Years War
e. the Glorious Revolution
Answer: d
Page: 506
30. The fundamental principle of diplomacy in early modern Europe was
a. French domination.
b. the Auld Alliance.
c. raison detat.
d. the Anglo-French alliance.
e. the balance of power.
Answer: e
Page: 506-507
31. By 1800, the population of Europe had risen to
a. 81 million.
b. 180 million.
c. 240 million.
d. 310 million.
e. 350 million.
Answer: b
Page: 508
32. The system by which unfinished materials were delivered to rural households for production
was known as the
a. guild system.
b. joint-stock company system.
c. union system.

d. putting-out system.
e. countryside system.
Answer: d
Page: 511
33. The first great philosophical proponent of capitalism was
a. Voltaire.
b. Adam Smith.
c. Montesquieu.
d. Isaac Newton.
e. Francis Bacon.
Answer: b
Page: 512
34. The Ptolemaic universe was based on
a. the idea that the earth rested on the back of a giant turtle.
b. a motionless earth surrounded by nine hollow spheres.
c. a heliocentric structure.
d. the unifying principle of gravity.
e. the observations of Galileo.
Answer: b
Page: 512
35. On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres was written by
a. Ptolemy.
b. Galileo Galilei.
c. Isaac Newton.
d. Jonathan Swift.
e. Nicolaus Copernicus.
Answer: e
Page: 514
36. That planetary orbits are elliptical, not circular, was demonstrated by
a. Galileo.
b. Voltaire.
c. Newton.
d. Kepler.
e. Descartes.
Answer: d
Page: 515
37. The theory of universal gravity is associated with
a. Isaac Newton.

b. Galileo Galilei.
c. Denis Diderot.
d. Nicolaus Copernicus.
e. Johannes Kepler.
Answer: a
Page: 515
38. Most Enlightenment philosophers believed
a. in a geocentric universe.
b. in the notion of progress.
c. in a very active God who played a constant role in human affairs.
d. that the world was getting worse because of corrupt human nature.
e. that the world would end soon.
Answer: b
Page: 518-519

TRUE/FALSE
39. Martin Luthers cause benefited greatly from the printing press, as a sizeable literate public
eagerly consumed printed works on religious and secular themes.
Answer: True
Page: 495
40. Several princes of the Holy Roman Empire warmed to Luthers views, partly because of
personal conviction but partly because of the opportunity for them to build a power base.
Answer: True
Page: 495
41. The Society of Jesus, the Jesuits, received instruction in theology, philosophy, and the
classics, and became effective missionaries.
Answer: True
Page: 496
42. Charles V did not build an administrative structure for his empire but, instead, ruled each of
his lands according to its own laws and customs.
Answer: True
Page: 499
43. During the seventeenth century, England and the Netherlands evolved governments that
claimed limited powers and recognized rights of individuals and representative institutions.
Answer: True
Page: 501

44. King Louis XIII of France was known as le roi soleil, the sun king.
Answer: False
Page: 503
45. The most important of the Romanov tsars of Russia was Catherine II. She is credited with the
process of transforming Russia into a modern state.
Answer: False
Page: 505
46. European states ended the Thirty Years War in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia, which
laid the foundation for a system of independent, competing states.
Answer: True
Page: 506
47. Frequent wars and balance-of-power diplomacy increased the resources of European states
and strengthened society as a whole.
Answer: False
Page: 506-507
48. Merchants were influential in the affairs of the English and Dutch states; these lands adopted
policies that were most favorable to capitalist enterprises.
Answer: True
Page: 510

ESSAY
49. Examine the centralizing efforts in countries like France, Spain, and England. How and in
what ways were they successful? Why was the Holy Roman Empire not as successful as
other European states in centralizing power?
50. Look at Map 23.1, Sixteenth-century Europe. Why did Europe divide into a collection of
sovereign states and not attain the level of the greater empires that occurred in China, India,
and the Islamic lands? Why didnt the Holy Roman Empire reach the level of power and
grandeur that its name implied? What were the consequences of this competition?
51. Discuss the developments and differences between constitutional states and absolute
monarchies. Which of these governmental forms would have the greatest long-term
influence?

52. Examine the idea behind the balance of power. How did this concept play itself out in
Europe? How was this balance of power different from the political patterns in the rest of the
world?
53. Examine the wars in early modern Europe. What caused most of these conflicts? What were
the results of these confrontations? Who won and who lost?
54. Examine the career of Martin Luther. What were the foundations of his Reformation? What
legacy did he leave Europe? Why did earlier reformers not have the same impact?
55. Examine the European witch hunts of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. What factors
led to this movement? What were the results?
56. Examine the rise of capitalist thought and practice. What factors led to this rise?
57. Examine the leading thinkers of the scientific revolution. Why were the early discoveries of
the scientific revolution met with such resistance? In what ways did these discoveries destroy
an old worldview and create a new one? How did their ideas influence the Enlightenment?
58. What were the foundations of the Enlightenment? Could there be a disadvantage to the
Enlightenment emphasis on reason? What, if anything, was missing from this new
intellectual universe?
59. Was there a political side to the sixteenth-century reformation movements? How did it relate
to the religious issues?
60. Examine Map 23.2, Europe after the Peace of Westphalia, 1648. How does it compare to
Map 23.1? What were the long-term implications of the Peace of Westphalia?
61. What were the circumstances of the English Reformation?
62. Examine the philosophy of Adam Smith in An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the
Wealth of Nations, excerpted in the text (see Textbook: Sources from the Past: Adam Smith
on the Capitalist Market). Is it typical of the thinkers of the Enlightenment? What is the heart
of his philosophy? How influential was Smiths thought? Why was it so revolutionary?
63. By the end of the sixteenth century, which European countries had become Protestant and
which had remained Catholic?
64. What are some the reasons suggested for the widespread persecution of suspected witches in
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries?

65. Why was Charles V, despite such vast holdings, unable to establish a durable empire? What
forces worked against such an empire in the sixteenth century?
66. How did European monarchs increase their power in the early modern era? What are some of
the common characteristics of the new monarchs?
67. What is the fundamental difference between absolute monarchy and a constitutional
government?
68. What factors encouraged the evolution of a constitutional government in England and the
Netherlands?
69. How did Louis XIV maintain control over the nobles of France? What were some of the
structures of absolutism during his reign?
70. What aspects of European culture did Peter I seek to graft onto Russian society? What
aspects did he reject?
71. What factors led to the dramatic population growth of Europe between 1500 and 1700?
72. What are the characteristics of capitalism in the early modern age? What financial
innovations supported the growth of capitalism in Europe?
73. What are some of the social changes that resulted from the growth of capitalism? What
groups would have been most threatened by or resistant to these changes?
74. Three great minds collaborated to shatter the ancient Ptolemaic view of the universe. Note
the contributions of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo. Who do you think made the most
significant contribution? Who took the greatest risk?
75. In what ways can it be said that Isaac Newton symbolized the scientific revolution? What
was his role in the Enlightenment?
76. What were the principle concerns of the philosophes of the Enlightenment? What solution
did they propose?