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APPENDIX III

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL


Car ib b e an Ad v an ce d Pr of icie n cy Ex am in at ion
CAPE

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
SYLLABUS
Effective for examinations from May-June 2015

CXC A31/U2/13

Published in Jamaica, 2013


2013, Caribbean Examinations Council

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
transmitted in any form, or by any means electronic, photocopying, recording or otherwise without
prior permission of the author or publisher.
Correspondence related to the syllabus should be addressed to:
The Pro-Registrar
Caribbean Examinations Council
Caenwood Centre
37 Arnold Road, Kingston 5, Jamaica
Telephone Number: + 1 (876) 630-5200
Facsimile Number: + 1 (876) 967-4972
E-mail Address: cxcwzo@cxc.org
Website: www.cxc.org
Copyright 2013 by Caribbean Examinations Council
The Garrison, St Michael BB14038, Barbados

CXC A31/U2/13

Contents
INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................i
RATIONALE ....................................................................................................................................1
AIMS .............................................................................................................................................2
SKILLS AND ABILITIES TO BE ASSESSED ..........................................................................................2
PREREQUISITIES OF THE SYLLABUS ................................................................................................3
STRUCTURE OF THE SYLLABUS .......................................................................................................3
APPROACHES TO TEACHING THE SYLLABUS ...................................................................................4
UNIT 1: Entrepreneurship Theory
MODULE 1: The Entrepreneurial Mindset ..........................................................................5
MODULE 2: The Entrepreneurial Process ............................................................................11
MODULE 3: Creativity and Innovation .................................................................................15
UNIT 2: Entrepreneurship Practice
MODULE 1: Essentials of Business Ownership .....................................................................20
MODULE 2: New Venture Planning and Creation ................................................................23
MODULE 3: Managing and Growing the Venture .................................................................29
OUTLINE OF ASSESSMENT .............................................................................................................35
REGULATIONS FOR PRIVATE CANDIDATES .....................................................................................51
REGULATIONS FOR RESIT CANDIDATES ..........................................................................................51
ASSESSMENT GRID ........................................................................................................................53
GLOSSARY .....................................................................................................................................54

CXC A31/U2/13

First issued in 2013

Please check the website, www.cxc.org for updates on CXCs syllabuses.

CXC A31/U2/13

Introduction

he Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examination (CAPE) is designed to provide certification of the


academic, vocational and technical achievement of students in the Caribbean who, having
completed a minimum of five years of secondary education, wish to further their studies. The
examinations address the skills and knowledge acquired by students under a flexible and articulated
system where subjects are organised in 1-Unit or 2-Unit courses with each Unit containing three
Modules. Subjects examined under CAPE may be studied concurrently or singly.
The Caribbean Examinations Council offers three types of certification. The first is the award of a
certificate showing each CAPE Unit completed. The second is the CAPE Diploma, awarded to
candidates who have satisfactorily completed at least six Units, including Caribbean Studies. The
third is the CXC Associate Degree, awarded for the satisfactory completion of a prescribed cluster of
seven CAPE Units including Caribbean Studies and Communication Studies. For the CAPE Diploma
and the CXC Associate Degree, candidates must complete the cluster of required Units within a
maximum period of five years.
Recognised educational institutions presenting candidates for the CXC Associate Degree in one of
the nine categories must, on registering these candidates at the start of the qualifying year, have
them confirm, in the required form, the Associate Degree they wish to be awarded. Candidates will
not be awarded any possible alternatives for which they did not apply.

CXC A31/U2/13

Entrepreneurship Syllabus
RATIONALE
Entrepreneurship seeks to empower students by providing the knowledge, skills and attitudes to
achieve entrepreneurial success in a variety of settings. It places emphasis on the individuals
acumen to realize opportunity, assess risk, and apply the skills necessary to transform innovative
ideas into viable, sustainable ventures. The CAPE Entrepreneurship syllabus provides students with
the mindset that supports creativity and innovation needed to transform ideas into ventures that
create value and wealth.
In developing this syllabus consideration was given to the relatively high rate of unemployment,
constraints on job creation, the imperatives of globalisation in the Region, and the need to inculcate
the spirit of entrepreneurism. Recent research has shown that one of the main obstacles to
individuals starting their own business ventures is the lack of knowledge of how to transform an idea
into a successful venture. Most aspiring entrepreneurs lack the ability to analyse opportunities,
assess risk, develop and implement a business plan in order to get their ventures started. The CAPE
Entrepreneurship syllabus seeks to fill that void in the continuum from idea generation to venture
creation.
Several governments, as well as many non-governmental organisations in the region have
implemented entrepreneurial initiatives which offer training, tax incentives, funding and start-up
support to individuals to assist them in actualising entrepreneurial ambitions. The syllabus apprises
students of ways to access these training, technical support, funding and legislative incentives.
The syllabus addresses fundamentals of entrepreneurial behaviour and thinking and engages
students in practical experiences through idea generation and opportunity identification to
implementing, managing and harvesting a venture. The syllabus also acquaints students with the
essentials of business ownership, legal and regulatory frameworks, the importance of market
research, feasibility analysis and the development of a business model in order to successfully
compete in the global marketplace. It contributes to the development of the Ideal Caribbean person,
as agreed by CARICOM Heads of Government, essentially supporting the creative imagination in its
various manifestations and nurtures its development in the economic and entrepreneurial spheres
in other areas of life. In keeping with UNESCO pillars of learning, students will learn to know, to do
and transform oneself and society in a sustainable way. The syllabus provides a good foundation for
further studies in Entrepreneurship, starting and operating a venture and/or becoming an
entrepreneurial employee (intrapreneur).

CXC A31/U2/13

AIMS
This syllabus aims to:
1.

develop an entrepreneurial mind-set within individuals to deal with high uncertainty in


regional and global market environments;

2.

increase understanding of the diverse character traits of entrepreneurs, which inform their
behaviour;

3.

enhance the students understanding of the entrepreneurial process from idea generation,
to concept development and creation of the venture;

4.

develop critical thinking and problem solving skills through creativity, innovation and logical
applications;

5.

apprise students of existing opportunities and support services for venture creation and
sustainability within and outside the region to support economic and social gains;

6.

broaden the students understanding of the status of the ethical and legislative framework
which supports entrepreneurship development in the region;

7.

enable students to appreciate the increasing impact of disruptive innovations which lead to
rapid transformation of current knowledge, technology and industries;

8.

introduce students to the appropriate tools used to assess the viability of a venture;

9.

expose students to the various stages of managing and growing a venture over its life cycle;

10.

encourage students to utilise ICT tools in the practice of entrepreneurship.

SKILLS AND ABILITIES TO BE ASSESSED


The skills and abilities that students are expected to develop on completion of this syllabus have
been grouped under three headings:
(a)

Knowledge and Comprehension.

(b)

Application.

(c)

Communication and Networking.

Knowledge and Comprehension


The examinations will test candidates skills and ability to:
(a)

identify and recall basic facts, concepts, and principles of Entrepreneurship theory;

CXC A31/U2/13

(b)

understand the diverse Entrepreneurship concepts;

(c)

discuss the impact of entrepreneurial behaviour on venture creation.

Application
The examinations will test candidates skills and ability to:
(a)

select and use facts, theories and concepts appropriately in formulating solutions to
entrepreneurial problems;

(b)

draw conclusions based on a body of information;

(c)

critically analyse complex situations and determine innovative solutions.

Communication and Networking


The examinations will test candidates skills and ability to:
(a)

distinguish relationships among various components of business and its environment;

(b)

communicate information effectively to peers and stakeholders;

(c)

develop professional networks to harness resources.

PREREQUISITES OF THE SYLLABUS


Entrepreneurship is directed to students pursuing any field of study regardless of their career
aspirations. However, a minimum knowledge of the areas of business would be helpful. Successful
participation in the course of study will also depend on good verbal and written communication
skills.

STRUCTURE OF THE SYLLABUS


The syllabus is divided into two (2) Units. Each Unit comprises three Modules, each requiring 50
hours. The total time for each Unit is therefore expected to be 150 hours. Each Unit can
independently offer students a comprehensive programme of study with appropriate balance
between depth and coverage and provide a basis for further study in this field.
Unit 1: Entrepreneurship Theory
Module 1
Module 2
Module 3

CXC A31/U2/13

The Entrepreneurial Mindset


The Entrepreneurial Process
Creativity and Innovation

Unit 2: Entrepreneurship Practice


Module 1
Module 2
Module 3

Essentials of Business Ownership


New Venture Planning and Creation
Managing and Growing the Venture

APPROACHES TO TEACHING THE SYLLABUS


Teachers are encouraged to use the following approaches when teaching these Modules:
(a)

Experiential learning learning by doing

(b)

Classroom discussion, peer tutoring and scaffolding of knowledge.

(c)

Guest lecturers/presentations by stakeholders from the business community, NonGovernmental Organisations (NGOs), Government, private sector organisations.

(d)

First-hand interaction with local and regional entrepreneurs.

(e)

Research, discussion on the experiences of notable entrepreneurs in the Caribbean region.

(f)

Use of cases, scenarios, simulations, role play.

(g)

Use of portfolios.

(h)

Group work on projects.

(i)

Group work and group presentation of School-Based Assessment.

(j)

ICT tools and internet sources (including audio-visual materials on reputable sites).

CXC A31/U2/13

UNIT 1: ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY


MODULE 1: THE ENTREPRENEURIAL MINDSET
GENERAL OBJECTIVES
On completion of this Module, students should:
1.

develop an understanding of the entrepreneurial mindset;

2.

develop an awareness of the diverse characteristics of an entrepreneur;

3.

understand the best practices of entrepreneurship development.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
Students should be able to:
1.

explain the nature and growth of entrepreneurship;

2.

distinguish between entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship;

3.

differentiate between entrepreneurship and small business management;

4.

identify types of entrepreneur;

5.

discuss the characteristics of an entrepreneur;

6.

discuss the work of at least three (3) noted entrepreneurs within and outside the region;

7.

examine the impact of cultural diversity on entrepreneurship development;

8.

identify potential mistakes/pitfalls of entrepreneurship;

9.

assess successes and failures of entrepreneurship;

10.

discuss the myths of entrepreneurship.

CONTENT
1.

The nature and growth of entrepreneurship


(a)

Introduction to the origins and concept of entrepreneurship:


(i)

evolution: Schumpter, Drucker, Cantillon;

(ii)

culture, tradition;

(iii)

poverty;

(iv)

desire for wealth.

CXC A31/U2/13

UNIT 1
MODULE 1: THE ENTREPRENEURIAL MINDSET (contd)

2.

(b)

Emerging drivers of contemporary entrepreneurship Information and


Communication Technology (ICT), Globalisation, Changing demands, unemployment,
changing demographics, institutional support, ease of entry in the informal sector.

(c)

Role of entrepreneurship in national and regional development impact on job


creation, growth in GDP, social development (social entrepreneurship).

(d)

Emerging areas for enterprise development - including the creative and cultural
industries, renewable energy; agro-preneurship, ICT.

Entrepreneurship and Intrapreneurship


(a)

Entrepreneurship vs Intrapreneurship.

(b)

Types of entrepreneurship:

(c)

3.

(i)

Survival;

(ii)

Lifestyle;

(iii)

Dynamic growth;

(iv)

Speculative.

Role of the entrepreneur and the intrapreneur in enterprise development:


(i)

Factors that contribute to enterprises becoming more entrepreneurial.

(ii)

Openness and flexibility, innovation, proactivity.

(iii)

Environment of change, chaos, complexity, competition, uncertainty and


contradiction.

Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management


(a)

Innovation as the main difference between entrepreneurship and small business


management.

(b)

Nature and characteristics of small business.

UNIT 1
CXC A31/U2/13

MODULE 1: THE ENTREPRENEURIAL MINDSET (contd)


4.

5.

Types of Entrepreneur
(a)

Nascent.

(b)

Novice.

(c)

Habitual.

(d)

Serial.

(e)

Portfolio.

Characteristics of an Entrepreneur
Including, but not limited to:
(a)

innovative;

(b)

creative;

(c)

calculated risk takers;

(d)

systematic planner;

(e)

visionary;

(f)

achievement oriented;

(g)

persistent;

(h)

dynamic;

(i)

hard-working;

(j)

self-confident;

(k)

aggressive;

(l)

egotistic;

(m)

emotional intelligence.

CXC A31/U2/13

UNIT 1
MODULE 1: THE ENTREPRENEURIAL MINDSET (contd)
6.

Noted regional entrepreneurs


Including but not limited to:
Chris Blackwell, Marley Family, Eddie Grant, Arthur Lok Jack, Thalia Lyn, Vincent Hosang,
Audrey Marks, Joan Duncan, Aleem Mohammed, Anthony Sabga, Richard Branson, Bill
Gates, Mark Zuckerberg, Reno Gajadhar, Jay Z, Oprah Winfrey, Steve Jobs, Hubert and Helen
Bhagwansingh, James Husbands, Allen Chastanet, Adrian Augier, Ronald Ramjattan, Edward
Beharry, Sir Charles Williams and Yesu Persaud.

7.

8.

Cultural diversity of Entrepreneurship


(a)

Gender and entrepreneurship.

(b)

Youth and entrepreneurship.

(c)

Ethnicity and entrepreneurship.

(d)

Family and entrepreneurship.

(e)

Religion and entrepreneurship.

Mistakes of Entrepreneurs
Including but not limited to:

9.

(a)

Human Resource HR/Management failures: lack of leadership, judgement and


knowledge, lack of experience.

(b)

Operation failures: poor inventory management; poor planning.

(c)

Marketing failures: weak marketing strategy; uncontrolled growth; poor location;


incorrect pricing.

(d)

Financial Failures: poor financial control; inadequate record keeping.

(e)

Failure as a natural part of the entrepreneurial process.

Factors that Contribute to the Success of Entrepreneurs


Including but not limited to:
(a)

Know your business in depth.

(b)

Develop a solid business plan.

CXC A31/U2/13

UNIT 1
MODULE 1: THE ENTREPRENEURIAL MINDSET (contd)

10.

(c)

Manage financial resources.

(d)

Understand financial statements.

(e)

Manage people effectively.

(f)

Know your strengths and weaknesses.

Myths of Entrepreneurship
Including but not limited to:
(a)

Entrepreneurship ventures and small businesses are the same thing.

(b)

All entrepreneurs are rich.

(c)

Entrepreneurs are born not made.

(d)

Entrepreneurship is easy.

(e)

All you need is money to start.

(f)

Successful entrepreneurship needs only a great idea.

(g)

Entrepreneurs always generate new ideas.

(h)

All you need is luck.

(i)

Entrepreneurs are extreme risk takers.

Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities


To facilitate students attainment of the objectives in this Module, teachers are encouraged to
engage students in the following teaching and learning activities.
1.

Review of media/local environment (for example, trade shows) to identify potential areas of
entrepreneurial opportunities and how this will aid in national development.

2.

Role-play of the entrepreneur and the intrapreneur.

3.

Debate on the essential characteristics of an entrepreneur.

4.

Group presentations and discussions on cultural diversity of entrepreneurship.

5.

Invite entrepreneurs to share their experience; and/or use audio visual presentations of
successful and/or unsuccessful entrepreneurs.

CXC A31/U2/13

UNIT 1
MODULE 1: THE ENTREPRENEURIAL MINDSET (contd)

RESOURCES
Texts
Barreira, J., and B.
Urban.

The Entrepreneurial Mindset: Cognition, Motivation and


Behaviours. South Africa: Pearson Education, 2011.

Kuratko, Donald F.

Entrepreneurship: Theory, Process, Practice 9th Edition. Mason,


Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2011.

Electronic Sources and Websites


Babson College - http://www.babson.edu/faculty/teaching-learning/researchpublications/Pages/home.aspx
Oklahoma State University (Experiential Class room): HTTP://Enterpreneurship.OKSTATE.EDU
Skolls Foundation - http://www.skollfoundation.org/?gclid=CLXQ4f_2-7ECFYg7OgodADQAFQ
Academic Journals:
Journal of Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice
Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship
International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation
Ebscohost - http://search.ebscohost.com/

CXC A31/U2/13

10

UNIT 1
MODULE 2: THE ENTREPRENEURIAL PROCESS
GENERAL OBJECTIVES
On completion of this Module, students should:
1.

understand the entrepreneurial process;

2.

appreciate the key stages in the process;

3.

understand the process through which business ideas are evaluated.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
Students should be able to:
1.

identify the steps in the entrepreneurial process;

2.

discuss some of the methods of generating ideas;

3.

identify sources of entrepreneurial opportunities;

4.

distinguish between an idea and an opportunity;

5.

evaluate an opportunity from given information;

6.

describe a business concept;

7.

identify sources of business concepts;

8.

develop a business concept from an idea;

9.

determine the required resources for a venture;

10.

identify sources of required resources for a venture;

11.

evaluate the required resources for a venture;

12.

explain the activities involved in implementing and managing a venture;

13.

assess the various options of harvesting a venture.

CXC A31/U2/13

11

UNIT 1
MODULE 2: THE ENTREPRENEURIAL PROCESS (contd)

CONTENT
Steps in the Entrepreneurial Process:
Idea generation, opportunity identification, business concepts, resources, implementing and
managing, harvesting.
1.

2.

3.

Generating Ideas
(a)

Methods of generating ideas: brainstorming, focus group, check list methods,


problem inventory analysis, scenario thinking, the note book method, reverse brain
storming, Delphi methodology, Gordon method, free association.

(b)

Screening ideas and selecting among competing ideas.

(c)

How ideas are linked to opportunity.

Opportunity Identification
(a)

Changing demographics.

(b)

Emerging markets.

(c)

New technologies.

(d)

Regulatory changes.

(e)

Social changes.

(f)

Opportunity evaluation: market issues, economic issues, competitive advantage


issues and management issues.

Business concepts
(a)

Definition/ description of a business concept.

(b)

Sources of business concept: New products, new services, new processes, new
markets, new organisational structures/forms, new sales or distribution channels,
new development paradigms.

(c)

Steps in developing a business concept from an idea.

CXC A31/U2/13

12

UNIT 1
MODULE 2: THE ENTREPRENEURIAL PROCESS (contd)
4.

5.

6.

Resources (Financial, Physical and Human)


(a)

Determine the required resources: including skilled employees, general


management expertise, marketing and sales expertise, technical expertise,
financing, distribution channels, sources of supply, production facilities, licences,
patents and legal protection.

(b)

Acquiring the required resources: including internal sources (equity, family and
friends) and external (debt, leveraging, outsourcing, leasing, contract labour, angel
funding, venture capitalist, temporary staff, supplier financing, joint ventures,
partnerships, barter and gifts.

(c)

Business and entrepreneurial development organisations: including Caribbean


Group of Youth Business Trusts (Jamaica, Barbados, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago,
St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Dominica, Belize, and Antigua and
Barbuda), Jamaica Business Development Corporation, HEART Trust/NTA (Jamaica),
Institute of Private Enterprise Development (IPED); National Entrepreneurship
Development Company Limited (NEDCO), Micro, Small and Medium Sized
Enterprises (MSME) Alliance (Jamaica); Caribbean Association of Small and Medium
Enterprises (CASME); DFLSA Incorporated (Guyana and Suriname).

Implementing and managing the venture


(a)

Implementation of concept.

(b)

Monitoring of performance.

(c)

Payback of resource providers.

(d)

Reinvestment in the business.

(e)

Expansion of the business.

(f)

Achievement of performance goals.

Harvesting the venture


Harvesting strategies:
(a)

absorption of new concept into mainstream operations;

(b)

licensing of rights;

(c)

family succession;

(d)

go public (IPO);

CXC A31/U2/13

13

UNIT 1
MODULE 2: THE ENTREPRENEURIAL PROCESS (contd)
(e)

employee share ownership plan (ESOP);

(f)

liquidate (Shut down) venture;

(g)

selling the venture;

(h)

management buy-out (MBO);

(i)

mergers and acquisitions.

Exit Strategies: Note that exit strategies (including selling the venture, liquidation, mergers,
acquisitions and management buyout) can be part of a harvesting plan.
Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities
To facilitate students attainment of the objectives in this Module, teachers are encouraged to
engage students in the following teaching and learning activities.
1.

Use any of the methods of idea generation to develop an idea for a venture.

2.

Evaluate the environment to determine whether opportunity exist for pursuing a chosen
venture.

3.

Present a simulated activity which incorporates the entrepreneurial process.

4.

Invite entrepreneurs and resource persons from the business environment as guest
lecturers.

RESOURCES
Texts:
Bessant, J. , and J. Tidd

Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 2nd Edition. New Jersey: John


Wiley and Sons, 2011.

Kuratko, Donald F.

Entrepreneurship: Theory, Process, Practice 9th Edition. Mason,


Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2011.

Websites
Oklahoma State University (Experiential Class room): HTTP://Enterpreneurship.OKSTATE.EDU
Indiana State University - http://www.entrepreneur.com/colleges/school/1022665.html
Academic Journals:
Journal of Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice
Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship
International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation
CXC A31/U2/13

14

UNIT 1
MODULE 3: CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION
GENERAL OBJECTIVES
On completion of this Module, students should:
1.

understand the nature of creativity and innovation;

2.

appreciate the process of nurturing and managing innovation;

3.

appreciate the value of creativity and innovation;

4.

understand the importance of protecting creations and innovations.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
Students should be able to:
1.

define creativity;

2.

explain the role and process of creativity in entrepreneurship;

3.

define innovation;

4.

explain the role and process of innovation in entrepreneurship;

5.

discuss the types of innovation in relation to the 4Ps (product, process, position, paradigm);

6.

list the core innovation concepts;

7.

identify the sources of innovation;

8.

explain disruptive and incremental innovations;

9.

discuss open innovations;

10.

identify micro factors that would nurture innovation;

11.

identify macro factors that would nurture innovation;

12.

discuss the various methods of protecting innovations and creativity.

CXC A31/U2/13

15

UNIT 1
MODULE 3: CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION (contd)

CONTENT
1.

2.

Principles of creativity
(a)

What is creativity?

(b)

Process of creativity.

(c)

Roles of creativity.

(d)

Importance of creativity.

Principles of Innovation
(a)

The meaning of innovation.

(b)

The importance of innovation.

(c)

Types of Innovation the 4Ps, product, process, position and paradigm.

(d)

Core innovation concepts:

(e)

(i)

incremental;

(ii)

modular;

(iii)

discontinuous;

(iv)

architectural.

Sources of innovation:
(i)

new markets;

(ii)

new technologies;

(iii)

new political rules;

(iv)

running out of roads (limited options);

(v)

change in sentiments or behaviours;

(vi)

deregulations;

(vii)

changes in the business models.

CXC A31/U2/13

16

UNIT 1
MODULE 3: CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION (contd)
3.

4.

Disruptive, Incremental and Open innovations


(a)

Concept of disruptive and incremental innovations.

(b)

Effect of disruptive and incremental innovations on the entrepreneurial process.

(c)

The concept of open innovation.

(d)

Dynamics of open innovation.

(e)

Impact of open source innovation.

Nurturing and Managing Innovation


Conditions for effective innovation:
(a)

(b)

Micro/Organisational level
(i)

incentives for innovating;

(ii)

internal policy;

(iii)

organisational culture:
-

inspiration;

observation;

listening to consumer;

organisational structure.

Macro/National level
Policy development:
(i)

social (for example, changing demographics);

(ii)

political (for example, internal governance, stability);

(iii)

economic (for example, entrepreneurship policies, incentives);

(iv)

environmental (regulations, environmental responsibility);

(v)

cultural (respect for indigenous customs and practices);

(vi)

ethical (adherence to sound principles and business practices).

CXC A31/U2/13

17

UNIT 1
MODULE 3: CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION (contd)
5.

Methods of protecting Innovation and creativity


Including but not limited to:
(a)

Intellectual property rights.

(b)

Branding.

(c)

Trademarks.

(d)

Patents.

(e)

Copyrights.

(f)

Registered design protection.

(g)

Trade secrets (processes, techniques, confidential disclosure agreements).

Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities


To facilitate students attainment of the objectives in this Module, teachers are encouraged to
engage students in the following teaching and learning activities.
1.

Provide a simple scenario which allows students to apply the knowledge on how to protect
an innovation.

2.

Students present an item in class and discuss ways of adding value through innovation.

3.

Students visit intellectual property rights office in their locale to learn the processes involved
in the registration of intellectual property.

RESOURCES
Texts:
Mariotti, S.,T.Towle, and N. Patel

Entrepreneurship: Owning your future, 11th Edition. New


Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2011.

Mariotti, S. and Toni Towle

Entrepreneurship: How to Start and Operate a Small


Business, 10th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2011.

Scarborough, N. M.,

Essentials of Entrepreneurship and Small Business


Management, 6th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2011.

UNIT 1
CXC A31/U2/13

18

MODULE 3: CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION (contd)


Harvard Business School http://cb.hbsp.harvard.edu/cb/search/entrepreneurship?Ntk=HEMainSearch&N=0
Babson College - http://www.babson.edu/faculty/teaching-learning/researchpublications/Pages/home.aspx
Academic Journals:
Journal of Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice
Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship
International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation

CXC A31/U2/13

19

UNIT 2 ENTREPRENEURSHIP PRACTICE


MODULE 1: ESSENTIALS OF BUSINESS OWNERSHIP
GENERAL OBJECTIVES
On completion of this Module, students should:
1.

understand the various types of ventures;

2.

conform to local, regional and international legal and regulatory frameworks;

3.

understand the importance of ethics and social responsibility in operating venture.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
Students should be able to:
1.

describe the various types of ventures;

2.

evaluate the risks and benefits associated with each form of venture;

3.

discuss the importance of observing legal and regulatory practices in operating a venture;

4.

explain the role of ethics and corporate social responsibility.

CONTENT
1.

Types of ventures
(a)

Sole trader.

(b)

Partnership (Limited and General).

(c)

Franchise.

(d)

Limited Liability Company/Corporation (LLC).

(e)

Private Companies.

(f)

Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO), including (Community Based Organisations


(CBOs), Social Enterprises, Charities and Endowments/Foundations) and Cooperative
Societies.

(g)

State-owned enterprises (Statutory Organisations).

CXC A31/U2/13

20

UNIT 2
MODULE 1: ESSENTIALS OF BUSINESS OWNERSHIP (contd)
2.

Risk and Benefits


(a)

3.

4.

Advantages and disadvantages of each type of venture.

Legal and Regulatory Framework


(a)

Registration of a venture.

(b)

Labour laws.

(c)

Tax obligations.

(d)

International Standards and Regulations (ISO Standards); Duty of Care (Occupational


Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control
Points (HACCP).

(e)

Environmental stewardship.

(f)

Intellectual property.

(g)

Open innovation.

Ethics and Social Responsibility


(a)

Importance of business ethics and integrity.

(b)

Code of ethics.

(c)

Business Etiquette (Contextualised professional business practices).

(d)

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

(e)

Good corporate governance.

(f)

Social entrepreneurship (Social Enterprises, Philanthropic Organisations and


Individuals).

(g)

Social Sector Actors/Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs).

CXC A31/U2/13

21

UNIT 2
MODULE 1: ESSENTIALS OF BUSINESS OWNERSHIP (contd)
Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities
To facilitate students attainment of the objectives in this Module, teachers are encouraged to
engage students in the following teaching and learning activities.
1.

Students conduct research on legal and regulatory framework for venture creation and
operation within your country or region.

2.

Students should organise a formal business meeting/dinner to help them develop


acceptable etiquette.

RESOURCES
Texts:
Verstraete, T. and
Jouioson-Laffitte, E.

A Business Model for Entrepreneurship. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar


Publishing Ltd, 2012.

Spinelli, S., and R. Adams

New Venture Creation, Entrepreneurship for the 21st Century, 9th


Edition. New York: McGraw Hill/Irwin, 2011.

Barringer, B.R., and D.


Ireland

Entrepreneurship: Successfully Launching New Ventures, 4th Edition.


New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2011,

Electronic Sources and Websites


Harvard Business School http://cb.hbsp.harvard.edu/cb/search/entrepreneurship?Ntk=HEMainSearch&N=0
Kauffman Foundation - http://www.kauffman.org/
Oklahoma State University (Experiential Class room): HTTP://Enterpreneurship.OKSTATE.EDU
Academic Journals:
Journal of Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice
Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship
International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation

CXC A31/U2/13

22

UNIT 2
MODULE 2: NEW VENTURE PLANNING AND CREATION
GENERAL OBJECTIVES
On completion of this Module, students should:
1.

understand the importance of a market research and feasibility analysis;

2.

appreciate the process of determining the viability of a venture;

3.

be aware of the components of a business model and a business plan;

4.

understand the importance of start-up capital and financial statements in venture creation;

5.

understand the importance of a business model and a business plan.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
Students should be able to:
1.

explain market research;

2.

conduct a market research for a venture;

3.

explain feasibility analysis;

4.

conduct a feasibility analysis for a venture;

5.

distinguish between market research and feasibility analysis;

6.

identify sources of funding;

7.

discuss the elements of various financial statements;

8.

prepare a Cash Flow Statement (projected inflows and outflows of cash);

9.

identify various savings and investment options;

10.

explain the components of a business model;

11.

develop a business model for a business plan;

12.

identify the components of a business plan.

CXC A31/U2/13

23

UNIT 2
MODULE 2: NEW VENTURE PLANNING AND CREATION (contd)

CONTENT
1.

Market Research (venture opportunity screening)


(a)

Purpose of market research.

(b)

Benefits of conducting market research.

(c)

Key elements of market research:

(d)

2.

(i)

product characteristics;

(ii)

definition of market;

(iii)

expected sales trends;

(iv)

customer analysis;

(v)

promotional strategy;

(vi)

nature and level of competition.

Cost-benefit analysis approach to market research.

Feasibility Analysis
(a)

Purpose of a feasibility analysis.

(b)

Benefits of a feasibility analysis.

(c)

Key elements of a feasibility analysis:


(i)

personality feasibility (individuals SWOT profile);

(ii)

management feasibility;

(iii)

operational feasibility;

(iv)

financial feasibility;

(v)

marketing feasibility;

(vi)

time feasibility;

(vii)

industry feasibility;

CXC A31/U2/13

24

UNIT 2
MODULE 2: NEW VENTURE PLANNING AND CREATION (contd)
(viii)
(d)

3.

4.

cultural feasibility.

Distinguishing features of market research and feasibility analysis.

Start-up capital and Financial Statements


(a)

Sources of funding: equity financing, debt financing (loans, venture funding, angel
funding), grants, gifts, bequests.

(b)

Simple review of accounting cycle (including accounting concepts).

(c)

Simple Statement Cash Flow (should be used to support the business model).

(d)

Statement of Comprehensive Income (Income statement), Statement of Financial


Position (Balance Sheet).

(e)

Break-even analysis; (appreciate significance of break-even value).

(f)

Savings and investments options (including stocks and bonds, fixed deposits,
treasury bills).

Developing the Business Model


(a)

Description of a business model.

(b)

Components of a business model:


(i)

(ii)

CXC A31/U2/13

Value proposition (how do you create value?):


-

product offering: good, service or combination of both;

standardised or customised;

direct or indirect distribution;

internal manufacturing or outsourcing;

Beneficiary (for whom do you create value?):


-

business to business, business to consumer or both;

local, regional or international; general or niche market.

25

UNIT 2
MODULE 2: NEW VENTURE PLANNING AND CREATION (contd)
(iii)

Operations (what is your internal source of advantage?):


-

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

5.

Internal capabilities of a business, including unique skills,


technologies, resources;

Product differentiation (how do you differentiate your product?):


-

operational excellence;

product quality;

innovative leadership;

cost;

networks.

Income generation (how do you intend to make money?):


-

operating leverage (fixed and variable costs);

volumes (high, medium, low), margins (high, low);

pricing (fixed, flexible);

revenue sources.

Growth (what are the time scope and ambitions of the venture?):
-

subsistence model;

income model;

growth model;

speculative model.

Introduction to the Business Plan (students are not required to produce a business plan)
(a)

Purpose of a business plan.

(b)

Benefits of a business plan.

CXC A31/U2/13

26

UNIT 2
MODULE 2: NEW VENTURE PLANNING AND CREATION (contd)
(c)

Key Sections of a business plan:


(i)

executive summary:
(Concise summary of various components)

(ii)

business description (business concept/value proposition);


(What does the business do?)

(iii)

management;
(Who comprise the team that can make this happen?)

(iv)

marketing;
(How is revenue potential determined? What/who is my competition? How
am I better or different? What will my ideal customer pay? Location?)

(v)

operations;
(What are resource requirements?)

(vi)

financials.
(Is the company viable for me or for my investors?)

Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities


To facilitate students attainment of the objectives in this Module, teachers are advised to engage
students in the following teaching and learning activities.
1.

Students develop a survey instrument to gather data for a needs assessment of their venture
idea.

2.

Students do a SWOT analysis of their personal profile.

3.

Students do a SWOT analysis of an existing venture.

4.

Students identify funding needs and sources for a venture.

5.

Prepare a simple statement of cash flow.

CXC A31/U2/13

27

UNIT 2
MODULE 2: NEW VENTURE PLANNING AND CREATION (contd)

RESOURCES
Texts:
Kuratko, Donald F.

Entrepreneurship: Theory, Process, Practice 9th Edition. Mason,


Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2011.

Mariotti, S. ,and T. Towle

Entrepreneurship: How to Start and Operate a Small Business,


10th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2011

Electronic Sources and Websites


Harvard Business School http://cb.hbsp.harvard.edu/cb/search/entrepreneurship?Ntk=HEMainSearch&N=0
Babson College - http://www.babson.edu/faculty/teaching-learning/researchpublications/Pages/home.aspx
Oklahoma State University (Experiential Class room): HTTP://Enterpreneurship.OKSTATE.EDU
Indiana State University - http://www.entrepreneur.com/colleges/school/1022665.html
Academic Journals:
Journal of Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice
Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship
International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation

CXC A31/U2/13

28

UNIT 2
MODULE 3: MANAGING AND GROWING THE VENTURE

GENERAL OBJECTIVES
On completion of this Module, students should:
1.

understand the stages in the venture life cycle;

2.

be aware of various venture models;

3.

understand how E-Commerce can aid in the operations and growth of the venture.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
Students should be able to:
1.

identify the stages of a venture life cycle;

2.

explain the stages of a venture life cycle;

3.

distinguish among the venture models;

4.

explain the importance of valuation of ventures;

5.

discuss methods used in venture valuation;

6.

explain how the internet impacts venture development;

7.

identify approaches to E-Commerce;

8.

identify the elements to consider before launching into E-Commerce;

9.

assess the online potential of a venture;

10.

discuss the benefits of selling via the internet;

11.

outline some of the Myths about E-Commerce;

12.

identify strategies for E-Commerce success.

CXC A31/U2/13

29

UNIT 2
MODULE 3: MANAGING AND GROWING THE VENTURE (contd)

CONTENT
1.

Venture Life Cycle


Stages of the venture life cycle:

2.

(a)

new venture development;

(b)

start-up activities;

(c)

venture growth;

(d)

business stabilization;

(e)

innovation or decline.

Venture Models
Knowledge of how a venture can grow from one model to another over time:

3.

(a)

promising start-ups;

(b)

venture-backed start-ups;

(c)

corporate-supported start-ups.

Importance of venture valuation


(a)

Know the real value of venture (to track increase or decrease in business value).

(b)

Buying or selling a business/ major asset.

(c)

Raising growth capital (IPO, sale of stocks).

(d)

Establishing an employee stock option (ESOP) plan.

(e)

Tax management (obligations).

(f)

Structuring a buy, sell or joint venture agreement with stockholders (example,


mergers and acquisitions).

(g)

Attempting to buy-out a partner or shareholder.

CXC A31/U2/13

30

UNIT 2
MODULE 3: MANAGING AND GROWING THE VENTURE (contd)

4.

Venture Valuation Methods


Including but not limited to:

5.

(i)

book value (balance sheet value);

(ii)

price earnings (multiple earnings value);

(iii)

discounted future earnings (discounted cash flow).

E-Commerce and Growing the Venture


(a)

(b)

(c)

The Internet and its impact on venture development:


(i)

speed and flexibility;

(ii)

less emphasis on size/space;

(iii)

high volume;

(iv)

low margin.

Approaches to E-Commerce:
(i)

on-line shopping malls;

(ii)

vertical Communities - store-front services;

(iii)

internet service providers (partnership with existing online payment


facilities (pay pal);

(iv)

private initiative:
-

hiring a professional to customise a website for the venture;

building a site in-house.

Elements to consider before launching into E-Commerce:


(i)

networking potential;

(ii)

integration of web into overall strategy;

(iii)

importance of lasting relationship with customers;

CXC A31/U2/13

31

UNIT 2
MODULE 3: MANAGING AND GROWING THE VENTURE (contd)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(iv)

on-going investment of resources;

(v)

data mining.

Assessing the online potential of the venture:


(i)

appeal to customers;

(ii)

target market;

(iii)

distribution cost;

(iv)

costs and benefits.

The benefits of a website in selling through the Internet:


(i)

capacity to enhance customer service;

(ii)

interactive communication;

(iii)

lower cost of doing business; ability to grow faster;

(iv)

track sales results;

(v)

ability to spot new business opportunities.

Myths about E-Commerce:


(i)

setting up the site is easy and inexpensive;

(ii)

customers will flock to my site;

(iii)

making money is easy;

(iv)

privacy is not an important issue;

(v)

technology is the most important element;

(vi)

do not need a strategy only a site;

(vii)

customer service is not as important as in traditional retail store.

CXC A31/U2/13

32

UNIT 2
MODULE 3: MANAGING AND GROWING THE VENTURE (contd)
(g)

Strategies for E-Commerce Success:


(i)

data mining;

(ii)

develop an online marketing plan;

(iii)

develop a community;

(iv)

attract by giving freebies;

(v)

creative use of email;

(vi)

credibility;

(vii)

strategic alliances;

(viii)

promote site on and off line.

Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities


To facilitate students attainment of the objectives in this Module, teachers are encouraged to
engage students in the following teaching and learning activities.
1.

Students develop a comparative matrix of different venture models.

2.

Students debate a topical issue relating to the impact of E-Commerce on new venture
creation.

RESOURCES
Texts:
Allen, K. R.

Launching New Ventures: An Entrepreneurial Approach, 6th Edition.


Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2011.

Barringer, B.R., and D.


Ireland

Entrepreneurship: Successfully Launching New Ventures, 4th Edition.


New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2011.

CXC A31/U2/13

33

UNIT 2
MODULE 3: MANAGING AND GROWING THE VENTURE (contd)
Electronic Sources and Websites
Harvard Business School http://cb.hbsp.harvard.edu/cb/search/entrepreneurship?Ntk=HEMainSearch&N=0
Babson College - http://www.babson.edu/faculty/teaching-learning/researchpublications/Pages/home.aspx
Oklahoma State University (Experiential Class room): HTTP://Enterpreneurship.OKSTATE.EDU
Indiana State University - http://www.entrepreneur.com/colleges/school/1022665.html
Academic Journals:
Journal of Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice
Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship
International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation
Ebscohost - http://search.ebscohost.com/

CXC A31/U2/13

34

OUTLINE OF ASSESSMENT
Each Unit of the syllabus will be assessed separately. The same scheme of assessment will be applied
to each Module in each Unit. Grades will be awarded independently for each Unit.
The Assessment will be comprised of two components, one external component and one internal.
EXTERNAL ASSESSMENT FOR EACH UNIT

(40 per cent)

Paper 01
(1 hour 30
minutes)

This paper consists of forty-five (45) multiple-choice


items. There are fifteen (15) items on each
Module.

(20 per cent)

Paper 02
(2 hours 45
minutes)

This paper consists of three sections, each


corresponding to a Module in the Unit. Each section
will contain two mini-case study scenarios. Each
scenario will present candidates with the kind of
situations that entrepreneurs come face to face
with on a daily basis. It will require candidates to
draw on their knowledge of all areas of the syllabus
in general, to critically analyse the issues involved
and prescribe real and defensible solutions to
problems.

(20 per cent)

Paper 03/1

(60 per cent)

SCHOOL-BASED ASSESSMENT
Students should create a portfolio with evidence of their entrepreneurial experience in completing
their SBA. While it will not be submitted for external moderation, it is considered critical for students
to appreciate the concepts and reinforce them for life-long learning.
Unit 1
Candidates must interview an entrepreneur and produce a written Case Study report and make an
oral presentation. The Case Study report should not exceed 1,500 words and must be presented as
outlined on pages 41-43. The presentation will be made to the teacher and peers in the classroom
setting. The School-Based Assessment requires that candidates undertake a project which must
demonstrate their skills in research, analysis, evaluation and presentation of information.
Unit 2
Candidates are required to undertake ONE project that includes conducting a Market Research on a
product or service and then develop a Business Model. Candidates must identify an original
business idea, translate the idea into a well-conceptualised business concept, and then build a
Business Model around it. This Business Model must demonstrate the basic market and economic
feasibility of the proposed business.
Candidates must complete the School-Based Assessment for each unit that they write.

CXC A31/U2/13

35

Paper 03/2
Private candidates are required to write an Alternative Paper Paper 03/2. It comprises a single case
encompassing issues under all three modules.

MODERATION OF SCHOOL-BASED ASSESSMENT


School-Based Assessment Record Sheets are available online via the CXCs website www.cxc.org.
All School-Based Assessment Record of Marks must be submitted online using the SBA data capture
module of the Online Registration System (ORS). A sample of assignments will be requested by CXC
for moderation purposes. These assignments will be reassessed by CXC Examiners who moderate
the School-Based Assessment. Teachers marks may be adjusted as a result of moderation. The
Examiners comments will be sent to schools.
Copies of the students' assignment that are not submitted must be retained by the school until three
months after publication by CXC of the examination results.

CXC A31/U2/13

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ASSESSMENT DETAILS
External Assessment by Written Papers

(40 per cent of Total Assessment)

Paper 01 (1 hour 30 minutes 20 per cent of Total Assessment)


1.

Numbers of Questions
All questions are compulsory. This paper will consist of 45 multiple-choice questions. There
will be 15 questions from each Module.

2.

3.

4.

Syllabus Coverage
(a)

Knowledge of the entire syllabus is required.

(b)

The intention of this paper is to test candidates knowledge across the breadth of
the syllabus.

Mark Allocation
(a)

One mark will be assigned for each question.

(b)

The total number of marks available for this paper is 45.

(c)

This paper contributes 20 per cent towards the final assessment.

Use of Calculators
Candidates may use silent non-programmable calculators.

Paper 02 (2 hours 45 minutes 20 per cent of Total Assessment)


This paper will be divided into three sections, each section corresponding to a Module of the Unit.
1.

Composition of Paper
(a)

This paper will consist of six mini-case study scenarios, each with extended response
questions.

(b)

There will be two mini-case study scenarios in each section.

(c)

Candidates are required to attempt six questions, two from each section.

(d)

The total number of marks available for the paper is 45.

(e)

This paper contributes 20 per cent towards the final assessment.

CXC A31/U2/13

37

2.

3.

Syllabus Coverage
(a)

Each question requires a greater depth of understanding than those questions in


Paper 01.

(b)

The purpose of this paper is to test candidates in-depth knowledge of the syllabus.

Question Type
Questions require an extended response involving reasoning, analysis and synthesis.

4.

Mark Allocation
Each question is worth 15 marks.

5.

Award of Marks
Marks will be awarded for:
(a)

clear logical reasoning;

(b)

evidence of ability to analyse a problem step by step and to apply principles and
practices, skills and knowledge to reach a logical conclusion;

(c)

evidence of problem solving ability;

(d)

evidence of the ability to synthesise information.

Full marks will be awarded when candidate meets all criteria.

SCHOOL-BASED ASSESSMENT
School-Based Assessment is an integral part of the students assessment of the course of study
covered by this syllabus. It is intended to assist the students in acquiring certain knowledge, skills
and attitudes that are associated with the subject. The activities for the School-Based Assessment
are linked to the syllabus and should form part of the learning activities to enable the students to
achieve the objectives of the syllabus.
During the course of study for the subject, students obtain marks for the competence they develop
and demonstrate in undertaking their School-Based Assessment assignments. These marks
contribute to the final marks and grades that are awarded to the students for their performance in
the examination.
The guidelines provided in this syllabus for selecting appropriate tasks are intended to assist
teachers and students in selecting assignments that are valid for the purpose of School-Based
Assessment. The guidelines provided for the assessment of these assignments are also intended to
assist teachers in awarding marks that are reliable estimates of the achievements of students in the
CXC A31/U2/13

38

School-Based Assessment component of the course. In order to ensure that the scores awarded are
in line with the CXC standards, the Council undertakes the moderation of a sample of the SchoolBased Assessments marked by each teacher.
School-Based Assessment provides an opportunity to individualise a part of the curriculum to meet
the needs of the student. It facilitates feedback to the student at various stages of the experience.
This helps to build the self-confidence of the students as they proceed with their studies. SchoolBased Assessment also facilitates the development of the critical skills and abilities emphasised by
this CAPE subject and enhance the validity of the examination on which the students performance is
reported. School-Based Assessment, therefore, makes a significant and unique contribution to both
the development of the relevant skills and the testing and rewarding of the student.

REQUIREMENTS OF THE SCHOOL-BASED ASSESSMENT


UNIT 1
The Project Paper 03/1
Candidates are required to conduct an intensive interview with an entrepreneur in their
locality/community and write a comprehensive report.
The interview will cover all three modules in the Unit The Entrepreneurial Mindset, The
Entrepreneurial Process, and Creativity and Innovation as they relate to the particular entrepreneur
in a given industry. Two industries will be identified and prescribed per year (see Page 51).
Candidates must conduct their interviews in the prescribed industries.
The purpose of this project is to enable the candidate to develop, appreciate and embrace the
entrepreneurial mindset.
Secondly, the candidate should explore with the interviewee the entire entrepreneurial process,
from generating venture ideas right through to exiting the venture as it relates to the particular
entrepreneur.
Finally, the interview should draw out from the entrepreneur how he/she handles the joint issues of
creativity and innovation especially how these two issues were nurtured, managed and protected.
The interview may be conducted and submitted in pairs (or groups of two). The group may present
the findings of the interview but each candidate is required to play a role in the CLASS
PRESENTATION FOR WHICH A TOTAL OF 10 MARKS MUST BE ALLOCATED.
PRESENTATION OF PROJECT
1.

The aims of the project are to:


(a)

promote self-learning;

(b)

allow teachers the opportunity to engage in the formative assessment of their


students;

(c)

allow students to enhance their understanding of the nature of entrepreneurship;

(d)

allow students to display evidence of careful observation and some degree of


originality in their work;

CXC A31/U2/13

39

(e)

allow students to analyse business information gathered and make practical


decisions;

(f)

explore more fully, some areas of the Unit which may not be assessed adequately in
an external examination.

Essentially the group mark will be out of a total of 50. Candidates would individually be assigned
up to 10 marks for their presentations.
Skills to be assessed
1. Knowledge and Understanding:

candidates ability to demonstrate knowledge and


understanding of the objectives being assessed in the
Module.

2. Application:

candidates ability to collect, classify and communicate


information.

3. Analysis:

candidates ability to distinguish relationships among


components of the business environment.

4. Evaluation and Reasoned


Judgement:

candidates ability to interpret, make judgement and


recommendations appropriate to the business under
investigation.

5. Presentation:

candidates ability to present the report using, where


necessary, relevant charts, tables and graphs.

Managing the research project


The research project is worth 60% of the candidates total mark. Teachers should ensure that
sufficient time is allowed for teaching the research skills contained in the Module, explaining the
requirements of the School-Based Assessment, discussing the assessment criteria and monitoring
and evaluating the project work.
Planning
It is important to start planning for the research project work early. Agreed deadlines should be
established. Dates for completion and submission of specific activities should be set by the teacher.
Length of the report
The length of the report should not exceed 1,500 words, not including bibliography, charts, graphs,
tables, pictures, references and appendices.

CXC A31/U2/13

40

FORMAT OF THE RESEARCH REPORT


Field Interview of an Entrepreneur
Candidates must interview an entrepreneur and produce a written report and an oral presentation
(PowerPoint presentation may be used to augment the report). The Case Study report should not
exceed 1,500 words and must be presented as outlined on pages 42-43. The presentation will be
made to the teacher and peers in the class setting.
Interview Report:
Students will interview an entrepreneur based on the following guidelines.
Selected entrepreneurs must have ventures at least five years old preferably with employees. This
assignment is designed to provide the opportunity to explore the type of business or industry you
think you would like to be a part of, to begin to develop an entrepreneurial mindset and to develop a
professional network in the field. This will also show your assimilation of your coursework. You are
encouraged to seek permission to record the interview using relevant technology (audio visuals, still
pictures). You may need more than one face to face meeting with the entrepreneur to capture
sufficient information, so plan ahead!
Content of the Interview Report
1.

Name and description of the venture.

2.

Background of the entrepreneur prior to starting the venture.

3.

Characteristics of the entrepreneur.

4.

Origin of the venture (why was it started?).

5.

Industry and market description.

6.

Key historical events in the start and existence of the venture.

7.

Present state of the venture.

8.

Major present and future challenges and emerging opportunities.

9.

Analytical questions for the reader to use as they conduct the interview.

10.

How findings impact students attitudes, behaviour and inspiration towards venture
creation.

11.

Conclude with a presentation reflecting on what you learned from the experience of
interviewing the entrepreneur and researching and writing the interview report.

CXC A31/U2/13

41

MARK SCHEME FOR SCHOOL-BASED ASSESSMENT UNIT 1


Allocation of Marks for Interview Report (60 Marks)
1.

2.

3.

4.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

MARKS
(4)

Aim and at least two objectives of the interview report clearly stated and
relevant to the topic chosen.

Aim and one objective of the interview report clearly stated and relevant
to the topic.

Aim and at least two objectives of the interview report bearing relevance
to the topic but not clearly stated.

Aim and one objective of the interview report bearing relevance to the
topic but not clearly stated.

DATA COLLECTION

(8)

The method(s) of investigation clearly stated.

1-2

Adequate justification for the method(s) used.

1-3

A statement or explanation of limitations.

1-3

REVIEW OF INDUSTRY

(6)

Thorough treatment of literature related to venture.

5-6

Fair treatment of literature related to venture.

3-4

Inadequate treatment of literature related to the venture.

1-2

PRESENTATION OF INTERVIEW REPORT

(12)

Candidate adequately captured the mindset, characteristics, creativity and


innovation of the entrepreneur, and the processes, practices and
challenges of venture creation.

9-12

Candidate moderately captured the mindset, characteristics, creativity


and innovation of the entrepreneur, and the processes, practices and
challenges of venture creation.

6-8

Candidate minimally captured the mindset, characteristics, creativity and


innovation of the entrepreneur, and the processes, practices and
challenges of venture creation.

3-5

CXC A31/U2/13

42

5.

6.

IMPACT ON SELF

(8)

Candidate adequately reflects on how findings impact their own attitudes,


behaviour and inspiration towards venture creation.

6-8

Candidate moderately reflects on how findings impact their own


attitudes, behaviour and inspiration towards venture creation.

3-5

Candidate minimally reflects on how findings impact their own attitudes,


behaviour and inspiration towards venture creation.

1-2

PRESENTATION ON IMPACT ON SELF

7.

8.

(10)

Appearance
Preparedness/ Knowledge
Impact on attitudes towards venture creation
Response to questions
Presentation style

1
3
2
2
2

CONCLUSION

Conclusion based on findings and related to the purposes of the project.

3-4

1-2

Conclusion related to the purpose of the project but not clearly based on
findings.

(4)

PRESENTATION OF PROJECT

(8)

Information communicated using correct grammar.

1-2

Use of media other than text to present information (graph, tables,


charts, diagrams).

1-2

Bibliography presented in an acceptable manner.

1-2

Information in Project report presented logically and coherently.

1-2

Total Marks

(60)

CXC A31/U2/13

43

MARK SCHEME FOR SCHOOL-BASED ASSESSMENT UNIT 2


The SBA consists of a Market Research and a Business Model.
A.

MARKET RESEARCH

As a group of entrepreneurs, you are required to conduct a market research on a proposed


product/service. Your research should consist of both primary and secondary data relevant to the
product or service. You should analyse the findings and then make appropriate recommendations.
The market research will enable students to:
1.

understand the importance of research in determining the feasibility of a product or service;

2.

distinguish between primary and secondary data relevant to research;

3.

select appropriate research instruments and procedures required to conduct research;

4.

apply research findings in decision-making.

METHODOLOGY
The assignment should be carried out using the following methods:
1.

review of available published materials;

2.

conduct a survey in a selected market segment.

The assignment should be submitted using the following guidelines:


1.

introduction (2 marks);

2.

the Research Objectives (approximately 5) (10 marks);

3.

target Population and Selection of sample (4 marks);

4.

methodology (4 marks);

5.

the Questionnaire (10 marks);

6.

findings/Results (15 marks);

7.

analysis of Results: Product characteristics, Definition of Market (place, local, regional


and/or international), Expected Sales trends, Customer analysis, Promotional Strategy,
Pricing Strategy, The Nature and Level of Competition (35 marks) Research objectives must
be centred on the above headings);

8.

conclusions and Recommendations (5 marks)

9.

appendices, copy of survey instrument, secondary data sources, exhibit of product design (5
marks).

CXC A31/U2/13

44

FORMAT OF THE ASSIGNMENT


The group should select a business name, slogan, logo, relevant to their role as an entrepreneur.
GUIDELINES FOR THE MARKET RESEARCH
Introduction
An outline of the proposal: business idea, the business name, type of business, location among
others.
Objectives
A list of the objectives within the specified categories that the business would like to meet by means
of the questionnaire.
Population and Sample
To whom the business will administer the questionnaire: population size, demographic.
sample was chosen, for example, random, non-random, stratified, stratified-random.

How

Methodology
An explanation of how the questionnaires were administered, for example, face to face interviews,
telephone interviews, by mail and social media sources.
The Questionnaire
A copy of the questionnaire containing a minimum of ten questions designed to meet the stated
objectives above. Take into consideration:
1.

the form of questions, a mix of open-ended and close-ended;

2.

the wording of questions, sequencing of questions (lead questions first, difficult and
personal questions last.

Findings
This should include:
1.

a summary of completed Questionnaires;

2.

a frequency of responses and a narration of the frequency;

3.

use of simple statistical tools (example excel) to illustrate findings (graphs, tables and
charts).

CXC A31/U2/13

45

Analysis of Results

Product Characteristics (5 marks).


Describe the physical features of the product that will be offered, the added services and
benefits, the quality and uniqueness.

Market Analysis (5 marks).


Market size, market share; potential or opportunities for growth; threats that might pose a
risk.

Sales Analysis (5 marks).


Potential yearly sales (Number of potential customers times average amount to be spent).
Sales trend/seasonality. Potential for increase in annual sales.

Customer Analysis (5 marks).


Who are your customers? (industry, other businesses, consumers); demographic (age,
income group, gender, marital status); psychographics (life-style, interests, activities,
opinions, buying habits? How best can you satisfy their needs?

Promotion and Advertising (5 marks).


What is the most effective way to inform customers?
Including radio, television, press; sales promotion and freebies, fliers, telemarketing,
Internet.

Pricing Strategy (5 marks).


What is your suggested retail price, what level of discounts will you give for wholesale and
volume purchases? Will you adjust your prices based on seasonality of demand? What will
be your policy on bundling, price flexibility and price discrimination?

Competition (5 marks).
Who are the competitors? Is the market fragmented/ (many small sellers) or concentrated?
(few large sellers), or is there a combination?
Who are the main competitors? What share of the market do they have? What is their
competitive advantage? (evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of their product, price,
promotion and place). How do you propose to compete? What will your competitive edge
be?

Conclusions and Recommendations


A report on actions to be taken based on your analysis above.

CXC A31/U2/13

46

ALLOCATION OF MARKS FOR MARKET RESEARCH (30 MARKS)


MARKS
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

(2)

At least TWO objectives clearly stated and relevant to the topic chosen.

ONE objective clearly stated and relevant to the topic.

TARGET/SAMPLE

(4)

Population / Sample selection process adequately described.

3-4

Population / Sample selection process moderately described.

Population / Sample selection process inadequately described.

METHODOLOGY

(4)

Thorough description of methodology used.

Fair description of methodology used.

Inadequate description of methodology used.

4
2-3
1

QUESTIONNAIRE

(6)

Questionnaire well constructed.

5-6

Questionnaire fairly constructed.

3-4

Questionnaire inadequately constructed.

1-2

FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

(10)

Comprehensive analysis of findings.

8-10

Moderate analysis of findings.

4-7

Inadequate analysis of findings.

1-3

CONCLUSION

(4)

Conclusion related to findings and analysis.

Conclusion fairly well related to findings and analysis.

4
2-3
1

Conclusion not closely related to findings and analysis.

(30)

TOTAL MARKS

CXC A31/U2/13

47

B.

BUSINESS MODEL
Student will develop an innovative venture idea, translate the idea into a wellconceptualised business concept, and then build a business model around it. This business
model must demonstrate the basic market and economic feasibility of the proposed venture
idea.
NB. You are not asked to develop a full business plan.

The Business Model should be developed using the following guidelines (Refer to UNIT 2, MODULE 2,
developing the business model):
1.

Why do you want to start this business/history?

2.

Mission/vision statement- why this business?

3.

Objectives.

4.

Value Proposition (how do you create value?).

5.

Beneficiary (for whom do you create value?).

6.

Operations (what is your internal source of advantage?).

7.

Product differentiation (how do you differentiate your product?).

8.

Income generation (how do you intend to make money?).

9.

Growth (what are the time scope and ambitions of the venture?).

10.

Financial request-start-up funds needed and likely source(s).

11.

One page cash flow- summary financials for start-up year.

CXC A31/U2/13

48

ALLOCATION OF MARKS FOR BUSINESS MODEL (30 Marks)


MARKS
(2)
2
1

1.

History of the Venture

Comprehensive description of concept and venture

Weak description of concept and venture

2.

MISSION/VISION STATEMENT

Mission and vision statements clearly stated

Mission and vision statements not clearly stated

(2)
2
1

3.

Value Proposition

Comprehensive description of value proposition

Moderate description of value proposition

Inadequate description of value proposition

(3)
3
2
1

4.

Beneficiaries

Comprehensive description of beneficiaries

Inadequate description of beneficiaries

(2)
2
1

5.

Operations

Comprehensive description of Operations

Inadequate description of Operations

(2)
2
1

6.

Product differentiation

Comprehensive description of product innovation

Moderate description of product innovation

Inadequate description of product innovation

(3)
3
2
1

7.

Income Generation

Comprehensive description of income generation

Moderate description of income generation

Inadequate description of income generation

(4)
4
2-3
1

8.

Growth

Comprehensive description of venture growth model

Moderate description of venture growth model

(2)
2
1

9.

Summary of Financial Analysis

Comprehensive treatment of financial request and cash flow statement

Moderate treatment of financial request and cash flow statement

Inadequate treatment of financial request and cash flow statement

(3)
3
2
1

10.

Presentation of Project

Table of contents presented in an acceptable format

Information communicated using correct grammar

References presented in appropriate format

Information in Project report presented logically and coherently

(7)
1
1-2
1-2
1-2

TOTAL

(30)

CXC A31/U2/13

49

Overall Presentation
(a)

Cover Page.

(b)

Acknowledgements.

(c)

Table of Contents.

(d)

Bibliography.

(e)

Appendices

Writing Skills
(a)

Organisation of ideas.

(b)

Vocabulary, use of language.

(c)

Grammar and Spelling.

CXC A31/U2/13

50

REGULATIONS FOR PRIVATE CANDIDATES


Private candidates will be required to write Papers 01 and 02. Detailed information on Papers 01 and
02 is given on pages 35 - 38 of this syllabus.
Private candidates are required to write, Paper 03/2, an Alternative Paper to the School-Based
Assessment. This paper is worth 60% of the total mark for the Unit.
UNIT 1
Paper 03/2 - (60 per cent of Total Assessment)
Composition of the Paper
This paper comprises one compulsory question incorporating all three Modules of the Unit being
examined.
Private candidates are expected to undertake an investigation on a specific topic in order to address
the scenarios presented in the examination.
The Industries for the examination years 2015 - 2019 are listed below. The following identifies the
examination year and the industries to be investigated.
1.

Industries for 2015

Tourism; Automotive Industry.

2.

Industries for 2016

Manufacturing; Creative and Cultural industries; Environmental.

3.

Industries for 2017

Food and Beverage Industry; Agro-Industry.

4.

Industries for 2018

ICT and Telecommunications Technology; Electrical/Electronic


industry.

5.

Industries for 2019

Fashion and Beauty Industry; Health and Wellness Industry.

1.

Question Type
Questions in this paper may be short answer and extended essay type, based on the case.

2.

Mark Allocation
The total number of marks available for this paper is 60, which will be weighted to 135 by
CXC.

REGULATIONS FOR RESIT CANDIDATES


Resit candidates must complete Papers 01 and 02 of the examination for the year for which they reregister. Resit candidates may elect not to repeat the School-Based Assessment component,
provided they re-write the examination no later than two years following their first attempt.
Resit candidates may opt to complete a School-Based Assessment for each Unit written or may opt
CXC A31/U2/13

51

to reuse another SBA score which satisfies any of the conditions listed at (i) or (ii) below.
1.

A candidate who re-writes the examination in the same Unit within two years may reuse the
moderated SBA score earned in the previous sitting within the preceding two years.
Candidates re-using SBA scores in this way must register as Resit candidates and must
provide the previous candidate number.

2.

Candidates who enter for Unit 1 or Unit 2, in different sittings, may reuse a moderated SBA
score obtained in a previous sitting of either Unit within the preceding two years. The SBA
score may be reused in either Unit, or in both Units, irrespective of the Unit in which it was
obtained. Candidates reusing SBA scores in this way must register as Transfer candidates.
Resit candidates may be entered through schools, recognised educational institutions, or
the Local Registrars Office.

CXC A31/U2/13

52

ASSESSMENT GRID
The Assessment Grid for the TWO Units showing marks assigned to Papers and Modules and
percentage contributions of each paper to the total scores.
Papers
External Assessment
Paper 01
1 hr 30 minutes
Paper 02
2 hours 45 minutes
6 mini cases, 2 per module
Internal Assessment
Paper 031
Unit 1 SBA - Interview Report
Unit 2 - Market Research and Business Model

Module
1

Module
2

Module
3

Total

Percentage
(%)

15

15

15

45

20

30 (15)

30 (15)

30 (15)

90 (45)

20

20 (45)

20 (45)

20 (45)

60 (135)

60

75

75

75

225

Percentage
(100)

Paper 032
2 hours
1 case covering all three Modules of the Unit
Total

For the internal assessment, the total mark earned by the candidate for the entire project must be
divided equally among the three modules. Any remainder should be added to any module according
to the candidates strength based on the teachers judgement BUT SHOULD NOT EXCEED 20 MARKS.
WEIGHTED SCORES IN BRACKETS

CXC A31/U2/13

53

GLOSSARY
OF
BEHAVIOURAL
ENTREPRENEURSHIP EXAMINATION

VERBS

USED

IN

THE

WORD

DEFINITION

Analyse

Examine methodically and in detail the elements of a process, a


situation or a theory, and then draw (a) conclusion(s).

Apply

Use knowledge and/or principles, approaches or theories to solve


problems.

Assess

Present reasons for the importance of particular structures,


relationships, processes or approaches.

Comment

State opinion or view with supporting reasons.

Compare and
contrast

State, describe and elaborate on the similarities and differences.

Define

Provide a precise statement giving the nature or the scope or the


meaning of a term; or use the term in one or more sentences so that
the meaning is clear and precise.

Describe

Provide a detailed account, including significant characteristics or


elements of an issue or situation.

Develop

Elaborate on or expand an idea or argument with supporting reasons.

Differentiate
or
Distinguish

State or explain briefly those differences between or among items or


situations which can be used to define them or place them into
separate categories.

Discuss

Write an extended answer defining key concepts, stating what is,


exploring related concepts and issues, present reasoned arguments
for and against, using detailed examples but not necessarily drawing
a conclusion.

Evaluate

Weigh evidence and make judgements based on given criteria.


The use of logical supporting reasons for a particular point is more
important than the view held; usually both sides of an argument
should be considered.

Examine

Write an extended answer defining key concepts, stating what is and


exploring related concepts and issues.

Explain

Provide statements on what happened, how it happened and why it


happened. Provide elaboration of particular terms, concepts,

CXC A31/U2/13

54

WORD

DEFINITION
approaches.

Formulate

Develop a hypothesis.

Give/State

Provide short, concise statements.

Identify

Name specific components or features. Point out, indicate without


explanation or recognise and select.

Interpret

Explain the meaning of.

Investigate

Use appropriate procedures to observe, research, record data,


analyse and draw logical conclusions.

Justify

Explain the correctness of/give reasons for the selection of.

List

Use headings only.

Name

Provide actual names (but no other details).

Outline

Provide main points, or features only without details.

Plan

Prepare to conduct an investigation.

Suggest

Offer an explanation deduced from information provided or previous


knowledge and consistent with subject knowledge.

Western Zone Office


6 March 2013

CXC A31/U2/13

55

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL


Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examination

CAPE

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
Specimen Papers and
Mark Schemes/Keys
Specimen Papers:

Unit 1, Paper 01
Unit 1, Paper 02
Unit 1, Paper 03/2
Unit 2, Paper 01
Unit 2, Paper 02
Unit 2, Paper 03/2

Mark Schemes and Keys:

Unit 1, Paper 01
Unit 1, Paper 02
Unit 1, Paper 03/2
Unit 2, Paper 01
Unit 2, Paper 02
Unit 2, Paper 03/2

TEST CODE

02124010

SPEC 2013/02124010
CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL
CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION
ENTREPRENEURSHIP
SPECIMEN PAPER
Unit 1 Paper 01
1 hour 30 minutes
READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.
1.

This test consists of 45 items. You will have 1 hour 30 minutes to answer them.

2.

Each item in this test has four suggested answers lettered (A), (B), (C), (D). Read each item you
are about to answer and decide which choice is best.

3.

Look at the sample item below.


Sample Item
The process of creating an idea and turning it into a product or service is termed
Sample Answer
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

innovation
commerce
production
manufacturing

C D

The best answer to this item is innovation, so answer space (A) has been shaded.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.


Copyright 2012 Caribbean Examinations Council
All rights reserved.
02124010/SPEC 2013

-21.

Which of the following BEST describes


an entrepreneur?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

5.

Has a strong desire to achieve and


is innovative
Recognizes opportunities but
sacrifices them
Has the urge to keep a product in
the existing market
Has a strong desire for money but
does not go after it

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

6.
2.

Which of the following statements is


NOT a myth associated with
entrepreneurs?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Entrepreneurs are bold.


All entrepreneurs are rich.
Entrepreneurs generate ideas.
Entrepreneurs are born, not made.

Creative destruction is the process


whereby products, processes, ideas and
businesses are replaced with better ones.

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

4.

Peter Drucker
Jean Baptiste Say
Richard Cantillon
Joseph Schumpeter

Which of the following is central to the


concept of entrepreneurship?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

8.

Globalization
Demographic stability
Stagnation in innovation
Decreasing consumption

Which of the following does NOT


encourage entrepreneurship?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Which of the following theorists made


this proposition?

processes, people and growth


global economies, people and
growth
global economies, processes and
growth
people, processes and regional
economies

Which of the following is a driving force


behind contemporary entrepreneurship?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

7.
3.

Entrepreneurship involves the


management of

Information revolution
Changing demographics
Technological advances
Government bureaucracy

Which of the following is a KEY


characteristic
for
a
successful
entrepreneur?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Ability to work hard


Technical skills
Access to personal money
Eye for an opportunity

Financing
Stabilization
Manufacturing
Innovation

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02124010/SPEC 2013

-39. An individual who is in the process of


starting a new venture for the first time is
described as a
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

10.

13.

novice entrepreneur
serial entrepreneur
nascent entrepreneur
habitual entrepreneur

Which of the following factors


distinguishes an entrepreneur from a
traditional small business owner?

Which of the following BEST describes


an entrepreneur when starting or
expanding a business?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

14.

Gender can constitute a barrier to the


development of entrepreneurship when
(A)

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Wealth
Ability to innovate
Number of start-ups
Employment status

(B)
(C)
(D)

Items 11 - 12 refer to the following types of


entrepreneurs.
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Serial entrepreneur
Novice entrepreneur
Habitual entrepreneur
Portfolio entrepreneur

In answering items 1112, match each item with


one of the options above. Each option may be
used once, more than once or not at all.

15.

12.

An individual who has NO prior


experience in starting up a business,
inheriting a business or purchasing a
business

venture financing availability is


based on ones gender
venture capitalists invest in
multiple ventures
both men and women are free to
access venture capital
both men and women are given
the same level of entrepreneurial
training

Jenny started her business one year ago.


The business failed. As a typical
entrepreneur, what will Jenny MOST
likely do?
(A)
(B)

11.

Opportunist
Angel funder
Venture capitalist
Calculated risk taker

(C)
(D)

Go to work for a major


corporation
Try to learn from her failed
venture
Give up becoming a successful
entrepreneur
Spend the rest of her life
wondering what happened to her
business

An entrepreneur who creates, starts and


sells ventures

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02124010/SPEC 2013

-416.

Which of the following is NOT a method


of generating a venture idea?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

20.

Training
Checklist
Notebook
Brainstorming

What is the LAST step to be taken by an


entrepreneur in selecting a business
opportunity?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

17.

Which of the following organizations will


MOST likely give financial assistance and
technical support to implement a business
idea?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

18.

Central banks
Angel investors
Commercial banks
Business development agencies
and programmes

An entrepreneur creates new business in


the face of risk and uncertainty for the
purpose of achieving profit and growth by
identifying
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

21.

threats
people
products
opportunities

Licensing
Shut down
Management buyout
Family succession

Which of the following is a characteristic


of a business idea?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

23.
19.

Which of the following strategies can be


described as both harvesting and exit?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

22.

Preparing a business plan


Screening of business opportunity
Evaluating
self
and
the
community
Identifying the needs and wants
of customers

Always abstract
May look bad at first
Always structured and systematic
Requires more than one person to
generate

Every business venture starts with

The first step in the entrepreneurial


process ESSENTIALLY involves

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

capital
an idea
a market
an opportunity

idea generation
resource mobilization
opportunity identification
business concept utilization

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02124010/SPEC 2013

-524.

Planning for unexpected growth in an


entrepreneurial venture involves
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

25.

29.

30.

Skills and education


Wages, motivation and benefits
Skills, experience and education
Performance appraisal, skills and
education

Which of the following is NOT a source


of a business concept?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Equity
Long-term debt
Preferred stock
Short-term debt

The process by which a small group of


people interact to produce a large quantity
of imaginative ideas is called
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

31.

leasing
outsourcing
angel funding
supplier financing

What type of financing is venture capital


funding?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Which of the following factors should an


entrepreneur consider MOST when hiring
employees?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

27.

age, gender and income


region, city and population
loyalty, product use and culture
lifestyle, social class and
education

Financial funding (backing) offered to an


entrepreneur in return for an equity
position in his/her venture is known as
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Demographic segmentation strategies


separate potential customers into
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

26.

determining future goals and


objectives
assigning tasks and allocating
resources
motivating
persons
towards
achieving goals
ensuring that performance is in
accordance with goals

28.

idealization
brainstorming
mind mapping
group thinking

Authors or publishers of software are


protected under
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

patent
copyright
trademark
trade security

New markets
New products
Existing markets
New organizational structures

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02124010/SPEC 2013

-632.

Which of the following innovative


concepts describes managing continuity in
an entrepreneurial venture?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

36.

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Radical
Modular
Incremental
Architectural
37.

33.

34.

Deregulation
New technology
Existing markets
Changing demographics

Which of the following core innovative


concepts provides customers with
products which they never knew they
needed?

The creative and innovative secret herbs


and spices used by a popular
multinational company through
franchised outlets for the preparation of
fast food is protected under

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Modular
Incremental
Discontinuous
Architectural

copyright
trademarks
trade secrets
intellectual property

Sources of innovation include


38.

35.

Which of the following is NOT a source


of innovation?

I
II
III

change in behaviour
new technology
deregulation

Which of the following may be used to


protect a specific way of doing business
and the underlying computer codes,
programs and technology?

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

I and II only
I and III only
II and III only
I, II and III

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Which of the following methods of


protecting innovation and creativity can
be used for creation of the G-pan steel pan
in Trinidad and Tobago?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Patent
Branding
Copyright
Registered design protection

39.

Patent
Copyright
Trademark
Trade secret

Which of the following may be regarded


as a micro-level condition for nurturing
innovation?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Social or changing demography


Organizational culture that
inspires innovation
Ethics or adherence to sound
principles by regulators
Entrepreneurship policies
developed and implemented by
government

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02124010/SPEC 2013

-740.

What type of innovation can be described


by the term supply chain?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

41.

Process
Position
Product
Paradigm

One special type of mobile phone has


gone through a series of small
improvements over the years which has
helped to keep its competitive position.
This type of innovation can be described
as
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

43.

44.

modular
incremental
product
service

Which type of innovation leaves the


existing components and the core design
concepts essentially untouched, but
changes the ways in which the
components are linked?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Patent
Trademark
Copyright

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

I and II only
I and III only
II and III only
I, II and III

Which of the following is NOT one of the


four Ps of innovation type?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

45.
42.

Which of the following are forms of


protection for intellectual property rights?

Price
Process
Position
Paradigm

An entrepreneurs failure to adhere to


sound business practices can be considered
as
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

behaving unethically
ignoring indigenous customs
not observing local regulations
ignoring entrepreneurial decisions

Modular
Incremental
Architectural
Discontinuous

END OF TEST
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02124010/SPEC 2013

-8-

Paper 01 Unit 1

Specific
Objective
1.1.5

1.1.10

27

1.2.7

1.1.6

28

1.2.10

1.1.1

29

1.2.10

1.1.1

30

1.2.2

1.1.1

31

1.3.12

1.1.1

32

1.3.2

1.1.5

33

1.3.2

1.1.4

34

1.3.7

10

1.1.3

35

1.3.12

11

1.1.4

36

1.3.7

12

1.1.4

37

1.3.7

13

1.1.5

38

1.3.7

14

1.1.7

39

1.3.10

15

1.1.9

40

1.3.5

16

1.2.2

41

1.3.5

17

1.2.10

42

1.3.5

18

1.2.4

43

1.3.12

19

1.2.8

44

1.3.5

20

1.2.5

45

1.3.11

21

1.2.13

22

1.2.8

23

1.2.1

24

1.2.12

25

1.2.12

Item

Key

Item

26

Specific
Objective
1.2.11

Key
A

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02124010/SPEC 2013

TEST CODE

02124020

SPEC2013/02124020
CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL
CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION
ENTREPRENEURSHIP
ENTREPRENEURIAL THEORY
SPECIMEN PAPER
Unit 1 Paper 02
3 hours
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
1. This paper consists of SIX mini-case scenarios, TWO from EACH module.
2. Candidates MUST answer the SIX questions.
3. Each question is worth 15 marks.

Copyright 2012 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02124020/SPEC 2013

2
INSTRUCTIONS: Read the mini-cases and answer the questions that follow them.
Module 1 - Entrepreneurial Mindset
Case 1 The Great Entrepreneur
John Harold Johnson, while at a presentation at his US high school, approached the guest speaker who was the
president of a large black-owned insurance company with a request for support to go to college, as he did not
have the money to do so. The speaker invited him to meet with him in the fall, resulting in John getting a
part-time job in the black-owned insurance company to support his future studies. Shortly thereafter, John
became editor of the companys in-house magazine, which focused on successful, contemporary AfricanAmericans. This inspired John to create a black American magazine called the Niagra Digest, given that there
were no other national black consumer magazines at the time. To finance his idea, he borrowed $5 000 from his
local bank using his mothers prestige furniture as collateral. To break into the market, John recruited his
friends and gave them money to go around to various shops seeking to purchase the new black magazine
although John knew that his magazine was not being carried by many shops at the time. This strategy was
successful as the newsstands started to carry his magazine. He expanded his business to include other
magazines, an insurance company, radio stations and real-estate holding. John overcame the obstacles of
poverty, negativism and racism to reach great heights in the publishing world and became the first black man to
be named to the Forbes 400 List of Richest Men.
1. (a) Identify FIVE characteristics of an entrepreneur that were demonstrated by John.
[5 marks]
(b) Outline how social and economic conditions presented entrepreneurial opportunities for John.
[4 marks]
(c) Explain the impact of cultural diversity on Johns publishing business.

[6 marks]

Total 15 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02124020 /SPEC 2013

3
Case 2 Doubt Bars the Way
Annita and Andrea are recent graduates of the University of the West Indies; Annita studied law while Andrea
pursued business. Both were considered creative and innovative by their lecturers, traits which could help them
as employees or persons capable of establishing their own ventures. Both graduates contemplated how to make
money to take care of their personal and family needs in Jamaica. Their first thought was to seek employment
overseas, as it is difficult to get employment locally. The other option was to start a venture; they thought that
the latter option was too risky for them, basing their thinking on some ideas they have long held about who is an
entrepreneur.
John, a brother of Annita, encouraged them to be more entrepreneurial with their knowledge and their network.
He argued that at a time when there is a global recession, persons with entrepreneurial drive and thinking could
successfully start and sustain a venture. However, Annita and Andrea argue that they are neither intrapreneurs
nor entrepreneurs (terms they consider alien to them), they have never operated a business, they do not have
money and worse yet, they are not lucky. Both of them have decided that they would rather invest their time in
trying to get a visa to go to Canada as there is a Canadian programme which they have heard about that enables
Caribbean nationals to become citizens and guarantees them jobs.
2. (a) Outline the differences between an entrepreneur and an intrapreneur, for the benefit of Annita and
Andrea.
[6 marks]
(b) In assisting Annita and Andrea to make a decision, identify FIVE myths of
entrepreneurship.

[5 marks]

(c) For FOUR of the myths identified in (b) above, state ONE reason why EACH is so considered.
[4 marks]

Total 15 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02124020 /SPEC 2013

4
Module 2 Entrepreneurial Process
Case 3 The Business Idea to Make Money
Jack and Jill are children of the Bing family, earning $50 per week from chores at their home. They want to buy
a video game system that costs $1 000. Their parents have told them that they must generate money to buy the
system themselves. However, the children do not have enough money to purchase it from their earnings. With
summer approaching, they have thought of selling soft drinks and candies at events held during the holidays.
There are usually large crowds of hot, thirsty people around during such periods. Their idea is to fill a large
cooler with ice, cans of soft drinks and candy bars and sell these to the customers at these events.
The parents like their entrepreneurial spirit and have offered them a loan to buy the initial products (soft drinks,
candy bars) for the venture and their large picnic cooler so that they could begin making ice and storing it in the
freezer in the basement. This would save on overhead costs. The parents believe that this idea is feasible, as
they know that the opportunity exists for the children to sell at their local sports park and club where cold soft
drinks are always in great demand.
3. (a) The case presents the need for idea generation. List FIVE methods of generating new venture ideas.
[5 marks]
(b) Outline FIVE resources that are available to Jack and Jill in support of their business idea.
[10 marks]

Total 15 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02124020 /SPEC 2013

5
Case 4 Look Before You Leap
Ingrid and Phillip are cousins who live in Montserrat. Because of the regular volcanic eruptions, many of their
friends have left the island to live in England. Being very patriotic, both decided that they would not leave.
Moreover, they think that the large population of Montserratians in England presents an opportunity for them to
sell Montserratian products to their Montserratian friends who have migrated. They think that this will work
because Montserratians in general are patriotic and would prefer to support their homeland businesses.
Both cousins inherited a substantial amount of money from their deceased grandmother and decided that it was
best to invest in a business. After brainstorming ideas, they decided that they would pre-cook and package
goat head soup, the Montserratian National Dish, and sell this to their target market in England. They believed
that this venture would be successful as it was grounded in the culture of Montserrat. They took 80 per cent of
the inherited money and invested it in the venture, hoping that within one year they would recover their
expenditure and start to reap substantial profits by the first quarter of the second year.
4. (a) Identify the SIX steps in the entrepreneurship process.
(b) Based on the case, explain the business concept of Ingrid and Phillip.

[6 marks]
[5 marks]

(c) List TWO activities that would be required to implement Ingrid and Phillips venture idea.
[4 marks]

Total 15 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02124020 /SPEC 2013

6
Module 3 Creativity and Innovation
Case 5 Entrepreneur: Ken Kutaragi
While employed as a sounds lab specialist at Sony, Ken Kutaragi bought his daughter a Nintendo (a game
console made by a competitor of Sony). He found the sound effects primitive and thought he could make
improvements to it using a digital sound clip. Consequently, Ken developed the SPC7000 for the next
generation of Nintendo machines. On discovery of this innovation, the then CEO of Sony, Norio Ohga, realized
its value and did not chastise Ken. Instead, he encouraged Ken to develop a gaming system for Sony, which
became the PlayStation. This made Sony a major player in the games market, with PlayStation 2 becoming the
best-selling game console of all time.
Ken was persistent and he went on to develop other PlayStation products earning him the name The Father of
the PlayStation. He was soon rewarded for his significant achievement. He was promoted to the position of
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Sony Computer Entertainment (SCEI), the video game division of
Sony Corporation, and made it into a major profit centre for the Sony Corporation.
5. (a) Distinguish between creativity and innovation.

[6 marks]

(b) Name FIVE things which the management of Sony Computer Entertainment Inc did (in relation to Ken)
to promote a culture of creativity.
[5 marks]
(c) With reference to the case, identify TWO sources of innovation that was utilized by Kutaragi.
[4 marks]

Total 15 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02124020 /SPEC 2013

Case 6 Double Blank


Assata is a citizen of The Bahamas who is living in Jamaica and pursuing her studies at the University of the
West Indies, Mona. As a non-Jamaican, she has found that there are additional expenses and costs that she has
incurred which were neither anticipated nor planned for. She has thus found herself in a situation where she
needs to find a sustained source of income. Given here artistic talent, she is considered to be very creative and
innovative. She is deemed to be a good choreographer and visual artist and has many admirers. However,
Assata has come to realize that being innovative and creative in the artistic sense is different from being
innovative and creative in the business sense. She has come to this conclusion partly because she is finding it
difficult to come up with a way to make some money using her raw talent. Her hope is to come up with a novel
idea regarding a good or service, which she would develop, implement and protect, with the hope of expanding
her venture to The Bahamas and the rest of the Caribbean.
(a)

Explain THREE methods of protecting innovation and creativity.

[9 marks]

(b)

Identify the TWO Ps of innovation in the case.

[2 marks]

(c)

Explain how being innovative could be applied to these TWO Ps to generate a business idea for Assata.
[4 marks]

Total 15 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02124020/SPEC 2013

SPEC 2013/02124020 CAPE MS

CARIBBEAN

EXAMINATIONS

COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATIONS

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 1 PAPER 02
KEY AND MARK SCHEME
SPECIMEN

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 1 - PAPER 02
KEY AND MARK SCHEMES

SR

Question Suggested Response


Question 1

1.5

(a)

The five (5) characteristics


demonstrated by John:

of

an

entrepreneur

(b)

were

Vision
Self-control
Courage
Determination
Inspiration
Innovativeness
Creativity
One mark for each of FIVE correct answers

1.1

that

How social and economic


opportunities for John:

conditions

presented

[5 marks]
entrepreneurial

The US market is segmented among different ethnic groups including


African-Americans, each having peculiar needs and demands for
goods and services. While there were magazines that specifically
targeted other ethnic groups, there was no substantial black
consumer magazine, hence a market was there. Additionally John was
able to access debt financing (loan of $5 000) using his mothers
assets (prestige furniture) as collateral. The segmented market
along ethnic lines, the unmet demand for African-American
magazines and the access to capital enabled John to implement his
idea of the African-American magazine as well as many other
businesses which targeted this specific market.
Four marks for adequate response
(containing all points underlined)
Two to three marks for less adequate response
(containing less than all points underlined but more than one)
One mark for weak response
(containing only ONE of the points underlined)
[4 marks]
1.1

(c)

The impact of cultural diversity on Johnsons publishing business.


Cultural diversity allowed John the opportunity to get a part-time
job working in an African-American insurance company. Note that
different groups of people have different needs and consumption
habits based on their cultural practices. It was obvious from his
experience that there was a large segment of African-American
demands that were not being satisfied adequately, including the
need for a national black consumer magazine.

SPEC 2013/02124020 CAPE MS

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 1 - PAPER 02
KEY AND MARK SCHEMES

SR

Question Suggested Response


Additionally John drew upon his cultural network to get support
from his friends to go to the newsstands to request and purchase
his magazines, as these were not traditionally being carried by
the established newsstands. Based on cultural diversity John was
able to identify, target and capture a niche market (African
Americans) for his magazines and other services.
Six marks for adequate response
(to include all underlined points)
Two to five marks for less adequate response
(according to number of points present)
One mark for weak response
(containing only one of the points underlined)
[6 marks]
Question 2

1.2

(a)

Differences between the entrepreneur and the intrapreneur.


An entrepreneur is innovative and creative, a calculated risk
taker who seeks to create value by bringing together a unique set
of resources in order to exploit an opportunity. He/she is usually
the owner of a new or existing venture.
An intrapreneur is an employee who applies innovation and
creativity to create value within an organization.
OR
While both the entrepreneur and the intrapreneur are innovative
and calculative, the entrepreneur is the owner/risk taker of the
venture, while the intrapreneur is the employee within the
venture.
Adequate response(six marks to include underlined key terms)
Less than adequate (two to five marks)
(depending on the number of underlined words present)
Weak (one mark containing only one of the points underlined)
[6 marks]
Not an exhaustive list but presents some of the more accepted
elements (one mark for each of THREE characteristics)

1.10

(b)

Five myths of entrepreneurship:

Entrepreneurship ventures and small businesses are the same


thing
All entrepreneurs are rich
Entrepreneurs are born not made
Entrepreneurship is easy
All you need is money to start a business
Successful entrepreneurship needs only a great idea
Entrepreneurs always generate new ideas
All you need is luck
Extreme risk takers.
One mark each for any FIVE responses
[5 marks]

SPEC 2013/02124020 CAPE MS

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 1 - PAPER 02
KEY AND MARK SCHEMES

SR
1.10

Question Suggested Response


(c)

Why FOUR of these are considered to be myths.

An entrepreneurship venture can be a business or a company; can


be large, medium or small.
Some entrepreneurs are rich; others are not.
While some persons are born that way, others can learn how to
become an entrepreneur
Entrepreneurship can be hard or easy; it depends upon a number
of factors relating to the entrepreneurship process
There are other resources required, not just money including
human, marketing and operational resources
A great idea is necessary but there are other steps in the
process, including opportunity recognition, developing the
business concept, identifying and accessing resources,
implementation and harvesting
Entrepreneurs can generate a new idea, but may also innovate
upon an existing idea
While luck can help, systematic planning is key
Entrepreneurs are not extreme risk takers, they are calculated
risk takers
One mark each for any FOUR responses

2.1

(a)

[4 marks]

Question 3
Five methods of generating new venture ideas:

Brainstorming
Use of focus group
Scenario planning
Check list method
Problem inventory analysis method
Note book method
Reverse brain storming method
Delphi methodology
Gordon method
Free association method
One mark each for any FIVE correct responses

SPEC 2013/02124020 CAPE MS

[5 marks]

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 1 - PAPER 02
KEY AND MARK SCHEMES

SR
2.1

Question Suggested Response


(b)

Five resources that are available to Jack and Jill in support of


their business idea

Financial support
Picnic cooler operational resource
Place for storage
Supply source reasonable
Parents expertise
Access to loan capital
Marketing facilities location
Human resource to sell the products
Two marks EACH for FIVE adequate responses OR
One mark EACH for FIVE less adequate responses
[10 marks]

Question 4
2.1

(a)

Six steps in the entrepreneurship process:

Idea generation
Opportunity recognition
Develop business concept
Identifying and accessing resources
Implementing and managing the venture
Harvesting the venture
One mark for each response

2.3

(b)

[6 marks]

The business concept of John and Phillip


John and Phillips business concept surrounds developing a
culture-based pre-cooked package product for a niche export
market. In brainstorming they decided that they would precook
and package goat head soup the Montserratian National Dish, and
sell this to their target market in England.
Adequate response five marks
(all underlined terms included)
Less adequate response two to four marks
(more than ONE but less than all)
Weak response one mark
(only one of the underlined terms included)
[5 marks]

SPEC 2013/02124020 CAPE MS

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 1 - PAPER 02
KEY AND MARK SCHEMES

SR
2.5

Question Suggested Response


(c)

TWO activities that would be required to implement the venture


idea.

Implementation of concept
Monitoring of performance
Payback of resource providers
Reinvestment in the business
Expansion of the business
Achievement of performance goals
Two marks each for any TWO responses

[4 marks]

Question 5
3.2

(a)

Distinction between creativity and innovation:


Creativity has been defined as the process by which individuals
or teams produce novel and useful ideas. (Three marks)
Innovation is the process by which entrepreneurs convert
opportunities into marketable ideas. (Three marks for full answers
including underlined words)
[6 marks]

3.1

(b)

What the management of Sony Computer Entertainment Inc did (in


relation to Ken) to promote a culture of creativity

Valued Kutaragis efforts


Did not chastise him for innovating on Nintendo (another
companys game console), but encouraged him
Encouraged him to develop a gaming system for Sony PlayStation
Promoted him to Chairman and CEO of Sony Computer and
Entertainment
Ken has been referred to as The father of the PlayStation
acknowledging the benefits of his innovation, recognizing him
as an expert innovator
One mark for each of FIVE correct response

3.2(e) (c)

[5 marks]

Two sources of innovation that was utilized by Kutaragi in the


case:

New markets
Business model innovation
Change in sentiment or behaviour
New technology
Two marks each for any TWO responses well discussed

SPEC 2013/02124020 CAPE MS

[4 marks]

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 1 - PAPER 02
KEY AND MARK SCHEMES

SR

Question Suggested Response


Question 6

3.5

(a)

Three methods of protecting innovation and creativity

Intellectual property rights


Branding
Trademarks
Patents
Copyright
Registered design protection
Trade secrets (processes, techniques, confidential disclosure
agreements).
Three marks each for any THREE well explained
(one mark for heading, two marks for explanation)
[9 marks]

3.2c

(b)

The 2Ps of innovation in the case:


product
process
One mark each [2 marks]

(c)

How Assatas innovativeness could be applied to these two Ps to


generate her idea

Assata is a choreographer and visual artist. Being innovative


could be applied to developing goods and/or services relating
to visual arts and choreography.

Being innovative as a choreographer and visual artist could be


used to develop a new way/process of developing and delivering
the product. Note that choreography is a process as well.
Two marks each for adequate responses
One mark for weak response
[4 marks]

SPEC 2013/02124020 CAPE MS

TEST CODE

02124032

SPEC2013/02124032
CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL
CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
ENTREPRENEURIAL THEORY
SPECIMEN PAPER
Unit 1 Paper 032
2 hours
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
1. This paper consists of a case study and THREE questions, ONE from EACH module.
2. Candidates MUST answer the THREE questions.
3. Each question is worth 20 marks.

Copyright 2012 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02124032/SPEC/2013

-2INSTRUCTION: Read the case below and answer the questions that follow.
CASE STUDY
Go for Gold
Phillip and Nieema, two old school mates, met each other in Saint Lucia at the recently concluded
Australian tour to the Caribbean. Phillip, who is a general sports enthusiast, had always wanted an
opportunity to convert his passion into enterprise.
In the discussion that followed, Nieema asked Phillip, Will you be going to the 2014 FIFA world cup
finals in Brazil? He disappointedly answered, No, it costs too much and I cannot afford it.Nieema, being
very optimistic, said, Man, you need to be there, there might be a way to generate some money, or better
still, make some money while you are there to cover your costs and make a profit as well. Phillip smiled,
as he always wanted an idea regarding how to make money from products associated with sports.
Phillip then asked, What could I do? You know I am not an entrepreneur like you. Moreover I do not have
the money to start any business. Nieema responded, While you need money, that is not all, furthermore
you already possess some characteristics of an entrepreneur. I think you are very creative and innovative.
You are confident, hardworking, systematic in your planning and achievement oriented. These are major
positives. With these kinds of attributes, you will not make the same mistakes that many persons who have
money make. To further increase your chances of success, you should ensure that you know your business
in depth, and have a clear business plan to map out your idea. Management is also critical and you are
already a good manager of both people and your finances. Essentially, you should know your strengths and
weaknesses so as to create an advantage. As you know, proper preparation prevents poor performance.
Phillip replied, No matter how much you prepare, there are always risks, I do not have the luck as others
and I am not a born entrepreneur like you. Nieema smiled and said, Yes it is true that that there are
always risks, but once you think through the entrepreneurial process you will be less likely to fail.
Moreover some of the statements about luck and that entrepreneurs are born not made are myths, which
discourage people from creating ventures.

1. Phillip was concerned that he was not a born entrepreneur while Nieema sought to convince him
that he might be.
(a)

Outline FIVE characteristics of an entrepreneur that came out in the discussion.


[10 marks]

(b)

Give FOUR ways that Phillip with his limited experience, could safeguard
his success as an entrepreneur.
[4 marks]

(c)

Identify THREE myths of entrepreneurship highlighted in the case.


[6 marks]

02124032/SPEC/2013

-3Nieema continued, her tone as encouraging as always, We could develop an idea and business together.
We know that the opportunity exists and we can get support from JBDC to develop the business concept
and access some of the needed resources including the funding. The key is to ensure proper management in
the implementation of the idea so you can reap the benefits of your efforts. Remember however that in
order to effectively implement the idea, you need good a good management and marketing team, technical
expertise and skilled employees. You must ensure that there are good distribution channels and consistent
sources of supply. Additionally you must ensure that your operations and production facilities are up to
standard with the national and international regulations. In doing so you will have a successful venture,
which can be sustained and harvested whenever you so desire. You could pass the business on to your
family, go public, liquidate it, sell the venture, sell shares to the employees under a share ownership plan, or
engage in a management buyout with other entrepreneurs.

2. Nieema tried to convince Phillip that entrepreneurship was not about luck but more of a process.
(a)

State (in order) SIX steps that should be considered when thinking through the
entrepreneurial process.
[6 marks]

(b)

Outline FOUR ways in which Phillip could harvest the venture if he chooses to do so.
[12 marks]
Identify from the case, TWO resources that Phillip would require to translate his idea into a
successful venture.
[2 marks]

(c)

02124032/SPEC/2013

-4Phillip responded, Nieema, you are always optimistic. I know that the idea has to be very innovative and
creative. Nieema, in response said, Yes that is so, however there are sources of innovation, which we can
use to differentiate our product from that of any one else. There are new markets emerging, new
technologies, new generations with changing behaviors, markets are being deregulated the entire political
landscape has changed since 2000. Man, we are Caribbean; we can find a way within all these changes.
For the second time, Phillip smiled, but being cautiously optimistic he asked, Suppose someone tries to
steal our ideas?
Nieema assured him, No worries, depending on what we come up with, we could register a brand or
trademark; try to secure a patent; copyright, register the design or ensure that we protect our trade secret.
We need to be in Brazil, Phillip, just as Bolt and Blake, Veronica and all our Caribbean brothers and sisters
have all gone for the gold in London, so should we. Make sure you have a visa.
Phillip smiled for the third time, with a golden glow in his eyes.

3. Nieema encouraged Phillip to join with her in developing and successfully implementing a
profitable idea; however, Phillip was concerned that this idea could be stolen.
(a)

List THREE sources of innovation that could help Phillip in generating an idea.
[3 marks]

(b)

State FIVE ways in which Phillip could protect his idea.


[5 marks]

(c)

Explain FOUR of the venture protection methods mentioned in (b) above.


[12 marks]
END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02124032/SPEC/2013

SPEC 2013/02124032 CAPE MS

CARIBBEAN

EXAMINATIONS

COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATIONS

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 1 PAPER 032
KEY AND MARK SCHEME
SPECIMEN

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 1 - PAPER 032
KEY AND MARK SCHEMES

SR

Question Suggested Response


Question 1
Phillip was concerned that he was not a born entrepreneur while
Nieema sought to convince him that he might be

1.5

(a)

Five characteristics of an entrepreneur that came out in the


discussion:
Innovative
Creative
Calculated risk takers
Systematic planner
Visionary
Achievement oriented
Persistent
Dynamic
Hard working
Self-confident
Aggressiveness
Egotistic
Two marks each for any FIVE responses
[10 marks]

1.9

(b)

Four ways that Phillip with his limited experience, could


safeguard his success as an entrepreneur

1.10

(c)

Know your business in depth


Develop a solid business plan
Manage financial resources
Understand financial statements
Manage people effectively
Know your strengths and weaknesses

One mark each for any FOUR responses


[4 marks]
Three myths of entrepreneurship highlighted in the case:

Entrepreneurship ventures and small businesses are the


same thing
All entrepreneurs are rich
Entrepreneurs are born not made
Entrepreneurship is easy
All you need is money to start
Successful entrepreneurship needs only a great idea
Entrepreneurs always generate new ideas
All you need is luck
Extreme risk takers
Two marks for each of THREE adequate responses
One to Two marks for each of TWO less adequate responses
[6 marks]
Total = 20 marks

SPEC 2013/02124032 CAPE MS

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 1 - PAPER 032
KEY AND MARK SCHEMES

SR

Question Suggested Response


Question 2

2.1

(a)

Six steps to be considered when thinking through the


entrepreneurial process.

Idea generation
Opportunity recognition
Developing business concept
Identifying and accessing resources
Implementing and managing the venture
Harvesting the venture
One mark each for SIX responses
(deduct one mark if order is wrong)
[6 marks]

2.6

(b)

Four ways in which Phillip could harvest the venture if he chooses


to do so:

Absorption of new concept into mainstream operations


Licensing of rights
Family succession
Going public (IPO)
Employee share ownership plan (ESOP)
Liquidating (Shutting down) venture
Selling the venture
Management buy-out (MBO)
Three marks each for an FOUR adequate responses
(one mark for heading, two marks for explanation)
One to two marks for each of FOUR less adequate responses
[12 marks]

2.4

(c)

Two resources that Phillip would require to translate the idea


into a successful venture.

Skilled employees
General management expertise
Marketing and sales expertise
Technical expertise, financing
Distribution channels
Sources of supply
Production facilities
Licenses, patents and legal protection
One mark each for any TWO responses
[2 marks]
Total = 20 marks

SPEC 2013/02124032 CAPE MS

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 1 - PAPER 032
KEY AND MARK SCHEMES

SR

Question Suggested Response


Question 3

3.2(e) (a)

Three sources of innovation that could help Phillip in generating


an idea:

3.5

(b)

New markets
New technology
New political rules
Running out of road
Change in sentiment or behaviour
Deregulation
Business model innovation
One mark each for any THREE responses
[3 marks]

Five ways that Phillip could protect his idea:

Intellectual property rights


Branding
Trademarks
Patents
Copyright
Registered design protection
Trade secrets (processes, techniques, confidential disclosure
agreements).
One mark each for any FIVE responses
[5 marks]

3.5

(c)

Four ways to protect a venture as mentioned in (b) above:

Intellectual Property Rights


Creation of mind such as literacy works or inventions and
their legal protection quite different from the traditional
systems of protection such as patents etc.

Branding
Creating a unique identity that differentiates a person or
company or institution from competition.

Trademark
A distinct name, or service mark that may include words,
symbols, or a combination, used to identify a company or
inventor.

SPEC 2013/02124032 CAPE MS

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 1 - PAPER 032
KEY AND MARK SCHEMES

SR

Question Suggested Response

Patent
Consists of a set of special rights granted by law for a
fixed period to an inventor of an idea, product or service.

Copyright
Legal protection that gives the creator of an original work,
special rights to it for a limited time.

Registered Design Protection


Where a designer specifically applies for his/her designs to
be registered and given legal protection.

Trade Secrets
Processes, techniques and other confidential disclosure
agreements.
Three marks each for any FOUR adequate responses
One to two marks for each of FOUR less adequate responses
[12 marks]
Total = 20 marks

SPEC 2013/02124032 CAPE MS

TEST CODE

02224010

SPEC 2013/02224010
CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL
CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION
ENTREPRENEURSHIP
SPECIMEN PAPER
Unit 2 Paper 01
1 hour 30 minutes
READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.
1.

This specimen paper consists of 45 items. You will have 1hour 30 minutes to answer them.

2.

Each item in this test has four suggested answers lettered (A), (B), (C), (D). Read each item you
are about to answer and decide which choice is best.

3.

Look at the sample item below.


Sample Item
One of the major challenges online retailers have is
Sample Answer
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

tracking sales results


managing communication
the capacity to enhance customer service
the ability to maintain sufficient stock levels

The best answer to this item is the ability to maintain sufficient stock levels, so answer space
(D) has been shaded.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.


Copyright 2012 Caribbean Examinations Council
All rights reserved.

02224010/SPEC 2013

1.

Which of the following may be


considered an activity that falls under
the corporate social responsibility of a
lumber company?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

2.

3.

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

6.

a franchise
a partnership
an undertaking
limited liability

COSSH
ISO standards
Employee Handbook
Economic Partnership Agreement

Which of the following organizations


would MOST likely provide financial
and technical assistance to implement a
business idea?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

IPO
Banks
Angel investors
Business development agencies

Timothy is seeking direction in deciding


the BEST way to organize his
entrepreneurial venture. His first
decision is to determine the form of
legal ownership.
Which of the following aspects of the
venture has direct bearing on legal
ownership?
Growth
Liability
Taxation
Profitability

Hawa is the owner of a female hairstyling salon. Pasha is an entrepreneur


managing his own barber shop. Due to
individual challenges they are facing,
the two have decided to merge their
businesses to take advantage of their
individual expertise.
Which of the following forms of
business would be MOST suitable for
the new venture?

Which of the following contains


guidelines for regulating process and
service standards irrespective of the type
of business?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

4.

Cash
donations
towards
reforestation
Supporting company fun-day
celebrations
Increasing workers salaries and
wages
Spearheading the growth of the
company

When an existing company grants a


licence to another company to operate
using the formers name and design to
provide the same service, the
arrangement is called
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

5.

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

7.

Franchise
Partnership
Corporation
Non-governmental organization

Max is a professional accountant who


has decided to go into the preparation of
fast food for sale. His business adviser
has told him to purchase yellow cones to
be placed on wet floors in the restaurant.
Which of the following regulations
covers this advice?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Tax and profits


Employment law
Registration of business
Occupational health and safety

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02224010/SPEC 2013

3
8.

Which of the following types of


business has unlimited life and allows
for the easy transferability of ownership
interest?

12.

Which of the following may be


considered unethical behaviour on the
part of a dairy product venture owner?
(A)

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Partnership
Corporation
Sole proprietorship
Limited liability partnership

(B)
(C)
(D)

9.

A Caribbean government recently asked


an airline to obtain a licence before
operating in that territory. This means
the airline was being asked to satisfy
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

10.

13.

a social obligation
a legal requirement
an ethical obligation
a corporate social responsibility

The Corporate
described as the

Charter

is

(B)
(C)

(D)

basic legal declaration contained


in the bylaws
legal document that establishes
the corporation
set of rules and procedures
established to govern the daily
operations of the corporation
document that governs the
relationship between the
workers of the corporation and
management

Which of the following courses of


action is available to the regulatory
agency in a country if a registered
company fails to pay its taxes?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

patent
domain
trademark
copyright

BEST

Prosecute the company


Arrest
the
companys
employees
Cut the companys source of
raw material supply
Ask buyers to boycott the
companys products

Which of the following is a feature of a


lifestyle venture?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

15.
11.

The legal protection of a word, name,


phrase or a symbol granted to a venture
is known as a
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

14.
(A)

Giving cows minimum medical


attention
Milking cows only when they
are healthy
Allowing cows to graze on
clean, authorized grass
Implementing medical advice
given by veterinary officers

It is fast growing.
It has great opportunity to serve
customers.
It exists primarily to support the
owners standard of living.
It makes research and
development a priority.

A company has decided to pay the


college fees of 50 children of poor
families living within its local
community. This is an example of the
companys
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

legal obligation
mandatory duties
ethical behaviour
corporate social responsibility

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02224010/SPEC 2013

4
16.

The primary purpose of a business plan


is to
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

17.

21.

clarify the ventures vision


clarify the ventures mission
determine an exit strategy
establish the ventures
feasibility

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

22.
Cost
Price
Value prosition
Business plan

23.
Financial
Marketing
Operations
Management

24.

20.

SWOT analysis
PEST analysis
benchmarking
financial ratio analysis

The potential success of an


entrepreneurial venture is determined
through a
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

feasibility study
vision statement
mission statement
profit and loss statement

Gift
Loan
Sales
Grant

Which of the following is a KEY


component of a business plan?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

25.

start-up
buck-up
cash strap
break even

Which of the following is NOT a source


of funding for a new venture?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

The process by which the strengths and


opportunities for an existing venture are
identified is known as
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

The point at which a venture is neither


making profits nor losses is described by
the term
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

In which of the following sections of a


business plan would you find
promotional resource?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

19.

to determine unpaid debts


to support the business model
for the benefit of shareholders
because it is one of the
documents required to register
the venture

Which of the following is a key


component of a business model?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

18.

The BEST reason for preparing a


statement of cash flow for a new venture
is

Venture logo
SWOT analysis
Executive summary
Organizational chart

The business model for a new venture


must
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

show the source of funding


show the top managers of the
venture
include a contract between
management and workers
state what will be done
differently to create value
GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02224010/SPEC 2013

5
26.

The financial statement that shows the


value of an organizations assets,
liabilities and owners equity is the
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

27.

28.

Which of the following is NOT a key


aspect of the feasibility analysis for a
new venture?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

31.

Cash
Inventory
Raw materials
Fixed deposits

(B)
(C)
(D)

develop a great advertising


campaign
have a strong website to push
the product
adopt a push rather than pull
promotional concept
develop products that deliver
superior value to customers

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

32.

Time
Culture
Finance
Employment

The MOST appropriate form of


financing during the rapid growth stage
of a venture is

To create a successful, new product a


company MUST understand the
customers, the market, competitors and
(A)

29.

cash budget
balance sheet
income statement
cash flow statement

Which of the following is a saving and


investment option?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

30.

first-round financing
start-up or seed financing
public and seasoned financing
second-round or mezzanine
financing

During which stage of a ventures life


cycle may first-round external financing
be utilized?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Survival
Maturity
Start-up
Rapid growth

Patrick is a novice entrepreneur. He has


to prepare a business model for his
business plan. Which of the following
components of the business model will
determine for whom he has to create
value?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Beneficiary
Value proposition
Income generation
Product differentiation

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02224010/SPEC 2013

6
Items 33 - 34 refer to the following financial
valuation methods.
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Income capitalization
Book value (balance sheet
value)
Price earning (multiple earnings
value)
Discounted future earnings
(discounted cash flow)

35.

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

36.

In answering items 33-34, match each item with


one of the options above. Each option may be
used once, more than once or not at all.
33.

Which valuation method may become


subjective if the shares for a company
are NOT traded on the stock market?

Which method is NOT an income


valuation method?

$492 592
$1 952 352
$2 866 592
$3 497 152

What is the price earnings multiple of


Hodge Company in 2012?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

37.
34.

Using the book value approach, what is


the value of Hodge Company in 2012?

2
8
10
12

The process of buying and selling via


the internet is called
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

E-commerce
E-marketing
E-banking
E-communication

Items 3536 refer to the following information.


Hodge Company hired a financial analyst for the
company. The financial analyst was provided
with the following financial data.
Balance Sheet

2012

2011

Current Assets
Net Fixed Assets
Total Assets
Current Liabilities
Long-term Debt
Other Data
No. of shares
EPS
DPS
Stock Price

$2 680 112
$817 040
$3 497 152
$1 144 800
$400 000

$1 926 802
$939 790
$2 866 592
$1 650 568
$723 432

250 000
$1.014
$0.220
$12.17

100 000
-$1.602
$0.110
$2.25

38.

Which of the following products are


NOT suitable for online selling?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

39.

CDs
Books
Fresh vegetables
Financial services

Which of the following statements is


NOT a feature of business ventures?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Ventures are sown.


Ventures can be grown.
Ventures are harvested.
Ventures can be exported.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02224010/SPEC 2013

7
40.

At which stage of the venture life cycle


does the entrepreneur create the
capacity to possess the product or
service?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

41.

42.

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

(D)

44.

Location
Nationality
Bandwidth
Data mining

Which of the following venture


valuation methods takes the time value
of money into account?

Which of the following strategies can


promote success in E-commerce?
(A)
(B)
(C)

Start-up
Innovation
Venture growth
New venture development

Which of the following is a factor to


consider before launching into
E-commerce?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

43.

The stage in the venture life cycle where


the entrepreneur can consider entering
other target markets is described as
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

45.

growth
decline
start-up
business stabilization

One reason for valuing a venture fairly


accurately is to
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Book value
Price earnings
Payback period
Discounted future earnings

Focusing on market needs


Minimizing the use of emails
De-emphasizing strategic
alliances
Focusing on corporate social
responsibility

promote goodwill
avoid under-harvesting
enhance accountability
avoid customer complaints

END OF TEST
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02224010/SPEC 2013

Unit 2 Paper 01

Specific
Objective
2.1.4

2.1.1

27

2.2.8

2.1.3

28

2.2.4

2.1.1

29

2.2.10

2.1.1

30

2.2.3

2.1.1

31

2.3.1

2.1.3

32

2.3.1

2.1.1

33

2.3.5

2.1.4

34

2.3.5

10

2.1.3

35

2.3.5

11

2.1.3

36

2.3.5

12

2.1.4

37

2.3.6

13

2.1.3

38

2.3.9

14

2.1.1

39

2.3.2

15

2.1.4

40

2.3.2

16

2.2.12

41

2.3.8

17

2.2.10

42

2.3.4

18

2.2.12

43

2.3.11

19

2.2.12

44

2.3.1

20

2.2.3

45

2.3.4

21

2.2.7

22

2.2.9

23

2.2.3

24

2.2.12

25

2.2.10

Item

Key

Item

26

Specific
Objective
2.2.8

Key
B

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02224010/SPEC 2013

TEST CODE

02224020

SPEC2013/02224020
CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL
CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION
ENTREPRENEURSHIP
ENTREPRENEURIAL PRACTICE
SPECIMEN PAPER
Unit 2 Paper 02
3 hours
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
1. This paper consists of 6 mini-case scenarios, TWO from EACH module.
2. Candidates MUST answer the SIX questions.
3. Each question is worth 15 marks.

Copyright 2012 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02224020/CAPE2013

2
INSTRUCTIONS: Read the mini-cases and answer the questions that follow them.
Module 1 Essentials of Business Ownership
Case 1 Jacksons Big Decision
Jackson, a college student, worked two part-time jobs, one with a newspaper and the other with a pet shop. On
graduating, he accepted a full-time position as a reporter with the newspaper company from which Mr Briggs,
the owner, was retiring and selling the business for $300 000. He was excited at the prospect of buying the
venture, given his experience. At the pet shop, Jackson was responsible for cleaning the animals and their
cages, feeding them, ensuring that they had adequate shelter, got their medication on time and were generally
healthy. Most of all, he ensured that the animals were treated kindly.
To be able to buy the newspaper company, he estimated that he could save $100 000 this year from his wages;
he would also take a loan from his parents and then negotiate the selling price with Mr Briggs. Additionally,
his friend Mark, who had experience in running a small business, was willing to invest in this business venture.
Jackson agreed to work with Mark on this venture given their access to funds, competence and his love for this
line of work.
1. (a) With Jackson and Mark deciding to form a partnership, what is the name of the document which will
form the basis of their relationship?
[1 mark]
(b) Outline FIVE advantages of this type of venture.

[10 marks]

(c) Identify from the case, FOUR ethical obligations that Jackson and Mark should consider in managing
an animal venture.
[4 marks]

Case 2 Crossroads
Kendra, a recent university graduate, has heard of a technology business incubator service offered by a local
university. She is excited to learn of this service as she considers herself to be a potential entrepreneur given
that her father once owned a business. As such, she has visited the incubator centre and gathered information
pertaining to establishing her business. She however has a challenge because she has been informed that there
are many forms of business and that not everyone is suited for all types; in some cases one might not be suited
for any business at all. Additionally, there are legal, regulatory and ethical factors to consider when
operationalizing the venture, which can be both costly and time consuming. On leaving the centre, Kendra has
decided to choose between forming a sole proprietorship and a private company.
2. (a) Compare the features of these two ventures being considered by Kendra under the following headings:
Formation
Source of funding
Liability
[6 marks]
(b) Kendra has decided to go into private company business without further delay. Name THREE
components of the legal and regulatory framework in which the business will operate.
[3 marks]

02224020/CAPE2013

3
(c) Explain to Kendra THREE ways in which the business can demonstrate its corporate social
responsibility (CSR).
[6 marks]

Module 2 New Venture Planning and Creation


Case 3 The Village Caf
Saheed inherited $10 000 from his late father and is thinking of setting up an internet caf to target students in
his home village. There is a large population of students in Saheeds village who depend on the use of the
internet to do their research. However, due to the absence of such facilities in Saheeds village, students are
forced to travel to other villages to access the internet. In order to attract the students to his business, Saheed
plans to offer his service at a reduced cost. Saheed believes that this marketing strategy would allow him to
benefit from a high volume of business.
Unfortunately, Saheeds inheritance is inadequate to start up the venture. In an effort to establish the venture,
Saheed has approached a local commercial bank for the additional funds. The bank has requested that Saheed
prepare a business plan that should include a business model.
3. (a) Explain any THREE components of a business model.

[6 marks]

(b) Based on the case above, explain what Saheeds value proposition is.

[3 marks]

(c) Identify the SIX key components of the business plan for Saheeds benefit.

[6 marks]

Case 4 Not all that Glitters is Gold


Chappy, a youth from rural Jamaica, travelled to Guyana in the hope of finding windows of opportunity to earn
a livelihood. On arrival, he met with an elder Guyanese who lived in the jungle where the black water flows;
the elder invited him to accompany him home, as he thought Chappy reminded him of his grandson, Pasha.
While on their way, Chappy noticed a river and asked the elder if that was the Black Water river. The elder
confirmed that it was. Chappy asked that they should stop for a drink. Chappy noticed that the water had a rich
golden colour, and remarked but this is not black water it is golden water, we could make a fortune selling
this. The elder smiled as he remembered that as a child there was a legend that the black water possessed
healing power; when one drank the water, the skin gave off a golden hue. Chappy became more excited and
convinced that this was the golden opportunity that he was waiting for. However, the experienced elder asked,
Is this feasible? How would you market it? Is there a marketing plan? What would be your business model?
Will you develop a business plan? Chappy asked the elder, How do you know about these things? I never
thought that I would have to do so much. The elder replied, Experience teaches wisdom. These were the
same questions which the elders grandson, Dr Pasha, a professor in entrepreneurship at the University of
Guyana asked Chappy when he first came up with the idea of the Golden Water.
4. (a) State ONE purpose of conducting a market research.
(b) Identify FOUR key elements of a market research.

02224020/CAPE2013

[2 marks]
[4 marks]

4
(c) In helping Chappy to think through the idea before embarking on the development of a business plan,
outline THREE reasons why a business model is important.
[3 marks]
(d) With reference to the black water product(Golden Water), explain any THREE questions in the
business model that Chappy should prepare.
[6 marks]

Module 3 Managing the Venture


Case 5 The Fruit Mart
The government of Caribbean territory launched the Grow More Food campaign in 2000 with the aim of
encouraging the export of non-traditional agricultural crops. Under this initiative, the government offered
numerous fiscal incentives as well as financial support to farmers. In an effort to take advantage of
opportunities created by the initiative, Anthea established a company to produce and export a wide range of
fruits to the United States and Canada.
Before he commenced operation, Anthea prepared a business plan and was able to source financing for the
venture from a local commercial bank. During the first two years of operation, the revenue of the company
merely covered its operational expenses. However, between the third and fifth years, the company posted robust
profits due to the rapid growth in its sales revenue. From years six to nine the companys revenue levelled off
and declined thereafter mainly as a result of competition from other suppliers who penetrated the market for
organic fruits in the United States and Canada. Given the lack of the anticipated growth in the business, Anthea
has taken the decision to dispose of the venture to the disappointment of many top managers who hold stock
options in the company
5. (a) Based on the case above, list the FIVE stages of the venture life cycle (VLC).
[5 marks]
(b) From the passage, explain the TWO effects that overseas competition had on Antheas business.
[4 marks]
(c) Identify the main elements of an employee stock option plan (ESOP)

[6 marks]

Case 6 Fools Rush In


Maurice, a native of Grenada has recently completed his masters degree in food science at the University of
Guyana. He learnt from Professor Sulaman, a lead researcher in biochemistry, that the neutraceutical industry is
valued at over US$175 billion and that Caribbean countries have an advantage in this industry. The Caribbean
is known to have over 80 of the more popular medicinal plants in this industry. Maurice, having an idea to
grow spices in Grenada and package them in tablet form, called his friend Bishop to share his idea. Bishop was
an IT/Web specialist. Maurices idea was to develop tablet forms of the spices to sell overseas, through an
online system. While he was aware that there were many successful e-commerce ventures, he also knew that
there were many failures. He now seeks Bishops advice on how to proceed.

02224020/CAPE2013

6. (a) State TWO elements that Maurice should consider before launching into E-commerce.

[2 marks]

(b) Explain why the TWO elements stated in (a) above are considered important in E-commerce.
[4 marks]
(c) In guiding Maurice, discuss THREE strategies that are required for E-commerce success. [9 marks]

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02224020/CAPE2013

SPEC 2013/02224020 CAPE MS

CARIBBEAN

EXAMINATIONS

COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATIONS

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 2 PAPER 02
KEY AND MARK SCHEME
SPECIMEN

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 2 - PAPER 02
KEY AND MARK SCHEMES

SR

Question Suggested Response


Question 1

1.1

(a)

The name of the document which forms the basis of partners


relationship
Partnership agreement/deed
One mark for correct response
[1mark]

1.2

(b)

Five advantages of partnership.


Sharing workload: In a partnership business, each member
undertakes part of the activities involved in running the
venture unlike say a one-man business.
Shared risks and responsibilities: operating a venture
involves risks and responsibilities which can be shared
among the partners
A
range
of
experience,
knowledge
and
competence
available:Each partner brings to the venture his/her own
unique experiences, knowledge and skills.
This creates a
pool of talent to draw upon.
Cost sharing: The cost of operating a venture could be
beyond the resources available to a single person.
Partnerships have a wider source of funds than sole trader.
Generating ideas: the continuous success of a venture
depends upon constant injection of new ideas.
In
partnership, more than one person is available to
contribute ideas.
Easy to form: the formalities required to form a
partnership are less cumbersome than a limited liability
company
Two marks each for any FIVE adequate responses
One mark for each less adequate response
[10 marks]

1.4

(c)

Four ethical obligations that Jackson


consider in managing an animal venture:

and

Mark

should

No cruelty to animals
Animals must be fed
Animals must be kept clean and healthy
Animals must be provided with adequate shelter
Animals must be given shots/medication
One mark each for any FOUR correct responses
[4 marks]

SPEC 2013/02224020 CAPE MS

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 2 - PAPER 02
KEY AND MARK SCHEMES

SR
1.1

Question Suggested Response


(a)
Question 2
Heading
Formation

Sole Trader
Very easy to form.
No special
formalities are
required.

Source of
funding

All funding is
provided by the
owner from personal
resources (savings)
or personal loans.
A sole trader has
no limited
liability; the sole
trader is
personally liable
for the debts of
the business.

Liability

Private company
Formation requires
special formalities
including registration
with relevant authorities
and obtaining of a
license to commence
business
Funding may come from
shareholders
contributions or loans
from banks.
The
liability
of
the
owners is limited only to
the
extent
of
their
individual contributions.

One mark for each response


[6 marks]

1.3

(b)

Three components of the legal and regulatory framework in


which the business will operate:

Registration of venture
Labour laws
Tax obligations
Occupational Safety and Health (OSHA);
International regulations (ISO Standards; Duty of Care,
OSHA and ASAP) and environmental stewardship.
One mark each for any THREE responses
[3 marks]

SPEC 2013/02224020 CAPE MS

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 2 - PAPER 02
KEY AND MARK SCHEMES

SR
1.3(d)

Question Suggested Response


(c)

Three ways the business can demonstrate its corporate social


responsibility (CSR):

Adopting communities and public institutions: this involves


organizing special activities or events to promote the
welfare and reputation of these bodies.
Adopting environmentally responsible production
practices: this involves adopting good waste management
practices, energy efficiency measures, establishing health
and safety practices for employees and customers etc.)
Sponsoring events: this involves organising special events
to raise funding to support the activities of these bodies
Developing public places: this involves bearing the cost of
providing special facilities to enhance the utility of
public facilities.
Being an ethical organization: this involves correct
pricing and high product quality.
Collaborating with other stakeholders to create social
value: this involves working with relevant partners to
improve
general
welfare
or
compliance
with
social
obligations
Two marks each for any THREE adequate responses
One mark each for less adequate response
[6 marks]

Question 3
2.4(2a)

(a)

The components of a business model:

Value proposition/creation (1 mark)


What type of goods or services are being offered for sale?
Are they standardized or customized?
Is there a large
variety?
Are
the
goods/services
complimentary
or
substitutes?
1 mark EACH for any TWO terms underlined plus 1
for heading
3 marks

For whom do you create value? (1 mark)


Are the goods or services offered meant for general
consumers? Are they meant for resale? Are the goods to be
used as inputs for further production? Are the goods meant
for
local
or
international
customers?
Are
they
goods/services targeted at a niche market?
1 mark EACH for any TWO terms underlined plus 1
for heading
3 marks

SPEC 2013/02224020 CAPE MS

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 2 - PAPER 02
KEY AND MARK SCHEMES

SR

Question Suggested Response

(b)

What are the internal sources of advantage? (1 mark)


Are these in the areas of production? selling or
marketing? packaging? technology, R&D? networking? supply
chain management? operating systems?
1 mark EACH for any TWO terms underlined plus 1
for heading
3 marks

How do you differentiate your products/services? (1 mark)


Are your products or services differentiated using product
quality? low cost efficiency? intimate customer
relationships? image of consistency or dependability?
innovative leadership?
1 mark EACH for any TWO terms underlined plus 1
for heading
3 marks

How do you make money? (1 mark)


Are pricing and revenue sources fixed/mixed/flexible? Is
operating leverage high or low (i.e. the ability to
increase or reduce supply?) What is the volume of the
goods to be supplied high, medium or low? What is the
pricing strategy high or low margins?
1 mark EACH for any TWO terms underlined plus 1
for heading
3 marks

What are the time scope and ambition of the venture? (1


mark)
Is this a subsistence model profit to support daily
living? Income model meant to attain a desired standard
of living? Growth model sacrifice present profits to grow
the venture? Speculative model growing the venture for
resale?
1 mark EACH for any TWO terms underlined plus 1
for heading
3 marks

Saheeds value proposition


Internet caf offering internet services at reduced cost,
standardized and/or customized for the patrons, using a
direct distribution channel.
One mark for each of THREE phrases underlined
[3 marks]

SPEC 2013/02224020 CAPE MS

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 2 - PAPER 02
KEY AND MARK SCHEMES

SR
2.5(c)

Question Suggested Response


(c)

The key components of the business plan for Sajeeds benefit:

Executive summary
Business description
Management
Marketing
Operations
Financials
One mark each x 6
[6 marks]

2.1

(a)

Question 4
One purpose of conducting a market research.
To ascertain
customers so
The strategy
promotion of
venture.

information on market, sales, competitor and


as to develop a meaningful marketing strategy.
highlights the 4Ps, price, place, product and
the good or service being offered in the
Adequate response (2 marks)
Less adequate response (1 mark)
[2 marks]

2.1 (c)

(b)

Four key elements of a market research

Market analysis - (market share, market size, potential or


opportunities for growth; SWOT)
Sales analysis (potential sales over a specified period
of time; sales trends, potential for increase in annual
sales.
Competitor analysis who are the competitors, is the
market fragmented, what share of the market do they have,
what is their competitive advantage, how will you
compete, what will be your competitive edge
Customer analysis - who are your customers (demography&
psychographics), how best can you satisfy their needs?
One mark each x 4
[4 marks]

SPEC 2013/02224020 CAPE MS

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 2 - PAPER 02
KEY AND MARK SCHEMES

SR
2.4(1)

Question Suggested Response


(c)

THREE reasons why a business model is important:

2.4

(d)

Ensures a logical and internally consistent approach to


design and operation of the venture
Identifies key variables that can be combined to form a
platform for innovation
Demonstrates the attractiveness of the venture and thus
used to attract investors
Guides management and operations of the venture
Provides a framework to adjust to changing conditions which
affects the venture
Provides a guide to the entrepreneur as to whether his
venture idea is viable
Establishes a robust foundation for the development of a
business plan
One mark each for any THREE
[3 marks]

Three questions in the business model that Chappy should


consider:
How does Chappy create value?
Chappy must decide on the type of product he will create
out of the black water; will he add another product or
service to enhance utility? Will the product be
standardized for everyone for example?
For whom will Chappy create value?
Chappy must decide whether his black water product will be
sold to people to consume directly or for resale; to be
sold locally or on the international market? Will he
target a niche market?
What is Chappys source of internal advantage?
Chappy must decide where his internal source of advantage
will be. Will it be in production, selling, packaging of
black water products? Will it be in the area of supply
chain management or networking or research?
How will Chappy differentiate his product?
Chappy could use several methods to differentiate
his
product. Will it be in the area of the quantity of his
blackwater product? Will it be how dependable he will
make his business? Will it be how intimately he deals
with his customers? Will it be selling his goods at low
costs? Will he provide innovative leadership in this
business?

SPEC 2013/02224020 CAPE MS

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 2 - PAPER 02
KEY AND MARK SCHEMES

SR

Question Suggested Response


How will Chappy make his money?
What pricing policy will Chappy adopt for his business?
What volume of goods will Chappy supply? High or low? What
margins of profit will he impose on costs? Low or high?
What will be the time scope and ambitions of Chappys black
water business?
This will deal with the type of model Chappy would want to
adopt for his black water business.
Will Chappy want to
run a black water business that will give him income to
support his daily life? (subsistence model); Will he run a
black water business that will allow him to maintain a
certain standard of living? (income model). Will he run a
black water business whose profits he will re-invest in the
venture (growth model)? Or Chappy intends to just develop
the
venture
and
sell
it
to
another
entrepreneur
(speculative model)

3.1

(a)

One mark for EACH for any phrase underlined in any group
2x3 = 6 marks
[6 marks]
Question 5
Five stages of the venture life cycle (VLC):

New Venture Development


Start-up activities
Venture growth
Business stabilization
Innovation or decline
One mark for each of FIVE correct responses
[5 marks]

3.1

(b)

Two effects of overseas competition

Levelling off of profits: Profits stagnated for about three


years due to intense competition.
Decline: After year nine, profits began to decline forcing
Anthea to decide to dispose of the venture.
Two marks each for TWO adequate responses
One mark for less adequate response
[4 marks]

3.3(d)

(c)

A Stock Option is a right (1 mark) granted by a company


(1 mark) to its employees (1 mark) to buy a fixed number
of the companys shares (1 mark) at a fixed price (1 mark)
over a fixed period of time (1 mark)
[6 marks]

SPEC 2013/02224020 CAPE MS

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 2 - PAPER 02
KEY AND MARK SCHEMES

SR
3.5(c)

Question Suggested Response


(a)

Question 6
Two elements that Maurice should consider before launching
into e-commerce.

(b)

Networking potential
Integration of web into overall strategy
Importance of lasting relationship with customers
On-going investment of resources
Data mining
One mark each for any TWO responses
[2 marks]

Two elements considered important in e-commerce.

Network potential - e-commerce amplifies the


entrepreneurs potential to increase strategic networking.
An entrepreneurs ability to exploit the interconnectivity
and the opportunities
it
creates
to
transform
and
strengthen
relationships with suppliers, customers and
other
stakeholders is crucial to the success of the
venture.

Integration into overall strategy e-commerce success


requires an entrepreneur to develop a plan for integrating
the web into the overall strategy of the venture.
Integration of web into overall strategy provides the
platform through which trade of goods or services can be
done more efficiently and effectively.

Lasting relationships It is important to establish


lasting relationships with customers, as E-commerce is
dependent upon repeat customers to ensure marketability,
data mining and sustained profit.

Investment of resources It is important to have on-going


investment of resources in E-commerce to expand reliability
and currency of site. Creating a sustained and meaningful
presence on the web requires consistent and prudent
investment of resources, which includes time, money, energy
and talent.

Data mining - Measuring the success of a web-based sales


effort is essential to remaining relevant to customers, as
their
tastes,
needs
and
preferences
are
constantly
changing.
Two marks each for any TWO adequate responses
One mark for less adequate response
[4 marks]

SPEC 2013/02224020 CAPE MS

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 2 - PAPER 02
KEY AND MARK SCHEMES

SR
3.4(g)

Question Suggested Response


(c)

Strategies for the success of E-commerce.

Focus on market needs


It is important to focus on the needs of the market only.
These needs should be properly identified and addressed
because of the competition in this method of doing
business. Consumers make quick decisions on the net
because of the time and energy spent in decision making has
a cost to the consumer.

Develop a community
Ability to develop and maintain a strong customer base is
the success factor in any commercial venture.
In Ecommerce, this can be done at a very minimal by making use
of the numerous social networking facilities available on
the internet.

The Use of Freebies


Customer base can be maintained by the intelligent use of
freebies. Complimentary tokens, useful advice on product
use and availability that can help to cut cost for the
customer can be very helpful.

Credibility
Pricing and repricing, delivery date, availability and
stock outs, discounts and necessary facilities offered by
the seller as part of marketing information should be
upheld. Any variation can discourage the buyer.

Strategic alliances
In E-commerce, it is beneficial for sellers to network and
exchange volatile information about pricing and product
type and quality among each other; this can be very costeffective.

Promote site on and off line


For customer satisfaction, it is important to ensure
customer has online and offline access. In the absence of
this, customers could quickly switch to computer sites and
this could have devastating effects on sales and customer
base.

Data mining
Data mining entities should be on-going and strengthened so
as to discover relationships and choices among customers
and create rapid access to customer information.
One mark for identification
Two marks for explanation
[9 marks]

SPEC 2013/02224020 CAPE MS

TEST CODE 02224032

SPEC 2013/02224032
CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL
CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION
ENTREPRENEURSHIP
SPECIMEN PAPER
Unit 2 Paper 032
2 hours

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
1. This paper consists of a case study and THREE questions, ONE from EACH module.
2. Candidates MUST answer the THREE questions.
3. Each question is worth 20 marks.

Copyright 2012 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02224032/CAPE/SPEC/2013

-2INSTRUCTION: Read the case study and answer the questions that follow.
CASE STUDY
Taste of Barbados Ltd
John Smith was until 1990, the sole proprietor of Taste of Barbados Ltd which was a family owned business
that specialized in the production of hot pepper sauce. The business was started by Johns grandmother who
initially made the product for her neighbours using peppers grown by her husband on their farm. As word
spread about the product, demand increased and the business expanded beyond the boundaries of the home
to cover the whole of Barbados and over into Trinidad. That transition also included the handover of the
management of the business to qualified and highly paid specialized managers, the investment in new
equipment, the adoption of a more formal structure for the business, the registration of Taste of Barbados as
a private company with the Ministry of Trade and sale of shares to private individuals to the tune of $60
million. With this registration, Taste of Barbados Ltd acquired its own legal existence, with John Smith as
Managing Director.
1. (a) Taste of Barbados Ltd was originally a sole proprietorship business. State FOUR benefits of this
type of business.
[4 marks]
(b) Before registration, Taste of Barbados Ltd adopted a more formal structure.
changes that may have been introduced as part of the formal structure.

Discuss FOUR
[12 marks]

(c) Explain the significance of the legal existence status which Taste of Barbados acquired after its
registration.
[4 marks]

Over the last 20 years the production of hot pepper sauce has become a major component of the
manufacture of condiments in Barbados. Hot pepper sauce is produced, branded and sold by numerous
small and medium sized manufacturers. Although all Barbados hot pepper sauces are similar, each
manufacturer uses her own secret recipe. Production in the industry (in Barbados and Trinidad) is
estimated at $50 million annually and there are 15 manufacturers. Taste of Barbados Ltd has annual sales
of $25 million and is currently producing at 75% of its full capacity and controlling 50 percent of the
combined Barbados and Trinidad market.
Hot pepper sauce which is a household product for all Barbadians has become very popular with visitors to
the island. Based on this observation, Invest Barbados (the national export development agency) sponsored
a five day trade mission to - New York, USA in search of markets for the hot pepper sauce produced by the
various producers from Barbados. Mr. John Smith attended this mission on behalf of Taste of Barbados Ltd.
There, he met with some major American food distributors and conducted sampling and cooking
demonstrations with pepper sauce as a condiment at selected locations in New York City. Impressed by the
demonstration, a major US food company has decided to partner Taste of Barbados Ltd but is asking for a
feasibility analysis of the company.
2. (a) Using information from the case, discuss FOUR key elements of the feasibility analysis that John
Smith may submit.
[16 marks]

02224032/CAPE/SPEC/2013

-3(b) John Smith has decided to prepare a business plan with a view to seeking more funding back in
Barbados. Name FOUR sections of a business plan.
[4 marks]

Taste of Barbados Ltd, like any other viable venture would go through a venture life cycle. It could also be
subject to valuation at any time for various purposes including raising growth capital.
3. (a) List THREE stages in the venture cycle.
(b) Outline THREE key features of EACH of the stages listed in (a) above.

[3 marks]
[9 marks]

(c) Explain how EACH of any TWO methods of venture valuation could be used by John Smith to give
an indication of the worth of the venture.
[8 marks]

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02224032/CAPE/SPEC/2013

SPEC 2013/02224032 CAPE MS

CARIBBEAN

EXAMINATIONS

COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATIONS

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 2 PAPER 032
KEY AND MARK SCHEME
SPECIMEN

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 2 - PAPER 032
KEY AND MARK SCHEMES

SR

Question Suggested Response


Question 1

1.1(b) (a)

Benefits of Sole Proprietorship

Easy to form (no special legal restrictions)


Inexpensive to form
Easy to manage (flexible)
Subject to few government regulations
Does not pay corporate tax
High profit incentive (once owner pays all expenses)
Total decision making authority
Easy to discontinue (although personally liable for any
outstanding debts)
Ownership transfer is simple
One mark each for any FOUR benefits
[4 marks]

1.1(a) (b)

Identifiable organization structure

may have been designed


(1 mark)

At the time Taste of Barbados Ltd was existing as a family


business, it may not have had an identifiable organization
chart (1 mark) showing who was responsible for what aspect of
the business (1 mark) and the qualifications of the people
occupying them (1 mark); no one could be held accountable for
the success or failure of the business (1 mark).
With the
creation of the formal structure, an-organization chart may have
been brought into existence where roles and accountability
became clear-cut (1 mark). Employment contracts (1 mark), shares
of ownership (1 mark), perks and any other agreements might be
discussed (1 mark).
1 mark EACH for any THREE points underlined

plus 1 for heading


4 marks

Positions and linkages indicated (1 mark)


Before the creation of the formal structure, positions (1mark)
and links showing channels
of communication may not have been
clear-cut (1mark); with the formal structure, these linkages
would have been clearly laid out and visible (1 mark)
1 mark EACH for any THREE points underlined

SPEC 2013/02224032 CAPE MS

plus 1 for heading


4 marks

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 2 - PAPER 032
KEY AND MARK SCHEMES

SR

Question Suggested Response

Position holders and authority relationships indicated (1 mark)


The creation of the formal structure may have come with the
names/titles (1 mark) of the position holders. The case
indicates that experts were employed (1 mark) and quite clearly,
their titles and positions may have been laid out in the formal
structure (1 mark)
1 mark EACH for any THREE points underlined plus 1 for heading
4 marks

Reporting systems indicated (1 mark)


A formal organization structure would have indicated clearly who
reported to whom in the organization (1 mark).
This may have
helped to avoid chaos and promote accountability
(1
mark). This may not have been the case when the venture was run
as a family business
(1 mark)
1 mark EACH for any THREE points underlined

plus 1 for heading


4 marks

Groupings or Departments indicated (1 mark)


As Taste of Barbados Ltd had become a large business, there was
the need for various activities to be grouped for purposes of
efficiency (1mark). These could have been Production
department, Marketing Department, Accounts Department and HR (1
mark). This would not necessarily be the case in a family-run,
home business. (1 mark)
1 mark EACH for any THREE points underlined

1.1(a) (c)

plus 1 for heading


4 marks
4x3 marks = 12 marks

The legal existence of Taste Barbados Ltd meant that:


It began to exist as separate legal entity
Its assets and liabilities had become separate from those of the
owners
It could own property
It could sue and be sued
In case of liquidation, its owners would be liable only to the
extent of their contributions
It had become capable of floating shares albeit privately
It had become liable to paying corporate tax
The ability to raise capital successfully had become moderate to
high
Continuity of the business had become more long term (approx. 30
years).
Transferability of the business would now require consent
1 mark EACH for any FOUR
4 marks
Total = 20 marks

SPEC 2013/02224032 CAPE MS

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 2 - PAPER 032
KEY AND MARK SCHEMES

SR

Question Suggested Response

2.2(c) (a)

Question 2
Personality feasibility (1 mark)
John Smith, the Managing Director who had run this venture alone
for several years (1 mark), would have acquired some personal
strengths and competences in this line of business (1 mark); John
also would be the first to spot his own weaknesses and also be able
to identify opportunities when any came by (1 mark)
1 mark for EACH of THREE points underlined plus 1 for heading
4 marks
Management feasibility (1 mark)
John Smith had recently recruited skilled personnel to man the
organization and would be in a position to produce profiles of all
managerial staff (1 mark). The profiles would show the weaknesses
and strengths of each manager (1 mark) . The aggregated profiles
would indicate the management feasibility (1 mark)
1 mark for EACH of THREE points underlined plus 1 for heading
4 marks
Operational /Product or Service feasibility (1 mark)
John Smith knew the company production levels and targets, sales
levels and targets (1 mark), customer base and cost structure as
well as revenue and expenditure trends (1 mark) from year to year;
the company is currently operating at 75% capacity ( 1 mark). John
knows the degree to which his product appeals to potential
customers and can identify the resources necessary to produce the
product.
1 mark for EACH of THREE points underlined plus 1 for heading
4 marks
Financial feasibility (1 mark)
The case states that Taste of Barbados is financed by external
equity capital of $60 million (1 mark) and currently has annual
sales revenue of $25 million (1 mark). This can be taken as an
indicator of Taste of Barbados financial viability (1 mark)
1 mark for EACH of THREE points underlined plus 1 for heading
4 marks

SPEC 2013/02224032 CAPE MS

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 2 - PAPER 032
KEY AND MARK SCHEMES

SR

Question Suggested Response


Marketing feasibility (1 mark)
The case indicates that the venture has about 50 per cent market
share in Barbados and Trinidad; highly skilled marketing staff
have been employed; the sauce has been exposed to the US market in
New York through demonstrations.
1 mark for EACH of THREE points underlined plus 1 for heading
4 marks
Industry feasibility (1 mark)
The case indicates that the pepper sauce industry is quite
competitive (1 mark) with about 15 manufacturers (1 mark) with
annual industrial production amounting to $50 million (1 mark).
1 mark for EACH of THREE points underlined plus 1 for heading
4 marks
Cultural feasibility (1 mark)
The case
Barbados
is that,
are also

indicates that pepper -sauce is a household condiment in


(1 mark) as well as in Trinidad (1 mark). What this means
the product has a cultural pull; in recent times, tourists
taking to it (1 mark).

1 mark for EACH of THREE points underlined plus 1 for heading


4 marks
2.5(c) (b)

Executive Summary
Vision/Mission Statement
Company History
Business /Industry profile (description)
Business Strategy
Description of the Companys Product/Service
Management Team (description)
Marketing Strategy
Operations Strategy
Financials
1 mark EACH for any FOUR
4 marks
Total 20 marks
Question 3

3.1(a) (a)

New venture development


Start-up activities
Venture Growth
Business stabilization
Innovation or decline
1 mark EACH for any 3
3 marks

SPEC 2013/02224032 CAPE MS

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 2 - PAPER 032
KEY AND MARK SCHEMES

SR

Question Suggested Response


(b)

New Venture Development


A business opportunity is identified; commitment of the nascent
entrepreneur is made manifest; a strategy is formulated to
obtain required funding; essentially a product concept
formulation phase; entrepreneur invests own time and funds to
finance consultants; meet potential customers; formulate
business plans;
1 mark EACH for any THREE points
3 marks
Start- up phase

Creating the capability of being in possession of the product;


develop a unique product; creating the business; deciding
what to produce; what quantity; what combination of factors of
production will lead to optimum output; business plan is
formalized; identifying core competences; develop working
team;
1 mark EACH for any THREE points
3 marks
Venture Growth stage

Marketing of the business and the product; expansion of the


product line; the venture develops a more complex structure to
support the new products being created; external threat to the
growth of the venture is low; collect more information on
competitor activities
1 mark EACH for any THREE points
3 marks
Business stabilization

Product quality requires emphasis; action taken to ensure


business stability and continuity; need for organizational
flexibility and control; measures must be put in place to
increase profitability; expenses need strong monitoring
1 mark EACH for any THREE points
3 marks
Innovation and decline
Need for diversification to bring in new products and
services; revitalization of the venture is required; venture
needs repositioning; explore new markets
1 mark EACH for any THREE points
3 marks
3 marks EACH for any THREE
9 marks

SPEC 2013/02224032 CAPE MS

ENTREPRENEURSHIP
UNIT 2 - PAPER 032
KEY AND MARK SCHEMES

SR
3.4

Question Suggested Response


(c)

Book Value (balance sheet value) (1 mark)


The value of the venture can be determined by simply examining the
assets, liabilities and ownership structure of the venture; this
information is available on the venture balance sheet. (2 marks).
John Smith can use this information together with other industrial
indices and competitor position to determine the worth of Taste of
Barbados (1 mark)
4 marks
Price earnings (multiple earnings value) (1 mark)
The price-earnings ratio of a venture is simply the price of a
company's share of common stock in the open market divided by its
earnings per share (1 mark).
By multiplying this ratio by the net
income, the value for the business could be determined (2 marks).
John Smith can use this method to get an indication of the worth of
Taste of Barbados (1 mark).
4 marks
Discounted future earnings (discounted cash flow) (1 mark)
This method simply uses the estimated cash outflows and inflows to
determine the net inflows over time and discounts this to the
present value signifying
the ventures weighted average cost of
capital(2 marks). John Smith can calculate these estimates over the
estimated life span of Taste of Barbados to determine the worth of
the venture (1 mark)
4 marks
4 marks EACH for any 2
8 marks
Total = 20 marks

SPEC 2013/02224032 CAPE MS