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: Yesi Ratnasari


: 13-530-0059


: B/2013

The summary of chapter three: A word and its parts: roofs, affixes and their shapes
1. Taking words apart
There are many words that not be listed in dictionary that its meaning just we know

through completely predictable.

Morphology are composed from
- Morphemes : its a smaller parts of words
- Logos : science
So, Morphology is a science about form of word, transformation word, and the effect
from the transformation word toward the meaning and classification word

There are 2 kinds of morphemes based number of morpheme

1. Mono-morphemic : consisting of just 1 morpheme
2. Poly-morphemic : consisting of more than 1 morpheme
To allow the meanings of some complex words to be predictable, morphemes must:
1. Be identifiable from one world to another
2. Contribute in some way to the meaning of the whole word

2. Kinds of morpheme: bound versus free

Morphemes is a smaller parts of words. There are 2 kinds of morphemes. Those are:
1) bound morpheme : a smaller parts of words that dont have meaning with its own
- enlarge (en-, it doesnt has meaning without large)
- performance (-ence, it doesnt has meaning without perform)
2) free morpheme : a smaller parts of words that have meaning with its own
- table (it has meaning with its own)
- knife
3. Kinds of morpheme: root, affix, combining form
a) Root : the base of word
b) Affix :
- Prefixes : Feed additive prefix is located in front of the root word,
- Suffixes : Feed endings located at the end of the word roots,
- Clamp : affixes clamp flanking the root word, and
- Inserts : Feed inserts also inserted in the middle of words
Only root morphemes can be free and affixes are necessarily bound.

c) Combining form : a process of combining one free root and one bound root
4. Morpheme and their allomorphs
Morpheme can also be said to be the smallest element of word formation and
adjusted to the rules of a language. Allomorph is the name for the form when it is known
status. In other words allomorph is a concrete manifestation of a morpheme. So every
morpheme has allomorphs course, whether one, two, or six.


: Yesi Ratnasari


: 13-530-0059


: B/2013

The summary of chapter four: A word and its forms : inflection

Lexeme : can stands alone and it is the basic form that has variant forms
Example: perform perform, performs, performed, performing

Inflection: It is the area of morphology concerned with changes in word shape (through
affixation) that are determined, or potencially affect the grammatical context in with a
word appears.
Example: catcats
Regular and Irregular inflection
Example: pianists does not have to be listed in dictionaries
Because, 1st, we know an English word is a noun denoting a kind of thing that can be
counted, then we can be confident that it will have a plural form.
2nd, We can be confident that the plural form of any countable noun will be formed by
adding to the singular form the suffix s (or the appropriate allomorph of the suffix).
All word forms of a lexeme are not always share the same root morpheme. Phenomenon
where by one lexeme is represented by two or more different roots, depending on the
Forms of nouns
CAT one root morpheme
CATS two morphemes (a root and the suffix s)
Note that s is the regular suffix for forming plurals.
-i (cacti), -ae (formulae), -a (phenomena), -(r)en (children) are irregular suffixes
expressing plurality.
There are also some countable nouns that express their plural with no suffix at all
(teeth, men).
And the ones whose plurals display not even a vowel change (sheep)*/ zero plural
or zero suffix.
NOTE: only SOME nouns have plural forms, namely nouns that refer
to entities that are countable.


1. Those scissors belongs in the top drawer. 2. Your pants

has a hole in the seat.

For these lexemes there is a conventional circumlocution (PERIPHRASIC
- That pair of scissors belongs in the top drawer.
- Your pair of pants has a hole in the seat.

Forms of pronouns and determiners

Determiner lexeme: THISThis

Determiner lexeme: THASThat

Determiner lexeme: THEThe

Zero plural



Forms of verbs
Some verb lexemes have at most FIVE forms;
Most verbs have only FOUR forms (regular verbs).
Example: DIG dig, digs, dug, digging, dug.

Some verbs have only one or two forms; others, eight.

Example: CAN can, could

Forms of Adjectives

Many English adjectives exhibit THREE forms (they receive the suffixes er and est
when their basic form has one syllable, or two provided that the second syllable ends
in a vowel).

positive of tall


the comparative of tall

the superlative of tall

Some adjective lexemes lack these forms. For these lexemes there is a conventional
circumlocution (PERIPHRASIC FORM):
- Morecomparative
- Most superlative


: Yesi Ratnasari


: 13-530-0059


: B/2013

The summary of chapter five: A word and its relatives: derivation.

Derivation is the process of forming new words, e.g. happi-ness and un-happy from
happy, or determination from determine. A contrast is intended with the process of inflection,
which uses another kind of affix in order to form variants of the same word, as with
A derivational suffix usually applies to words of one syntactic category and changes
them into words of another syntactic category. For example, the English derivational suffix
-ly changes adjectives into adverbs (slow slowly).

Examples of English derivational patterns and their suffixes:

adjective-to-noun: -ness (slow slowness)

adjective-to-verb: -ise (modern modernise) in British English or -ize (modern

modernize) in American English and Oxford spelling

adjective-to-adjective: -ish (red reddish)

adjective-to-adverb: -ly (personal personally)

noun-to-adjective: -al (recreation recreational)

noun-to-verb: -fy (glory glorify)

verb-to-adjective: -able (drink drinkable)

verb-to-noun (abstract): -ance (deliver deliverance)

verb-to-noun (concrete): -er (write writer)

Although derivational affixes do not necessarily modify the syntactic category, they

modify the meaning of the base. In many cases, derivational affixes change both the syntactic
category and the meaning: modern modernize ("to make modern"). The modification of
meaning is sometimes predictable: Adjective + ness the state of being (Adjective);
(white whiteness).
A prefix (write re-write; lord over-lord) will rarely change syntactic category in
English. The inflectional prefix un- applies to adjectives (healthy unhealthy), some verbs
(do undo), but rarely nouns. A few exceptions are the derivational prefixes en- and be-.
En- (em- before labials) is usually used as a transitive marker on verbs, but can also be
applied to adjectives and nouns to form transitive verb: circle (verb) encircle (verb); but
rich (adj) enrich (verb), large (adj) enlarge (verb), rapture (noun) enrapture (verb),
slave (noun) enslave (verb).

Note that derivational affixes are bound morphemes. In that, derivation differs from
compounding, by which free morphemes are combined (lawsuit, Latin professor). It also
differs from inflection in that inflection does not create new lexemes but new word forms
(table tables; open opened).Derivation can occur without any change of form, for
example telephone (noun) and to telephone. This is known as conversion or zero derivation.
Some linguists consider that when a word's syntactic category is changed without any change
of form, a null morpheme is being affixed.


: Yesi Ratnasari


: 13-530-0059


: B/2013

The summary of chapter six: compound words, blends, phrasal words.

A. Compounds Vs Phrases

Compound is made when two words are joined to form a new word. While phrase is
two or more words that dont contain subject-verb pair necessary to form a clause.
Consider the examples below:
1. Green house


(House that is green)

2. Black board

(House where delicate plants are reared)


(Board that is black)

3. White house


(Board for writing on)


(House that is white)

(the) White House

(Residence of the US President)

How to distinguish between compounds and phrasal words:

1. Stress
The underlined words on both examples are where the stress puts on. The
stress on the last words are classified as phrases, while compounds are in
the first words.
2. Semantic
A compound tends to have a meaning that is more or less idiosyncratic or
B. Compound Verbs
Verbs formed by compounding. Types of compound verbs:
1. Verb-verb (VV)

: stir-fry, freeze-dry

2. Noun-verb (NV)

: hand-wash, air-condition, steam-clean

3. Adjective-verb (AV) : dry-clean, whitewash

4. Preposition-verb (PV) : underestimate, outrun, overcook
C. Compound Adjectives
A compound adjective is a single adjective comprising more than one word. The
words in a compound adjective are usually grouped together using hyphens (-).
Ways of forming:
1. nounadjective (NA): sky-high

2. adjectiveadjective (AA): squeaky-clean

3. prepositionadjective (PA): overactive
D. Compound Nouns
A compound noun is a noun that is made with two or more words. A compound noun
is usually:
1. verbnoun (VN): swearword
2. nounnoun (NN): hairnet
3. adjectivenoun (AN): blackboard
4. prepositionnoun (PN): in-group, outpost
E. Headed and Headless Compound

Headed Compounds are compound words which the meaning IS specified by its
words e.g.:
Blackboard (Blackboard : is kind of board)

Headless Compounds are compound words which the meaning IS NOT specified by
its words e.g. : faintheart
(faintheart is not a kind of heart but a kind of person, someone who has a faint heart)

F. Blends and Acronyms

Blends is the fusion of two words into one, example:

Smog (smoke + fog) noun mixture of fog and smoke

Motel (motor + hotel) noun hotel for people travelling by car

Partial Blends:

Cheeseburger (cheese + hamburger), Soundrenaline (sound + adrenaline), Soundsation

(sound + sensation), etc.
Acronyms are words derived from the initials of several words, examples:

NASA : National Aeronautics and Space Administration

ASAP : As Soon As Possible

It is clear from these examples that acronym is in active use for the creation of new
G. Compounds Containing Bound Combining Forms
Combining forms are compounds that are made up of bound roots. Example:

Anthropology: science or study of human beings

Plantigrade: walking on the soles of the feet

H. Phrasal Words
Phrasal word is complex item that its internal structure is phrase and it functions as
1. Jack-in-the-box
Its plural: Jack-in-the-boxes

Book on the shelf

Its plural: Books on the shelf

Example no. 1 is phrasal word, it is treated as a word, not phrase, so the plural suffix
(s) is addes in the end.


: Yesi Ratnasari


: 13-530-0059


: B/2013

The summary of chapter seven: a word and its structure.

7.1 Meaning and Structure

Some words are predictable, but the word does not have to be registered as lexical items.
Predictability meanings depending on how the structure of complex words makes
interpretation of each. The way how it was formed, the elements that make it up , is an
important building block in the understanding of language . Although it is often
convenient to refer to the vocabulary, which is the word and its meaning becomes
important to consider the building of a word, morpheme , affixes and inflections.
7.2 Affixes as Heads
In the derivation morphology of English, suffixes excess of prefixes. Most compounds
have the head (right headed). Example: greenhouse.
As the head, house determines the status of syntactic compound as a noun, and also in its
meaning, greenhouse = home to plant a variety of crops.
7.3 More Elaborate Word Forms: Multiple affixations
Some multiple affixations in English:
(a) The description is guided by the function of word- formation.
(b) More consideration is given to the relation between word -formation and the lexicon.
(c) Semantic aspects of word -formation rules are taken into account.
(d) The Data are interpreted in an unbiased way.
7.4 More Elaborate Word Forms: Compounds within Compounds
Any compound has only two parts of immediate constituents. Examples:
Window oven cleaner is not in fact be interpreted as something good cleaning windows
and ovens; but mean something clean the oven window (an oven which has a transparent
panel in the door).
7.5 Apparent mismatches between Meaning and Structure
It has been agreed that the interpretation of complex words (whether derived or
compounded) depends on the hope that the meaning should go hand in hand with the
structure. So far, these expectations have been met, provided the word with the meaning
that is really special (strange ) is ignored . Examples:
- Unhelpfulness.
- Holiday car trip.
- Fresh water fanatic.
- Open door policy.
- French historian (expert in French history)
The two of words are constructed of two meanings constituent parts, which in turn was
built on the meaning of their parts, until we reach the individual morpheme, which by
definition an integral semantics .