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VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LTD.

MATHURA REFINERY

Submitted By:
SWEETY CHANDAK
B.TECH, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
MNNIT, ALLAHABAD

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd


Mathura Refinery-281005
U.P, India.

I, SWEETY CHANDAK, student of MOTILAL NEHRU NATIONAL


INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, Chemical Engineering (B.Tech), roll no:
20129052, have done training in IOCL Mathura refinery from 18/05/2015 to
15/06/2015 under the guidance of Mr. Hari Shankar (CPNM, production
department) in following process areas:
1) Overview of refinery.
2) Studied FCCU in detail and have done material and energy balance of
reactor and regenerator section.
3) Calculated NPSH available for the feed pump.

HOD Signature & Stamp

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It is great that Indian Oil Corporation Limited
provides training to a large number of students like us
for practical assimilation of knowledge pertaining to our
respective disciplines.
After the completion of the training program, I found it
to be of immense help, not only in supplementing the
theoretical knowledge, but also by gaining highly
practical knowledge regarding the actual work carried
out in a Refinery Plant.
I would like to express my gratitude to Mr. R. SAXENA
(PNM) who helped me in any way to complete my
project work.
I am also very grateful to Mr. Vivek Vikram Singh
(Section In-charge Engineer, FCCU) & Mr. Aakash
Puri (Section In-charge Engineer, FCCU) who
patiently explained the working of the plant and
provided the needed conceptual understanding for the
project. The series of discussions with him has
increased my practical knowledge about the plant and
the industry.
I am heartily thankful to all unit heads and all technical
& Non-technical staff of MATHURA REFINERY for their
great efforts to enhance my practical knowledge.
Thank you once again.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

S.N

PROCESS UNIT

O
1)
2)
3)
4)
4) a)
4) b)
4)c)
4)d)
4)e)
4)f)
5)

INDIAN OIL REFINERY OVERVIEW


MATHURA REFINERY OVERVIEW
REFINERY PROCESS
PROCESS UNIT DESCRIPTION
AVU (ATMOSPHERIC VACUUM UNIT)
FCCU(FLUIDISED CATALYTIC CRAKING UNIT)
VBU(VISBREAKER UNIT)
CCRU(CONTINUOUS CATALYTIC REFORMING UNIT)
DHDT( DIESEL HYDROTREATING UNIT)
SRU(SULFUR RECOVERY UNIT)
PROJECT -1
MATERIAL AND ENERGY BALANCE OF REACTOR AND

6)

REGENERATOR SECTION OF FCCU


PROJECT-2
CACULATION OF NPSH AVAILABLE FOR THE FEED PUMP.

INDIAN OIL REFINERY: - AN OVERVIEW


Introduction

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. is India's largest company by sales with


a turnover of Rs.271,074 crore and profit of Rs. 10,221 crore for
the

year

2009-10.

Indian Oil is the highest ranked Indian company in the latest


Fortune Global 500 listings, ranked at the 98th position (2011).
Indian Oil's vision is driven by a group of dynamic leaders who
have made it a name to reckon with. Indian Oil Company Limited,
a wholly owned Government company was incorporated on 30
June, 1959 to undertake marketing functions of petroleum
products. Later, Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOC) was set up on
1st September, 1964 by amalgamating the Indian Refineries
Limited (started in August, 1958) with the Indian Oil Company
Ltd., for better coordination between refineries and marketing.
Indian

Oil

Corporation

Limited

or

IOCL

is

Indias

largest

commercial enterprise and the only Indian company to be among


the worlds top 200 corporations according to Fortune magazine.
It is also among the 20 largest petroleum companies in the world.
The Indian Oil Group of companies owns and operates 10 of
India's 20 refineries with a combined refining capacity of 65.7
million metric tonnes per annum (MMTPA, .i.e. 1.30 million barrels
per day approx.). Indian Oil's cross-country network of crude oil
and product pipelines spans 10,899 km with a capacity of 75.26
MMTPA of crude oil and petroleum products and 10 MMSCMD of
gas. This network is the largest in the country and meets the vital
energy needs of the consumers in an efficient, economical and
environment-friendly manner.
Indian Oil Corporation has four divisions:
5

Marketing Division with Headquarters at Bombay;


Refineries and Pipelines Division with Headquarters at New
Delhi;
Assam Oil Division with Headquarters at Digboi; and
Research and Development Centre at Faridabad.
The Assam Oil Division was established on 14th October, 1981 on
taking over the refining and marketing operations of Assam Oil
Company Limited.
The Company wholly owns a subsidiary Company viz. Indian Oil
Blending Limited, which is engaged in the manufacture of
lubricants and greases. The products of the subsidiary Company
are also marketed by the Company. Indian Oil and its subsidiary
(CPCL) account for over 48% petroleum products market share,
34.8% national refining capacity and 71% downstream sector
pipelines capacity in India.
It has a portfolio of powerful and a much-loved energy brand that
includes Indane

LPGas, SERVO lubricants, XtraPremium petrol,

XtraMile diesel, PROPEL, petrochemicals, etc. Validating the trust


of 56.8 million households, Indane has earned the coveted status
of 'Superbrand' in the year 2009 and now has a customer base of
61.8 million. Indian Oil has a keen customer focus and a
formidable

network

of

customer

touch-points

dotting

the

landscape across urban and rural India. It has 20,421 petrol and
diesel stations, including 3517 Kisan Seva Kendras (KSKs) in the
6

rural markets. With a countrywide network of 36,900 sales points,


backed for supplies by 140 bulk storage terminals and depots,
3,960 SKO/LDO dealers (60% of the industry), 96 aviation fuel
stations and 89 LPGas bottling plants, IndianOil services every
nook and corner of the country. Indane is present in almost 2764
markets through a network of 5456 distributors (51.8% of the
industry). About 7780 bulk consumer pumps are also in operation
for the convenience of large consumers, ensuring products and
inventory at their doorstep. Indian Oil's ISO-9002 certified Aviation
Service commands an enviable 63% market share in aviation fuel
business, successfully servicing the demands of domestic and
international flag carriers, private airlines and the Indian Defense
Services. The Corporation also enjoys a 65% share of the bulk
consumer,

industrial,

agricultural

and

marine

sectors.

With a steady aim of maintaining its position as a market leader


and providing the best quality products and services, Indian Oil is
currently investing Rs. 47,000 crore in a host of projects for
augmentation of refining and pipelines capacities, expansion of
marketing infrastructure and product quality up gradation.
Objectives
The objectives of the Company as approved (June, 1984) by
Government are as follows:
To serve the national interests in the oil and related sectors
in accordance and consistent with Government policies.
7

To ensure and maintain continuous and smooth supplies of


petroleum products by way of crude refining, transportation
and

marketing

activities

and

to

provide

appropriate

assistance to the consumer to conserve and use petroleum


products most efficiently.
To earn a reasonable rate of return on investment.
To work towards the achievement of self-sufficiency in the
field of oil refining, by setting up adequate domestic
capacity and to build up expertise for pipe laying for
crude/petroleum products.
To create a strong research and development base in the
field of oil refining and stimulate the development of new
petroleum products formulations with a view to eliminate
their imports, if any .

Products

Services

Auto LPG

Refining

Aviation
Turbine

Digboi
Refinery,

Pipelines
Fuel

(ATF

Training

High

Research

Speed

Guwahati

Marketing

Bitumen

Fuel

I.O.C Refineries:

Refinery,
Barauni
&

Development

Refinery
Gujarat
8

Refinery

Industrial
Fuels

Haldia

Liquefied

Refinery

Petroleum

Mathura

Gas

Refinery

Lubricants

Panipat

and Greases

Refinery

Marine Fuels

Bongaigon
Refinery

MS/Gasoline
Petrochemicals

MATHURA REFINERY

The Mathura Refinery, owned by I.O.C.L is situated in Mathura,


Uttar Pradesh. It is the sixth refinery of Indian Oil was
commissioned in 1982 with a capacity of 8.0 MMTPA to meet the
demand of petroleum products in north western region of the
country, which includes National Capital Region. Refinery is
located along the Delhi-Agra National Highway about 154 KM
away from Delhi. The refinery processes low sulfur crude from
Bombay High, imported low sulfur crude from Nigeria, and high
sulfur crude from the Middle East.
The

refinery,

which

cost

Rs.253.92

crores

to

build,

was

commissioned in January; 1982.Construction began on the


refinery in October 1972. The foundation stone was laid by Indira
Gandhi, the former prime minister of India. The FCCU and Sulfur
Recovery Units were commissioned in January, 1983. The refining
capacity of this refinery was expanded to 7.5 MMTPA in 1989 by
debottlenecking and revamping. The present refining capacity of
this refinery is 8.00 MMTPA.
The major secondary processing units provided were Fluidised
Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU), Vis-breaker Unit (VBU) and
Bitumen Blowing Unit (BBU). The original technology for these
units was sourced from erstwhile USSR, UOP etc. Soaker drum
technology of EIL was implemented in VBU in the year 1993. For
production of unleaded Gasoline, Continuous Catalytic Reforming
Unit (CCRU) was commissioned in 1998 with technology from
Axens, France. A Diesel Hydro Desulfurisation Unit (DHDS)
licensed from Axens, France was commissioned in 1999 for
10

production of HSD with low Sulfur content of 0.25% wt. (max).


With the commissioning of once through Hydrocracker Unit
(licensed from Chevron, USA) in July 2000, capacity of Mathura
Refinery was increased to 8.0 MMTPA.
Diesel Hydro-treating unit (DHDT) & MS Quality Up-gradation Unit
(MSQU) were installed with world class technology from Axens
and UOP respectively in 2005 for production of Euro-III grade HSD
& MS w.e.f. 1st April 2005 as per Auto Fuel Policy of Govt. of India.
Project for FCC Gasoline Desulfurization (FCCGDS) and Selective
Hydrogenation Unit (SHU), the Prime-G technology of Axens,
France was commissioned in February 2010 and supply of Euro-IV
grade MS and HSD started on continuous basis from February
2010.
Mathura Refinery is having its own captive power plant, which was
augmented with the commissioning of three Gas Turbines (GT)
and Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) in phases from 1997
to 2005 using Natural Gas (NG) as fuel to take care of
environment.
For upgrading environmental standards, old Sulfur Recovery Units
(SRU) was replaced with new Sulfur Recovery Units with 99.9 %
recovery in the year 1999. Additional Sulfur Recovery Unit is
under implementation as a hot standby. Mathura Refinery had
also set up four nos. of continuous Ambient Air Monitoring
Stations far beyond the working area before commissioning of the
Refinery in 1982 as a mark of its concern towards the
environment and archaeological sites. Its close proximity to the

11

magnificent wonder Taj Mahal adds extra responsibility towards


maintaining a cleaner environment.
Mathura Refinery has planted 1,67,000 trees in surrounding areas
including refinery & township and 1,15,000 trees in Agra region
around Taj Mahal. The Ecological Park which is spread across 4.45
acres is a thriving green oasis in the heart of sprawling Refinery.
At Mathura Refinery, technology & ecology go hand in hand with
continuous endeavour for Product Quality up-gradation, Energy
Conservation and Environment Protection. Mathura Refinery is the
first in Asia and third in the world to receive the coveted ISO14001 certification for Environment Management System in 1996.
It is also the first in the World to get OHSMS certification for
Safety Management in 1998.

MAJOR UNITS IN MATHURA REFINERY


UNIT

CDU

PRESENT
CAPACITY(T
MTPA)
8000

FEED

Bombay high

SPECIAL FEATURES

Fuels refinery &


propylene
12

440

imported- high
sulfur and low
sulfur crude
Vacuum gas oil
ex- IMP. LS &
OHCU bottom
VGO ex.IMP. HS
Naphtha
Vacuum
residue(VR)
Straight run gas
oil, total cycle oil
Straight run gas
oil and total cycle
oil
Vacuum residue
Naphtha, FCC
Gasoline heart cut

525

FCC Gasoline
splitter bottom

FCCU

1350

OHCU
CCRU
VBU

1200
466
1000

DHDS

1100

DHDT

1800

Biturox
PENEX(MS
Quality Up
gradation)
PRIME G+
(FCC
Gasoline
desulfurisati
on)

750

Product pipeline
o MJPL:3.7 MMTPA
o Mathura tundia:1.2
MMTPA
o MBPL: 1MMTPA
Bit. Drum filling: by
Mktg
LPG bottling: by Mktg.
Crude Recipient thru
SMPL
Captive Power Plant
Mode of product
despatch tank truck,
tank wagon and
pipeline

PRODUCTS:
Finished products from this refinery cover both fuel oil products as
well as lube oil base stocks.
1. Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG)
2. Fuel Oil Products:
Motor Spirit (MS)
Mineral Turpentine Oil (MTO)
Superior Kerosene (SK)
Aviation Turbine Fuel (ATF)
Russian Turbine Fuel (RTF)
13

High Speed Diesel (HSD)


Jute Batching Oil (JBO)
Furnace Oil (FO)
Naphtha
Gasoline
3. Lube Oil Products:
Inter Neutral, Heavy Neutral & Bright Neutral HVI
4. Other Products:
Slack Wax
Carbon Black Feed Stock
Bitumen
Sulfur

REFINERY PROCESS
The refining process depends on the chemical processes of
distillation (separating liquids by their different boiling points) and
catalysis (which speeds up reaction rates), and uses the principles
of chemical equilibria. Chemical equilibrium exists when the
reactants in a reaction are producing products, but those products
are being recombined again into reactants. By altering the
reaction conditions the amount of either products or reactants can
be increased.
Refining is carried out in three main steps.
Step 1 - Separation
The oil is separated into its constituents by distillation, and some
of these components (such as the refinery gas) are further
separated with chemical reactions and by using solvents which
14

dissolve one component of a mixture significantly better than


another.
Step 2 - Conversion
The various hydrocarbons produced are then chemically altered to
make them more suitable for their intended purpose. For
example, naphthas are "reformed" from paraffins and naphthenes
into aromatics. These reactions often use catalysis, and so sulfur
is removed from the hydrocarbons before they are reacted, as it
would 'poison' the catalysts used. The chemical equilibria are also
manipulated to ensure a maximum yield of the desired product.
Step3 - Purification
The hydrogen sulfide gas which was extracted from the refinery
gas in Step 1 is converted to sulfur, which is sold in liquid form to
fertiliser manufacturers.

PROCESS
UNIT
DESCRIPTION
15

ATMOSPHERIC AND VACUUM


DISTILLATION UNIT
THE UNIT CONSISTS OF FOUR SECTIONS:
Section 1: Crude Oil Desalting
Section 2: Prefractionator column and Stabilisation of Naphtha.
Section 3: Atmospheric Distillation of Crude oil.
Section 4: Vacuum Distillation of Reduced Crude oil.

1.1. STREAM DAYS: 345 days per year.

1.2. TYPES OF CRUDE:


Low Sulfur

Indian

: Bombay high.

Nigerian: Girasol, Escravos, Farcados, Bonny light


High Sulfur Imported: Arab Mix, Kuwait, Dubai, Ratawi, Basra
etc.
1.3. PRODUCTS OF AVU
16

The unit is to produce the following products designated by T.B.P.


cuts also:Product Stream

Use / Using secondary units

LPG

Sent to MEROX unit for treatment

C5 - 120 C cut

Naphtha Component

C5 - 118 C cut

CCRU / NSU feed

120 - 135 C cut


(BH)

Heavy Naphtha for blending with


Diesel

118 - 142 C cut


(AM)

Can be used as Naphtha component

135 - 255 C cut


(BH)

Used as Superior kerosene

142 - 255 C cut


(AM)

Sent as ATF to MEROX for treatment

255 - 296 C cut


(BH)

Used as Superior kerosene

255 - 300 C cut


(AM)

Used as Cutter stock / HSD


component

296 - 325 C cut (BH)


300 - 330 C cut
(AM)

HSD component (Light Gas Oil)

325 - 380 C cut (LS)

HSD component (Heavy Gas oil)

330 - 386 C cut


(AM)

HVGO component

Light Vacuum Gas


Oil

(Heavy Atmospheric Gas Oil)


HSD component

(<380 C cut )
380 - 425 C cut

Light Diesel Oil


17

(also HVGO component)


425 - 530 C cut
Vacuum Slop

Heavy Vacuum Gas Oil


Used as OHCU / FCCU feed
Blended with SR for VDU feed

Atmospheric Residue Used as IFO component in LS run


RCO
Vacuum Residue

Feed for BBU in AM run

SR

Feed/Hot feed for VBU in all runs


IFO component in LS run

Hydrocarbon Gas

Used as Refinery Fuel gas

1.5. PROCESS DESCRIPTION AND PRODUCT

ROUTING:
1.5.1. ATMOSPHERIC DISTILLATION UNIT
The ADU (Atmospheric Distillation Unit) separates most of the
lighter end products such as gas, gasoline, naphtha, kerosene,
and gas oil from the crude oil. The bottoms of the ADU are then
sent to the VDU (Vacuum Distillation Unit). Crude oil is preheated
by the bottoms feed exchanger, further preheated and partially
vaporized in the feed furnace and then passed into the
atmospheric tower where it is separated into off gas, gasoline,
naphtha, kerosene, gas oil and bottoms.
Atmospheric and Vacuum unit (AVU) of Mathura Refinery is
designed to process 100% Bombay High Crude and 100% Arab
Mix crude (consisting of Light and Heavy crude in 50:50
proportion by weight) in blocked out operation @ 11.0 MMTPA.
18

Crude is received from the tank and is pumped through a series of


heat

exchangers(1st

stage

preheat)

before

sending

it

to

desalters.In desalters, salts bottom sediments and water are


removed from crude by injecting water and separating out brine
with the help of electrodes. This desalted crude is then passed
through another chain of exchangers(2nd stage preheat).After
that crude is sent to prefractionator column where IBP- 100o C,
IBP

110oC

cut

naphtha

product

BH

and

AM

operation

respectively, is recovered from crude oil in the prefractionator


column as overhead product whereas topped crude from bottom
is sent another chain of

exchangers(3rd stage preheat).The

topped crude is heated further in furnaces. This heated crude is


sent to atmospheric distillation column where fractionation of
crude is sent into different products takes place. Column profile is
maintained

by

regulating

CRs.

Different

parameters

are

maintained to maintain product quality.

19

1.5.1. VACUUM DISTILLATION UNIT:


Bottom residue of 11C-1(Atmospheric Distillation Column)is again
processed in vacuum column to increase distillate yield(and
profitability).
RCO from 11C-1 is heated further in vacuum furnace before
processing it in 12C-1(Vacuum Distillation Column). In vacuum
column, pressure is maintained at around 60mmHg at column top
pressure using ejectors. Fractionation of RCO into different
products

under

reduced

pressure

takes

place.

Different

20

parameters are maintained to adjust and control the product


quality.
The finished products are then sent to storage tanks before
extracting heat in heat exchangers, which can be used for crude
preheating (ENCON).

1.6. PROCESS FLOW DESCRIPTION


1.6.1. FEED SUPPLY
Crude oil is stored in eight storage tanks (eight tanks each having
a nominal capacity of 50,000 m3 whereas remaining other 2 tanks
are of 65,000 m3 nominal capacity). Booster pumps located in the
off-sites are used to deliver crude to the unit feed pumps. Filters
are installed on the suction manifold of crude pumps to trap
foreign matter. For processing slop, pumps are located in the offsite area, which regulate the quantity of slop into the crude
header after filters. Provision to inject proportionate quantity of
demulsifier into the unit crude pumps suction header with the
help of dosing pump is available.

1.6.2. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION:


Crude Oil is heated up to 136 -141 C in the first train of heat
exchangers operating in two parallel sections up to the desalter
which is connected in series. Desalting temperature as required
can be maintained manually by operating the bypass valve of
heat exchangers.
A two-stage desalter has been designed for 99% salt removal. It is
designed to use stripped sour water for desalting which is being
21

taken ex stripped sour water unit. Provision to use DM water/


services water is also provided. The electric field in the desalter
breaks the emulsion and the outlet brine from the 1st stage
desalter is sent to ETP on level control.

1.7. FURNACE OPERATION:


1. CDU Fired Heater
2. VDU Fired Heater
1.7.1. CDU Fired Heater:
The convection section has 8 rows of tubes with 8 nos. tubes in
each. The two rows of shock tubes, i.e. the two rows just above
the radiant section are plain tubes without studs. The rest six
rows are of extended surface type having cylindrical studs. All the
convection bank tubes are of 152 mmx8mm dimension and 5Cr
1/2 Mo material of construction. Of these 64 tubes in the
convection section, 4 nos studded tubes are for the service of
superheating MP steam for strippers; and the rest 60 nos. tubes
are for crude oil service. Crude oil to be heated enters the
convection section in four passes. From outlets of the convection
bank, it passes through crossovers provided inside the furnace
into bottom coils of the radiant section. Steam flow is of single
pass to superheating coils.
1.7.2. VDU Fire Heater:

22

Like any conventional process heater, these heaters are also


having two distinct heating sections: (I) a radiant section, and (ii)
convection section.
The convection section has 13 rows of tubes with 8 nos. tubes in
each. The top three rows are for the service of superheating LP
steam for vacuum column and the rest 10 rows are for RCO
service. The three rows of shock tubes, i.e. the three rows just
above the radiant section are plain tubes without studs. The next
seven rows are of extended surface type having cylindrical studs.
Provision exists to vent out MP steam ex- super heating coils of
furnaces to atmosphere through silence.
The floor of furnace is elevated above grade and the hot air duct
(supplying combustion air to burners) runs across the length of
the furnace below the furnace floor. The skin temperature of tubes
is limited to 542 0C.
The furnaces are of balanced draft type with forced draft (FD) fans
to supply combustion air and induced draft (ID) fan to take suction
of the flue gases through air-preheating system and discharge the
same to stack.

1.8. CRUDE DISTILLATION UNIT:


The column is provided with 56 trays of which 8 are baffle trays in
the stripping section. Heated and partly vaporized crude feed
coming from fired heater enters the flash zone of the column at
tray no. 46 at 355 C/365 C.

Hydrocarbon vapors flash in this


23

zone and get liberated. Non-flashed liquid moves down which is


largely bottom product, called RCO.
MP steam having some degree of superheat is introduced in the
column below tray no. 46 at approximately3.5 kg/cm 2 (g) and 290
C for stripping of RCO. Steam stripping helps to remove lighter
constituents from the bottom product (RCO).
Reduced crude oil product is collected at the bottom of the
column and the overhead vapors are totally condensed in
Overhead air Condenser and train condenser. This condensed
overhead product is separated as hydrocarbon and water in the
reflux drum. Water is drawn out under inter-phase level control
and sent to sour water drums.

1.9. VACUUM DISTILLATION UNIT:


Hot RCO from the atmospheric column bottom at 355 C is mixed
with slop recycle from Vacuum Column, heated and partially
vaporized in 8-pass vacuum furnace and introduced to the flash
zone of the vacuum column.

The flash zone pressure is

maintained at 115-120 mm of Hg. Steam (MP) is injected into


individual passes and regulated manually. Three injection points
have been provided on each pass. This is to maintain required
velocities in the heater, which is Fuel Gas, Fuel Oil or combination

24

fuel fired. Each cell is provided with 10 burners fired vertically


upshot from furnace floor along the centerline of the cell.
The vaporized portions entering the flash zone of the column
along with stripped light ends from the bottoms rise up in the
vacuum column and is fractionated into four side stream products
in 5 packed sections. The hydrocarbon vapors are condensed in
the Vac Slop, HVGO, LDO and LVGO sections by circulating
refluxes to yield the side draw products. Vacuum is maintained by
a

two-stage ejector

system

with

surface condensers.

The

condensed portion from the condensers are routed to the hot well
from where the non-condensable are sent to the vacuum furnace
low-pressure burners or vented to the atmosphere .

FLUID CATALYTIC CRAKING UNIT (FCCU)

25

In this process Heavy Gas Oil cut (Raw Oil) from Vacuum
Distillation Section of AVU is catalytically cracked to obtain more
valuable light and middle distillates. The present processing
capacity of the unit is about 1.48 MMT/Yr. It consists of the
following sections:
Catalytic section,
Fractionation section and
26

Gas concentration section.


The unit is designed to process two different types of feed i.e.
Arab Mix HVGO, Bombay High HVGO.

2.1. CRACKING SECTION

Cracking process uses high temperature to convert heavy


hydrocarbons into more valuable lighter products. This can be
accomplished either thermally or catalytically. The catalytic
process has completely superseded thermal cracking as the
catalyst helps the reactions to take place at lower pressures and
temperatures. At the same time, the process produces a higher
octane gasoline, more stable cracked gas and less of the
undesirable heavy residual product. The process is also flexible in
that it can be tailored to fuel oil, gas oil operations producing high
yields of cycle oils or to LPG operations producing yields of C3-C4
fraction.
27

The fluid Catalytic Cracking process employs a catalyst in the


form of minute spherical particles, which behaves like a fluid
when aerated with a vapour. This fluidized catalyst is continuously
circulated from the reaction zone to the regeneration zone. The
catalyst also transfers heat carried with it from one zone to the
other viz. in the vessels reactor and regenerator. The reaction
and regeneration zones form the heart of the catalytic cracking
unit.
Catalyst section consists of the reactor of the reactor and
regenerator, which together with the standpipes and riser form
the catalyst circulation circuit. The catalyst circulates up the riser
to the reactor, down through the stripper to the, regenerator
across to the regenerator standpipe and back to the riser. The
vertical riser is in fact the reactor in which the entire reaction
takes place. The reactor is a container for cyclone separators at
the end of vertical riser.
Coke is deposited on the catalyst in the reaction zone. The spent
catalyst flows downwards into the stripping section of the reactor.
After steam stripping to remove oil vapours from it the catalyst
flows from the reactor standpipe to the regenerator through a
slide valve in the regenerator, the coke is burnt off, oxygen for
burning being supplied by an air blower. Air from the blower is
uniformly given to the regenerator through a pipe grid at its
bottom. The heat of combustion raises the catalyst temperature
to more than 600 (C. Most of the heat in the catalyst is given to
the feed in the reactor riser to raise it to the reaction temperature
and to provide the heat of reaction. The regenerated catalyst
28

from the standpipe flows into the riser through a slide valve to
complete the catalyst circulation cycle. Catalyst particles in the
flue gas leaving the regenerator are separated at the top of
regenerator by three sets of two-stage cyclones. The flue gas
contains both CO and CO2 as carbon is burnt off partly to CO and
partly to CO2 in the regenerator. The sensible and chemical heat
in flue gas is utilized to generate steam in CO Boiler. The flue gas
is passed through' the orifice chamber & regenerator. Pressure is
controlled by double disc slide valve.

Orifice chamber holds

backpressure downstream of double-disc slide valve. By reducing


the pr. drop across slide valve, operating life of slide valve is
greatly extended by avoiding sudden accelerations of catalyst,
bearing flue gas stream. The unit is designed for use of high
ZEOLITE catalyst (Fresh catalyst), which is microspheriadical in
shape.

2.2. CATALYTIC SECTION


The fluid Catalytic Cracking process employs a catalyst in the
form of minute spherical particles, which behaves like a fluid
when aerated with a vapour. This fluidized catalyst is continuously
circulated from the reaction zone to the regeneration zone.
Feed to the FCC Unit is gas oils obtained by vacuum distillation of
long residue from the crude distillation unit.

In our unit the

vacuum cut boiling in the range 380-530C is used as feedstock


to the FCC Unit.

29

. Catalyst section consists of the reactor of the reactor and


regenerator, which together with the standpipes and riser form
the catalyst circulation circuit. The catalyst circulates up the riser
to the reactor, down through the stripper to the, regenerator
across to the regenerator standpipe and back to the riser. The
vertical riser is in fact the reactor in which the entire reaction
takes place. The reactor is a container for cyclone separators at
the end of vertical riser
Fresh feed after heating up to 350 C in a feed pre-heater along
with recycle streams enters the base of the riser. In the riser the
combined feed is vaporized and raised to the reactor temperature
by the hot catalyst flowing upward through the riser. Cracking
reactions start immediately as the gas oil comes into contact with
the hot catalyst. Entrained catalyst and hydrocarbon vapors, after
cracking, flow upwards and pass through two cyclone separators
attached to top of the reactor. These cyclones remove most of
the entrained catalyst. Oil vapors containing a small quantity of
catalyst

pass

overhead

through

the

vapour

line

into

the

fractionator.
Coke is deposited on the catalyst in the reaction zone. The spent
catalyst flows downwards into the stripping section of the reactor.
After steam stripping to remove oil vapours from it the catalyst
flows from the reactor standpipe to the regenerator through a
slide valve in the regenerator, the coke is burnt off, oxygen for
burning being supplied by an air blower. The heat of combustion
raises the catalyst temperature to more than 600 C. Most of the
heat in the catalyst is given to the feed in the reactor riser to
30

raise it to the reaction temperature and to provide the heat of


reaction. The regenerated catalyst from the standpipe flows into
the riser through a slide valve to complete the catalyst circulation
cycle. Catalyst particles in the flue gas leaving the regenerator
are separated at the top of regenerator by three sets of two-stage
cyclones.

2.3. Type of catalyst


The unit requires two types of catalyst, viz.
(1) Fresh catalyst
(2) Equilibrium catalyst

2.4. FRACTIONATION SECTION

31

In this section, the vapors coming out of the reactor top at very
high temperature are fractionated into wet gas and un-stabilized
gasoline overhead products, heavy naphtha, and light cycle oil as
side products. Heavy cycle oil drawn from the column is totally
recycled along with the feed after providing for the recycle stream
to the column.
The column bottom slurry containing a small quantity of catalyst
is sent to a slurry settler. From the settler bottom, the thickened
slurry is recycled back to the riser for recovering catalyst is sent
to a settler and from the settler bottom, the thickened slurry is
32

recycled back to the riser for recovering catalyst and further


cracking. From the top of slurry settler, clarified oil product is
taken out after cooling which goes for blending in Fuel Oil.
Heavy naphtha and light cycle oil streams after steam stripping
are used as gas oil blending components. The un-stabilized
gasoline and wet gas are sent to Gas Concentration Unit for
further processing. Both heavy naphtha and light cycle oil being
blending components for HSD can be blended in the unit and sent
to product blending station, as a single stream. In addition, light
cycle oil, if required for blending in FO, fertilizer feed, etc. can be
diverted to the extent required for product blending in a separate
line.

2.5. GAS CONCENTRATION SECTION

33

The

wet

gas

from

the

fractionator

overhead

receiver

is

compressed in a two-stage centrifugal compressor and sent to a


high-pressure (HP) receiver after cooling. Gas from the HP
receiver is sent to the Primary Absorber for recovery of C3's and
heavier components by absorption with stabilized gasoline taken
from the debutanizer column bottom and un-stabilized gasoline
from main column overhead receiver. Rich gasoline from Absorber
bottom is recycled back to the HP receiver. The stripped gasoline
is further stabilized in the debutanizer removing C3 and C4
components from it as cracked LPG and bottom product as
stabilized FCC gasoline. Both LPG and gasoline are Merox treated
before routing to storage.

2.6. CO BOILER
The flue gas leaving the regenerator via orifice chamber contains
8-13% carbon monoxide, the rest being inert like nitrogen, steam,
carbon dioxide, etc. In the CO Boiler, flue gas is burnt with air
converting, carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide, thus releasing the
heat of combustion of CO in the boiler. This heat as well as the
sensible heat in flue gas available at a high temperature is
utilized for raising medium pressure steam.

34

VIS-BREAKING UNIT
3.1. Introduction:
The Visbreaker Unit is designed for processing a mixture of
Atmospheric and Vacuum Residue from 1:1 mixture of Light
Arabian and North Rumaila Crudes. It reduces the viscosity and
pour point of heavy petroleum fractions so that product can be
sold as fuel oil. The nominal capacity of the plant is 0.8 MMTPA of
mixed Feed. However, the design capacity has been kept as 1.0
MMTPA to take care of Fluctuations in the Bitumen production.
The unit produces Gas, Naphtha, and Heavy Naphtha, VB Gas Oil,
Visbreaker fuel oil (a mixture of VB gas oil and VB tar). In actual
practice design feed was not available. So long residue and short
Residue of Nineteen type of imported crudes e.g. Arab Mix, Arab
Light, Arab Heavy, Rostam, Solman, Light Iranian, Algerian, Heavy
Iranian, Lagos medio,
Basrah,Ummshaif, Iran Mix, Iran blend, AbooAlbakoosh, Dubai,
Kuwait, Haut. Oman, Nigerian and two types of Indegeneous
crude Bombay High and Ratnabad had to be processed in the unit
from the very commissioning. Long And short residue proportion
also varied to a large extent depending on tank Ullage position
etc. A provision is also made by a small modification to route V B

35

Gas oil to HSD / LDO pool over and above its original routing
provision to V B tar.
At present all the Short residue and vac slop produced in BH run
in AVU is routed to VBU for HPS production. Short residue and vac
slop in Nigerian crude run along with BH cold feed is routed to
VBU for HPS production. Nigerian SR and vac slop is also routed to
VBU (limited to 20% of blend) for FO production with HS as cold
feed .Balance Nigerian SR is routed along with RCO for IFO top up.
Short residue produced in HS run is routed to Bitumen unit and
balance SR along with vac slop is routed to VBU. Following table
summaries shows the mode of operation in VBU and their feed
streams.
Feed Stream
Atmospheric
Residue
Vacuum Residue

Design
Capacity,MMTPA
400
600

3.2. THEORY OF VISBREAKING


The Visbreaker is essentially a Thermal cracking unit designed to
operate at mild conditions and to retain all the cracked light oils in
the bottom product. This results in reduction of viscosity of
bottom product. In the Thermal cracking reaction, heavy oil is
kept at a high temperature for a certain amount of time and this
causes the larger molecules to break up. The resulting product
has a random distribution of molecular sizes resulting in products
ranging from light gas to heavy gas oil. These products are
characterized as "Cracked" products and contain a certain
36

percentage of olefinic compounds. Whenever a molecule breaks


one of the resulting molecules is an olefin.
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3CH3-CH2-CH=CH2 + CH3-CH2-CH3

Cracked products are unstable and form gum. The cracked


naphtha has higher octane number than straight run gasoline.
During the cracking operation, some coke is usually formed. Coke
is the end product of polymerizations reaction in which two large
olefin molecules combine to form an even larger olefinic
molecule.
C10H21-CH=CH2 + CH2=CH-C10H21C10H21-CH=CH-CH2-CH2-C10H21
When above reaction gets repeated several times, the end
product is coke. This is usually found inside the walls of furnace
tubes and other spots where oil may remain at high temperature
and soak heat for some time. Severity of over-all reaction is
determined by residence time and temperature of cracking.
Residence time in the unit can be varied by varying charge rate
and steam injection rate of DMW injection into furnace coils.
Temperature can be varied as per requirement. The cracking
reaction

usually

does

not

become

evident

until

transfer

temperature crosses 400 C. When transfer temperature reaches


460 C; sufficient cracking of oil takes place. Gas and Naphtha are
produced, the viscosity of product is lowered and simultaneously
coke deposits in the furnace tubes & soaker.
Increased severity results in shorter run lengths and more
unstable fuel oil with sediments in it.
37

3.3. System Description


The feed passes through the furnace, where cracking reaction
take place and the conversion in the coil is about 50 to 60%.
The effluent from the furnace is routed to the soaker drum for
completion of visbreaking reaction. The soaker effluent is
quenched before entering fractionator by injecting column bottom
product (VB Tar). The quenched effluent ten enters the VB
fractionator. In the bottom of the fractionator, steam is introduced
to remove lighter fractions. VB Tar is removed as the bottom
product. The overhead fraction is unstable naphtha and gas. The
naphtha is stabilized and sent to merox unit for sweetening .

3.4. Visbreaker Furnaces


Visbreaker unit is provided with two identical natural draft
furnaces. They are up-right steel structures with outer steel
casing lined with refractory material. Each of the furnaces is
independent with radiation section at the bottom. Convection
section is at the top of the radiation section and above convection
section is the stack. The convection further heat from the flue
gases leaving the radiation section. It is having numbering 6, 10
and

14

respectively.

The

radiation

section

houses

the

radiation tubes numbering 30 in each pass. In this section heat is


transferred primarily by radiation by flame and hot combustible
gases.
VBU furnace tubes skin temperature is measured by skin
thermocouples provided on tubes in radiation zone. Furnaces are
provided with thermocouple in radiation and convection zones for
38

measuring tube skin temperatures, box temperatures before and


after

steam

coils,

and

flue

gas

to

stack

temperatures.

Thermocouples are also provided inside furnace tubes for


measuring liquid temperatures at different points. The maximum
allowed tubes skin and box temperature in the heaters is 650 oC
and 750 oC respectively.
There is a provision for on-stream analyzer of SO 2 emission from
both the stacks. The purpose of the water, injection is to maintain
suitable velocity in the furnace tubes and to minimize coking.
Effluent from these passes is gathered and sent to soaker drum. It
enters from the bottom and leaves from the top. Thermal cracking
of the feed, which is initiated in the furnace, gets completed in
soaker drum. Residence time of the order of half an hour is given
in soaker.
To arrest cracking reactions, materials from each pass of the two
furnaces are individually quenched by the injection of cooled VB
tar at 2230C. To increase turbulence and to prevent coke deposit
in the coils, there is provision to inject steam in each pass. The
purpose of the water injection is to maintain suitable velocity in
the furnace tubes and to minimize coking.

3.5. V.B. FRACTIONATOR


Soaker effluent after quenching enters fractionator. Temperature
in the flash zone is around 420 oC. From the column, gas &
gasoline are separated as overhead, gas oil as side stream and
the VB tar as bottoms. The fractionator has 26 valve trays and
39

one blind tray. Feed enters flash zone below the 26th Valve tray.
The overhead vapours from the column are condensed and cooled
in heat exchangers.
The liquid vapour mixture is separated in the reflux drum.
Gasoline from flash fractionator is picked up by reflux pumps and
partly pumped to column top as reflux. The remaining gasoline is
routed to stabilizer under reflux drum level controller, which is
cascaded with flow controller. The sour water is drained from the
drum boot under interface level controller and routed to sour
water stripper. Main reflux drum and its water boot are having
level glasses. Uncondensed gas from Gas oil stripper goes to
FCC/AVU furnaces / Flare. Column top pressure around 4.5kg/cm2
(g). Column overhead line is provided with working and controlled
safety valves.
The heavy naphtha at a temperature of about 170 oC is
withdrawn from tray no. 10 under level controller. It is stripped in
the stripper to maintain its flash point. The heavy naphtha is
routed to HSD. Gas oil at a temperature of about 260 oC is
withdrawn from the blind accumulator tray under tray level
controller. It is steam stripped in the stripper ot maintain its flash
point. Vapor from stripper top returns back to column just above
the blind accumulator tray. A part of gas oil from air cooler is used
for washing VB tar filters Blind accumulator tray and strippers are
provided with level glasses.
To remove extra heat and to maintain desired temperature profile
in column, a portion of gas oil from blind tray is taken and
pumped in two streams. One stream is used as heating media in
steam generator where it is cooled from 260 oC to 214 oC. The
40

second stream supplies re-boiling heat to stabilizer re-boiler and


gets cooled from 260 oC to 215 oC. To protect column bottom
against coking, cooled VB tar condensed in air cooler and go to
reflux drum. Safety valve is provided to release gas and protect
the vessel from over pressure.
Tar is cooled from 351 oC to 225 oC in feed exchangers and further
cooling to 214 oC is done. Pumps are having two filters in the
suction line with gas oil flushing facilities. Only one filter is kept in
service while the other remains as spare. Cooled VB tar is partly
used as quench to
1. Fractionator column bottom. Bottom temperature is
maintained at 355 oC.
2. Transfer lines of the two furnaces. Temperature of the
combined

effluent

entering

main

fractionator

is

maintained at 427 oC.


3. Gas oil stripper bottom should be protected against
coking. Bottom temperature is maintained at 351 oC.
VB tar is then cooled in boiler feed water exchanger from 232 oC
to 210 oC. It is further cooled to 90 oC and sent to storage with gas
oil.

3.6. Stabilizer
Un-stabilized gasoline from reflux drum is picked up by reflux
pump and then it is pumped to stabilizer through stabilized
gasoline exchanger. In heat exchanger, feed is heated from 43 oC
to 120 oC while stabilized gasoline is cooled from 180 oC to 120 oC.
The column has 30 trays and the feed enters on the 19th.The
overhead product at 60

C goes to water condensers. The


41

condensed liquid is collected in the reflux drum. Uncondensed gas


from the drum goes to FCC/unit fuel gas header. Pressure at the
drum is maintained at 8.4kg/cm2 (g).

CONTINOUS CATALYTIC REFORMING UNIT(CCRU)


3.1.Introduction:
The Continuous Catalyst Regeneration type of Reforming Unit
(CCRU) , process is based on advanced technology from IFP
(France), which allows continuous regeneration of catalyst unlike
in earlier semi-regenerative type of CRU s operating with limited
cycle length between two consecutive regenerations. Installed at
the cost of about Rs. 360 crores (inclusive of power plant), the
CCRU is serving us to produce high octane reformate (up to 98
RON) from straight run (C5145 oC cut) naphtha through catalytic
reforming process. Reformate so produced is a component used
to upgrade (by blending with) lower Octane streams up to the
desired level of Octane number for production of Euro-III and
Euro-IV grade MS.
A catalytic reforming process converts a feed stream containing
paraffins, Olefins and naphthene to aromatics. The product
stream of the reformer is generally referred to as reformate. The
purpose of the CR unit is to produce a high octane no. reformate
as a blending stock for the production of motor spirit. The octane
no. of the gasoline coming from the AVU is around 66, whereas
the required value of the octane no. is 87, 88 and 93.
3.6.1.

Design Capacity

42

The normal capacity of the CCR Unit is 466,000 MT based on


a stream factor of 8000 hours/year with 120% over design
factor.
The normal operating flexibility of the CCR is 60% of
Design.
3.6.2.

Feed Specification
Naphtha from Bombay high crude oil 80 1400C TBP cut
(Feed I)
95/5 blend of naphtha from Arab mix (80-1450C TBP
cut) and vis-broken Naphtha (Feed II)

Composition: - wt. %
Feed

Feed I

Feed II

PARAFFIN
iC5

0.20

0.00

nC5

0.3

0.04

iC6

3.80

4.29

nC6

4.98

5.61

C7

20.76

C9

5.88

C10+

9.88
5.55

0.89

0.27

NAPHTHENE
N5

0.26

0.24

N6

7.97

8.91

N7

13.33

N8

13.07

3.81

7.78

N9

2.39

2.55

N10

0.00

0.00

AROMATIC
43

A6

6.87

8.14

A7

7.85

12.38

A8

4.21

11.39

A9

0.32

0.07

A10

0.00

0.00

TOTAL

100.00

100.00

Catalytic Reforming is a major conversion process having


applications in Petroleum Refining and Petrochemicals Industries
as it transforms low octane (Straight Run) Naphtha into:
High Octane Motor Gasoline Blending Stock
Produce Aromatic Concentrates rich in benzene ,Toluene &
Xylene(BTX)
By Products:
Hydrogen used in refinery for hydro-treating,hydro-cracking
making it a more economically viable process.Although use
of Catalytic Reforming only as a means to produce hydrogen
is not economically viable.
LPG
3.2 Unit Subdivision
The whole CRU can be divided into three subunits as:
Naphtha Splitting Unit (NSU)
Naphtha Hydro-treater Unit (NHU)

44

Catalyst

Reforming

Unit

CRU

&Continuous

Catalyst

Regeneration Unit- CCRU


3.2.1 Naphtha Splitter Unit:
Naphtha splitting unit produces feed of required TBP range
for the reforming unit by splitting wide cut naphtha from
CDU. The selected cut is then Hydro treated before feeding
to the Reforming Unit.
This unit has been designed to split SR naphtha (144 MT/hr
for BH or 95 MT/hr for AM) to C5-80 oC and 80-115 oC cut.
Due to the restriction on Benzene content in the final
product (motor spirit), the IBP of the heavier cut is raised to
approximately 105oC. The present operating cut range of
NSU for light naphtha product is C5-105 oC and for heavy
naphtha product is 105-160 oC. NSU can be operated with
naphtha directly from AVU (hot feed) or from OM&S (Cold
feed) or using both the feeds simultaneously. NSU splits C5150 oC cut naphtha into C5-90 oC cut and 90-150 oC cut.
Heavier cut forms the feed for reformer. Cut point of 90 oC
has been chosen to get required octane number with
moderate

severity

and

also

to

exclude

the

benzene

precursors from the reformer feed.


a) FEED SELECTION:
For normal operation of the plant, the feed naphtha will be
supplied by AVU stabilizer section at a temperature of about
60 OC. This naphtha is pre-heated by column bottom Heavy
naphtha in feed-bottom exchanger to 95 C The back
45

pressure controller operates to maintain a set point of 4.4


Kg/cm2 (g) at the inlet of the column to avoid two-phase flow
in the feed line. The Heavy Naphtha from the Splitter column
is routed to rundown or as hot feed to NHTU.
In case of pre-planned AVU shutdown, stabilized naphtha
(C5-150 oC) will be stored in the existing naphtha tanks and
processed in NSU as cold feed.
b) SPLITTER SECTION:
Naphtha splitter receives feed on its 19th tray. The hot feed
from AVU/cold feed, after getting preheated goes to the LP
steam pre-heat exchanger, and the MP steam pre-heat
exchanger, before entering the splitter. In former, the
naphtha feed temperature is increased to 135 0C from 95 0C
by LP Steam and in later the required feed temperature of
1450C is achieved by using MP Steam. The feed naphtha
after preheating enters the splitter through the control valve.
Splitter has a total of 40 trays.
Overhead vapours of splitter are totally condensed in the
splitter air-cooler and in the new overhead condenser before
it is collected in splitter Reflux drum. Part of the liquid
collected in reflux drum is sent back as reflux to splitter
section by splitter reflux pumps and balance is sent back to
AVU after cooling it in light naphtha cooler.
Splitter bottom product is cooled in splitter bottom Air Cooler
followed by splitter bottom Heavy Naphtha trim cooler.
Heavy Naphtha can directly send to Hydrotreater feed
coalesce.
46

c) REBOILING HEATER:
Splitter re-boiler supplies the heat necessary for splitter reboiling. It is a six pass vertical cylindrical heater with 6
burners having provision for combination firing of both fuel
gas and fuel oil. However they are designed for 100 % of fuel
gas or fuel oil firing.
Desired temperature at outlet is maintained by controlling
the fuel firing. The radiant section of the heater is provided
with 12 bare tubes per pass. The convection section has
studded as well as bare tubes. The permissible maximum
tube skin temperature for the heater is 253 oC.
In the heat recovery system, FD fan supplies hot air for
combustion through APH and hot flue gases are discharged
to stack using ID fan after exchanging heat in APH.
d) CONDENSATE RECOVERY SECTION:
Feed naphtha preheating is achieved by LP and MP steam preheaters. The LP steam condensate vessel floats with the LP
steam header through a 1.5 line from the top of the vessel.
The level in LP condensate pot is maintained at 50% by level
control valve, which transfers the condensate to condensate
recovery drum by pressure head. MP Steam is under cascade
control splitter inlet temperature. The level in MP condensate
vessel is maintained at 50% by level control valve, which
transfers the condensate to condensate recovery drum by its
pressure head. The total condensate received in the
condensate recovery vessel, is pumped to condensate
47

polishing unit. Small quantity of steam is safely vented to


atmosphere.

The

condensate

recovery

vessel

is

also

provided with an overflow line routed to drain to take care of


level controller failure.
3.2.2. Naphtha Hydro Treater Unit.
The purpose of Naphtha Hydrotreater is to eliminate the
impurities (such as sulfur, nitrogen, halogens, oxygen,
water, olefins, di-olefins, arsenic and metals, except for
water, which is eliminated in the stripper) from the feed that
would otherwise affect the performance and lifetime of the
Reformer catalyst. This is achieved by the use of selective
catalyst

(nickel,

molybdenum)

and

optimum

operating

conditions. The unit is designed to handle a wide range of


feed naphtha from very low sulfur (10.9 PPM in neat BH)
to a maximum sulfur content of 1043 PPM so as to give
treated product of sulfur less than 0.5 PPM. Nitrogen is
also reduced to less than 0.5 PPM and water content is
reduced in the stripper to less than 4 PPM.The normal
capacity of the unit is such that the capacity of the
reforming unit is 466000 MT/Year based on an On-Stream
factor of 8000 hours/year (345 days operation) with
120% over design. Operating flexibility is of 60%, same as
that of the reforming unit.The hydrogenation of di-olefins
and conversion of mercaptans take place in a fixed bed axial
reactor,

14R2.

The

hydrogenation

of

olefins,

hydro-

desulfurization and hydro-denitrification reactions take place


in another fixed bed axial reactor, 14R1.

A middle range
48

temperature is required to promote the chemical reactions,


which improve the product quality.

The hydrotreatment

catalysts shall be periodically regenerated to recover its


activity. The liquid product from the reaction section is then
stripped to remove H2S, water and light hydrocarbons.
3.2.3.CATALYTIC REFORMING UNIT CRU &CONTINUOUS
CATALYST REGENERATION UNIT- CCRU
a) REFORMING UNIT
Catalytic reforming is normally facilitated by a bi-functional
catalyst that is capable of rearranging and breaking long-chain
hydrocarbons as well as removing hydrogen from naphthenes to
produce aromatics. The idea of a Catalytic Reforming Unit is to
have RON (Research Octane Number) as high as possible at the
same time keeping the Olefins, Benzene & Aromatics under the
specified limits. The different types of reformers are classified as a
fixed-bed type, semi-regenerative type, cyclic type and the
continuous regenerative type. This classification is based on the
ability of the unit to operate without bringing down the catalyst
for Regeneration. During the regeneration process, the refinery
will suffer production loss. In the Continuous Catalytic Reforming
unit, the reactors are cleverly stacked, so that the catalyst can
flow under gravity. From the bottom of the reactor stack, the
'spent' catalyst is 'lifted' by nitrogen to the top of the regenerator
stack. In the regenerator, the above mentioned different steps,
coke burning, oxychlorination and drying are done in different
sections, segregated via a complex system of valves, purge-flows
and screens. From the bottom of the regenerator stack, catalyst is
49

lifted by hydrogen to the top of the reactor stack, in a special area


called the reduction zone. In the reduction zone, the catalyst
passes a heat exchanger in which it is heated up against hot feed.
Under hot conditions it is brought in contact with hydrogen, which
performs a reduction of the catalyst surface, thereby restoring its
activity. In such a continuous regeneration process, a constant
catalyst activity can be maintained without unit shut down for a
typical run length of 3 - 6 years.
Feed for the Reforming unit (94 m3/hr at 14 kg/cm2 and 110 oC) is
received directly from hydrotreater stripper after heat exchanger.
The filters must be provided for the protection of the welded plate
exchanger. Feed is filtered to remove any foreign particles. At the
D/S of the feed filter, chloriding agent and water injection are
done. CCl4 solution of 1% in reformate is dosed by pump. Dosing
@ 1 ppm wt. CCl4 in feed is done when continuous regeneration
unit is down. Water injection (not on regular basis) is done to
maintain Cl-OH equilibrium on the catalyst when regenerator is
out of service.
Feed mixed with recycle H2 stream gets preheated in PACKINOX
exchanger from 91oC to 451oC by the effluent from 3rd Reactor
which gets cooled down from 497oC to 98oC. Due to the
endothermic nature of the reforming reactions, the overall
reforming is achieved in stages with inter stage heater provided
to raise the temperature. There are three Reactors (15R-1, R-2 &
R-3) each provided with reaction heater.
b) REACTORS
In the reactors, the feed contacts the reforming catalyst which is
divided approximately in the ratio 15:30:55. In the CCR process,
50

the catalyst circulates continuously in reactors, in the space


between the external grid and the central pipe from the top to the
bottom, from one reactor bottom to the top of the next one, from
the last reactor to the regeneration unit for regeneration. From
the regeneration unit, the regenerated catalyst returns to the first
reactor. Each reactor is a vertical cylindrical vessel with spherical
heads. It is equipped with one inlet & one outlet nozzle for feed &
effluent respectively. Catalyst enters the reactor through 12 nos.
of 3" pipes, flows through the space between external grid and
the central pipe from top to bottom and exits through 12 nos. of
2"pipes, slow moving bed of bimetallic catalyst and exits through
the outlet nozzle at the bottom. The radial flow of feed is achieved
by directing the flow through external grid to catalyst bed & exit
is made to central outlet collector pipe. Gas tight baffle is
provided on the outlet pipe to avoid short-circuiting of the feed to
outlet pipe at the entrance. Reactor effluent after passing through
PACKINOX exchanger is cooled in air cooler to 65 oC and then by
trim cooler to 45oC before entering the separator. The separated
gas is compressed in the recycle gas compressor and a part is
recycled to the reactors. The remaining gas is routed to a recontacting section to improve hydrogen purity and recover liquid
yield.

51

DHDT: DIESEL HYDROTREATING UNIT


3.7. DHDT UNIT DETAILS:

Process Licensor:
LSTK Contractor:
PMC:
Capacity:

IFP, France
Daelim, S. Korea
Jacobs H& G Pvt.Ltd.
1.8 MMTA(Designed

MMTPA)
Turndown:
Process:
technology
Capacity Basis:
Cost:
Commissioning date:

for

50%
IFP Licensed Hydro treating
8000 HRS/YEAR
6000 crores
02/05/2005

3.8. PURPOSE OF UNIT:


To reduce low sulfur (<30ppm) and high cetane number (55)
HSD to cater to the needs of bharat stage II, bharat stage III
and bharat stage IV.

52

With recommendation of task force of governments AUTO


FUEL POLICY, following emissions norms will be followed.

3.9. SPECIFICATIONS OF BHARAT STAGE I AND IV:


SULFUR IN
BHARAT
BHARAT
BHARAT
BHARAT
3.10.

STAGE
STAGE
STAGE
STAGE

I
II
III
IV

CETANE NUMBER

DIESEL
2500 ppm
500 ppm
350 ppm
50 ppm

51(min)

Cetane number:

A rating on a scale use to indicate the tendency of a fuel for


diesel enginesto cause knock, comparable to octane number
for gasoline.
The rating is comparing the fuels performance in a standard
engine with that of a mixture of cetane 100 and alphaamine-naphthalene

(0).

The

cetane

of

diesel

is

the

percentage by volume of the cetane(say 55) in the mixture


of alpha-methy-naphtalene (say 45)then the cetane number
of the said diesel is 55.
3.11.
CHEMICAL REACTIONS:
The main reactions taking place in the process are refining and
hydrogenation

reactions,

in

addition

some

hydrocracking

reactions takes place as well.


3.11.1.

Refining reactions:

53

Refining reactions involve the removal of heteroatoms, namely


sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen. It also includes the saturation
reactions of olefins and di-olefins.
Treating reactions:

Metal removal
Olefin saturation
Sulfur removal
Nitrogen removal
Oxygen removal
Aromatic saturation(cetane number improvement)

Desulfurisation reactions:
The aliphatic sulfur compounds, namely mercaptants, sulphides
and di-sulphides react easily leading to the corresponding
saturated or aromatic compounds. Thiophenes sulfur is most
difficult to react. The reaction is exothermic.
Mechanism:
Sulfur removed first, and then the olefin is saturated. Three mole
of hydrogen consumed per mole of sulfur. 560 kcal of heat
liberated per Nm3 of H2 consumed.
Mercaptant
R-SH + H2
Sulphides
R-S-R + 2H2

RH + H2S
2RH + H2S

DENITROFICATION REACTIONS:
These

reactions

lead

to

ammonia

formation

and

are

exothermic in nature. The hydro denitrogenation reactions


54

are slower than the hydro desulfurisation reactions, and


generally require more severe conditions especially for
components having nitrogen as a part of an aromatic ring
such as pyridine.
Mechanism:
First saturation of the rings to which nitrogen is attached and then
carbon nitrogen bond scission. Five mole of hydrogen consumed
for per mole of nitrogen. 632 to 705 Kcal of heat liberated per
Nm3 of hydrogen consumed.
Amine
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-NH2 +H2
CH3 + NH3

CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-

SULFUR RECOVERY UNIT (SRU)


6.1. INTRODUCTION

55

The unit consists of three identical units A, B and C. One of them


is kept standby. The process design is in accordance with common
practice to recover elemental sulfur known as the Clause process,
which is further improved by Super Clause process. Each unit
consists of a thermal stage, in which H2S is partially burnt with
air, followed by two catalytic stages. A catalytic incinerator for
incineration of all gases has been incorporated in order to prevent
pollution of the atmosphere.

SRU (Sulfur recovery unit)


This unit is basically low pressure (slightly above then atm) unit
having throughput of 60 tons/day.
The Sulfur Recovery Unit is designed to recover sulfur from the
sour vapors originating from the following sources:
1) The Amine Regenerator Unit
56

2) The Sour Water Stripper Unit


Feed Specifications
The feedstock of the SRU is a mixture of the Acid gas ex ARU
and the Acid gas ex SWS, 50% of the feed to the SRU is to be
processed in the two of the three trains.The quantity and quality
of H2S feed to the unit will vary depending on the shutdown of the
various preceding units. The unit should be capable of converting
99% wt. of the H2S contained in the feed streams to sulfur in all
the following cases:
Case 1: When all units are running with HCU on 70% IMP HVGO.

Compone
nt

Acid gas exARU

Acid gas exSWS

Total feed

H2

2.2

2.2

H2S

4805.0

560.7

5365.7

H/S*

11.3

11.3

CO2

338.3

338.3

137.0

137.0

NH3
H2O

122.7

309.9

432.6

Total
kg/hr

5279.5

1007.6

6287.1

* H/C will be a mixture of C1, C2, C3, C4 having an average


molecular wt. of 30.
Case 2: When HCU is down and DHDS is feed-2 operation
Componen Acid gas ex-ARU
t

Acid gas ex-SWS

Total feed

57

H2

0.3

0.3

H2S

1727.2

545.9

2273.1

H/S*

11.3

11.3

CO2

338.3

338.3

218.3

218.3

NH3
H2O

48.1

364.8

412.9

Total
kg/hr

2125.2

1129.0

6287.1

* H/C will be a mixture of C 1, C2, C3, C4 having an average


molecular wt. of 30.
Battery limit conditions
Component

Gas ex-SWS

Gas ex-ARU

Temperature, oC

90

40

Pressure, kg/cm2g

0.7

0.7

Design Criteria and Requirements

Capacity
The unit consists of three parallel SRU trains, each with a sulfur
production capacity of 60 metric tons/day, a tail gas incinerator
and a sulfur degassing system. Two SRU trains are normally in
operation and one SRU train is in the hot stand-by mode.
Sulfur Recovery Rate
The unit is capable of a sulfur recovery efficiency of 99.0 wt.%
based on the operation of the unit at a capacity and acid gas
58

composition corresponding to one of the cases as defined under


Para 2.1.
Turndown
The turndown of the unit is 30% on the normal feed gas rate
(case 1) and composition as defined under Para 2.1.
Product Specifications
The product sulfur will meet the following specification after
degassing.

State

liquid sulfur

Color

bright yellow (as solid state)

Purity

min. 99.9 wt% on dry basis

H2S

10 ppm weight max

6.2. PROCESS DESCRIPTION


The sulfur recovery process applied in the present design, which
is known as the Clause process, is based upon the combustion of
H2S with a ratio controlled flow of air which is maintained
automatically in sufficient quantity to evolve the complete
oxidation of all hydrocarbons and ammonia present in the sour
gas feed and to burn one third of the hydrogen sulfide to sulfur
dioxide and water.
H2S + 3/2 O2 SO2 + H2O + Heat
The major percentage of the residual H2S combines with the SO2
to form Sulfur, according to the following equilibrium reaction
2 H2S + SO2 3S + 2H2O + Heat
Sulfur is formed in vapour phase in the main
chamber. The primary function of the waste heat
remove the major portion of heat involved in the
chamber. The secondary function of waste heat

combustion
boiler is to
combustion
boiler is to
59

condense the sulfur, which is drained to a sulfur pit. At this stage


60% of the sulfur present in the sour gas feed is removed. The
third function of the waste heat boiler is to utilize the heat
liberated there to produce LP steam (4 kg/cm2).
The process gas leaving the waste heat boiler still contains a
considerable part of H2S and SO2. Therefore, the essential
function of the following equipment is to shift the equilibrium by
adopting a low reactor temperature thus removing the sulfur as
soon as it is formed.
Conversion to sulfur is reached by a catalytic process in two
subsequent reactors containing a special synthetic alumina
catalyst.
Before entering the first reactor, the process gas flow is heated to
an optimum temperature by means of a line burner, with mixing
chamber, in order to achieve a high conversion. In the line burner
mixing chamber the process gas is mixed with the hot flue gas
obtained by burning fuel gas with air.
In the first reactor the reaction between the H2S and SO2
recommences until equilibrium is reached. The effluent gas from
the first reactor passes to the first sulfur condenser where at this
stage approximately 29% of the sulfur present in the sour gas
feed is condensed and drained to the sulfur pit. The total sulfur
recovery after the first reactor stage is 89% of the sulfur present
in the sour gas feed. In order to achieve a figure of 94% sulfur
recovery the sour gas is subjected to one more stage. The process
gas flow is once again subjected to preheating by means of a
second line burner then passed to a second reactor and the sulfur
condensed in a second condenser accomplish a total sulfur
recovery of 94%. A sulfur coalescer is installed downstream the
last sulfur condenser to separate entrained sulfur mist
fter the first reactor stage is 89% of the sulfur present in the sour
gas feed. In order to achieve a figure of 94% sulfur recovery the
sour gas is subjected to one more stage. The process gas flow is
once again subjected to preheating by means of a second line
burner then passed to a second reactor and the sulfur condensed
in a second condenser accomplish a total sulfur recovery of 94%.
A sulfur coalescer is installed downstream the last sulfur
condenser to separate entrained sulfur mist.
The heat released by the subsequent cooling of gas and
condensation of sulfur in waste heat boiler and, sulfur condensers
results in the production of low-pressure steam.
60

PROJECT- I
61

MATERIAL BALANCE AROUND REACTOR


REGENARATOR SECTION
In any industrial plant, mass balance over the plant and/or over
any particular unit is a very important part for the daily operation
of the plant. Material balances are fundamental to the control of
processing, particularly in the control of yields of the products.
Ideally, by the Law of Conservation of Mass, the amount of feed
going inside the plant should be equal to the amount of products
leaving the plant. But this usually doesnt happen and we
encounter many losses during the process.
Mass In = Mass Out + Mass stored.
Feed + Air + Steam = Products + Coke formed + Losses.

Flow rate (m3/hr)

Specific Gravity

Feed

185

0.91

Air

76000

1.21

Atomising Steam

5.0 tonnes/hr

HCO Steam

0.4 tonnes/hr

Slurry Steam

0.3 tonnes/hr

Stripping Steam

3.0 tonnes/hr

Y Steam

130 kg/hr

Dome Steam

500 kg/hr
62

Dry Gas

6.0 tonnes/hr

LPG

72

Molecular Weight
27
0.52

Gasoline

75

0.73

HN

33

0.88

LCO

18

0.95

CLO

19

1.03

Flue Gas
O2
CO2
CO
SO2
N2 + Argon

2.7%
14.8%
0
0
82.5%

Ambient temperature = 320C.


From the graph, dry air is 95.5%. (as Relative humidity 70%)
Wet air = 76000 m3/hr.
Dry air = Wet air * (0.955 * 1.21) / (27).
= 3240656.83 moles/hr.
Using N2 + Argon balance, flue gas out of Rg is calculated on dry
basis:Flue Gas Rate = 3103174.42moles/hr.

63

Total coke formed = 6.0535 tonnes/hr.


ENERGY BALANCE AROUND REGENERATOR

64

As mass is conserved, so is energy conserved in unit


operations.
The combustion of coke in the regenerator satisfies the following
heat requirements:
Heat to raise air from the blower discharge temperature to
the regenerator dense phase temperature.
Heat to raise the temperature of the stripping steam to the
reactor
temperature.
Heat to raise the coke on the catalyst from the reactor
temperature to the regenerator dense phase temperature
Heat to raise the coke products from the regenerator dense
temperature to flue gas temperature
Heat to compensate for regenerator heat losses.
Heat to raise the spent catalyst from the reactor
temperature to the regenerator dense phase temperature
65

ASSUMPTION:
1) Coke is completely burnt up.
2) Nitrogen doesnt react, act as inert.
3) Entrained catalyst particle heat is neglected.
4) Sulfur burning isnt considered.
5) Heat losses in regenerator in 4% of combustion reaction and in
reactor it is 2% of cracking reaction.
6) Ambient temperature assumed -250C
GIVEN DATA:
MOLAR SPECIFIC HEAT OF FLUE GASES:
HCO = 16.18 Btu/kgmole 0F

=17703.8229 joule/kgmole 0C

Hco2= 24.71 Btu/kgmole 0F

=26070.41 joule/kgmole 0C

Ho2=16.78 Btu/kgmole 0F

=17703.823 joule/kgmole 0C

HH2O=19.5 Btu/kgmole 0F

=20573.5725 joule/kgmole 0C

HN2= 17.2 Btu/kgmole

=18146.946 joule/kgmole 0C

T (reaction) =4940C (reactor temperature at which spent catalyst


enter into the regenerator)
T (region 2) = 6800C ,T (region 1) = 6700C
AT 1375 0F
HEAT OF COMBUSTION REACTION
2C +O2 2CO

48,237 BTU/lbmole

C+ O2 CO2
J/kgmol
2H2 +O2 2 H2O
J/kgmol

=112,197284 J/kgmol

169,822 BTU/lbmole = 394,999000


106,725 BTU/lbmole =248,237974

SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY:


CP air = 0.26 BTU/ lb 0F

=1088.55 J/kg 0C
66

CP coke= 0.4 BTU/ lb 0F

=1674.69 J/kg 0C

CP catalyst=0.275 BTU/ lb 0F

= 1151.3502 J/kg 0C

VOLUME FLOW RATE OF AIR =67000 Nm3/hr


FLUE GAS CONTENT (DRY BASIS)
CO 7%
O21%
CO29.2%
N282.8%
AIR CONTENT : N2 -79% , O2--21%
H/C RATIO IN COKE IS : 14%
CALCULATION:
Density of air:
PM =RT
5

10 10 28.87= 8.314 298


=1.165254 kg/m3

Air flow rate 78071. 99 kg/hr


N2 balance
Nitrogen in air required for regenration = nitrogen in flue gases
0.79 78071.99
=.828 x
28.87

0.79 78071.99
=x
28.87 .828
67

x=2580.1516 kgmole /hr

We have,
CO 7%

= 180.61 kgmole/hr

O21%

= 25.801516 kgmole /hr

CO29.2%

= 237.374 kgmole /hr

N282.8% = 2136.365 kgmole /hr


AIR CONTENT : N2 -79% , O2--21%
O2 in air = 567.895 kgmole /hr
O2 in flue gases = 25.8015 kgmole /hr
O2 consumed in reaction :
2C +O2 2CO

:O2 consumed = 237.374 kgmole /hr

C+ O2 CO2

:O2 consumed = 90.305 kgmole /hr

2H2 +O2 2 H2O


:O2 consumed : what ever the O2 left
=214.414 kgmol/hr
H2O formed= 428.828 kgmol/hr
Heat of combustion:
(HCO)rxn

= 20264063.66 KJ/hr

(Hco2)rxn =93762492.63 KJ/hr


(HH2O)rxn = 106477950.2 KJ/hr
Heat content of flue gases:
HCO= 3197505.158 J/hr 0C
Hco2=6188437.503 J/hr 0C
68

HH2O= 8822523.948 J/hr 0C


Ho2= 456785.4724 J/hr 0C
HN2 = 38768500.29 J/hr 0C
ENERGY EQUATION USED:
(Energy in + energy generated)-(energy out )-(energy
consumed)=
[rate of accumulation of energy]
rate of accumulation of energy=0 (assume)
Mcoke Cpcoke(Trx-Ta)+ Mcat Cpcat(Trx-Ta)+ Mair Cpair(Tair-Ta)+ heat of
combustion = H flue gas (Trg2-Ta) +Mcat Cpcat (Trg1-Ta)+loss
CALCULATING LEFT HAND SIDE:
#:Mcoke Cpcoke(Trx-Ta)
180.611 kgmol/hr

Mcoke : Carbon content in CO

237.374 kgmol/hr

: Carbon content in CO2


: H content in H2O

H/C RATIO CACULATED


check)

857.676 kgmol/hr

: 857.676/5015.82 =0.17099 (for cross

Mcoke =5873.496 kg(C+H)


Mcoke Cpcoke(Trx-Ta)=

5873.496 1674.63 ( 49425 )

4613217673 J /hr

#:Mair Cpair(Tair-Ta)= 78071.99 1088.55 ( 25025 )


10

1.9121684566 10 J /hr

69

# heat of combustion= 220477950.2 KJ/hr


# Mcat Cpcat(Trx-Ta)
Mcat ? (We need to determine)
Cpcat =1151.3502 J/kg 0C, (Trx-Ta) = (494-25)

CALCULATING RIGHT HAND SIDE:


#:H
H

flue gas

flue gas

(Trg2-Ta)

= 57433752.4 J/hr 0C, (Trg2-Ta) = 680-25

57433752.4 ( 68025 )=3.761910782 1010 J /hr

#:Mcat Cpcat (Trg1-Ta)


Mcat ? (We need to determine)
Cpcat =1151.3502 J/kg 0C , (Trg1-Ta)= 670-25
#: loss: 4% heat of combustion
0.04 220477950.2

KJ
hr

8819118 103 J /hr

NOW, substituting above value in our energy balance


equation:
Mcoke Cpcoke(Trx-Ta)+ Mcat Cpcat(Trx-Ta)+ Mair Cpair(Tair-Ta)+ heat
of combustion =
H

flue gas

(Trg2-Ta) +Mcat Cpcat (Trg1-Ta)+loss

We get,
2.06381 1011=M cat 202637.6352

70

M cat=1018472.69

Kg
=1018.42tonnes/hr
hr

REACTOR HEAT BALANCE

Given:
Flow rates :
Feed: 160200 kg/hr
Feed steam: 4 ton/hr
HCO nozzle steam : 300 kg/hr
Slurry steam : 2.5 ton/hr
Stripping steam : 2.5 ton/hr
Lift steam : 180 kg/hr
Wye steam : 100 kg/hr
Heat content :
Feed : 276.64 btu/hr
Feed vapors going out of the reactor :726 btu/hr
71

CPSTEAM :0.55 kcal/0C


Temperatures :
Steam inlet : 2500C
Steam outlet : 4940C
Heat balance :
Heat in Heat out = Heat of reaction --------------------------(1)
Heat in :
Feed: Mass flow rate of feed * Heat content of feed
= 160200 * 643.897
=103152321.5 J/hr
Steam : Mass flow rate of steam * CPSTEAM * T
= (4000+300+200+2500+180+150) * 0.55
*1000*4.186*(250-25)
= 3797068275 J/hr
Regenerated catalyst : Mass flow rate of catalyst* CP cat * T
=1018472.69*1151.3502*(670-25)
=7.56339*1011 J/hr
Heat out:
Reacted vapor: Mass out flow rate of the reactor*Heat content
of vapor
= 160200*1691676.159
= 2.7*1011 J/hr
Spent catalyst: Mass flow rate of catalyst* CP cat * T
= 1018472.69*1151.3502*(494-25)
72

= 5.499582*1011 J/hr
Coke : Mass flow rate of coke* CP coke * T
= 5873.496*1674.69*(494-25)
= 4613217673 J/hr
Losses : 0.02*Heat of reaction
Total heat in = 8.25279*1011 J/hr
Total heat out =8.632883898*1011 J/hr + 0.02* heat of reaction
Putting above values in equation 1.
Heat of reaction inside the reactor is 3.73*1010 J/hr or 35.3
mbtu/hr

73

PROJECT-II

NPSHa CALCULATION OF FEED PUMP


74

PROBLEM STATEMENT: NPSHa (net positive suction head)


available calculation of running feed pump (301-P-01 A/B) of
DHDT unit . This pump is a feed pump which is pumping GAS OIL
(diesel with sulfur impurity) from feed surge drum to preheater
exchangers.
Given data:
Surge drum pressure: 2.5 kg/cm2(atm)
Length of pipeline: 20m
Inner diameter of pipe line: 12 inches = 0.3048m
Height of surge drum from ground= 7m
Height of impeller eye from ground= 1.5m
Difference in height= 6.5 m
Number of bends in pipeline network = 9 all are elbow (90 0C) KL
=1.5
Valve= shut down valve

KL =0.26

& isolation valve KL=2

Mass flow rate through pump=225 tonnes\hr


Fluid property @ 400C
Density of fluid= 831 kg/m3
Viscosity= 2.3 x 10-3 poise
Vapor pressure of GAS OIL =2.5 kg/cm2(ata)
Vapor pressure is based on dissolved blanketing gas at the drum
operating pressure of 1.5 kg/cm 2 (g), true vapor pressure of
pumped liquid is 0.01 kg/cm2 (a)
ASSUMPTIONS:
1) Ideal case is considered so that we can apply Bernoullis
principle for the system.
75

2) Velocity of fluid in surge is 0.


3) All type of losses are considered (major+ minor loss).
4) Impeller eye dia= pipe line diameter.
Calculations:
Step 1) applying Bernoullis equation between points 1
and 2, that is from surge drum to impeller eye.
P1 V 21
P2 V 22
+ +z = + +z +HL
g 2 g 1 g 2 g 2

V
1 =0

V
2=

z 1=7, z 2=1.5

P1
, g =30.70371m

V 21
, 2 g =0, z 1z 2=6 m

m
225000 4
=
=1.031287 m/ s
A 3600 831 (0.3048)2

V 22
=0.052617 m
2g

Step 2) losses calculation:


4 f L v2
a) Major losses = D 2 g , where f is Darcys friction factor and a

function of Reynolds number


f=

0.079
0.25

v d 831 1.031287 0.3048


=
=113572

2.3 103

f =0.004303
76

4 f L v2
H L major =
=0.06123 m
D 2g

b) Minor losses:
k
2

v
1) Due to 9 elbow joints (threaded): ( l 2 g ) 9= 0.731802m

k
v2
(
l
)
2) Due to shut down valve:
2 g =0.014094m

3) Due to isolation valve

v2
)
2 g =0.108415m

( l

Note: a) losses due flanges and nozzles are neglected because


the value of losses is very less.
b) T joint is counted as elbow bend.
Total minor losses:

Total losses:

H L minor

=0.854311m

H L major + H Lminor =0.854311+ 0.06123=0.91554 m

P2 Ps
Step 3) calculating suction side: g = g ,

where PS is suction side

V 22 V 2s
pressure of impeller eye. 2 g = 2 g , where Vs is velocity at the

suction.
77

P2 P1 V 12
V2
= + + z 1 2 + z 2 + H L
g g 2 g
2g

P2
=36.2355m
g

Step 4) NPSHa calculation:


P s Pv V 2s
Net positive suction head available = g g + 2 g , where Pv

vapor pressure of gas oil+N2


NPSHa= 5.51 m

Conclusion:
1.The calculated NPSH available is greater NPSH
required i.e., 4m. So the pump is working on
cavitation free condition.
2.
3.Our calculated value of NPSHa is almost
consistent with verified value.

78

Submitted By:
SWEETY CHANDAK
B.TECH, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
MNNIT, ALLAHABAD

79