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LAB Notes
Bone Tissue (osseous tissue)
Bone

Markings
Projections that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment
Projections that help to form joints
Cavities open space within bone
Depressions and openings allowing blood vessels and nerves to pass

Examining and Classifying Bones according to shape- long, short, flat &
irregular
Cartilages in the adult skeleton and body hyaline, elastic &
fibrocartilage
Note- many bones can be seen from various views (superior, inferior, lateral,
anterior, posterior) try and view each bone from various angles
Bold lettering indicates the name of the bone in question; the bullets indicate
various bone markings located on that bone. You are responsible for all
bones and their associated bone markings on this handout.
Axial Skeleton (Skull-Vertebral Column-Bony Thorax)

Skull

Cranium
o Cranial Vault/Calvaria (skull cap)
o Cranial Floor/Base
Anterior Fossae (front anterior portion of skull to lesser wings)
Middle Fossae (two depressions on the left and right portion of
the skull)
Posterior Fossae (from the depression to the posterior portion of
the skull)
Facial Bones

Cranium (8 bones)
Frontal Bone (2 markings)
Supraorbital Foramen/Notch- vessels (holes on top of the orbital
socket)
Glabella (just know the general area) (between the eyebrows)
Parietal Bone
Occipital Bone (6 markings)
External Occipital Protuberance EOP (bump at back of the head)
Foramen Magnumspinal cord & vertebral arteries (the large hole)

Occipital Condylesarticulates with atlas


(Grooves next to the foramen magnum inferior view)
Hypoglossal canalhypoglossal nerve CN XII (holes inside the foramen
magnum)
Nuchal Lines (just know the general area) (grooves inside the back of
the head)
o Superior
o Inferior

Temporal Bone (8 markings)


External Auditory/Acoustic Meatus/Canal EAM (hole that goes into the
ear)
Styloid Process- muscle attachment (the pointy part on the skull)
Mastoid Process- muscle attachment (area behind the ear)
Jugular Forameninternal jugular vein
(holes on the side superior view of the foramen magnum)
Carotid Canalexternal carotid artery (inferior view, above jugular
foramen)
Internal Acoustic Meatus IAMCN 8 vestibulocochlear nerve & CN 7
facial
(superior view in front/above jugular foramen)
Mandibular Fossa-TMJ (where jaw attaches)
Foramen Lacerum (hole next to Turkish saddle)
Sutures (4 markings)
Coronal (separates the frontal bone from the two parietal bones)
Sagittal (separates the left and right parietal bones)
Lambdoidal (separates the parietal and the occipital bone)
Squamosal (separates the parietal from the temporal)
Wormian (Sutural bones) - bones that may form in the sutures of the skull
Sphenoid Bone (has the wings, 11 markings)
Greater Wings (depression portion)
Lesser Wings (elevated portion)
Optic Canals- optic nerve (holes near the lesser wings)
Sella Turcica (Turkish Saddle) (between the wings)
Hypophyseal Fossa- pituitary gland (middle of the Turkish Saddle)
Foramen RotundumCN 5 trigeminal nerve (small hole in front of the
oval)
Foramen OvalCN 5 trigeminal nerve (next to foramen lacerum)
Foramen Spinosum (Behind the foramen oval)
Foramen Lacerum (hole next to Turkish Saddle)
Orbital Fissures-oculomotor, trochlear, abducens and trigeminal nerves
(top and bottom holes in eye socket)
o Superior
o Inferior

Ethmoid Bone (in front of sphenoid bone and has the crista galli, 5
markings)
Cribriform Plateolfactory bulb (depressions on inside of the front of
the skull)
Crista Gallifalx cerebri (the ridge between the cribriform plate)
Cribriform Foramina- olfactory nerves (near the crista galli)
Perpendicular Plates (middle nasal bone)
Middle nasal conchae (bones on inferior side next to perpendicular
plate)
Fetal Skull
Anterior Fontanel
Posterior Fontanel

Facial Bones (14 Bones)


Mandible (only freely movable bone of skull, 8 markings)
Ramus (arm-like)
Condyle/Condyloid process (rounded part in back, location for TMJ)
Coronoid Process (rounded part in front)
Notch (the U of the mandible)
Angle (the L of the mandible)
Body (the portion that contains the teeth)
Mental Foramen (holes on the chin)
Mandibular Foramen (holes inside the jaw)
Maxilla (2 markings)
Infraorbital Foramen- vessels (there is one on each side, holes next to
nose)
Palatine Process (there is one on each side its where the teeth goes
onto)
Palatine
Zygomatic
Lacrimal
Nasolacrimal Ducts (where the tear ducts come from)
Nasal (bones that make up the nose)
Vomer (bottom line of the nasal bones)
Inferior Nasal Conchae (side nasal bones that are inferior)
Hyoid (throat, does not articulate with any other bone, used for muscle
attachment aids in
breathing and swallowing)

Paranasal Sinuses
Maxillary
Sphenoid
Ethmoid
Frontal
Cavities
Cranial
Orbital
Nasal
Oral
Auditory Ossicles (bones of the inner ear)
Mallus
Incus
Stapes
Vertebral Column
Cervical (secondary curve, lordotic curve) 7
Thoracic (primary curve, kyphotic curve) 12
Lumbar (secondary curve, lordotic curve) 5
Sacrum (primary curve, kyphotic curve) 5 fused
Coccyx 4 fused
Scoliosis (curve of the vertebral column A-P view)
Hyper-lordotic, Hypo-lordotic (increase or decrease in curve lateral
view)
Hyper-kyphotic, Hypo-kyphotic (increase or decrease in curve lateral
view)
All Vertebrae (know how to identify the different types of vertebrae, and
the following structures are located on most vertebrae, there are a few
exceptions)
Body (except C-1)
Vertebral Foramen (for spinal cord)
Transverse Process
Spinous Process
Superior & Inferior Articular Process/Facet/Surface
Intervertebral Foramina (for spinal nerve, formed between vertebrae)
Pedicle -the pedicle and lamina are known as the neural arch
Lamina- Together the lamina & pedicle form the lamina-pedicle
junction LPJ
Cervical
Cervical vertebrae have transverse foramina (holes next to body),
transverse process (arches that make up the hole next to the body),

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bifid spinous processes and are overall smaller in size as compared to
other vertebrae.
C-1

Atlas has no body and the following structures are unique to C-1
Anterior Tubercle
Fovea Dentis- where the dens attaches behind anterior tubercle
Lateral masses/Superior Articulating Facets/Processes

C-2 Axis the following structure is unique to C-2


Dens (odontoid process)
Thoracic Vertebrae
Thoracic vertebrae have facets and demi-facets on their bodies and or
transverse processes for articulation with the ribs. Their spinous
process is typically longer and angles downward.
Lumbar Vertebrae
The lumbar vertebrae is typically the biggest vertebrae because it
bears the largest amount of weight

Sacrum (5 fused vertebrae)


Ala
Sacral Promontory
Superior Articular Process/Facet
Auricular surface- articulates with ilium
Median sacral crest
Sacral Foramina
Sacral Canal
Coccyx - tailbone (4 fused vertebrae)

Bony Thorax (sternum, ribs, thoracic vertebrae)


Sternum (4 markings)
Manubrium (superior with ribs 1-2)
Body (middle 2-7)
Xiphoid (process on bottom)
Clavicular notch (notch on top)
Ribs (12 pairs)
7 true ribs (vertebrosternal)
5 false ribs
o 3 false (vertebroachondral)
o 2 floating

Appendicular Skeleton (appendages-pectoral girdle & pelvic girdle)


Pectoral Girdle (shoulder girdle)
Clavicle (collarbone, 3 markings)
Conoid Tubercle- should face posterior, inferior and lateral
Sternal end- articulates with sternum
Acromial end- articulates with acromion
Scapula (shoulder blade (14 markings)
Acromion Process (superior notch that attaches to clavicle:
acromioclavicular joint)
Coracoid Process (below the acromion process)
Suprascapular Notch (next the coracoid process)
Glenoid Cavity- articulates with head of humerus
(hole that makes the glenohumeral joint)
Spine (posterior view, the line)
Supraglenoid tubercle- O: Biceps Brachii (above glenoid cavity)
Infraglenoid tubercle- O: Triceps Brachii (below glenoid cavity)
Subscapular Fossa (whole plate anterior view)
Supraspinous fossa (plate above the spine)
Infraspinous fossa (plate below the spine)
Borders
o Medial (straight boarder)
o Lateral (the diagonal boarder)
Angles
o Superior (above the supraspinous fossa)
o Inferior (below the infraspinous/subscapular fossa)

Arm- Brachium
Humerus (largest bone on upper body, 17 markings)
Anatomical Neck (around the head)
Surgical Neck (around the top, usually where bone is broken)
Greater Tubercle (anterior superior lateral bump)
Lesser Tubercle (anterior superior medial bump)
Intertubercular Groove- biceps tendon (between the two tubercules,
anterior view)
Head of Humerus- articulates with glenoid fossa (big ball, goes in
medial)
Radial Groove (may be hard to see-know general location) (posterior
groove, along the middle of bone)
Deltoid Tubersoity- I: Deltoid (a bump on the lateral side, anterior view,
middle of bone)
Olecranon Fossa- olecranon process (posterior inferior groove)
Radial fossa (anterior inferior lateral groove)

Coronoid Fossa- coronoid process (anterior inferior medial groove)


Trochlea- articulates with trochlear notch of ulna (anterior inferior edge
that sticks out on medial side)
Capitulum- articulates with head of radius (anterior inferior lateral
bump)
Medial & Lateral Epicondyles (posterior inferior edges)
Medial & Lateral Supracondylar Ridge (the edges before the fossa)

Forearm- Antebrachium
Radius (no hook, 3 markings)
Head- articulates with capitulum (superior thin head)
Radial Tubersoity- I: biceps brachii (anterior points medial)
Styloid process (anterior lateral inferior bump)
Ulna (with hook, 5-6 markings)
Olecranon Process- olecranon fossa (anterior superior tip of hook)
Coronoid Process- coronoid fossa (anterior inferior tip of hook)
Trochlear notch (larger notch on hook)
Radial notch (smaller notch on hook, points medial)
Styloid process (anterior inferior protrusion on medial side)
Interosseous Membrane (IM) (membrane between radius and ulna)

Hand- Manus
Carpus- Carpal Bones (8) - (Wrist)
So Long To Pinky Here Comes The Thumb
Schaphoid
Lunate
Triquetrium
Pisiform
Hammate
o Hamulus/Hook
Capitate
Trapezoid
Trapezium
Metacarpals- (palm) (5) they are numbered 1-5 starting with the thumb
being 1
Phalanges- (fingers) - Digits (14) they are also numbered starting with
the thumb being 1
Proximal
Middle/Intermediate
Distal

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Bony Pelvis includes left and right os coxa (ossa coxa/hip bones),
sacrum and pelvis
Pelvic Girdle (hip girdle) Incudes left & right ossa coxae (os coxa/hip
bones)
Know how to identify a male from a female pelvis
Coxal- ossa coxae- hip-bone (2) (3 parks)
Ilium (anterior view, 2 plates)
Pubis (anterior view superior arch)
Ischium (anterior view inferior arch)
Ilium (13 markings)
Ala of Ilium (superior plate lateral view)
Iliac Fossa (anterior view of the plate)
Iliac Crest (crest of the plate anterior view)
Auricular Surface (joins with the sacrum via the sacroiliac joint)
Gluteal Lines (they will be hard to see just know general area)
o Anterior
o Posterior
o Inferior
Posterior Superior Iliac Spine (PSIS) (two grooves that connects with
sacrum, top groove)
Posterior Inferior Iliac Spine (PIIS) (two grooves that connects with
sacrum, bot. groove)
Greater Sciatic Notch (large notch under the Posterior Inferior Iliac
Spine)
Anterior Superior Iliac Spine (ASIS)-sartorius (under the iliac crest 2
grooves, top groove)
Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine (AIIS)-recuts femoris
(under the iliac crest 2 grooves, bot groove)
Acetabulum- combination of all 3 pelvic bones, articulates with head of
femur
(hole for femur)
Ischium (3 markings)
Ischial Tuberosity- O: hamstrings (rough part on posterior side)
Obturator Foramen (the hole)
Ischial Spine (pointy part under the Greater Sciatic Notch)
Pubis (4 markings)
Pubic Symphsis (joint between the pubis bones)
Pubic Arch/Angle (the arch that the Pubic Symphsis makes)
Pubic Ramus
o Superior (arch before the Pubic Symphsis)
o Inferior (arch at the Pubic Symphsis)

Thigh
Femur (heaviest bone in the body, 16 markings)
Head (top medial)
Neck (around head)
Fovea Capitus (indent on head)
Greater Trochanter (anterior and lateral)
Lesser Trochanter (posterior and medial near head)
Intertrochanteric line (anterior line between greater trochanter and
head)
Intertrochanteric crest (posterior ridge between trochanters)
Gluteal tuberosity- I: gluteus maximus (posterior 2 lines on superior
side)
Linea Aspera (middle posterior line)
Medial & Lateral Epicondyles (Inferior edges)
Medial & Lateral Condyles (Posterior inferior edges)
Adductor tubercle (Interior inferior bump on medial side)
Intercondylar notch/fossa (Posterior inferior notch)
Patella surface (Anterior inferior notch)
Patella- (sesamoid bone)
Sesamoid Bones are bones that may form in tendons

Leg
Tibia (5 markings)
Intercondylar Eminence (Superior ridges, anterior view)
Medial & Lateral condyles (Anterior edges)
Tibial Tuberosity- I: patellar ligament (Anterior superior bump)
Anterior Crest/Border (Anterior ridge middle part of bone)
Medial Malleolus- articulates with talus (Anterior inferior points out
towards medial side)
Fibula (3 markings)
Head (Just the top)
Lateral Malleolus- articulates with talus (Anterior lateral side is longer,
looks like arrow tip)

Foot
Tarsal Bones (7 bones, 1 marking)
Calcaneus (heel bone)

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Talus (large bone next to heel bone)


o Trochlea surface
Navicular (front of talus)
Cuboid (in front of calcaneus)
Lateral Cuneiform/Third/Lateral (next to cuboid)
Intermediate Cuneiform/Second/Intermediate (next to lateral)
Medial Cuneiform/First/Medial (next to intermediate)

Metatarsals (5) they are numbered 1-5 with the big toe being number 1
Phalanges (14) toes, they are numbered 1-5 with the big toe being
number 1
Proximal
Middle/Intermediate
Distal

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