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'yJlMLJ.

n.

C^\-

SxJ^bris

PROFESSOR

J.

S.WILL

z.'vS"

*^

Cambridge Mkiiuiuary

Classics

Salamis
in

easy Attic

Greek

13
en

Sal a mis
Attic Greek

easy

in

With Introduction, Notes and Vocabulary


by

G.

EDWARDS, ^M.A.

M.

Fellow of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge

'

at

Cambridge

the University Press

I9'3

if

S57H
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
FETTER LANE,

ILonUon:

GFUinbursb:
ectlin:

100,

antj

PRINCES STREET

ASHER AND CO.


F. A. BROCKHAUS

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Efipjig:
ip,etoSorfe:

otnbag

CLAY, Manager

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C.

G. P.

Calcutta:

PUTNAM'S SONS

MACMILLAN AND

All rights reserved

WIIHTeO

E.G.

Ih

iT ITAIII

CO., Ltd.

PREFACE
rilHIS
-*-

mlaptation of part of Herodotus,

shortened and

simplified,

is

intended

students in their second year of Greek

The

re-written text

mainly Attic

is

imirli

for

readin<r.

but a few

Ionic touches have been retained for their literary


value.

The

interest

The

subject-matter

and there

How

of great and varied

abundance of useful idiom.

editions

excellent

Messrs

is

is

of

Dr Shuckburgh and

and Wells and Dean

Blakesley's

admirable Excursus on the battle of Salamis have

been found very useful.

G. M. E.

CAMBRmOK
June 1913

CONTENTS

......
........
......

Introduction

Text
Notes

Vocabulary

Index of Proper Names

PAGE
vii

32
61

.77

ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAP


Map

....

of Salamis

Athens and the Acropolis

Frontispiece

{Phot.

To face p. 2

Frith)

A Greek

Trireme

Themistocles {Phot. Anderson)

Note. The

illustration of the trireme is re-

produced by permission of
explanation of

its

on Ancient Ships
to

Greek Studies

Mr

Cecil Torr.

details will be

(p. 45^ n.

(p. 486).

full

found in his work

109) or in

^4

Companion

IN

TnK

Hattk'

tlirilliiiLj

of Salniiiis

oik*

is

ot"

the

stories in the "eternal stru'^i^le'

Ivist

and West.

nuist

make

preceding.
kinir

IHODKTION

To

explain

most

between

importance, we

its

a brief survey of the events immediately

To meet

Xerxes

in

480

the invasion of the Persian


the congress of Greek

h.c,

connnanders at the Isthmus of Corinth decided to


face the

enemv bv land and

sea,

(1

to send troops

Thermopylae between
Mount Oeta and the Malian Gulf; (2) to request
the various Greek states which could provide ships
to send them to Pogon, the harbour of Troezen
to hold the narrow pass of

in Argolis, in

order to

sail

together to Artemisium,

promontory of Euboea, less than


three miles from the Thessalian coast. While the
Greek contingents were hurrying to their respective
posts at Thermopylae and Artemisium, Xerxes
the

northern

and the two


was advancing through Thessaly
arms of the Persian host were steadily converging.
Three days' fighting in the famous Battle of
;

Thermopylae,

chiefiy

remarkable for the splendid

heroism of the Spartan king Leonidas, ended in the


betrayal and defeat of the Greeks.

way open

for

This

left

the

Xerxes to advance on Athens, the

Introduction

viii

main object of his expedition but 20,000 barbarians had been slain in the battle.
During the fighting at Thermopylae the Greek
and Persian fleets had been engaged at Artemisium
and the neighbourhood but the results were less
decisive.
The losses on both sides were severe.
During operations extending over three days the
Persians lost no less than 600 triremes in two
;

violent storms
in

much

and the Greeks

Thermopylae

settled the question.

the news of

The Greeks

Isthmus of Corinth

sailed with all speed to the


this

suffered heavily

Then

desperate fighting.

was to be their next line of defence.

consternation at

The

Athens, thus sacrificed to the

But Themistocles bade


the people abandon their city and trust to their
Wooden Walls.' The fleet was first employed

Barbarian, was extreme.

'

in

conveying the non-fighting population to various

places of safety

and then

it

took up

bay of Salamis,

in the land-locked

its

in

position

order to

protect the Isthmus from attack by sea.

After the mustering of the Greek

fleet

Salamis, Xerxes occupied Athens and burnt

it

at
to

the ground, and ravaged the deserted country of


Attica.

He had

with him the expelled family

of Peisistratus the Tyrant,

who

doubtless looked

on their restoration as already certain, together


with a few Athenian exiles attached to their
interest.

About the time

Athens the Persian

fleet

of the destruction of

arrived in the bay of

I nfi

IMiaK*niiii ivintorit'd

and

islands,

thousimd

ships

l)\

in

niiinlK'rin<x

i.\

various (intk

tVoiii

all

not

of a

short

t'ai

vessels.

Gixt'k

'['he

ships.

nthnftnn

Of

no

tlu'se

Salaniis consisti'd

at

fKi't

less

furnished bv Athens.

ete.

than two hundred were

As Grote

was not oidy the most


eonsetpienee of

its

lifjfi

Forty ainie from Corinth,

thirty from Ae;ina, twenty from

from Sparta,

>("

Megara, sixteen

observes, 'Salamis

favourable position, in

narrow

stiait, for

the inferior

numbei-sof the Gi-eeks, but could not be abandoned


without breakinir up the unity of the allied Heet
;

since Metrara

and

covered,

and Ae<^ina would thus be


the

contingents

of

left

each

would

own

innnediately retire for the defence of their

homes,

hile the

Athenians

also,

un-

a large portion

of whose families were in Salamis and Aegina,

would be

in like

maritime

efforts at the Isthmus.'

It

manner distracted from combined

may seem

strange

to

check

writer of history by a dramatic poet

prose

but

it

is

certainly possible to correct defects in the story

of Herodotus from the brilliant picture of the


battle of Salamis which Aeschylus lays before us.

His play called the Persians, produced at Athens


in 472 B.C., was the work of one who in all
probability had himself fought at Salamis
and
:

it

was performed before an audience many of

had witnessed the stern

realities

whom

of the conflict.

Introduction

Herodotus

It is evident that

the

gossip

of

He

tradition.

Athenian

mainly on

relies

magnified

sailors,

by

loves to chronicle individual acts

of bravery, isolated incidents in a scene of wild

He

confusion.

takes no interest in the brain-work

of admirals, in the ordered plans of naval warfare

but he describes with eagerness the petty jealousies

and angry disputes of the Greek commanders.


Above all, he delights to honour the wise counsel
and splendid courage of Artemisia, Queen of his

own

As Dean

city of Halicarnassus.
'

tion old.

The Athenians

sons and

of his time were the

grandsons of those before

Persians was acted

and

in

is

whom

the

the forty years or

more which had elapsed since the


had been told over and over again
It

Blakesley

the facts of Herodotus were a genera-

points out,

battle, its stoi-y


in every family.

not necessary to suppose wilful misrepresenta-

tion on the part of those

thus again.'

He

who fought

therefore assumes

it

their battles
as

an axiom

when Aeschylus does relate any particulars


of the action which must have come under the
that,

notice

of

eye-witnesses,

his

narrative

possesses

paramount authority and that if any incident


or anv special notice of time or place appears in
Herodotus irreconcilable with these, it must be
;

regarded as erroneous.

very graphic account of the battle, certainly

more intelligible than that of Herodotus, is put


by Aeschylus into the mouth of the messenger

I itt I inhti'tunt

wlu) hriiii^

narrative:
tlu'

'I'o

The

up

IVrsiaii

(lisa>tt'i'

haviiiir ivceived

at once

'I'heiiiistocles,

ti<rhtiu^

to

At'sfhvlmii

and stakes

his

on preventing the escape of the supposed

At once

fugitives.

comprehending the
publishes

Messenger),

the

(siivs

an order to his captains, which


it is

dark.

necessary preparations are made.

meal

is

served

and oars are made

not

trick of the wilv (ireek,

he carried out as soon as


all

tlu-

Admiral,

thou^hts of

all

IVisiaii

parnpliiMM'

treacherous inessii^e of

gives
all

iirus of tlu-

tin-

Atossii.

(^lUH'ii

xi

is

he
to

Meanwhile

The evening
fast to

the

pins.

Night

falling (the

is

Messenger goes on)

every

master of an oar goes to his ship and every master


of weapons

(i.e.

Crew

every sailor and marine).

cheers on crew, as they go to the posts appointed


for them.

Their orders are to block each outlet

of the channel of Salamis with a triple line of


galleys

and to post others

round the

all

island.

If the Greeks are suffered to escape their fate,

the Persians in fault will lose their heads.

night the captains


forwards.

the

Night

are

is

passing;

All

backwards and

cruising
yet

how

strange

Greek host has nowhere made an attempt

Morning breaks

to escape.

in all its splendour

a cheer from the Greeks rings loud like a triumph

song;

and

island

cliffs.

Poor

fools

shrill

Fear

and
rises

clear
in

it

echoes from the

every Persian heart.

they are deluded.

The Greeks

are

Introduction

xii

chanting

solemn paean,

their

advancing to

but

escape,

not

battle

seeking to

with

courage.

Then a

to action,

and with foaming dash of oars

trumpet-call

fires all

daring

their line
in unison

they smite, to the word of command, the resounding

And

surge.

The

view.

at once all of

right wing

them come plain into

leading in perfect order,

is

and after that their whole armament comes on,


Onward,
and withal loud shouts are heard,
Deliver vour country, deliver
children of Greece
vour children and your wives, the temples of your
'

fathers' gods, the


is

vour

all

Then a babel
from our

tombs of your

line.

of Persian tongues meets

No

time for delay

against ship strikes

a Greek galley

its

a foeman's ship.

our

gallevs

narrows
being

them

At once

ship

'Twas

began the charge, breaking

armament could hold


stream of ships,

beak of bronze.

its

At
own

first
;

it

our Persian

was indeed a

pev/xa YlepacKOv arparov.

multitudinous

off

Then every captain

complete a Phoenician stern.

rammed

Now

ancestry.

at stake.'

But

were crowded in the

and rendered no aid one to another,

rammed by

the bronze beaks of their friends,

and splintering their whole broadside of oars


while the Greek ships all round kept charging
them on every side. The sea was no longer visible
so choked was it with wrecks and slaughtered men.
The shores and reefs were full of them. Then in
;

utter rout every ship of the barbarian host essayed

I lit nulnrtiini

to

awav.

n)\v

Hut

the

puiNuit, likf fisluTiiR'H


hroki'ii

oai-s

and

(iii'cks

aftri*

sjilinters

wail of anguish spread

xiii

swxv

tuiinv

in

closr

with

shoals,

of wivckat^c

oVr the open sea

and
till

i\\v

night

endtnl the pursuit.


It

is

very

important to study the following

notes from HIakeslev and others, with the help of


the

Map

(i)

of Salamis given in this hook

The

original statiim

the coast of Attica, with


Phaleruin.

its

>t"

island facing

tlie

the Persian fleet

town of Salamis,

Mount

liead-quarters in

Tlie orig-iiial station of the

the bay before

Greek

is

tlie

aloiig^

hay of

fleet is in

in the portion of the

Aeg-aleos in Attica.

At the point where the description of Aeschylus


l>egins we And that the fj:reat bulk of the Persian war-ships
have on the day before the action advanced from the bay
of Phaleruni towards Salamis too late in the day for
beginning an en^a^ement. Accordingly, all they do is
to make arrang-ements for flghting on the morrow.
(ii)

(iii)

The whole

of the coast behind

the flower of the Persian army, so that,

them
if it

is

lined with

is

necessary

to beach their ships, they will be secure of protection.

large Persian force has also been landed on the little island

of Psyttaleia.
(iv)
By day-break on the day of battle the Greek fleet
drawn up near the eastern entrance to the channel,
between the Silenian Promontory and the coast of Attica,
to receive tlie enemy.
is

(v)
(i.e.

The western-most squadron of the Persian line


moved in the night to block

the Eg-yptians) would have

the narrow (western) outlet between Salamis and the coast


of Megaris.

From

the Persian point of view, the outlets

once blocked, the Greeks are caught.

Introduction

xiv
(vi)

very important to observe that the object

It is

of the stratagem of Themistocles was not merely to induce


the

enemy

fight

to

surround the Greeks and so compel them to

but also to cause

Persians to be just entering

tlie

the narrow channel at the beginning of the engagement.


(vii)

them

seamen had been on ship-board all


making the movement which had brought
while the Greek seamen
actual position

Tlie Persian

night engaged in
into their

now began

their work, without previous fatigue, fresh from

the animated harangues of Tlieniistocles and their other


leaders.
(viii)

At the beginning

of the battle the leading ships

of the Persians are immediately crippled, and drift back

upon those who advance to support them from the rear.


and the crowd
is thrown into disorder

Their triple line

of advancing vessels,

each pressing forward as best

it

can, presents the appearance so graphically described by

Aeschylus as a ^stream of ships.' As the head of the


column gets clear of the narrow passage, it is surrounded

by the Greek line and at once destroyed.

This state of

things would go on so long as the invaders continued their


but, when they gave this
up and retreated, the pursuit would continue on the open
sea {Ttekaylav aXa), over which (as Aeschylus says) the

attempt to force the passage

'

'

cries of the

On

enemy were heard as they were being

the day after Salamis the Greeks found no

Persian ships to fight with.

enemy

had

Hellespont.
far as

destroyed.

departed

from

The Greek

fleet

the island of Andros.

In the night the

Phalerum for the


went in pursuit as
Xerxes, with the

bulk of his army, took the land-route through


Thrace.

His

losses

by famine and disease were

.stu|K'n(louN.

Ill-

touiul thai

up

Iwui Ikvii l)roki'ii

XV

ittntdttrtiiHi

l)v

till-

a storm

llt'lU'spoiit
;

but the

bridges

tieet wjis

thciv to takf the IVrsian troops across; and they


Nvinteixtl at

Marilonius went into winter

Saixlis.

wii).

i|uartei-s in Thessiily (eh.

Meanwhile part of
engai;ed in the

sie^e

tlie

(ireek fleet

of Andros.

It

of Themistoeles to punisli, especial! v


contributions, the islanders

remained

was the pohev


1)\

forced

who had helped the

lVi>ians and thereby to have funds for a permanent tieet to keep the Aegean safe from the
enemv in future. Tlie gods of Athens are more
potent than tlie gods of Andros (ch. xvii).
Then in high dudgeon at the action of his
eolleiigues, who assigned him the prize for generalship by second votes only
each commander voting
;

the apiarela to himself

the Spartans
their

city,

who

Themistoeles

turns

to

him the finest car in


of olive, and a splendid

give

wreath

send-off (ch. xviii).

Chapter xix brings us to the following spring


(479

B.C.).

The

Persian fleet musters at Samos,

ready to meet any attack from Ionia.


is

Mardonius

intent on crushing the Greeks on the main-land.

The Greek

fleet

assembles at Aegina, where they

met by envoys from Ionia asking for help.


They go as far as the island of Delos but nothing
will induce them to sail further.
The historian
are

is

much impressed with the nervousness

Greeks

in this respect.

'

of the

Everything beyond,' he

Introdfiction

xvi
writes,

'

They knew not the

was terrible to them.

geography of the Aegean, which seemed to them


all full

of

They thought Samos

armed men.

as far off as the Pillars of Hercules."

quite

So we leave

Greeks and Persians at Delos and Samos,

the

watching

each

movements, but neither

other's

willing to strike the first blow (ch. xix).

The

visit

of Alexander

the Macedonian to

Athens, at the bidding of Mardonius,

an

is

in-

It arouses great

structive episode (chs. xx-xxii).

alarm among the Spartans, who send envoys to


counteract the offers of the Persian.
ness,"

cries

Alexander,

King and to thwart

his

'

It

is

mad-

long arm, his superhuman

strength, in that whereon his heart

remember that your Attica


ground of East and West."

The Athenians

'

to fight with the Great

is

is set.

And

the special battle-

reply to Mardonius, through

Alexander, that, as long as the sun proceeds in


the same path as at present, they will never

terms with Xerxes.


is

a splendid vindication of what they

'Athenian
trasted

spirit' (to Wdrji^aicov

with the

make

Their answer to the Spartans

selfish

ca.ll

(ppovrffia)

the
con-

caution of their rivals.

They will never enslave Greece and thus betray


many bonds of union summed up in the term
TO 'EXkrjpLKov, 'Hellenic nationality.' As long

the

as

a single Athenian survives, there will be no

terms with the Persian monarch.

lIAri'KK

of

Cuit/u'fin^-

'O

Be

the iircck ships at Suldfuis-

vavTiKO^

'K\\}]i'0)i'

T(oi'

rwv

\\pT/jLi(TLOv,

'

arparo's

air

AOjjvai'cov heofievoiv, e/? '^aXa-

fxlva (T^ Ta*^ vaCxf.

yap

ol

\\.6rji'aloL

t^ovXovro

TraiBd'^ re fca\ yvvaiKa'^ rre/xTreLi' k t/}? \\TTiKi)<;.

Kal

rol^ Trapovcri 7rpdy/j,aaip e/xeWof fSovXTjv

eiri

TTOitjaeadai,

yap

&)<?

iy^evap,evoi

rrjc;

WeXoTTOvvrjalov^

vp)j(Tiv

yvoj flip's, vo^lt^ovre^;


iravBiiixel

iv

rfj

,c^

3oi(OTia

aXKa

fii>0PTa<;

rjKovov

rov

rov 'laOfxov avTov<i

TleXoTTOvvrjaov nepl TrXeiarou


St}

ravTa

oiry

ffdpl3apoi>,

evpov.

'

rrjv

Tet;^tfetz^,

7roiovfjLeuou<;.

Trvvdavofievoi, iSeovro avrcov

ovrco lo

o")(6li'

etV

^aXa/jLLva.

Oi
Be

fxev hii

ei9

TL<s

TTjv

dWoL

Tpoi^Yjva

^aXafilva.

aw^etv

ivravOa

TT6/JLyjrai>,

errei

^aXajilva ea^oi'
^\Xi]vo}v

^aXa/ilva, Wdrjvalot,

Krjpvyfia Be

KOrjvaioiv Bvvarat,

Kal Tov<; OLKTa<i.

TOiv

ea-^^ov ei?

eavToyv.

ol

Be

ol

Be

et?

ol

dir

rov'^
p.ei>

Wpre^ialov

tck; i>av^, crvvrjXOe

vavTLKO'i

TralBa^;

irXelaTOi

rj

re

15

et?

Xtyivav, ol Be eh

aTpaTO<;

eKelaeyap TrpoeiprfTO avXXeyeaOat,.


E. s.

eirotr^aavro,

ei?

Kal 6 Xoi7ro<;
sk

'[poi^}]i>o<;. 20

GvveXe)(^8iiadv
1

<>?

Salamis

2
T

ttoWo)

Bt]

7r\L0ve<;

m]^

r)

eV

'Apre/xicrtft)

vavap^o^

ivav/xd-^ovv, Kal airo iroXewv TrXeioveov.

Se eirrjv 6 avTo<; oairep eir 'Apre/Aitxtw, FjVpv/3idBr)(;


dvrjp ^TraprmTT;?.
5

dpcara

vav<; Be

ttoWq)

Kal

irXelcTTaf;

irXeovcra^ 7rapL')(ovTo WOrjualoc.

CHAPTER

II

Debate of the Greek comrnaiiders.


Occupation of Athens

'n? Be

6t? rrjv

i/SovXevovTO
vavfjLa')(^Lav

elai
lo

^oKa^lva

oirov

Be yvco/iat

ai

vavjJba^elv

iireXeyov,

rov

7rpo<;

irpo
ax?,

arpaTTfyoi,

eTriTrjBetoTaTov

elvai

7r\evaavTa<;

^YaBfiov

UeXoTrovv^aov.

Tr)<;

idv

oi

wv tottcov avrol iyKparel^


tmv Xeyovrcov at TrkelaTai

irotelaOaL

avveTTLTrrov,

(7Vvrj\6ov

Bokolt)

VLKi^Ocoai

rrj

Kal

roBe

vav/jLa)(^La,

ev

l.aXa/xLvc jxev ovre^ TroXtopKyjaovrat ev ry vrjaw,


irpo^ Be TO) ^la6/jL(p et? Tov<i eavrcjp diro^ev^ovrai.
15

ravra

Br]

rcbv

YieXoirowqaov

diro

XeyovTcov, rfXdev dvrjp 'Ad7]vaio<;,

Tov Pdp^apov eh
Kaieiv.

rrjv

yap Bid

on

ouk

yjKetv

'Attlktjv Kal irdaav avrrjv

^oLcorla^; rpaTro/jLevo'^ arparbf;

IlXarata?,

eKavae Seairecd^i re Kal


20 (dr)(Baiwv

CTrparrjycov

dyyeXXwv

rjKe

e/jLi]Bi^ov'

re

irvOofievo'^

eh rd^

'AOrjva^,

Kal Trdvra eKelva iBr/ov.

Kat
6Xiyov<i

aipovcn

rrjv

epyjfirjv

evpiGKOvcTL

rayv

ttoXlv,

AOrjvaiwv

ev

Kau Tiva<;
roS

lepw

tov Upov Kai

oi/rav, Tafia's re
oi",

<^pa^ap.VOi

ovK

^vXlVOV

'^aXap.lva

eV

e(f>vyoi'

Ttl-^O's

iffivi'ovTu,

eXOovTa.

ovBe

Xoyovs

dXXa

Be

TTpoaiovTdiv

auypQP

Weia-iarpariBoji'

rCov

iLTTopia

e')(^6(jdaL

JjCo^

icav, lo

Btj

ta?

7rpo<;

ware

e/SaXXov,

dfivvo-

Kai

fjLi]-)(ai>a)VTO

^ap^cipoiv

TOiv

Xl6ou(;

p,y(iXov<;
')(j}6vov

re

kukov

ea-^^^arov

6p,oXoyia<i iBey^ouTO.

7rpoa<f>p6i'T(oi> Trepi

to

')(prja,

ol OVV TToXtop-

eU to

Kaiirep

Treviav

vopii^oi'Te^:

Tlvdla

i)

dl>d\(DTOV (T(j6ai.

Kovfiei'oi

fxei'oi

avrol

t)

TO p,avTeioif, o

yap

Bia

Kai

Tt

dvpai<i

fuXo/v, i)ixvvovTO TOLK? eTTiovTa^.

^vpy)Kvai

uvSpoyvovs'

Trti'T/Trtv

uKpoTToXiv

Ttjv

TruXa?,

'B.ep^rjv

iirl

hwcifievov

firj

avrov<s eXelv.

yipovo)

8'

OTTiade Be
<f>o(3LTO

^A6r}valoc
avTov<;

tiv<;,

Be
eirl

yap
fj

n^

ecpvXarrev ovt

ravra dva^aiTj, ravry

Kaiirep
elBov

irpo tt}? aKpoiroXew^^

ovre

Kara

Tt?

fly]

CO?

diTop't'v (f)dur] Tt? iaoBo<; Tot9 15

TrvXoiv,

t)1'

aveprjaav
TOTTov.

TMv

e/jLTTpoade

/3apffdpoi(;.

ovt^-^_tov

aTTOKpyifivov

avToij^i

dKpoiroXiv, ol fiev

rrjv

Kara tov

Tet^^ou?

Kai

Be et? TO fieyapov Kaje<f>evyop.

Be

dvoL^avTe<s

eppcTrrov

Biec^delpovTO,

ol

T(ov Be Hepcrcov ol

uvafDeprjKUTe^ TrpoiTov jiiLJ^Tpu7rovTo


TTuXa?, Ttti^Ta?

ol 20

dva^e^rfKora's

tou?

Trpo?

Ta?

//ceTa? dire- 25

KT6LP0V TO Be lepov crvXijaauTef; eKavcrav iraaav ^^.h^


TTjv

aKpoTToXiv.

B,ep^7}^
^

ApTa^di'O)

evTV^lav.

orywv Be iravTeXw^

direTrefMylrev

1.ovaa

el<;

dyyeXovvra

Trjv

jrapovcrav

avyKaXaa<i Be XOrjvaiwv
'

Ta<; W6i]va<^,

ayyeXov iinrea
eavTO)

toi)? (f)vydBa<i, 30

12

Salamis

K\V6 rpoTTM TU) a<f)Tpa} 9vaai ra lepa, elre

h-q

Tt elhe, elre Kal evOv/iiov avrco iyevero

i vvTTVLov

KaraKavcravTL to

lepov.

\J

CHAPl^ER
Alarm
Oi
5

Greek

\n the

he

ev

PoUcy of Themistocles

Jteet.

^a\a/jLLVi

III

w? rjyyeXOi]

"EWT^i^e?,

Ta

irepi rr]v
K6i]vwv dfcpoTroXcv, et? roaovrov
dopv^ov d<piKOVTo, wcrre evioi toov arparrjycov

ovSe Kvpwdrjvai efievov ro irpoKeljJLevov Trpdyfia,

ic

dXK'

el<;

ra?

Toi?

Se

v7ro\,L7roiivoi^

'laOpLov

elaeTTiirrov Kal laTia fjpovTo.

vav<;

avTMV

eho^e

vv^ re iyiyvero,

vavfjia^elv.

irpo

rod

Kal

Sia-

Xv6evre<; ck rov crvvehpiov elaefBaivov et? rd^ vav<;.

evravOa
r/pcora

Se/jLcaroKXea e\66vra

Stj

l^lvr]o-L(f>L\o<;,

^ ^efiovXev/jLevov.
&J>*-*^i5

SjSoyfievov

ft^

eJjrev

dvrjp

^AdrjvaLO<;,

7rvd6fievo<;

irpo

rr)<^

eirl

Be

eiT)

&)<?

ecT]

avrov

YleXoirovvi'^o-ov

vavv

rrjv

vavfia')(^eLv,

'^OvroL dpa irepl ovheficd<; ere 7rarpLBo<; vavfiaxi^aei^.

Kara yap

iroXei^ eKacrrou rpe-^ovrai'

Kal ovre avrov<; FjVpv^idBrjf; Kare-)(eLV BvvTJaeraL


2o

ovre

Tt?

dvOpoiiTcdv

aKeBaadrjvai
EXXd<;.
of]
'*'A<f^

^^ 25

ware

arparidv.

r7]v

dXX\

aXXo^,

ri<i

ecrri

ov

firj

diroXelrai

fJLri')(^avrj ^

Wc Kal

Bia-

re

rj

ireipw

Biayeai rd ^e^ovXevixeva.''
MaX,((TTa

Bi-)

Tc5

Se/jLLcrroKXel ijpeaKe

Kal ovBev dTTOKpLvdfxevo^ jjXOev

eirl rr)v

rovrc

vavv

rr)v

Eivpv^tdSov.

Be

d<f)iK6^i'o>;

Trpdyfin rt Kon'ovaOai.

o St

elafidiTa tVtXtut

tt"

Xt7t/i',

t'tv

vcivi'

Tr;i'

evravOa

(SovXono.

t/

avrto

eOeXeii'

e<f>i)

avTov

ovv o Ht'p.i(TroK\i)^ Xeyei avraj tVetivi re irdvra,


t'lKovae

t't

eavruv

M/'7;cr/<^('\ou,

(iXXa TToXXrt TTpodTiOti^' TtXo9


tAf t;)s^

I'fox K/3i^jiuii

i<i

TO avveBpioi'.

Tor

\*!.vpv^i<iStju

SeficaTOKXi)^ ev
o

Kopii'OiO'i

avWt^ai

ws^

5t-

avreX^^^Otjaai^, rrplu

XeyovTO^

tol<; X6yoi,<i.

ou

7rpo9 t6i>

rjv

8t avTov, 10

"'H

'ASet/zarro? elir^v

irj^oe^avKTTdfxevoL

6 Be djroXysipiei'O^

iyKaTaXeiTTO/jLevoL
//TTio)?

avruv

re rov^ aTpaT7jyov<i

apa

(")e/x/o-Td^\t't9, eV toI<^ dyooaii' 01

paTTi^oinaiy

e7rei(Ti'

irpodeivai rtiv Xoyov, iroXv'i

(7TpaTT]y6<;

Kiii 5

Truiovfiei'O's,
8e'

e(f)r]'

"O/

aTe^avovvTai!'

^^^f

Si ye^^^^'^

Tore

KopivOlov aTreKpivaro'

j;>>^^

^ ^

/mev

7rp6<;

Be

15

EvpvffidBjjv eXeyei' ovfcirt ovBev rwv irporepov

Toi'

Xe^deuTcov.
<f)pv

Trapovrwv yap

tcov

avp/J-d-^^^cop

ovk

avTO) KocTfiov ovBeva Karrjyopelv.

CHAPITER

IV

Speech of Themistocles

'O Be dXXov Xoyov


''

e/iol

Kv

(701

Treldrj

eL)(ero,

vvv earl acoaat

avrov

fievcov

Xeycov rdBe'
ti)v

dvTi6e<;

yap eKarepov aKovcra^.

^laOpiw

/jLa')(^6/jLi^o<;,

ev

'E,XXdBa, env 20

pav/na^lav

ireXay et

Troteladai.

7rp6<;

ru)

fjuev

i'av/jLa)(^j](Tec<i,

i'jKiaTa yjfiLP av/jL<f)peL vav<; )(^ovai /3apVTpa<i

Kal

6/^

npidfibv iXaTTOv^:'
y>ley a pa real
ci/ia

fxev.

yap tm

to.

ciWa evTv^riaw-

vavri/co) avroov eyjreraL Kal 6

Kal ovtw^ a^et? avTOV<;

TleXoTTOVvrjaov, KLvhwevcrei'^ re dirdcTr}

"E

Be

iyco Xeyco 7ron]is,

iv

TrpcjTOv fiev

vp7]aL(;'

-Af

laXafilvd re kuI

d7ro\L<; oe

Aiyivav, idv koI

Tre^o? arparoi;.

Or

Salamp

'

Trjv

eirl

'KWdBi.

rfj

roadhe ^(prjaTd
avp,^dXXovT6<^

arevco

vavcnv oXlyai^ Trpo^ 7roXXd<: ttoXv Kparrjaofiev.

^r/

^^

^3^5>

^^

'^^^P

CTevw vav/xaxelv

evpyy^Ltxpia

86

10 tV

TrepLylyverai,

Kai

01)

rjv

Kai

Tu>

'1(t6/jl(^,

Be

robe

tovtol(;

ev

o/jloIco<;

avrov

irpo tt}? YleXoTrovvi^aov Kal

ovB' avTov<i, el ev

(f)povel<^,

d^ei^

YleXoTTOvvrjaov.

rrjv

iirl

Ka

firiv

)(6aOe fidXiara'

/jLevcov vav/ia'^j]a6L<i

IS Trpo'i

^aXa/j,l<;

vireKKeivTai iralhe^; re

rjfjLtp

kul

yvvatKe<;.

epecTTLv,

re

el<;

eariv,

rj/icov

7rp6<i

eKeivwv.

Trpo?

"'Eai^Se ye a eyo) eXirii^w yevqrai Kal

iHKj]a(o/jii^

vavaiv, ovre vfilv e/? rov 'lad/jLov irapeaovTai

TaL<}

01

l3dpl3apot, ovre Trpoj^i'-jaovTat eZ? ri^v Attlki]v,

^leydpoi^ re irepiyiyvo-

20 aTTiaaL re ovBefl Koafiw.

KepSavovfjiev Kal Alylvr) Kal ^aXafjblvi, ev

fJLevoL^

J,.

fj

rd

tj/jLLp

Kal

Xoyiov

ean

jiev

ovv

eiKora

IBovXevofievoL<i

(pLXel yiyvea-Oai,
25

ovBe

6eo<;

yvdip-a^r

rd Be

fjLT]

tcov

i^Opcov
Kal

^ovXvo/jLevoL<;

rrpocr^^copelv

tt/Oo?

Td<;

vLK-qaeiv.

roiavra

ovk edeXei

dvOpwireia'i

Safanu's

nn^-rji (hscus.s'ion.

.1//

F.iin/li'uidcs ^'ii'ts

aV/y.

Portents
XavTii

\eyoi'TO<{

Kopifdio^
^Kt\VV
ia

o5

can

fxi'j

7nylrr)<f>i^iv

on Kareixovro
tKelvov re

real

pei^wv

yfj

wai

acpiaiv

ovSe

Trarpi^,

[ivpvffidBrji^

hi)

6 ('^/jLi(TTOKXi}<i

KopivO[ou<; ttoWo. kol KaKO,

rov<;

&)>?

iavrol*;

ew?

eirj

civ

kol TroXt? kol


Bia/c6(n,ac

druialvoiv he

TreTrXrjpco/ievac.

i//)e?

ravra

Xoyo) Bie/Saipef ei? Fjvpv/SLaBrjv, Xeycov airou-

T(x)

\iC

re

tovto Be eXeyev,

rore

ai ^Adrjvai.

eKeivoi^,

y)

av6i<;

aiyav

e7r(ppT0'

uiroXeL upSpl.

tSijXov t

eXeyev.

We/ifcrTo/cXt'ou?,

WBifiavTO<i

lo

BatoTcpop'
2.V

cvyados^

et

el

Be

irav

yap rov

dXX^

ifjLol

fxev,

&)9

fiij,

TrelOov.

eJ^Be

earlv eK iraXaiov'
Belv

roLOvaBe

(^epovaiv

iifilv

ravra

dvaXap(wre<;

eU ^Ipcv

LLOVfMeOa

apjfp

dvaTpe\lreL<; T7]v '\LXXdBa.

TroXefiov

')(o/jL6v,

fj

avrrjv

avrov Kai ^evwv eaet

fjLeveL'^

ri-jv

ev

fxr)

^IraXla,

d7roXeaapTe<i

v/jLl<;

to
vrje^;.

'jTotijaejs, iip,elf; 15

rov^

olKera<;
ij

Kai rd Xoyia Xeyeu

olKtadrjvaL.

al

Be

fivtjaOyjaeaOe

ko-

rj/xerepa
v(f>

7)/icoi'

avpLfjid^ov^

rwv

e/jLwv 2c

Xoycov.'

Tavra
(TKcro

Be

&/xt,aroKXov<i Xeyovro<;,

Evpvl3Ld6r]<i,

fxdXiara

toi)*>

(pol3ovfjivo<;,

'Adijifalovi,

fit]

i^-'^'^^^

&)?

dveBiBd-

Bokl

fMOi,

eauroixi aTToXLTrcoaiv,

-^

Salamis

eav TTpb^ TOP 'ladfiov dvdyr] ra?

diroXi-

vav<;.

yap 'Adrjvatwv, ovKert ejiyvovro d^ioixa^oL


XoLTToL
ravTTjv Be alpelrai rrjv yvcofjirjv, avTov

irovTcov
ol

ovrco

/jLV0PTa<; htavavpua'^elv.
5 fitifa

eBo^ev,
'dfia

yrj

avTOU TrapeaKeufi^ovTo

Kal ev

TOi?

eiTLKaXeaaaOai

Kal

wv
diro

Ari/xaparq),

afxa

'EXefcrtz-o?

rpia/jLvptcov,

Kal

vecrSai

(fycovrjv

rrjv

T01/9

Be AcKaloi; dvr)p

e(f)rj

Tore

erv)(^e

<^0}vr}<^

'

Ovk

''

rfj

IBetv

dvBpoov

co?

\laKiBa<;

AOrjvalo^, 0?

Kovioprov
fidXtara

duoveLv, Kal eavru) (pal-

elvac

top fivorrLKou

"laK)(^op.

fxapdT(p Be epcorcovri 6 tl to ^Oeyyofxevov

elirep'
TTj

vavfia')(^r]aovT6<;.

eSo^e Be avTo2<; ev^aaOat

OaXdrrr).

rrj

6eol<;

')(^copovpTa

i!^rj

ob?

^aXa-

Evpvl3LnSrj

iirel

re to5 rjXiw dviovn aeiafio^; eyevero ev re

10 aviJ,/jLd-)^ov<;.

15

ol irepl

/j,ev

nKpo^oXtadjjbevoL,

\6yoL<;

eir]

eaTiv oirco^ ov fieya tl KaKop eaTai

jBaaiXecd'; aTpaTca.

Oelov

yap to

(f)6eyy6/jLepop,

diro ^EiXev(TtP0<; lop et? TLp^wpiap 'KOrjpaioL^ re Kal


'

Tol^i

eK Be tov KOPLopTov iyeveTO

cTf/Lt/xa^ot?."

20 ve(f)o^ Kal fierecopop e(f>epeTo errl SaXafjLLV0<; iirl to

aTpaToireBop to tcop 'RXXijpcop.

CHAPTER
Persian council of

VI
Advice of

icar.

Queen Artemisia

0/

Bk

ei9

TOP

Ta)(^6ePTe<;

eirXeop

^aXrjpw.

ei'TavOa

'E.ep^ou

Bl
Brj

puvtlkop

KvpLirov
KaTejBi]

aTpaTOP

Kal iyepopTO ev

avTO^

Ee'/^f?;?

eVl

r^'***'^

Sa/nmis

oi fiP hi)

7i'6i/xas\

jj"<i<

aWoi Kara

rai'To

yi'Wfiifi'

'Apre-

ekeyof, K\vovT<t puvfiaxiitf rroieiadat.


fAiaia Be raSe

t(l>ri'

Aia-TTora,

ri]v

''

yi'io/xjjv

.^

/.^^ o.^.^,^^
iariv

hiKaiov

fie

nTToheLKwaSai, d rvy^avo) (f>popovaa apcara


77

Kal rdBe Xeyco

pay fiara ni ad.

vavfia\iav iroiov.

fiyjBe

oaov dvBp<i yvvacKMi'.


fui\iaL^ KivBvveveiv
Be

ri)v

yap

ol

<f)iBov toov i'(av,

dvBpe'i rwif aai'

TuaovTo elac Kara ddXarrav,

dpBptoi' KptiTTOpe's

\i<i

e/v

dWrjv

ri

Be

7rdvTCi)<;

ovk 6^669
'

\\WdBa

Bet

ae vav-

lo

yuer rr/v 'A^;;i'a9,

ifjLiroBwv

aoi

Be

laraTai oiBeU.
"

n?

TToXefMLCov
e7reLxOf}<i

avTOv

Be

eyo)

po/j.l^o)

vav/jLa)(^Lav

e)(T]<;

rd rcov

dirolSyjaeaOai

Trpdy/xara, tovto <^pd<joi'


iroLovpievo^,

tt/jo? yf} fievoav,

rj

edv

dXXd

fiev

Td<;

fiij

15

vav^

Kal irpo^aivoav et?

TTjv YleXoirovvrjaov, paBLCi)<; aoi, Beairora, ^(opy'jaeL

evvooi)p.evo<i

ov yap oloi re elai iroXvv

'j)/cei<i.

Xpovov aoL dvTexetv

01 ''EWijuef;'

dXXd

Stacr/ceSa? 20

Kara TrdXef? Be eKaaroL d7ro(f)v^ovTai.


0VT6 yap alro<; Trdpeartv avTol^ ev rfj vf'jao), &)?

avTov<;,

iyo)
'

TTVvOdvofiaL,

ovre /leXrjaet avTol<i irpo Ta>v

A6T]i>aici)v vavfxa-)(^elv.

^oiSovfiai

fjL7]

el

i'avTC/c6<s

ire^ov TTpoaairoXear)!'

Be

avTLKa

arparo^

vaufia^/jaeL^i,

KaKOidtl<;

cL-

top 25

10

Salamis

CHAPTER MI
Movement of

8e al

Eyref

fiaXiara

rjadrj

'yvwfiai
rfj

fiaXkov

'B.ep^r^v,

^Apre/JLiaLa^'

tt)?

airovhaiav

o/io)^ Se tol<;

eTTrjvet.

eh

i)ve')(^6rjaav

yvao/ir)

vofML^cov ere irporepov

and land Jbi'ces

the Persian .ships

elvac,

fcal

rore ttoWoj

irXeioat TrelOeadau

K6\ve, rdSe olojjuevo^, tt/oo? fiev Eiv/Sola avrov^;


iKTrXayrjvat, co? ov 7rap6vTO<; avrov, rore he avT6<^

irapeaKevaaro 6eda6at

^qj^.

'EireiSr] Be

vavs
\o

rrjv

eirl

rare

^aXafilva.

ovv ovk eSv-

fiep

vavro vavfjia-^iav iroieladai' vv^ yap eireyLyvero.


OL

he TTapeaKeva^ovTO

he "EiXkrjva'^

el')(^e

YleXoTrovvrjaov.

15

vavfia')(^ovvTa<;.

TraprjyyeWov avairXelvy dvrjyov ra?

Ty]v

et?

(p6fio<;,

e(f)o/3ovi^ro

^aXafiLVL

KaOijfxevoL

vav/xa)(eLV

efieWov,

iicFTepaiav.

tov<^

ov^ rjKLara rov^

diro

he ore avrol [lev

virep

7^9

viK7]6evTe<;

t^9
he

ev

KOrjvaiwv

ev

rfj

vr/aa)

7roXiopK7']aoi'Tai.

Twv

he fiap/Sdpcov 6 Trefo? viro rrjv

irapovaav

vv/cra eiropevero eiri rrjv YleXoirovvrjaoi'.

KairoL

Kar

rjireipov

TCI

hvvara irdvra

e7rpd')(dT] ottco^ fir]

20 ela/3dXoLev 01 ffdp/SapoL.
ojKoho/jLovp hid

TrXivdoL

Kal ^vXa Kal

(f)epovTO'

Kal

ol

yap HeXoirovvy)aLOL

Tou 'ladfxov relxo^i'

7]av')(^a^ov

(f)op/jLol

ical

ovheva ')(p6vov ol

aavTe^ epya^ojxevoL, ovre vvkto^ ovre


25 he

l3oT]6r]aavre<i

e/?

XlOol Kal

yjrd/jL/jLOv

7rXr)peL<;
jSoijdr]-

ijjxepa^.

01

rov 'laOfxov Travhrjfiel oihe

Sa/<(niis

KoplvHtoi Kai "^iKVoyvioi

Ka\

K(u '\{\i()i

7rai'Ts'

Vpoi^fjrtoi Kai

Kai 'V^irihavpiot, Kai ^l^Xuiaioi Kai


'

ovTOi

\\pfitoi'l>i.

toU

KifSvi'evovaf}'

(^oijdrjaai'

fikv

aWois^

Be

rfj

IIAri'l.K

Mil

Stidtiigcm uf Tlui III. stocks (ind

0/

fx'^v

hrj

Tw

ii>

'laO/i(o

Trepl

Tov TravTO'i hp6p,ov

p.ii'1,

Kaiirep

T6&)9

'[')W(iBi

Wt^XuTroifinjaioi^

ovSer.

t'fi\v

ovT(o

ApKddts

re Kai

AaKeSaifiuiuoi

KWiji'wi',

t)(rav

irepl
/lei'

7roiLTO'
d/3ovXiai'.

uTTOTrXelv,

Bt]

avBpa

avSpi

reXo'i

iroXXd

Be

are

i'

(xcyfj

ti)v

10

Xoyov

Evpv^idSov
Trepl

toov

eh ti)v lleXoTrovvijaov
Kai Xlyunpai Kai Me-

ol fiev co? eBei-

'Adrjvatot

Be

evravda

d/jLvi'ea-Oai.

15

By)

Xadcov e^rfxdev ck tov crvveBpioV'

ei?

7rXoi(py

kXov<; TraiBwv.

to

aTpaToireBov to toov ^liqBwv

KXvcra<i

a XeyeLv
rjv

eBet

twv

6 Be irXoiw d(f)LK6fjiP0^

T0i9 <TTpaT7]yov(; tcov ffap/Scipcov

co

ovojjLa

Qde/iiaTO- 20

eXeye Trpo?

TaBe'

6 aTpaTJ]y6<; twv
fie
Xdrjvalwv
TWV ciXXoyv KXX7]vci)i>.
Tvy\dveL yap
Ta ^aatX(i)<^ kol /3ovX6/j.vo<i /jidXXoi' tu

""FjTrep.yjre

<f)povooi>

Se

aa(f)co^

fiev rjv ^LKivuo<;, iratBayoiyo^ Be

XnOpa

iiToiovv,

^aXa(f)o/3ovpro, ov^
01

irapaarcK;

yap iiroLovvro

Oaif/.La

(')fJLiaTOKXrj<;
7re/jL7reL

ain]p

avrov fxevovra^
Be

roiavra

Oeovre'^.

ravTa irvvOavofMevot,
eavrwv 6t)? irepl rfj^ lleXoTrovp^aov.

avTwv eXeyov,
yapL<;

result

it.s

'

'

25

Salamw

12
vfierepa viKijaecv

rd twv 'KWrjvwv

rj

01 Srj" EXXriv<i (f)vyy)v

Trpdry/jLara.

/SovXevoi'Tac kol vvv u/xet?

hvvaaOe KaWiarov epyov i^epycicraaOaL, edv fxr}


7r6piiBi]Te (^6vyoi'Ta<; avTOv<^.
ovre yap aXXrjXocs
5

en avriGrrjaovTaL

o/iiocppovovaiv out

(f)povovvTa<; koX tov<;

'O

dTrrjWdrreTO'
lo

dyyeXOevra,

irpooTOv

^vrrdXeiaPy

rrjv

15

v/jLerepa

fiev

el<:

eKTrohcov

rd

voixi^ovre^;

rijv

vrjatSa

rrjv

fiera^u '^aXa/xLvo^; re

7ro\\ov<;

rwv

Y{epcr6i)v

direfil-

Se eyiyvovro /xeaat vvKre^, dvrjyov

^acrav.

iirel

TO

kaiTepa<^

d(f>'

Tnard

Kei/jLevT)v

rjireipov,

T)}?

fcal

avroU

arj/jbyjvaf;

co?

Si,

oi

rd

/at/."

ovv ravra

/jbev

Trpo?

v/jlcv.

avTOv<; re oylreade vavfjia^ovvra^ tov<;

K6pa<i

KVKXovfievot

tt/oo?

t/)i/

^aXafilva, Karetxov re f^^XP^ ^\ovvv)(^La^ iravra


TOP TTopO/jLov Tal<; vavacv.

CHAPTER IX
Debate of the Greek captains.

Intervention

of' Aristeides

he

TcGz^

eylyvero.

fcXovvTO ral<;
20 tt}^

Kara

^aXafxlvi orparriyajv ttoXXt)

ev

eyvwaav ore
vavcnv 01 pdp(3apof
Be

ovirco

rj/iepa^

ecopcov

'^oopav elvat.

TT^yibv,

i^ AlyLU7]<;

eavTov<i

d\X

epi<i

exv-

ooairep

avTov<^ Terayfievov^, evofii^ov


avj'eaTT/KOTcov Be roov crrpa- y

Bieffj] \\piaTeL8r)<; 6 AuQ-L/jLay ov,

<is
oj'

dvrjp WOr]palo<; /xev, e^cocrrpaKia/jLevo^ 8e viro '^ovL.^'^*^


Sy]fjLov'

01^

70)

po/xL^o)

apicTTOP dpBpa yepeadat

ovro^ ovv tX^wr tVi

hiKaiorarov.

Ka\

AOt')in)<ri

TO (TVVihplOV K(i\^l ("^eflKTTOKXi), Ol'TU

ov

fidXtara.

(f)i\ot\ )^0p6i> 8t

TOW'

kqkwv effovXero avrco

TTapiintov

I'tjaov di'dyeii'

vav^ Trpo?

T(i<;

e^rjXi^e ^/xt(TTOKXf]<;,
"

avfi/ii^ai.

ev

TcoBe

oTTorepo's

epynaerai.

irarpiBa

re

evrevOev rwv

irXov

irepl

yap

eyo)

eciv

yap

elaeX6d)v

rov

avroTTTTjf;

eOeXwaiv

KvpvfftdBrjfi

e')(^6p.e6a

aXX'

kvkXo).

tw aXXw ')(^p6v(p
dyada rrfv

vvv ovB'

avTo<;

eaovrac eKirXevaai.
XefiicDv

Xeyeiv

on

kqI

Be

irXeio}

T\ eXoTToi'injalcov.

re

a)

Be aoi otl laov ear] 10

Xeyco

Xeyco yei'6fievo<;

KopivOioi

ladfioi'.

ev re

i)p.(ov

oXiya

Ka\

t6i>

eXeyep 'ApiaTLS7j<; rdBe'

\\p.d<i Bel aracricii^eiv

TToXXd

(Toi

eavTot

yiip TjKOvcrev otl airevBoiev oi utto WeXoirov-

ijBf}

Ka\

fitlf

Bid Be ro fxeytOo^i

vrro

oloi

01

re

royv rro- 15

ravra

avrot^

a^/jLaive^

Be dTretcplvaro roidBe'

**'X/37;crTa Bi] Ke\evL<;

70)

eBeo/jLTjv

rjKei^.

ig-Oi

yii^Bwv.
fid^Tjv

yap ef

eBei

av

A'^*^

Bt]

yap

Kal

Xeyeiv

7]Ki<;

di<;

ov

eK6vre<;

I'-jOeXov

i)ixlv

edv

fitv

aTrayyeXXcop,

dXXd

ov ydp

eiirep rrepie')(oiMe6a 7ravra')(^66ev,

ci)<;

25

ai^fiaive

ovv TreiOcovrai,

edv Be avroi<i

earat.

et<;

aKovra^ irapa-

y^prjcrrd

ireiaco.

6i^f.

rd KciXXtara'

yevrjrai, o/xolov

Trotov/jbeva vtto rcov

edv yap iyd) ravra Xeyco, Bo^co

avro^ TrapeXOayv

ravra

ov)(^

"KXXiji'e^,

01

Be eirel

avro<i ayyeXXe.

V^f. y-TrXaq-g?

rd

i/iov

yap, ore

KaOlaraaOaL

(Trrjcraadai.

Kal ev rjyyeiXa<i.

yeveaOaiy avro^ avroirrr]^ yev6fievo<; 20 .r^

en
av

fxij

mcrrd

(pev^ovrai,
Xeyti^;''

30

Salamis

14

CHAPTER X
The beginning

Tavra
AiyLVT]<;

ecpTj

e^opjjLOvinn'^

'

irapekOoiv 6 WpLGTeihri<^,
kcll

t'iKtv

buttle

of' the

Xe'^fcov

ireptix^o'dat

yap ttolv to arparoTreSov

TO 'EWi]viKov VTTO Tcov veSiv TO)v B^ip^ov.


5

aKevd^eaOai re crvve^ovXevev
Kal 6

/jLv

TavTa

TOVTCov,
y)

y^jKe

Bi] e<j)ep6 Tr/v

lo &)?
(jt)9

TTLCTTd

Br]

dvhpwv

Xejo/jieva

ew?

vavfia')(i]aovTe^.

eXe^e

Be

avTiTiOepLeva'
15 i>av<;.

Ttjvlcov avTOfio\ovaa,

dXjjdecav irdcrav.
TCL

avXXoyov TMV eTTi^aTOiv


KXi]<i

iravTa

Kal

ovTOL /xev

AlyLvi]^ Tpu]pr]<;,

evTavda dvyjyov

oi Be ifkeiove'^

cnTiaTovvTwv he

ov/c eireiOovro.

Tpc7]prj<;

rj

tol<;

re

Bie^atve,

3?;

toU

KpeiTTco

irepl tcov

AlaKiBoov

20 Kal
vrj'i

ov

fiev

Bt]

rj

ra?
dir

direBi^iii^crev.

ol j^dp^apot.

dXXot "KXX7]ve<; Trpv/ivav aveKpovovTO

WKeXXov ra?
i/jL^dXXei.

Bwafievoiv

W/jLeivia

eh

r)Kev

dirdaa^; oi"EXXr]i>e<;.

^Avdyovat Be avriKa eireKeivTo


01

i^TToatv

eKeXevev
leal

Kal

Se/iiaTO-

eirou'jaavTO.

elae^atvov,

Td<; vav<^

Be"KWr]aiv

irapeaKevd^ovTO

i-jv,

ela/Saiveiv

Br]

irapa-

d/jLvvovfiivov;.

co?

elircov fiedecFTjJKei.

TMv aTpaTi]ya)v

t^

eKirXevaai XaOcov tou?

fx6\i<;

i>av<;.

WfieivLa<; Be dvr]p \K67]valo<;

avixirXaKeiar]^

Be

tt}?

diraXXayvjvai^ ovtco

/3oT]6ouvTe<=;

avvefii^av.

Bt]

i>eu><^

ol

'AdrjvaloL

ovto) Xiyovac tT;? iavp,a^La<; yeveadai rrjv

Kal

dXXoL
fiev

dp')(^r]V'

Sn/itmis
Be jijv wepi

Atyii^iJTai

aaaav eU Wyivav,

ap^acav.

yvraiKw^ avrol<; ^

(fxicrfxa

a>s'

aTro&rjfir)'

rrjif

TO

(iKuvaai

f(aTu

e<7^e;*'

'

Twi'

fikv

^oiviKe<i {ovToi

eairepa^

7rpvfii>au

el^oi'

to

'KXeftrti/os"

Trpo's

Kara

fcepa^),

"

XaKeBaifioviov^

Be

ew re Kal rov

tt/jo? ripf

Yleipaia.

to Be ttXT/^o? twz^ veayu rcov ^apj^dpoiv

iiTTuiKeTOy

al p.ev vtt

Be

^
lo

Xdrjvaiwv Bia^OetpofievaL,
roiv

XlyLvrjTOiV.

VTT

dvatcpov-

erdx^'H^CLV^^t^^

'Adrjvalov^i

Bij

yap

ovToi Be ely^ov to

"Ifui/es^*

(TTparofzeBov'

K\\f')i>(t)v

^povov en

TToaof

Baifxoinoi,

^^

<f>avtaa Be oyveiBia e rdBe, cixrre Kai airav

e<f>(iin),

Kal

\laKiBu)v

ruiv

TavTi]v thuu

TdBe,

Be Ka\

X^yt'Tai

l.'i

Kara rd^iv

}'av/j,a^oviTa)i',

rerayfievoiv

en ovre

yap

fiev

rwv

(f>povi/i(o<;

Be

]LX\y]V(t}v

^ap^apwv

irotovvrwv

ov

ovBev,

15

ep.e\\e toiovtov avrol^ avvoiaeaOat olov aire^rj.

KairoL

y](T('iv

eavT(Jov

Kal

7]

ye raimjv ti]V rj/iepap ttoWg) aiieLvove<s

Trpo's

(f)offov/jLvo<i

Rv^ola, Tra?
.ep^Tjv

tl<;

7rpodv/jLOVfjLvo<;

ojero Be

eKaaro^ eavrov
20

OedaeaOai ^aaiXea.

CHAPTER XI
Prowess of Qiwcn Artemisia
'Evret Be ei? dupv/Bov iruXvv ijXOe

Trpdy/jLara, ev rovro)

eBLGOKero vtto
(f>vyeLV'

(piXiai,

vt(o<;

irpoaOev
7)

S'

ai'T?}?

tm

Kaipip

/;

'Att/zc/}?*

yap
7rp6<;

ai'T?)?

twv

i>av<s

rd
/;

f3aaiXe(o<;

'AprefiLcrLa^

Kal ovk el^e Bcarjaav

aXXai

TroXefJUicov

pyje^;

fidXiara

25

Salamis

ovaa.

eTV'y)(^avev

fcal

yap

eho^ev ovv avrfj roBe


iyevero nroirjadar].

(TV/jL(f)opov

VTTo T>}9 'Arrf/cf;?, eve/BaXe

Kal Karehvaev avriqv, VTV)(la


5

eavTijv
veoo<;

ayaOa

rptrjpapxo^,

&)? elSev

fiapffdpcov, vofJLLcra^ irjv

'KWrjulSa
n^^^^Tfcal
^^"^ lo

elvat

Kal

/jurj

rwv

elrrelv

vavv

eTriarj/jbov

rrj<;

rrjv

veco^

Xeyerac

20 yvvaiKe^;, ai

rj

ifi^aXovaav, Kal
" Aeairora,

Kal

e(j)aaav,

"O/

fiev

6pa<;

el

dXr)6oo<;

aa(f)d)<;

Be

ro

Bta-

'B,ep^7jv Be

yeyovacrl

dvBpe<;

rwv

vavv

rrjv

eTrtard/jbevoi.

(f)6apel(Tav rjTrlcrravro elvat iroXefxlav.


elrrelv

dvSpdov

avryooa-Te Bia-

epcorwvn

Kal

epyov

ro

Wpre/xi(ria<;

vrj't

A.pTefXLa-ia<i

Xeyerat Be ^aatXea

dycovl^erat,

Karehvcre!'

15 iroXe/jLLCop

earl

ev

e'/c

avve^r]

rrapovrcov

w?

Wprefj^iatav,

rrjv

diroXeaOai.

Oedifievov fiadelv rrjv

nva

vavv

'Att^/ct}?

Trj<;

e/jL/SdWovaav

he

&)<?

BiTrXdaca

rwv jSap^dpcov
irpof;
d7roarpe'\jra<;
dWa<^

ovv

ovt(o<;

yap

avTOfioXelv

d fjLvv eiv,

ayTol<;

eTpdirero.

<j)vyeLv re

rj

(^tXia.

vtji

')(pr)(ra/JLvr)

6 re

eTTOirjcrev.

iroirjo-ai,

hicoKOfievrj

/jlol

Be yvvaiKe^ dvBpe<;.''

CHAPTER

XII

Defeat and flight of the Persians


'Ei/

Be

rfj

av/jLfid')(^(ov,

yap
25

/jL7]

velv

ev

vav^ayia direOavov iroXXol Kal

Tiepaoiv Kal

ovofiacrrol

oXiyoi

re

einardiievoL

y^epalv

M.r)Baiv

Kal

rcov

dXXcov

nve^ Kal 'KXXjjvcov

oh

at vrje^

diroXXvfievoi,

6t?

are

BiecfyOelpovrOy

r^^v

^aXafUva

ia^^omo.

at

TTptoTat

irXeiarai

TTtlpCOfX^l'Ol,

COS'

tpyov

Tl

KCll

Tt-

Trapievai

r/; i'avfia^(ia,

Trepi-

eavrou

Ka6i]uei'0^

\a\ap,lvo<i, ^Trvvddvero

Tc5 h'avTitD

aVTOL pyOV

iBot Hepf/;f rcji'

inroheLKvvpevov tV

Tl

VTTO Tto opei

ravai

rai^

vavat <f)vyovaai<i

yap riva

ottotc

eiTLTrrov.

yap OTriaOer

ol

ilTToSt'l^UflilOL

(SaaiXel, raL<: a<f)Ttpai's

rrj

itrKTrdfievoi,.

erpaTrovro, tvraiOa

<f>vytjif

irpoaO^v

to

ttV

Tayfjiei'oi,

eU

ov/c

i/tti^

htt(f>0ipopTO.

iroWoi tV

ol

l3apf3apo)i>

Bi(pdapi}<Tai/,

iiTii hk

5t

TtJif

OaXuTTf)

TOP TTOiijaai'Ta' Ka\ ol ypa/jLixariaral dv6ypa<f)0P


TTarpodev top Tpu]pap-)(OP kul tt)p ttoKlp.

^ap^dpcdP

YCiP he

e/cTrXeoi'TWZ'

ep

(TTai/re?

d^ia.

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j,

he

(j)ep6/jLep

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el's

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yap

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ep

T9 T dvOiarapieva^ Kal

oTTore

ifxOop

to ^dXrjpop,

ol

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he

Tipe'i

tov<;

elaeTTCTTTOP

wv

viro

Tropd/iS epya direhei^aPTO Xoyov

iiP

pewv,

TOiP

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tw

et? <f)vyT)P rpairofievdip Kai

al

^dXi^pop

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^A0r]paLOV<;

Bia(f)evyoiep,

tov<;

15

Oopv^fo

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vi]e<i

tu)

Alyipy'jraf;.

TrepteyevopTO,

ol he 20

<^evyopTe<;

top ire^op aTpaTOP.

Sal amis

18

CHAPTER
The

XIII

of Aegina and Athens

services-

Alleged cowardice of the Corinthians


Tavrrj ijKOvaav 'FjXXi]v(ov

'Ez^ 8e TT] vavfjia')(^La

dpiara AlyivrJTai, Bevrepov

avhpwv

Se ^AdrjvaloL,

Be Uo\vKpLTO<; 6 Alycv7]Tr]<; Kal A6r)valoi


'

^vfjuevrif;

re Koi WjjLiVLa<;, 09 Kal Wpreficalav eTreBicd^ev.


5 el

fiev

ovv e/iaOev ore ev Tavrrj TrXeot 'Apre/jLcala,

ovK av eiravaaro Trplv eiXev avrrjp


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fivptai

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10

yap

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e/jLi^av

al

ov

avTol

fiapTvpel Be
20

co?

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touv

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01 "KXXr/i'tf

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Be ttjv

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re

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to

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01

ev

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Message

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laXafMipa

XI\

^^^ Cf

'

ouBep

6 ri

ovto)

rot? 25

22

Salamis

20

YlepaaL<^ i^evprjrai tovto.


fj

irdaa

t)

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dinjp
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Kad'

ov

01/9

ov Kav/ia, ov vv^ eipyei

yap

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TO.

rj/jbepojv

kul

JVtto?

vi<p6T6<;,

ovk

dvBpe^;

Kal

re

o/x/Spo^,

ov iroLelv tov irpoKei-

/lit)

jievov eavru) hpofiov ti^v

yap av

lttttol

eKaarrjv

7)/jLepap

rerayfievof;'

oacop

roaovroc

0S09,

hie^epy^eraL

Ta)(^iar7]v.

coairep

toI<;

'l^.Wrjaiv

rj

\a/ji7raBy](popLa.

'H
10

/jbh hr) TrpwTT]

ci)9 6')(^0L

W6)]va<i

eU

'B,p^rj<;,

7rdaa<i

6hov<^

Ta<;

d(f)iK0fjL6vr),
hi)

Tiepao)v

/jLvpaivatf;

iaropeaav Kal eKatov OvfiLd/xaTa, Kal avTol

j^vjaav ev

Trdcriv d(j)66voi<;.

^'i^,i-p eire^eXdovcra
i'^

ovrw

eT6py\rev

T0U9 diro\eL^6evTa<;, ware

ayyekia

l^ovora

ovrw

rj

avy^et

Se hevrepa
avTOv<;,

ayyekia

Sare

rov'i

ilX^TOiva'^ Karkppri^av 7TdvT<;, ^of] re Kal oljXODyr)


e')(^p6}VT0

ovTO)

he

irXeiarr)

hi],

rcov

irepl

YlepcraL eiroiovv,

0)9

ov^
ravra oi
avrov ^ep^ov <^o^ov-

^laphovtov
vecov
irepl

alrioo/jLevoL

d^Oofievot

lievoi.

CHAPTER XV
The plans of Mardomus and of Artemisia
20

^laphovLo^ he opwv
fieydXrjv eK t?}9

he avrov

(^vyriv

(f>povrL^(ov &)9
"

AeaTTora,

25 fiiav

fjLeydXtjv

/xev 'E.ep^rjv av/Kfyopav /lev

vav/jLa')(^ia<i

iroLovpievov, vTroirrevoov

/SovXevecv

e/c

rcov ^A6r)vct)v, Kal

avr6<; hcoaei hiKrjv, eXe^e rdhe'


fi7]re

rrotov

Xvrrov

pLijre av/jL(f)opdi' firjhe-

rovhe rod yeyovoro^ eveKa

If^jj^-

Sdiamis

21

ov yap ^v\a)v aytav o to irav

irp7/iaT0s\

a\X'

<Triv *)HiP^

iii'Spwv t

'ifTTraiv.

Ty)<;

WeXoTroi'i'ijaov'

ovv SoKi, avTLKa 7rip(Dp.eOa


1

Be Ka\ BoKL

t'7rt';^eM',

<f>pa)i'

kul

el

tiv

e^tari iroielv rovTo.

el

he apa aol ffe^ovXevTui airdyeiv ri]v arparLav,

av ^e/)<7as^ /SaatXev, fit)


7roi)](TT}>i KarayeXaGTOVs yeveaOat "\\XXriaiv. ovhtv
yap ev tok IIt/3<7aK aTruiXeTo tmv Trpayfidrajv.
a\\;j'

el

/SouX >;'/'.

e\(D

he *t>oimfce<: re Kai AiyvTTTLOL Ka\

KtX/Aces"

TO

TTpocnjKei

hehoKTai
8e

fjL

Kvirpioi Kal

KOKol eyeroi'TO, ovSev Trpo? Tlepaa^; tovto

fir]

aoL

TTiido^.

e/jLol

Treidov

ovv

/leveiv, t/)9 (TTpaTid<;

Set

Ty)v

'EXXaSa

e\

airaye to ttoXv'
hehou-

iTapa(T')(^elv

TpiciKOVTa /jLvpidSa<i tov GTpaTOV

X(op,i'rjv,

ciiro-

Xe^dfieiov.'^

TavTa
Trpo?

15

iiKOvcra^

eSo^e

dr.

yLyvdxTKovaa

Be

a) <;

6 tl

fiTaaT7)adfjLi'0(;

avfi^ovXeveiv.

rj

avTw

WpTe/xicriav

e^alveTO

tol'?

dXXovi;

Be

Xiyec raSe*

fiovrj

Be

eKeXevev

fxev ecTTi

7]a d7j,^^^:-^'

aTTOKpl-

(j)y]

irrel

iroiTjTeoi'.

Baa/Xeu, ^aXeTroi^

KaKMV

Kal

rrpoTepov

otl

fxeTaTTefiTrerrOai,

"

B,p^7]<;

Be ^lapSoi'iov /SovXevadfjievo^

vaaOai

10

(tol

aufi^ovX(p

yjXOe, 20

avTijv

tv)(^lp

dpiaTu XeyovTC fTri fievTOL tol*; irapovaL


irpdy^aaL BoKei /jlol avTov ae direXavvetv OTriaco,
TO.

yiapBoviov

Be,

el

v7roBe')(^eTaL

TavTa

25

Tronjaeiv,

avTou KaTaXiirelv fied' wv fSovXeTUL. edv fiev


yap avTO) Trpo^wpr'-jari a Xeyei, aov to epyov,
(o

BecTTTOTa,

MapBoi'lov

yiyveTai.
yvd)/jL7]<;

edv

yevijTai,

Be

Ta

evavTia

ovBefila

tP]^

avficfiopd 30

Salamis

22

dywva<;

7ro\\dKi<;
'

tl

"l^aQr)

hi)

TTflVre?

Kal

efxevev

dv,

avfifiovXia

rf]

rrdOr),

Wprefnaiav

dyovaav avrov
Be

T?}?

vav^

ovSe yap

Be

aTroareXXet

a^eBia<;

Td<^

rjcrav

6771/9

^acnXeco^;,

dvareivovcn
yTrelpou TavTa<;

^^%^^

eKaaro^,
^aaCXel.

Zcoarrjpo^i

yap

7rXeovTe<i

UKpat

Xeirral

evofXL^ov vav<; elvai,

ttoXv.

dXX'

dfcpat,

Be fiadoine^

%/307'ft)

rd^

TropevO^vac

rd'^ov^

&)9

fidp/3apoc

JttI

avrrjv

rod ^aXijpov dirrjyov eU

i/c

^YjXXiicTTrovTov,

15 eirel

el

/levecv,

icpo^elro.

oi/ro)?

KeXevaavTO<^

vvKTo^,

(f)v\a^ov(ja<i

avrw

tov<; TratSa? et? "E<^eo-oj/.

(TTpaTTjyol

01

hoKel

e/xol

co?

Xeyovaa

'E.ep^r]^.

avve(BovXevov

irdcraL

Be

eTracvecra^

Tov

oi

X0709

yiyverair

yap Irvyyavev d avTo^ ijSovXero.

10

eavjoiv

irepl

idv

Se,

yap

iroWov^

irepi6vTo<;.

Spa/jLOVvrai

^lapSoviov

Fj\X7]V<;.

ovheL<^
5

aov

earai,

fxeydXr]

dn

/ca\

ov

01
Tr]<;

e(f)evyov

vrje^

elev,

avXX)(^devTe<i ifcojMi^ovTo.

CHAPTER XVI
The crufUj
'n? Be efiaOev

20

ek

irXelv

/jLera/SaXcov

Lo-^-^-^i
fyvD'^

tov

^wecf)o<i

a;

on

ov

of Themistocles
ireio-ei

'F^XXijaTrovrov

7rpo<;

"'H/xet?,

tactics

tov*;

dvBpe<;

&e/jLiaTOKXrj<;,

2>

eXeye

'A6r]valov<;,

eypvfia

yap

ToaovTo dvOpdiirwv dircoOoviTe^

*^25 piev (pevyovra^.

ye ttoXXov^

rou<;

rdBe'

evprfKafJuev.

/ult)

Blcokco-

rdBe yap ovx V/^^^ Bce7rpd^ap.eda,

Themistocles

fiXXa Oeoi re Kai

{^*1

av oaiov Te Kal

1^ efiaariycoae

ovv ^1
Se

ufia

et<?

T(o

iffSptaTi'jv

Kai

ira,

avhpa va

Kn\ tijv

SaXarrav

os"

i)fxiv

7rXt'&)/xtr

eXeyei',

<f)06ri)(raif

avrfj

7re'5as'

TO irapov
tjpi

Tavra

ijp(M)<;, o't

ev rfj

eirl

Ka\(t)<;

eTredrj/cei'.

'KWdSt

fiVtr. 5

'EWt/o-ttoi^tou, kuI

iav apa ri kavrov Kara-

rntc^

"'^

\a/il3dvT]7rp6<iA07jvai(i)P7rd6o<;,^r)d7ro<TTpo<p7Jv'

Kal

Tavra

(yevero.

WdrjvaLOi Be eireidovro.
dpBpa<; dTreirefi-irev

ovv

Xiycov

avriKa he

e')(^oi'ra^

SieffaWev

lo

6 ^)/j,iaroKXTJ<;

TrXoiov

ol<i

erriareve

^daavov d(f)iK0/J.V0L<;, d avr6<i


CKeXeve ffaaiXet Xeyeiv. wv Kal ^ikcvio^ 6 olKerrj<;

(Tiydi',

ei?

TTCicrav

av6i<; eyevero.
01

7rp09

S.p^i]v

(TroKXi]<i,

7rp6<; rrjv

WrriKTJr,

15

tc3 ttXoiw, 'Elkivvo'; 3e dvajSd^;

eXeye

arpaniyo^

aol

avr6<;

eVei vjXdov

o'l,

^v cfievov eVt

rdBe'

""ETre/^-v/re

/le

(r)/jLi-

Xe^ovra orcf S^-^


virovpyelv Kdrea-^^e roift; ^Wl^^

roiv Wdrjvalcov,

^ovX6fjLvo<;

"EiXXr]va<^ rd<; vav<i ^ovXofxevov^ SiooKeiv Kal ra<; 20

iv 'EiXXTjaTTovrw

y<f)vpa<;

Xveiv.

Kal

vvv

Kad^

i)avy^iav ko/il^ov.''

CHAFfER
Siege

01
8t(t)KeLv
/JL^re

of' Atulroii.

he

en

XVII

Escape of Xerjces

"jXXrive<i,
it o p poor e pay

eirel

ro)v

to

Asia

eho^ev avroU
^ap^dpwv rd<;

fJ-yjre

vav<i,

TrXeiv Trpo? rou 'EXXijcTTTOvrou Xvaovra's rov 25

Salamis

24
TTOpOV,

"AvSpioi

KXeov^

avTov
5

"AvSpOV ilToXLOpKOVV.

T7]V

VTjaKOTOJv
y^pi] fxar a

Qefjuiaro-

aXXa

eScoKav

WOrjvaloL

yKoiev

u)<;

vtto

alrrjOevre'^

ov/c

jap

TTpOiTOL

XyovTO<;

hvo

ey^ovTe<i

6eov<;

Kai WvdyKr)v, direKpivavro,

fxeydXov;, TietOa) re

decbv ciXpyjo'TCDV avTol iiry/SoXot 6vre<^, Ylevia<^ re

Kal WiTopia^, ov hwaeiv )(pr//jiaTa.

Tavra

eiToXLopKOVVTO.

XdOpa Twv aXXcov


Oi Se

rrjv avTTjv

oSov.

erou?

tt)?

20

rd')(^o<i

ef

"AvBpov

pycriwTMV

avveXeye

he,

7ri(7')(^6vTe<;

oXtya^

eh

i^yjXavvov

Kal

'y^

ei/jLaq ai

eireiTa

he

dfia

avTO<;

eh TOP 'RXXyjairopTov'

dirdycov

01

25

fxev

aTpaTid<;

Tr)<;

yap eiriXa^cov

^lapBovLov

eiropevero

Kal

evTeTap.eva<;,

'

Kara

dcpiKero

o vBev jiepo^;

ev

eh

r)/ijLepaL<;,

co?

elirelv.

7roXXov<; Ka6' oSov hie^deLpev.

he XoLTTol TOP 'EXXyjaTTOVTOv

eh "A^vhov

ev r^^tP

elvat,

ireipaaOat

ij^i

Be

"Eep^Tj^;

KaraXtTrcov,

a/jLetvov

ray

TOP iTopov ev irevTe Kal TerrapdKOvra

XoifJbo<;

7)/ipa<;

BofcoTou?

eho^e yap ^laphoviw dfxa

YleXoTTOVvrjaov.

SerraXia

Brj

y^pr^^ara

^acnXea, dfia he dwpiav elvat rod

TToXe/jLelv,

(~)eTTa\La,

ovTOi /lev

hovre^

cTTpaTrjyoiv.

vavfia^iav

15 TrpoTrefiyjrai

/^^ -._

Trapa

B.p^7]v

d/jL(f)l

T-qv

ov

(d6/iiaT0K\rj<;

y^p'qp.aTa

lo 6pfioi)/ivo^,

fierd

Kal

d-rTOKpLvdjJievoi

ra? yap
dXX' vtto

rah vaval

ayehia<!
-^^ei/iMvo^;

ov)(^

hie^rjaav

evpov

en

hiaXeXvfxevas.

^,4/^

.SW/f

Win

ClIAin'I'.K

of

Dix'itioN

O/
TTfv

the

Ihnmur.s for 'lluntlstocU's

spo'il.

he "K\Xr;i/9, tVel oi)^ oloi re ijcrav eXelv

"ApBpov,

(raifre^

rrjv

^aXafjLiva.

rrpCora

(iKpoOii'ia.

Ti]v

Se

\eiav

a^icordrto yro/j.h'ay iv

7ri

tg5

ovv

fikv

Kai

Srja)-

airr^WaJTovro

-)(copai',

CTrXeov

SieXofievoi

tm

rovrco.

7roX/.i(p

arparriyoL hievep^ovTO

01

iSco^o)

rov

eavrw

avrcov

ol 5

lioaeLhcovof;,

&)? Be

Ta<; y^i)(^ov's

top irpMroi' Kai

rov Bevrepov Kpivovre^ k iravrcdv, evravOa


Ti?

l<:

OeoU e^elXov

Totf;

rov ^laOfiov, apicrrela h(oaovre^ tw

"KX\7;/'es" t"W

a(f)iKO/jLvoi

Kapuarov

rpa7r6/jLi'oc eiV

avrayi'

irtder o

ri]^

ttol's

Kaaro<; BoKOiv apiaro<i yeviaOai' hevrepov Be

01

TToXXol

01

fxev

Brj

oifioXoyovv

^efita-roKXr)

Kpivovre^.

ifxovovvTO'

^fxtaro/c\f)^

Be

15

vikmp

Be

ov/c

dpiarela

/xev

Bid

Be

6')(ov

aavre<^ Be

rov

ev

rroWa

'S.TTapnaroiv

Kai

eBwKav
ao^iav

%ep.iaroKXel <Tre(f>avov

rov

ev

01

AaKeBaifMoiaoi

eBe^avro, /jLeyuXay^ Be erifirjaav.

ovv

fxev

roiv

avriKa eh XaKeBaifxova

TjXde ffovX6/j,evo<i ri/jLrjdrjvaL.

avrov KoXo)^

viro

eri/if'jdrj

'EaXa/jLiUL i'af/ua;^77<rcti/T&)t',

are<f>avov,

Bevrepeiot^

evLKa TToXv.

"Ore

10

avro^k-yV

\lr))(i)oi' ,

Kvpv/SidBr)
/cal

eXaLa<i.

^irdprr}

XoydBe^.

err el

Kai

eBcoKav re avrd)

KaXXLcrrov.

7rpov7rc/jL\lrav

eXaLa<; 20

Be^iorrjra

eiraive-

diriovra rpia/coaLOL
Be

rjXBev

eh rd^

25

26

Salaniis

evravOa

^AOy]i>a<i,

rwv

Se/j-iaroKXeov^;

raw exOpwv

Tc/JLoSrjfio^,

(ov,

Xeywv on hia

nvSpcov, (pOoi'cp TT/Do? avTou ifiaivero,

Ta9
5

AOr)i'a<;

rtXV ov
Xiycov

6 Be, eirel

Be\/9fi^iT7;9

OVT

TLarcov,

av

iri/jLy'jOrjv

wvdpcoTre,

<Tv,

ovk eTravero ravra


ovt

"Oi/ro)? ^^l'

elirev

Tifji6B7]/jL0<;,

wv

eyoo

rd yepa ra irapa AaKeSatfiovLCOV,

e)(^oi

eavTov.

Bl^

/lev

aXXo)? Be ov rcov e7n(f>avwv

av

ovto) Trpo? ^irap-

wv

WOrjvalo^.^'

CHAI^^ER XIX
Movements

of' the hostile fleets

of 479
'O

vavriKo^

Be

10 TrpoaefXL^e

rfj

'

XaLa

(pevycov

Tifv

TrpovTre/jLyjrev

"A/3vBov,

eK

arpariav

Be eTTLyevo/jLei'ov avveXeyero

Tcov

vecov Kal e')(^Lfia^ov avTov.

Tov's

ov

/jLtjv

ev Be
fMrj

kol

\epcrovyjcrov
ev

eh ^dfjLov

e(f)vXarTov rrjv ^Iwviav

rpiaKoaia^.

exovTe<^

spHng

1.aXaiJuvo^
e'/c

e')(^eifxat,ev

?;/Do?

15 KaOi'-jfJLevoL

the

B,ep^ov Treptyevofxevo^, 9

^aaiXea re Kal
el<;

in

B.C.

Kv^jltj.

at Be

ry ^dfico

dTroarf}, vav<;

ovBe 7rpoaeBe')(^ovTo

"^XX7]va<; irapeaeadai et? rrfv ^Jcoviav,

dXXd

TT}v eavToyv (j)vXd^eiv, Tre^fj Be iroXv Kparyjcreiv

rov

MapBovLov.
20

Tou?

Be''KXXriva<; to re eap yiyvofxevov ijyeLpe

Kal lS,iapB6vto<; ev ^eTTaXia


ovirct)

(JvveXeyeTo,

Aiycvav,

vfje^

Be

cov.

dpiOfiov BeKa Kal

TrapeyevovTO Trdaai, ifkOov

6 jxev Bt] Trefo?

vavTitco^

Icoicov

dcpLKeTO

eKaTov.

dyyeXot

et?

co?

Be

et?

to

KarmrXelv

<TrparoTr6ov rotv 'KXX/y'rwi' Seo^evoi


i<s

Tt)r

\(Dvt.ai''

TO yap 7roppa)TpQ) irdv heivov

AyjXov.

VAXrjaiv ov
re

TTpotjyayov avToix: fioXjj fJ^eypi

o't

TTiUTa

tu)i>

roU

}]v

<

TontDv ovatv tjiTreipoi f!' a-Tparid^ /^^^^

pLeara

ei-ofii^ov Kui Ta<i

''"

eSoKei

clvai'

Se

rijv

'^dp.ov

'WpaKXelat; aTi}\a<i laop uTrex^ii^.

CHAFIKH-XX
Murdott'iu.s .sends Altwinidcr

A
Oi
6

8e

US

tilt

fiev

an

ic'itli

"EX\7;i'e9

By]

\lapB6vio<; irepl

ayyeXor

Se

eirep.y^ev

avSpa ^laKcSoi'a,
Ylepaai,

he

of Mdcidon

e/?

T7]v

Ai]\ov.

SerTaXlav e'x^eipbai^ev.
^A.6i]va<;
AXe^avhgov

et?

on

irpoaKiihel^ avrro 01 10

^aph6vL0<; TTvOopLevo^

kuI evepyenj^; WX^avSpo<;

elrf

to

0/ a /I'm nee

eirXeov

ri-jv

(ifia p,ev

apa

rjaav,

irpo^evo^ re

(jffi'f

on

eirepLiTe.

Tou? yap Adrjvaiov^ ovrcoq ihoKet p^dXiara irpoa'

dpa iiKovodv elvat kul


OdXarrav avi>rv')(^ovra

KTriaeadai, Xecov re jroXvif

lax^pov

Se

TO.

Kara

avroL<i Tradijp.ara
vaiov<;
'paBiw<s

eyvw.
rrj<;

rijv

rovrwv

Be

rrpoayevopievwv rjXm^e

daXdrrr)^; Kparijaeiv, rre^fi

iroXv elvai Kpeirrcov.

Ta? Wdy'jpa^;

W-Xe^avBpo<; ovv

a7ro7reyLt<^^et9

vrro

re eBoKCL

d(f)Lfcero et?

WdpBovLov, Kal

eXeye rdBe''"Ai/Spe?
'^E/xol

ouTO)?'

WdrjvaLOt, MapB6pL0<;

dyyeXia

15

KarepyaaapLevov^ pLuXtara W6t]~

rjKeu

rrapa

rdBe Xeyei'

^aatX(o<;

Wdr]vaioi<; rd^ dpiapria^ rd<i

Xeyovaa

i^ eKelvwv

20

Salamis

28

As^^,
et?

'yevo^eva<^

e/i

auTo?9 n7r68p<;'
avrol,

i-ji'TLva

7rd(Ta<;

aWrjv

avopOwaov, oaa

vvv

TciBe

Bi]

6vTe<^ avrovo/jLOi.

^ovXcovrai

KareKavaa.'

iyco

'T/

kXeaOwv

ravrrj

irpo'^

av eOekwcn,

T TTcivra avTOL<^, iav

rrjv fiev yijv

iieOirijii.

Be

Xiyw

/SaaiXel

fxaiveaOe,

lepci

ifiol ofioXoyecv,

Be

ovre yap av vTrep^ciWoiade, ovre oloi re


avTe.-)(^eiv

rov

irapeaTi

^^povov.

irc'ivra

Be

fcaWiara KaraXvaacrOai, {SaaiXew'^ ravrrj


eare eXevOepoi,

lo fievov.

u)

^lapBovio^

'Adjjvaloi, eKeXevae fxe elirelv 77/309

Be irepl p.ev evvoia^

rrj^;

ovBev Xe^o)' Beofiai Be

yap

15 fcal

Kal

x^'-P

fjLLov

y'Trp/jLiJK7]<;'

e^^re

'irpo<^

v/jlcov

vfjLa<;

v/jbel^i

vfilv
Qjp/jLTj-

ravra,

iJ.ev

vfid<;.

ovar)<;

e^

eyo)
ifjLov

TreiOeaOai ^lapBoviw.

dvOpwirov

Byvafii'^ virep

eare

o-vfi/xa-^lav avvdefievoL

rjfilv

avev coXou Kal airdrr)^^

Vjjilv

fxa-^o^ievoL

rj

^aaiXeco<i earl

Be e^aiperov

n fierai^-

ri-jv yrjv.''

CHAPTER XXI
T7ie

Spartans send envoys

'

AXe^avBpo<;

Be eirvOovro
20

d^ovra
re

ru>

^lr]B(jov
p.r)

re

ravra

avrov

^ap^dpw

rwp Xoyiwv

AcopLevaiv

p-ev

I'-jKeiv

&)9

'

Bel

Athens

eXe^e.

acpd^i

eV

op^oXoylav

dva/J-V7]a6evre<;

dp,a

roU

aXXoL<;

YleXorrovvi]aov

W6T]i>aL(ov,

6poXoyi]aoL>ai ru> Yieparj

to

AaKeBaifxovLOL

e/9 ^AOrjva^, 6t9

XOrjvaiOVs.

e^rriirretv

Kal

to

of Alexander

eounteract the influenee

'

viro

pudXiara

ecpo/Sovvro

AOrjvaloi.

avruKa Be

29

Sn/antis
l8ofti' avToi^ TTt'/xTTen' ayyeXuv*;.

waT raina
'AOijvaioi

o^iov

Ka\ avi'^TriTTTtv

yiyi'tfaOai.

tv

StarpifSuvTti'i,

tfitirap

yap

o'l

on

7riaTdfiU0t

AaKfBat^oiuoi irtvcea dai r^Kovra irapa

^jl\\ov

rov fSap^dpov ayyeXov

ecf)

T Trefiytiv Kara

ayyeXov^.

rti-)(o<i

iiroiovv, tiTrohetKi'Vfiei'Oi

ofioXoyia, Trvdo/xevul

tol<;

t^Tnjjjpf^

ovv

AaKtSat/iui'Loi^

rrji/

avTa}i> yi>a)/J7)i:
'

01

iTraiaaro

Si

il'i

\e7a>i^

vfiwv

fJifJTe

Xoyov;

iroLelv

fxrjSev

Kara

rrju

irapa rov ^ap-

he')(^ecTdaL

ovT yap hiKULOv

^dpov.
<f>pc

veoirepov

fiJ/re

lo

AaKehat/jLOviOL Seijaofievovii

"'H/ias" e7r/jL\jrav

'KX\d8a

Wi^aj'Bpo'i, eXt^yov

ayyeXoi'

^7r(ipry)'s

(Ittu

ovhaiMU)<;,

T019 dWoi'i "EX\7]aip, vfilu

oi/re koct/jlov

Be

yjKiara i$l^

8r)

ipeipar e yap rovSe rov TroXefiov f -^


l3ovXo/xvcoi>.
Kal Trepl t>}9
TjfjLwv
p\

iruXXwv eveKa.
ovBev

vfjLclfi,

vfieTpa<; apyi-jv o aycov eyevero'

Kal

i<;

irdaav

yepiaOat

rijv

'E^XXaBa.

BovXeca'^

rot'i

Kal

vvv be (peperai

V;

Kal alrlov^

'^_'

purjif

"KXXrjaLP

Wdr]vaLOV<i 20

ovBap.co'i di'aa)^T6p, o'iTiP<i del (j)aipea6e 7roXXov<;

iXevOepcoaapre^
vpLLP

dpOpooirwp.

BacpopiOL

re

Kal

TTte^opepoL^

dprl Be tovtcop

crvpa^dofieOa.
ol

avp,pa')(oi,

fxeproL

v/jllp

Aa/ce-

eirayyeXXopTaL

yvpaiKUf; re Kal ra et? TroXepLop d-^prjara irdpra 25


dpeyj/ecPy eo)?

dp

6 7r6XepL0<; oBe avpearyjKjj.

v/xa9 ^AXi^apBpo^i 6

pep yap ravra

MaKeBoyp

iroLrjrea earl'

Tvpdppo) avyKarepyd^erat.
eiTrep

dpaTrelar).

rvpappo<^

vp,lp

ev Tv-yx^'ipere <^povovPTe<=;'

Be

pLrjBe

tovto)

yap wp

ov Trou^Tea,

eiriaTaade yap 30

Salamw

30

ovre

earlu

^apl3apui<i

CO?

ovre

iTLarov

n\r]de<;

ovdev.

CHAPTER XXII
Ansicer of the Athenians

and

fjLP

roG MrJ^o) hvvafii<^

d/jLvvov/ieOa

eiriOvixovvTe^

10

r)/jLd<;

vvv

dirdyyeXXe

Xeyovatv,

dv

eo)?

re

T017?

re

wv

o'iKOV<;

pLTjhe

BoKwv

ohbv

"B^ep^rj'

ir)

f)

dXXd

Kal

deol<i

ydp

\\Or)vaicov

gv Se rov

Ta dyaXfiaTa.

Kal

^/OT^crra

ov

irapaiveL.

20 TTpo?

av

ov (f)povrL^cov KareKavae

eKelvo<;

Xoiirov Xoyov^i e^coz^ TOiovcrhe

//-

fjbrjTe

TreiroLOoTe^ eire^ip,ev dfivvopLevot Kal

av/jL/jLd^0L<;

15 Tol'^ rjpwaiv,

Kal

WOyvaloL

co?

6 t/Xlo^ T'qv avrrjv


r)/jLd(;

au

TrecaofieOa.

r)fiei<i

M.apBovLcp

vvv, firjiroTe o/jLoXoyyicretv

eXevOepia^;

ottco?

rw ^ap^dpcp

ovTe

dvaireiOeLV,

TT eipcti

he

opioo^

ovto)<;,

6/jLoXoyrjcraL Se

hwdifxeOa.

r^fuv ware ouSev

rj

dXX'

TOVTO ye oveihl^eiv.

Set

Alexander

TavTa eXe^av ol ayyeXoL. WOrjvaloL Se Trpo?


WXi^apSpov direKpivavTO rahe'
" Kat avToi tovto ye eTriard/jLeOa, on iroWa-

TrXaala iarl

.^^^

to

Spartan envoys

the

to

ae

pur}

(paivov W.6r)vaioL<;,

virovpyelv

KdKcaTa

^ovXopLeda

iraOelv,

ovBev

iroielv
d')(^apL

ovra irpo^evov re Kal

(plXov.'

ripo?

p,kv

'AXe^avBpov

TavTu

aTreKpLvavro,

7rpo9 3e Toi;? diro XTrapr?;? dyyeXov^ rdSe'

"To

p.v

25 yrjcrwpLev

(po^eladac AaKeSaip^ovlov^;

too

p,rj

6/10X0-

^ap^dpcp pudXiaTa dvdpcoTrelov

ijv.

aWu aia\p(ii<i y SoKilre, tTricrrdfitrui


<f>p6filfia,

v7rp(S<i\\ov(Ta, a

0VTQ)<i

av KarahovXwaai

to

tart
kui

Bt'^tipeuoi

///xtK

EWaSa.

t/;j'

W07)i>aL(t)i'

\pva6<s

X^P" KaWei

ovBafiov roaovTo^ ovre

p.v

ovre

oTi

uppcoStli''

7//%-

aperfj

edeXoi-

iroWu

ynp Kal peydXa earl rd kcoXvovtu ravra


TToielv,
Trpwra fiev Kal peyiara tcLv Oewv

dydXfiara Kal rd oiKijpaTa


e^ei

di'ayKai(o<i

tjfid<;

evciTa

Be

to

op,6yX(t)TTou, Kal

ev

rd

et?

p.eyi,ara'

re

Kal

Oewv lepd KOivd Kal Bvaiai

rjOi]

ov

ofMuL/jLop

erriaTaade

^(01.

tovto,

el

TTpoTepov eTvy)(^di>eTe eiriaTdpevoi, eo)? dv Kal


Trepifj

'A67)i'aL(oi'^

6pLoXoyy)aovTa<^

ovBap.co'^

vpwv pevTOL

"E^ep^Tj.

eiraLvovpLev

OTL TrpoeiSere )]pcov, ojcrre Tpecpeiv


Tov<s olKeTa<;.

pLevTOi

y'jp^eU

vvv

Be,

Kal vpXv p.ev

eh
rrjv

TovTcop

ovToxi

')(^p6vov

co?

p,7]

eU

rjP'd'i

pev,

15

irpovoiap,

tj]v

^ovXeadai

rjpdov

X/3i9 eKireTrXy'ipcoTai'

yap

dv

ottcc)?

i'x^ovTwv,
i)pel<i

%a)/x-ei^.

(jTpaTidv

ft)?

20

eiKa^op^ev, ov

irplv ovv irapelvai eKelvov et?

r)pbd<;

Kaip6<^ earc

/SorjOelv

et?

ttju

3oici)TLav."

0/

10

irdpeaTai, 6 (Sdp^apo^ elafidXXo)v

Tr]v rjperepav.

Wttik7]v,

1)

avTiarijaopLeda

Td)(^LaTa eKTrepLTrere.

TToXXov

to.

wv TTpohoTa^ yeveadai Wdi)vaiov^

T op^oTpoTra'

ovK dv

KaraKavdevra, oU

Tifi(optp

'EXXtjvlkov,

re
fiij

25

TauTa diroKpLvapeviDv twv

aTrrjXXdTTovTo

eh

^irdpTrfv,

^Adijvaleop,

NOTES
The references are

Page
1.

dir' 'ApT|ii,o-tov.

2.

Tv 'A0T|vaLwv

and

the pages

to

lines of the

Text.

See Introduction, pp.

vii, viii.

absolute,

genitive

Bo\Uvo)v,

the

at

'

request of the Athenians.'


els

of)

2a\a|Jtiva

iraiSas t

4.

ras vavs, 'put their ships into (the bay

'i<rxi

See Introduction,

Salamis."

p. viii.

the ordinary, but

kui -yvvaiKas,

not the

invariable order in Greek.


Tois

irl

5.

irapovo-i

in

'

'irpdy\i.a(riv,

view

of

present

troubles."
2(j,XXov PovXt]v iroLTio-ecreai,

their plans.'

were about
TT)s

6.

Note that

'

they were bound to consider

e/j-eWov here

means more than

'

they

to.'

ablatival genitive, similar to that after

"yvciSfiTis,

verbs of deprivation.
of their expectation,'

Translate:

explained

'as

having been cheated

in the followmg sentence.

8.
Tov PapPapov, very frequent for 'the Persians.'
Poenus in Livy for the Carthaginians.'

Cf.

'

TOV 'I<r0|xov

9.

10.

rii-)(Jiliiv.

See Introduction,

TTCpi irXcioTTov irotovjie'vovs,

'

p. viii.

counting (the defence

of)

the Peloponnese of the highest importance.


13.

in

01 ftv 8t]

dWoi,

'

so then the rest,'

.ueu

drj,

as usual,

summarising and dismissing a subject,


14.
cTronJCT-avTO
Suvarai.
Such vivid constructions are

very frequent in Greek.

Translate

'

they

any Athenian finds


population was not moved in a body.
tion

that wherever

it

made

a proclama-

possible....'

The

yotea
16.

(r^liv.

16.

Tovs olTas,

Utm.

Cf. Littiii

17.

Tpoili)va.

frequent soiiKe of

it

ill

SA

the

members

convoy for

safety.'

of their hc.uehoKl,' CHp.

r(iffti7/(i.

Troezen was in the 8outh-ea8t of Argohs,

opposite the island of Aegina.

Aegina is an island about eight miles south of


AlY^vav.
Salamis, hostile to Athens from ancient limes, but iutluenced
by the threatened in\ jision of Xerxes to make peace.
18.

ol

dir*

'Aprt^wrCov,

those

i.e.

who had

fought at

Artemisiuni.
21.

Greek delights in imTranslate :^* they had been directed

iKtia-i -irpotipiiTo o-v\Xt -y to- 6a t.

personal constructions.

beforehand to muster
Isthmus of Corinth.

there,'

at

i.e.

the Congress

at

the

Page 2
was

command.'

in

3.

^mfiv,

4.

SiraprtdT-qs, a possessor of full Spartan citizenship,

'

See Introduction,

vavs iroXXoi TrXiicTTas.


7.

cPovXcvoin-o^YKpaTis

where they thought

among

it

most suitable

Mv

10.

(1,

14),

and

o-vve'iriirTov,

they should
14.

For the

l<K.

to fight a

to

discuss

naval battle

had command,'

depending on owov.

graphic construction

TroXiopKrjaovTai
'

p. ix.

began

bay of Salamis or nearer

fight in the

ToircDV, partitive genitive,

^Kparcis
duvarai

they

the places of which they themselves

whether they should


the Isthmus of Corinth.

e.g.

8.

'

(ia-i,

and

were coinciding.'

cf.

rts

d7ro(pv^ovTai (below).
vav|jLaxiv,

'

viz.

that

fight.'

irpos Bi

Tw

*I<r6fia),

while

'

(if

they fought) close to the

Isthmus....'
18.

Tpaird|uvos,

Yap

'

for the Persian force

turned to march through Boeotia


19.

ecnrttds.

south-east slope of

which had

'

Thespiae was a town in Boeotia on the

Mount Helicon.

nXaraids. Plataea was a town in Boeotia. Its territory


was divided from Attica on the south by Mount Cithaeron.
. s.

Notes

34

from

'learning

iru0<Jficvos K'''i^*'tov,

19.

Thebans

the

that they were not favouring the Persian cause.'


20.

TiK,

'

it

had

The

arrived.'

subject

the Persian

is still

army.
Note the idiomatic use

iravra cKclva.

21.

'every thing there.'


aipovo-i cvp(rKov<ri,
22.
sake of vividness,

cpij^i-qv,

of the

pronoun,

used for the

historic presents,

predicate.

23.
T Upw, most probably the double temple of Athena
and Erechtheus.

Page 3
1.

TttfiCas

in the time of

Tov Upov.

These 'treasurers'

Herodotus had the

ten in

number

care of the temple property,

especially objects of religious reverence or artistic value kept

money would have been withdrawn

All public

therein.

for

naval purposes.
2.

<|)pa|d|Xvoi,

Tovs

'having barricaded

lirtovras,

Acropolis with planks and

boards,

the

they tried to repel the

attackers.'
3.

8id ireviav

ovk

^<|>v70v.

We

say,

'poverty had pre-

vented their escape.'


5.
r\

|vpTiK'vai,,

'

had discovered the meaning

of.'

IlvSta, the Pythian priestess of Apollo at Delphi.

See xpdUo in Vocabulary.

^XpTlo-.

TO ^vXivov Ttxos, interpreted by some to


fications

of

the

Acropolis

by

others

the

mean
fleet,

the forti-

on

the

suggestion of Themistocles.
7.

ii[ivvovTo,

dfj.w6fj.evoi

'

'were

defending

themselves.'

in the course of their defence

'

(line 9)

Compare

and contrast

iffivvovTo TOVS iiriovras (line 3).

IXOovres, although they had reached the extremity


nor would they accept the
ov8^ Xd^ovs IScxovTo,

Kafirep

'

of disaster.'
8.

lit.

'

proposals of the family of Peisistratus

them forward about an agreement,'

i.e.

when they brought


about terms. The

Greek participle often has a temporal sense.


tratidae see Introduction, p.

viii.

For the

Peisis-

NntrH
dXXa

10.

35
rMOOne

had

'thy

^^TfxavwvTo.

other

to

measurfH."

Ka\
col

bj

'and

Ka(,

81^

a'

MJ?**

'

to

in particular,'

iMorcoviT

'

he distinguished from

12).

(,

Twv ^p^apwy, genitive absolute.


was htld by perplexity,' governed

11.

irpoo-idvTwv

13.

<iiropi<^ (x.r6ai,

'

UKTTf
15.

4k

My

XP^^f ^f^^r '^ timo,' at length.'


tv d-iropwv, lit. starting from their
'

'

'

'in their

ililVioullit's.'

ljiirpo<r6 irpo ttJs aKpoirdXcws,

16.

We

difficultie.s.'

it'-

in front

on the

northern side of the Acropolis.


17.

tJ.

is TaiT-g

6545

understood,

'

by which way.' The antecedent

by this way.'

ovTc Tis 4<^vXaTTcv.


or within

tlie

natural cleft in the rock runs under

within the wall of the Acropolis,

cleft is

Where

northern wall of the Acropolis.


it

this

has an opening at

the top which gives access to the plateau above

it

but there

which might well lead the


defenders to think it needed no guard and an attacking party,
once within the cleft, might ascend at their leisure with
is

a sheer drop of about 20

feet,

scaling

ladders or ropes (E.

Gardner quoted by

How

and

WeUs).
ovT*

18.

<}>oPeiTO dvaPa^T],

'

nor feared that any one

might go up thereby {Kara TaOra).'


Kard with accusative, cf. 12, 21.

local sense

of

Kaiirtp diroKp7]|ivov ovtos tow tottov, genitive absolute,

19.

made a

For the

concessive clause by the introduction of

although the place was precipitous.

'

Cf.

3,

Kai-rrep,

Kara tov tc^xovs, down from the wall.'


\Uyapov, sometimes shrine,' here merely the

22.

7.

'

23.

'

interior

of the temple.
25.

iruXas, the gates of the wall.

Tovs

iK^Ttts,

28.

Sovo-a.

at the
29.

been

who were

in the temple.

Susa was capital of the province of Susiana

head of the Persian Gulf, a favourite royal residence.


'ApraPavcjj. Artabanus was uncle of Xerxes. He had

left

in charge of the

kingdom.

3-2

36

Notes
ayycXovvxa,

announce.

to

'

The

'

future participle

a very

is

frequent method of denoting purpose in Greek.


30.

and

tows <j>vYd8as,

'A6T]va(i)v

i.e.

the family of Peisistratus

their followers.

Page 4
1.

ctrc 8ii,

2.

ctrc

whether

'

Kttl v0v|Aiov

it

was

that....'

lepov,

'

or even a religious scruple

had come upon him because he had burnt the


has a causal sense.

participle, as often,

The

temple.'

ev6v|xiov is

lit.

'

some-

thing on the mind.'


TO, Trepl TT]v

5.

aKpoiroXtv,

'

what had happened about the

Acropolis.'
<rT ^vioi

6.

'

irpaY^Jta,

so that

some

of the generals did

not wait even for the ratification of the proposal laid before
them,' i.e. the place w^here the battle was to be fought. For
TO irpOKip.VOV

cf. 6,

Mark

board.'

Tois

8^

being

were

'

were throwing themselves on

the imperfects in this and the three following

panorama.

lines, depicting a
9.

11.

clo-cTrnrrov, idiomatic,

8.

vTroXeiTTOfie'vois

behind

left

^8o|,

'

those

them who

of

avrwv

resolved....'

is

partitive

genitive.
10.

vv| iyiyviTo,

12.

VTaii9a

eXOovra
17.

night was falling.'

was

in this state of things.'

niv vavv, when he came to his ship.'


dpa vavjiaxijoreis, no longer, it seems,

lirl

oiiToi

'

Srj, 'it

'

fight at sea for

'

one country.'

will

you

Notice the superfluous negative,

which Greek is very fond.


18.
Kara iroXcis, 'city by city.' There will be no longer
a united Greece but each squadron (l/cao-roi) will go its own
of

way

{Tpi\povTaL).

20.

dv6pirv, partitive genitive,

KaTc'xiv

^i\

ou 8ta(rK8a<r6TJvai,

in every direction.'

'

'

among men.'

keep from being scattered

The double negative

with the infinitive after a negative clause.

ixr)

ov is often used

Notes
21.

rrparyjiv,

'l'.\.

Stax^ai,

'

flMt,'

KorJHt

not

army.'

infinitive,

confound their

to

reHo-

lutiontt.'

Page 5
avroO

5.

iroiovjicvos-

own

ing as his

thi-

The

^'tnitivt' is

0.

tAos, ad\erl)iul accusative,

*..

irpo6(ivai t6v Xo'-yov,

^v

iroXvs 11V

posseBsive,

'

adopt-

uiKutnents he had heard from MnesiphiluH.'

'

Tois X<Jyois,

'in the end,'

'at last.'

had opened the discussion.'


'was much (i.e. was urgent)

in

his language.'
ol

12.

irpoc|avi.(rTap.evoi,

He means

signal.'

the president called upon

paml^ovTai,

13.

'

those

who

start

the

before

that Themistocles should have waited

i.e.

him

till

to speak.

by the staves of the keepers of the

course.
6 h\ d-iroXv6p.(vos,

himself.'

but Themistocles by way of excusing

no means necessary

future p:irticiple is by

here.

Cf. 25, 10; 29, 7.


01 8^

"ye

ov o-T<|>avovvTai,

'

yes,

the post do not receive a wreath.'

and those who are left at


Several writers add the

story that Eurybiades raised his stick to strike Themistocles,

who

said,

16.

17,

and

'

Strike, but hear me.'

ovKTt ovS^v,
cf.

'

no longer anything.'

the next sentence, which

means

'

See note on

4,

in the presence of

it was not bringing him credit to accuse any of them.'


dXXov Xo-yov l'xTo, clave to another style of speech,'
the ordinary meaning and construction of the middle ^x^fxat.
20.
^v <ro, in your hands,'
it depends on you.'
21.
avTov |iv<dv, remaining where you are.'
diTCOes KdTpov aKovo-as,
listen to and contrast the two

the allies
19.

'

'

'

'

'

alternatives."

irpis T<^ 'Io-9[iw piaxo(icvos, conditional use of the participle,


'

if

you

24.

fight close to the Isthmus.'

^xo^^*-' causal use of the participle,

'

which

is least

Notes

38

of all advantageous to us, since our ships are of heavier build

and fewer

In the open sea the enemy could

in number.'

surround the weaker Greek fleet in the narrows their very


numbers would be against them, as well as their ignorance of
;

The Greek

the fairway.

ships were inferior to the

enemy

in

manceuvring (How and Wells).

Page 6
dpi0|iov, accusative of respect

1.

next line,

'

so also

dWa

to.

in the

in all other respects.'

See Map.

2.

Mc'^apa.

5.

KivSvvevo-eis

whole of Greece,'

^EWdSi,

'you will run a risk with the

lit.

'you will stake on the event the safety of

i.e.

all Greece.'
61

6.

mean

not equivalent to iap

iroii]o-is,

-jroiria-DS,

but

'

if

you

to do....'

Too-d8 xpT](rTd, 'the following great advantages.'


(ru[i,pdXXovTS

7.

irpos

iroXXds,

'

engaging with a few

ships against mauj'.


irpos "HP-wv,

9.

11.

'

on our

ircpi-yi'YveTai,

side,'

survives,'

'

'

to

our advantage.'

'

is

saved' there and then,

graphic use of the present.


dative of person concerned, 'for us,'

f\\uv,

them conveyed away.


the use of the

'

12.

of

'

'

moreover,'

there

is

See note on

^"lorBfjiw,

much

1, 4.

Latin iam vero.

the following advantage in this,'

Peloponnese.

ov Kal ixio-Qi iidXioTTa,


all.'

ojtoCws

just as

See note on

t Kal -yvvaiKes.

Kal pi^v KaC,

ToSe ^vo-Tiv,
13.

'

if

'

to

which also you are devoted

5, 19.

you remain where you

are,

you

will be

fighting in defence of the Peloponnese as

would be close

got

understand

compounds.

viz. the safety of the

most

we have

often used as the perfect passive of

K?/xai is

so also the

jraiSe's

to

dative of the agent.'

vireKKtivrai.
Tidrj/xL,

Such a sentence helps us

'

to the Isthmus.'

Cf. 6, 22.

you

39

Noten
Tas vavciv, lustrimu'iitHl,

18.

S'e not*' i>M liiu'

v|i(v.

you

11

with our shipH.'

'

uiul truuslato

--*

neitluT

ifi7/

find the I't-rsiHiis ouiniii;^' to tho IstlunUH.

Tov

<ls

'I<r^p.ov

irckf>^(rovTai,

pregDEDt con-

Ko-called

tlu

Htruction.

ovScvl

20.

'

K6(rpi(f>,

in diHorder.*

by the salvation of Megara,

be gainers

ahall

salvation

etc.'

be the measure of our gain.'

will

we
their

Translate

Mryetpois iripi-yiYvojUvois. iiiHtrumental.

'

line

Cf.

10,

xtpiyiyyerai.

![xiXa;i2f

23.

lKOTa <^iXti yCyvarQai,

TO,

'

who form

those

to

is

wont

ill,

even

reasonable plans reasonable suca'ss also (Kal roiaOra)


to come.
24.

heaven

rd

8i fiTJ Yvwfias,

itself is

'

means 'come over

irpo<rx<^p(tv

when men counsel

but,

unwilling to take the side of


to,'

human

'join as

an

calculation.'

ally.'

Page 7
^6<^peTo,

2.

lit.

'

was bearing down upon him,'

i.e.

was

attacking him.

<m

3.

(u |i7J

ovSi

dv8p,

a proposal

'

who has no couutr}'.'


traTp^s,
and he forbade Eurybiades to put
'

made by a man without

a city.'

to the vote

Themistocles no

longer represented a city, he means.

8^'ABrivai,

TovTo

4.

'

thereby he meant that Athens was

occupied (by the Persians).'

KaKol ^Xryev, double accusative.

6.

^Kctvov

9.

<r4)o-iv.

Translate
fully

'

For the dative

as long as they (the

Cf. 13, 9.

and 18; 31, 18.


Athenians) had 200 ships

cf.

6,

11

manned.'

10.

8iePaivv,

<nrou8atoTpov,

crossed over.'

'

'

with greater earnestness.'

and line 15 below).


must till up the aposiopesis after these
words by inserting 'well and good.' There is an exact parallel
in Daniel iii. 15, where the word 'well' is not in the original.
12.

pLVis.

dviip d-yaOos-

Cf.

We

el TToirjaeis (6, 6,

Notes

40
TO irdv Tov iroX^p-ov

1\.

of the war.'
all

(f>pova-iv,

'

carry the whole fortune

well-known words 'You carry Caesar and

Cf. the

his fortunes.'
16.

^X^

COS ?X0H-v,

'

just as

we

Cf. the frequent use of

are.'

adverbs.

'"ith

Tovs oUe'ras,

'

our households.'

Cf. 1, 16.

was a town on the river


half-way between Sybaris and Tarentum.
17.

2piv.

20.

Toiouo-Se,

22.

dv8t8d(rKTO,

'

such as we
'

began

name,

of that

Siris

are.'

to be convinced.'

Page 8
I.

airoXiirovTwv

oi

Xoiirot,

'

deserted by the Athenians,

the remainder were no longer capable of coping with the

enemy,'
3.

more vivid than ovKin av eyiyvovro.


8iavau}iaxiv, 'he adopts this
and

that they should remain there


5.

words,'
6.

decision,

TavTTiv

ovTO) XoYois dKpoPoXi(rdfivoi,

a lively metaphor.
avTov vavfiaxiio-ovTs,

'

viz.

fight the battle out.'


'

after this skirmish of

they began to prepare for a

naval engagement on the spot.'


9.

Tous AiaKiSas, the heroes of the house of Aeacus,

represented by their images.

The coming

compare the coming


iv. 3).

the

of the

Ark

'EXevo-tvos.

10.

rufi|idxovs, predicate,

II.

KoviopTov

day

set

to the

apart

for

the

'

to

images would

of the

How and

denote the spiritual presence of the heroes.

camp

of Israel (1

be their

allies.'

Grote writes:

celebration

Wells

Samuel

of

the

'It

was now

Eleusinian

and though in this sorrowful year there was no


any Athenians in the territory, Dicaeus still
fancied that he beheld the dust and heard the loud multitudinous chant, which was wont to accompany in ordinary times
the processional march from Athens to Eleusis.
For Eleusis
see Map.
' 12.
us dvSpwv fidXicTTa rpi(r\LvpC<av, as of about 30,000
mysteries

celebration, nor

'

men.'

XuftM

TlioHt- in tht- KleUHiniHii pro-

t6v jivoTiKov 'laicxov-

14.

11

joyoUH cry of Incche

oeHition raiKtHl llu-

of lacchuK (HhccIiuk) wan carried in

oh lacche

Htalm*

adurnfd

pro<"t'8ion,

tlu*

with myrtle and holding a torch.

oOk loTiv oirws ov, idiomatic, -*

16.
i.e.

it

must hv

17.

The king

Pao-iX^ws.

of Persia

Greeks ^aai\ti% (without the


/x/7at /iacri\f.
18.

els

it

cannot be that

not,'

tlmt.'

Cf.

t).

'1\,

is

usually called by the

rarely 6 ^aaiKivi or 6

article,

L'.

TvjtwpCav 'AOt^vaCois,

help the Athenians,'

to

'

dative of person concerned.


20.

20.

the

^irl

Cloud in the Pentateuch.


was carried high in air.'

Cf. the Pillar of

v^4|>os.

(KT^wpov ^4>^pcTO,

'

DoXap-ivos

after

ot 8^

force of
'

in

the

We say: 'those

naval force of Xerxes.'

in the

Euripus

Eupiirov.

23.

fV^

of the Greeks.'

Notice the idiom.

Tax.0'vTs.

who were drawn up

the preposition

armament

direction of Salamis, to the


22.

Mark the

t6 o-TpaToirtSov.

^irl

two diflereut cases

is

between Euboea

the channel

and the main land.

^vovTo

iv

4>oiXijp^,

harbours of Athens,

up

most important one.

arrived at Phalerum,'

'

one

of the

war the

to the time of the Persian

See Map.

Page 9
2.

Kara ravro,

in

'

the

same way.'

Translate

gave

the same opinion.'


3.

'ApTfA.i<rCa,

furnished

five

Queen

of Halicarnassus

triremes to the

fleet of

Caria.

in

who

Xerxes,

She

placed great

confidence in her judgment.

&

6.
yvu)fir)v,

Txryxdvoj

4>povov<ra apio-ra,

'viz. the

thoughts which

in

apposition to

happen

your fortunes.'
9.

10.

Too-ovTo

8(rov, accusatives of extent,

t 84 irdvTws

Kiv8vvviv

naval engagements at
17.

irpos 7T],

'

all ?

'

'

to

'so

much... as.'

and why need you

For the construction

close to laud.'

See

5, 22.

tt]v

have best for

risk

see 6, 6.

42

Notes
pqiSCws

18.

will

'

TJKis,

the designs with which you have

The

proceed easily for you.'

come

Greek clause

stress of a

is

often on the participle, as here.

ov -ydp otoC ri

19.

to...,' i.e.

'

lit.

tlo-i,

'they are not capable

20.

Biao-KcSas, future,

21.

Kara

23.

oiJT |jLXii<ri

25.

Tov ire^ov

for they are not

such as

of....'

'you will scatter abroad.'


See note on

iroXcis ^Kacrroi.

4, 18.

avTois, 'nor will they care.'

irpoo-airoXco-jj,

may

Cf. 11, 6.

involve your land force

in its ruin.'

Page 10
3.

vo|jLi^ci)v

(nrovSaiav

'considering even before

clvai,

that she was a worthy person.'


Tore, in
'

our idiom 'now.'

Hne

Cf.

6,

where rdre

means

5^

whereas now.'
Trpos

5.

13.

EvPoia.

Cf. 9, 17 irpos yy.

they were alarmed at the thought

<})oPov)VTO

oTi,

viKr\Qivris

8 iroXiopKTio-ovTai,

'

that....'

15.

'

and

quered, they would be besieged in the island.'

that,

Mark

if

con-

that the

participle vLKrjdevres denotes a condition.


17.
Cf.

vTTo rr\v irapovo-av

Thucydides, vwo tov

vvKTa, 'during the present night.'


'

aeicrfibv

at the time of the earth-

quake.'
19.

otrws

H-ii

Pappapoi,

'

to prevent the Persians invading

the Peloponnese overland.'


21.

8id TOV 'lo-Onov T61X0S.

The distance

across

is

about

five miles.

23.

ovSc'va xpovov, duration of time.

Contrast ovre vvktos

ovT iifupas (next line), time within which.

Page

11

1.

'EXXiivwv, partitive genitive,

2.

2tKV(6vioi.

'

among

the Greeks.'

Sicyon and the country round was generally

classed as part of Corinthia

but

it

was independent

of Corinth.

Notes

EpiilauruM was u town on the coast of

*Evi8avfKoi.

3.

43

Argolis.

OOMt

town with

territory to the

htutill

Arj^'olirt.

For Troezen, see

Tpoi^T]vioi.
4.

wuh

I'hlius

<l*Xui<n.oi.

north of

17.

1,

Ilermione wan a town on the south-east

'Epp,iov(ts.

of Argohs.

6.

KivSvvcvovo^,

C.

IjicXtv

7.

aT 6ovTs,

with their

ouWv,

in its danger.'

'

eared not a straw.'


'

inasmuch as

the cognate accuMitive.

Wws

11.

the}'

were running a race

8p6fi.ov O^ovrcs, a striking

all nt stake.'

Cf.

*2'2,

pi^v ^oMiTo,

'2

'meanwhile each

neighbour began to hold secret converse.'

means

'

under one's breath,'

here opposed to

(7-a</u;s

'

instance of

d7u''aj bpa^lovvTai.

man

(tiyiq

secretly,' rather

with his

sometimes

than

silently,'

'

below.

12.

Oavjia ^iroiovvTO.

16.

avTov pivovras

'

they counted as a marvel.'

Supply

d|Jtvv<reai.

be^v,

'

that they

ought to stay where they were and repel the enemy.'


hr\, 'it was in these circumstances.'
Cf. 4, 12.
XaOwv 5^^'> 'l^ft the meeting without attracting

^TttvOa
17.

notice.
24.

Xddp<^ Twv

dXXwv 'EXXtjvwv, 'without the knowledge

of the rest of the Greeks.'

TVYxavi, historic present.


25.

<|>povc5v TO,

PouriXiws,

Cf. 2, 22.
'

espousing the cause of the Great

King.'

Page 12
3.

lav

HI] ircpitSriTC 4>V'YovTas

avrovs, idiomatic,

you do not overlook them escaping,' i.e.


them to escape.'
5.
irpos tavTous, with one another.'

'if

lit.

'

if

you do not allow

'

8.

way.'
11.

Map.

Kiro8cov dTniXXdTTTo,

iKwobujv

is

'

proceeded to depart out of the

the opposite of

^trrrdXtiav.

e/xirodivy (9, 12).

For the position of

this little island see

Notes

44

^Y^-yvovTo fio-ai vvKTts,

13.

'

mid watches

the

of the night

were coming on.'


TO

14.

d<|>*

Kcpas, 'the western wing,'

eonrt'pas

i.e.

'the

right wing.'

KVKXovficvoi irpos Ti]v DaXafjLiva,

towards Salamis.'
hill of

ol

at

/Sdp/Sapoi.

Athens be-

See Map,

that name.

See note on 10, 24.

20.

TTJs Tijitpo-s-

21.

Kara x^pav,

o-uvo-tiik6tv,

Greeks

encircling the

Munychia was a harbour

Movio^xias.

15.

neath the

'

Cf. line 18, eai'rovs kvk\ovvto

'

in (their previous) position.'

while

'

the

Greek generals were

still

in

Themistocles

in

conflict.'

22.

'Api(rTi8i]s,

Athenian
23.

former

the

rival

of

politics.

|<rTpaKi(rfivos,

'

banished by ostracism.'

This was

two years previously. Aristeides now lived at Argos. The


term 6<TTpaKi(rfi6% is derived from oarpaKou, because the votes of
the Ecclesia deciding on the subject were recorded on earthenware tablets. The process was employed only in times of
extreme civil strife. If it was decided that the state was in
danger, every Athenian citizen wrote down the name of the
statesman whom he thought dangerous. If there were 6000
votes against one person, he was ordered to leave Athens for
ten years.

Page 13
1.

'A9iivT)o-i,

SiKaioTttTov.
4.

avTw

8.

iijjtds

a locative form,

He was

<rv[jt|ii|ai,

'

'

at Athens.'

called 'Aristeides the Just.'

to

Sei <rTa<ridtiv

have an interview with him.'


ipydimai, we must be at variance
'

at all times, especially the present, as to

which

of us

two

will

do greater good to our country.'


9.

d"ya0d rrv irarpiSa Ip-ydo-erai, double accusative.

Cf.

5, 6.

10.

t<rov

k<rr\

same whether we
14.

Xt'-yetv.

talk

oloi T ?<rovTai.

Our idiom

much

or

is,

little.'

See note on

9, 19.

'

it

comes

to

the

Notes
awT^ avTowrqt.

20.

is

The

ir

antecedi-nl

tf

IheHe things'

omitted.

my

^^ov, 'at

iiistiKation.'

21.

i(

22.

ls

23.

aKovras irc4)eum]<rao-6ai.

pAXT]v Ka6i(rTa(r6ai,

side againnt thiir

make

lu

'

'having

lit.

falsified to speak,'

i.e.

'to

a false stati'ment.'

traptXBwv,

27.

MS

on a battle.'
win them over to our

to enter

will.'

irXcuras Xi^civ,

26.

'

Ix**-.

'

having come before (the council).'

how matters

28.

Tavra

29.

6(ioiov

hr\ to.

stand.'

KclXXwrra,
'

iiptiv lo-Ttti..

it

this of course is splendid.'

'

will be all the

same

Cf,

to us.'

iari (line 10).

Iffov

ov Y*p

<^vgovTai,

'fTi

for they will

'

no longer be able

to

escape.'
30.

ctirtp

irtpiixop-tS^.

'

i^i

*s

must be the

case,

we are

surrounded.'

Page 14
3.

Tovs 4<^p)iovvTas,

'

the blockading force.'

irfpUxta-Qai. "yop, oratio obit qua,

depending on (Xeye,

to be

understood from Xeyivu in the previous sentence.


(TTpaToirtSov, 'fleet,'

'

armament,' not 'camp.'

withdrew (from the council).'


Tenos is one of the Cyclades, separated by a
8.
Tt|vC<i)v.
narrow channel from the south of Audros.
6.

fi0<n-rJKL,

10.

irio-rd

11.

idis

T6

hr\,

'

'

quite convincing.'

iroiiio-avTo,

when they summoned


idiomatic use of Kai

'and day was already dawning,


For the

a meeting of the marines.'

cf.

/cat

ijKeu

(line 15).

dvTiTi9^ptva,

and all that Themistocles


was a comparison between better and worse (in human
fortunes),' i.e. commonplace antitheses between victory and
defeat, freedom and slavery, etc.
For dvTiTiO^ficva cf. 5, 22,
12.

0(ii<rTOK\TJs

'

said

dPTidei

yap eKdrepop aKOvaas.

Twv AlaKiSwv.

16.

irtpl

18.

dva"you<ri,

tircKtuvTo,

'

Cf. 8, 9.

while they were putting out to sea.'

'threw themselves upon,' 'attacked.'

Notes

46
19.

to

dveKpovovTo

irpxip.vav

vavs,

'

began to back water and

run their ships aground.'


jipdXXi. 'rams,'

21.

<rv|nrXaKt<rT]s

and

collision
23.

historic present.

diroXXa'YTivai,

'

Cf. 2, 22.

and when the ship was in

(the crew) could not get free.'

o-vv'(ii|av,

'joined battle.'

Page 15
1.

Al^iVTJTai

2.

Tavniv,

Supply

Be,

\^yovai..

emphasis,

inserted for

'

that

this

was the

ship which began the battle.'


wve^8i<r raSc,

4.

The

dative

so that actually the whole

Greek

threw this in their teeth.'


added after this verb.

'

of the person is generally

(TTpaToircSov,

uxTTi Kttl
fleet

'

could hear.'

5.

'my

8ai|i6vioi,

dear friends,' 'good

sirs,'

a form of

address used to express sometimes pity, sometimes surprise,

and sometimes contempt.

dvaKpov<r0

6.
TToVov xpovov
go on backing water?'

/card

long do you

still

with accusative.

TO irpos 'EXv(rivos

8.

how

to the Athenians,' a fre-

Kard *A6T|vaiovs, 'opposite

7.

quent use of

'

Notice the idiomatic use of the present.

K'pas,

'

the wing towards Eleusis

and the west.' Contrast the use of the accusative in line 10,
and see note on 8, 20. Greek syntax loves variety. No
difference of meaning is here given by the change of case.
11.
nipatd. See Map.
15.

ovre ovSc'v.

16.

^iieXXe

them

Cf, 4, 17.

<xni^r\,

'

such a fate was likely to happen to

as did actually occur.'

iroXXw

17.

dfJLvovS

eavrwv

than they were at Artemisium.'


eavTkbv

'

'

far braver

and so takes ^

after

'

is

afxeivove^

here regarded as a

it.

Trds Tis irpo9vnovfivos Kal 4>oPov|jivos, in apposition

to the plural subject,


25.

irpos EvPo<j,

braver than they had ever been

single comparative,
18.

rj

The idiomatic phrase

irp^s

Twv

a not unfrequent idiom in Greek.


on the
fidXio-ra,

-iroXeiiiwv

nearest the enemy.'

local,

'

side

Noh'A

17

Page 16
5.

iavnjv dYa6d

9.

avTois djivviiv,

H,

and

diroorTp^4''^s

rtttrutiou
14.

til

7.

'turned

^Tpd"irTo,

course and gave his

liin

t)tluT \<ssfls.'

Mark

KaTt8v<r<.

d"yuv(]i<Tai

The present

'..

was helping the Greeka.' Digtinguish


construetionB of d/xOyu and dfiOyofiau. See

the meiiiiiu^s uiul

noWs ou

Cf. 13,

iiroirio-tv.

refers to her ^tneral

the

cliange

conduct in

of

tense.

battle

tlie

the

aorint to a }>articul}ir act.


15.

Kttl ipunu)vr\.,

10.

I^^o-av,

17.

TO

and

'

to

Xerxes when he asked.'

they said yes.'

Cf.

oi"'

<prjfi.i

'

say no.'

probably 'figure-head,' not

iirltni^kov,

'flag,'

writer says that Artemisia varied her colours, showing

now Persian

Greek,

but this

is

though

unlikely,

One
now

flags are

represented as early as this at the sterns of Athenian ships

(How and WeUs).


19.

JI.01,

dative

become women.'
is

my

the

'

Celsus doing

person concerned,

of

Cf.

Horace, quid

This particular use

'

'my

men have

I
'what
sometimes called

inihi Celsus agit


is

ethic dative.'

arc Yap

23.

ka-fatfivro,

'

for since those

being destroyed knew how to swim,


lives in

verb

if

hand-to-hand combat they got safe

ffifi^ofiai

is

whose ships were

they did not lose their


to Salamis.'

The

sometimes constructed as a verb of motion.

Cf. 1, 15.

Page 17
3.

^vTav0a,

5.

els

'

it

was

TO irpoo-Ocv

at this point.

irapie'vai,

'

'

Cf. 4, 12.

to pass

to the front with

their ships.'
6.

<is

exhibit
7.

ships
8.

aTToScilopLcvoi ^ao-iXci,

some deed

'

in order also themselves to

of prowess to the king.'

rais o-<|>Tpais irtpwirnrrov, 'collided with their

when they were


t8oi, optative of

own

fleeing.'

frequency.

Cf. diatpeiryoiev (line 19).

Notes

48
Tw

10.

The mountain opposite Salamis was

opi.

11.

Tov iroiiio-avTa,

12.

iraTp60v,

name

called

See Map.

Aegaleos.

'

name

the

of the

'from his father,'

lit.

added,' a special honour.

Cf.

man who

i.e.

did

it.'

'with his father's

'ApKXTeidrjs

Avaifxdxov

(12, 22).

14.

virooTavTcs,

15.

Tw

'

posting themselves as in ambush.'

iropOjiw,

the straits between Salamis and

i.e.

Attica.

Tv vv, partitive

18.

genitive.

Translate :' they were

sinking both those of the ships which withstood

which were
20.

<j>pd|ivoi elo-t'iriirTov,

in with the Aeginetans.'


22.

vTTo
Cf.

force.'

them and those

fleeing.'
'

running at

(p^po/xai

TOV TTilov (TTpaTov,

Homer,

'

full

speed they

fell

often indicates rapidity.


to the protection of the

land

^Xdev.

virb "IXlov

Page 18
TJKOvo-av

1.

apwrra,

'gained the highest reputation.'

Latin bene audio.


'EXXijvwv, partitive genitive,
17,

'among

the

Greeks.'

Cf.

Cf.

18.
^KiTo,

8.

'

was

(ivpiai Spaxp-ai,

See note on

offered.'

6, 11.

about 400.

8s dv Xt), graphic for

'

whosoever should capture.'

Cf. 1,

14.

Seivov Ti iroiovvTo,

9.

10.

subject.
13.

|x^v 8tj,

'

'

they counted

so then,' often used to

it

a monstrous thing.'

sum up and

dismiss a

Cf. 1, 13.

avT^Ka

KttT

'at

ctpxas,

the very beginning of the

battle.'

The
having hoisted his sails.
The greater sails were, if possible,
put ashore. Hoisting sail was a proof of flight, since in battle
the trireme took down mast and sail and used only oars
(How and WeUs).
14.

sails

rd

la-Tia dpd|ivov,

'

were furled for action.

"

'

Xofra
Imd

V.)

15.

otxrdai ^v70KTa,

IH.

iv -irpu/Tois TTJs vaujiaxias. |iiititivf jjt'iiitive,

K'uie off in Mij'ht.

*amuDg

l\\v first in llu- lll^^ll^;t'Iuenl.'

vofd

24.

'

x*'^*''

tt'iJ'>K tl>*?

coast of SuluiuiH."

Page 19
1.

yivos, jvccusative of respect,

2.

dWpT]<rv

aytiiv,

3.

irdvras,

niiihatic

by

'

birth.'

Cf. 6, 1.

took them and disembarked them.'

'

'the

by position,

Persians

all

of

6aa,

them.

Twv vavayCtav, partitive genitive depending on

5.

the wrecks which happened to be

all

bay).'

in

iroWd

Cf. tlov yaiayiii}i>

12.

fii]

diroXT](|>6(ls

Europe and run

Kiy5vPv<rri of.

18,

13.

^PovXcvt.

14.

tirttpdro.

his attempt to

of

lest

'

he should be cut

utter ruin.'

For the

off

vivid

8.
'

began

to think of.'

Tlie impt-rfect denotes /r^fece

Translate

of Xerxes.

risk

in that part (of the

(line 8).

Kiv5vvv<rji,

tlie

still

'

on the part
he made as though he was continuing

make a causeway.'

This work was independent of the causewas intended to protect and help the men working

yavXovs o-uv^Sci.

way.
at

It

it.

iropeo-Kcvao-Tai,

19.
is fully

another vivid construction,

SiavoCas,

21.

{(iireipov

22.

&jtaKa, idiomatic.

this,

'

that he

prepared.'

he

alf^o

acquainted with his character.'

Translate: 'while he was doing

proceeded to send....'

tls Iltpo-as, i.e. to

24.

'

2<mv

ovSiv

Susa.

irapaYtYvtrai,

'

there

is

nothing that

arrives quicker,'
25.

ovTw

Ovqrov

6v,

'

at least

e|cvpT]Tai tovto,

'

elaborated by the Persians.'

For the development

nothing that
to

is

mortal.'

such an extent has this been

Il^po-ais

is

dative of the agent.

of this construction see 6, 11

and 18;

7,9.
E. S.

Notes

50

Page 20
oVwv 68ds,

1.

corresponding to the number of days

'

required for the whole journey.'


dv8pS.

tiriroi Kttl

2.

8i<rTcio-i,

3.

'

ovK

etp-yei ^r\

See note on

ov

Our idiom

iroteiv,

10,

'

he sent

is

'

letters

for each day.'

them

does not prevent

'

doing.'

4, 20.

Tov irpoKifivov 8p6[iov,

6.

Cf.

viii.

13.

iii.

are stationed at intervals.'

Ka0' Tifitpav Kdo-TTiv.


5.

Esther

Cf.

by posts on horseback,' also

'

the course allotted to him.'

7.

4,

rnv TaxtoTTiv.
adverbial one,
Sic^cpxerai

'as

Understand

The accusative

bbov.

is

an

quickly as possible.'

rd 7rapa8i86nva,

'

the messages delivered run

their course.'

dative of person concerned.

Tois "EXXtio-iv,

7.

We

say

*of the Greeks' or 'with the Greeks.'

The Greek torch race was of two


The runners start abreast, each with a lighted
He who first carried his torch alight to the goal was
torch.
The one referred to here was a relay or team
(ii)
the winner,
*

Xa|j.'ira8T]<}>opia.

8.

kinds

race.

'

(i)

Cf. Lucretius, et quasi cursores vital

rds

11.

68ov)s p-vpo-ivais <rT6p<rav.

lampada tradunt.
Gospel account

Cf. the

of the entry into Jerusalem.


13.

Iv Trdo-iv d<j)0dvois,

14,

ir|X.0ov(ra,

Tovs
16.

will to

x''''""V-5

in all kinds of festivity.'

arriving close

upon the

Cf. the

Kareppiilav.

first.'

Jewish custom.

MapSoviov. Mardonius had urged Xerxes against his


undertake his expedition against Greece. He was one

of the two
20.

'

commanders

<ru}j.4>opdv

of the land forces.

Ko\.ov\iivov,

'

being

much distressed because

of the sea-fight.'
23.
s avTos 8tri 8ik7]v, that he himself
For the graphic construction cf. 19, 19,
'

will

be punished.'

Notes

Til

Page 21
ov ydp (vXwv

1.

depends our

dytitv

in

all

'for

ii^^v,

cariieH our all

tiuibora wlucli

Src note on

jill.*

ir4>p46a nis lUXoirovvrjo-ov,

3.

not a contest of

ih

it

'on which

in all for us,' i.e.

"

14.

7,

let

make an attempt

UH

on the PeK>ponni'se.'
hi

<l

4.

Kal 8oK

<ir^x*'^v.

^^^^

'

'^

prefer to

reully

>'""

wait....'
l Sk apa <rol ^fPouXcvrai,
6.
but if after all {dpa) you
have quite made up your mind....' Cf. 19, 25.
'

KaTa-ycXeuTTovs"EXXtjo-iv,

7.

Greeks,'
ovS^v

*a

laughing-stock to the

by failing in their attempt on the Peloponnese.

i.e.

n^p<rais

^v Tois

Y^Jip

"irpa-YpiaTwv,

'

for

it

was not

in

Persian hands that any one of our operations was ruined.'

For the idiom


'

Sophocles, ev

cf,

^o^viKcs

9.

KCXiKcs.

such people as Phoenicians,'


^yvovTo,

10.

KttKol

12.

TO iroXv,

13.

cp^ 8i

hand over
14.

men

to

'

<Toi

<T(^^ofjLai.

Note the omission of the


*

mere Phoenicians,'

proved cowards.'

'

the

main

88ovX<i)(i^vt]v,

'but

the greater part,'

irapa<rxiv

'

body.'
it is

my

duty to

you Greece enslaved.'

diroXt^ajitvov,

'

after

selecting for

my

work 300,000

of our army.'

16.

K KttKwv,

(is

'considering

lit.

'considering his previous evil plight.'


of

article,

etc.

it

was

after evils,'

ThuCN'dides, ovk dbvvaTos Xifeiv ws Aa/ce5at/x6i'tos,

lis cf.

i.e.

For the idiomatic use


'

not

a bad speaker considering he was a Spartan,'


21.

[itTacTTTiCT-dfitvos,

24.

Trl

Tois irapovo-i

circumstances,

homewards,'
27.

|i6'

having bidden the rest to withdraw,'


oirCo-w,

'

however, in view of present

consider that you yourself should start off

Cf.
tSv

'

1,

5.

PovXerai, contracted for

/xer'

iKdvuiv oOs

/Soi/-

Xerat.

Idv

irpoxttp^'crxi

to him...,'
28,

i,e,

(Tov

'

if

X^y**-- ''^-

'

i^

what he promises prospers

he succeeds in his undertaking....'

TO IpYov

"yi-yvcTai,

'

the

achievement

becomes

yours,'

42

Notes

52

Page 22
1.

(Tov irepiovTos,

iroXXovs,

many

of

'

'

if

you

survive.'

kinds.'

ttoXXcikis,

2.

d"yc3vas Spajiovvrai, 'will

3.

edv Tt

euphemism

TrdOrj,

if

'

run

'

risks.'

at

many

times.'

See note on 11,

anything happens to him,'

7.

a common

for failure or death.

We say 'need
For the tense cf. aov to ^pyov ylyverai (21, 28).
would he have been remaining.'
8.
?fievv dv, lit.
so frightened was he.'
ovTtos e<f)opiTo, just our idiom,
having thanked.' Cf. 31, 16.
eiraive'o-as,
9.
ls''E<j><rov, thence to Sardis, and thence to Susa.
10.
See note on 10, 24.
11.
TT)s vuKTos.
12.
dini'yov, began to put off.'

\6-yos ovStls Y^Yverai, 'no account is taken.'

be taken.'

'

'

'

'

13.

s rdxovs ^x^v cKaoTos,


Cf.

of speed.'
14.

<|)vXa|ov<ras

Pao-tXti,
Note that

king to pass over.'

u>s

to

'

as each could in respect

ttoScGv

dxov.

guard the pontoons

for the

4>vXa|ovio-as is constructed with

Tropv0T|vai is infinitive of purpose.

Tois ^^aCj (line 11).

15.

lit.

the similar phrase,

Zoster was the name of a promontory


Sunium and Phalerum, formed by the end

Zaxmfjpos.

Attica between

Mount Hymettus.
16.

-rqs TJireipov, ablatival,

18.

eirl

Xjjovw,

'

iroXv,

'

cKoptovTo,

20.

TOWS

'

of

from the mainland.'

for a long distance.'

after a time.'

19.

in

Cf. 3, 15.

they proceeded on their voyage.'

'

Cf. 23,

22.

allies).'

the main body at least


-ye iroXXovs,
The Athenians were ready to follow him.
'

having chajiged

22.

p.TaPaXv,

23.

vpTi|xa "ydp cvpiiKap-cv, a

over.'

proverbial expression for

have had an unexpected stroke of

the

(of

luck.'

'

we

Cf. Euripides, evprj/xa

KdWiCTTOV evprjKa.
24.

men.'

v4>os

dirwOovvTCs,

'

in repelling such a vast cloud of

Nott^i

:>:i

Page 23
i^OdvT^aav,

1.

'conceivinl jeuloiiMy that....'

6u)p is a favourite

upon

as a shive to be scourged

Ht'lKsj)oiit

tlif

<pd6yoi

T)ie barbarian Xerxes

k^AorrLyoKTi Kal -ir^as liri^Kw.

4.

lo<iked

The

theme with Herodotun.

and

chained.
6.

firl

'

See note on

EXXt^ottovtou.

8, 20.

dpa
Ixn d'Tro<rTpo<|>TJv, in order that, if by
any chance some disaster ovi-rtuok him from the side of the
Athenians, he might have a refu^'e.' For the moods in this
sentence see note on 2, 12.
For irpos 'AO-qvafcDv see note on
tva, klv

8.

'

6, 9.

ravra X^-ywv Su'^aXXcv, 'by these words he was putting

10.

them

ofif

the scent,*

misleading them.'

'

<riYdv, to be taken with a eVAei'f,

13.

'

to be silent

about

what he commanded....'
els irdo-av

cessive

The

pd<ravov d4>iKop.(vois.

Translate

force.

torture.'

though

'

participle has a con-

put to every kind of

'among whom.'

14.

v, partitive genitive,

18.

X^OKTa.

21.

KaB' Ti<ruxiav Koji^to", 'proceed in peace.'

Cf. 3,

28

17, 6

and

Xucrojraj (line 25).

Page 24
1.

Tov iropov,

i.e.

TTiv

" Av8pov.

The

the bridge of boats.


island of Andros

was the most northern

of the Cyclades.
2.

vTi<riwTv,

without the

article, often

Greece,' sometimes the Athenian

use of
6.

/SacriXfi'j

05v

without the

c-mipoXoi

denotes

'

in general.

all

island
Cf. the

article.

ovtcs,

of two unkindly gods, Poverty

'

Empire

'

being themselves in possession

and Want.'

See note on 1, 13.


"AvSpov 6p|Utf|icvos, lit. 'starting from Andros,'
making Andros his base.'
7.

|iiv 8ij.

9.

(|

i.e.

Notes

54
Xd6p9,

11.

other

nine

o-rpaTTi-ywv,

strategi,'

'without the knowledge of the

who managed

the

foreign

affairs

of

Athens.
12.

01 d|x<|)l H^'pl'H^'

Tr\y avTTiv 686v,

14.
*

idiomatic for

'

Xerxes and his army.'

Cf. 21, 4.

irurxovTs.

cognate accusative with i^-qKavvov,

were returning by the same route by which they had come.'

Cf. 11. 7;

?8o|

and

22, 2.

Mardonius determined to escort the king,


same time he determined that it was too late in the
hostilities.'
Notice that Ibo^e is used in two different
Tro\fjiiv,

'

at the

year for

senses just as our

determined

'

'

can be.

17.

irtipdo-Oai ttJs IIcXoirovvTJo-ov.

22.

ov8v |Xpos ws

e'lTrelv,

Cf. 21, 3.

no part so

'

to speak,'

i.e.

'

only

a small part comparatively.'


26.

VTTa|ji'vas.

See Vocabulary under kvrdvia.

Page 25
Carystus was a town in the

KdpuoTov.

2.

south

of

Euboea.
3.

avTwv, of the Carystians.

6.

8wo-ovTs,

9.

Tw Pwnw Tov

'

intending to give.'
IloarciSwvos, outside the temple of Poseidon

at the Isthmus,
10.

KpvovTS,

'

in the process of selecting.'

See note on

5, 13.

gave his vote.'

11.

t0to TTiv

x|/TJ<j)ov,

12.

8VTpov h\

KpivovTs,

'

'

but the majority agreed in

placing Themistocles second.'


13.

ol

(Jtv

hr\

tfjiovovvTo,

'

so the others were left in a

minority of one.'
14.

won

Scvrepefois, instrumental.

Translate:

'Themistocles

easily by second places.'

20.

api,o-Tia, predicate,

21.

(rT<}>avov,

'

as prizes of valour.'

'wreath,' not 'crown.'

.\uft

Page 26
I.

O also

Twv

^x^P*^**. p<iititivf

rtiliv

^-n-i4>avwv in the

3.

Sid rds 'Adr^vas,

6.

ovTcjs

7.

Iv RXpivi'i-qs.

small island
8.

ovt'

dv

thanks to Athens.'

'

'

if

the south

<rv

Imd been a citizen of Belbina,'

v 'AOTjvaios.

6 vavTiKos.

'

nor would you, though you

(How and

arpardi

of Attica.

coiis-t

are (like mo) an Athenian


9.

'

'

line.

'.vts, that's it.'

^x**^'

olT

i^enitive, one of the eiu'inifs

next

Wells).

But

generally added.

is

cf.

lines

21, 22.
10.

irpoo-cyilt,

'

had reached,'

The Thracian Chersonese forms the


Northern shore of the Hellespont.
II.

Xcpo-oviio-ow.

12.

"ApvSov.

Abydos was on the Asiatic

side

of

the

Hellespont, opposite to Sestos.

Cyme was

Kv^Y].

the largest of the Aeolian cities of Asia

Minor, on the coast of Aeolis, on a bay named after


13.

o-vveXt'-yeTO els Sd(iov,

one of the chief islands of the Aegean,


from which
14.

it is

cv 8i

Tg

separated by a narrow
2)dfiu>-

p.7i

diro<rng,

'

they kept an eye on Ionia, to prevent


16.

ov

particles:

[).r\v

ofif

the coast of Ionia,

strait.

and remaining in Samos


it

ov8i irpoo-tSc'xovTO.

'they

it.

'proceeded to muster at Samos,'

revolting.'

Mark

the force

of

the

did not however expect.'

Understand

18.

n^v avTwv.

20.

Tovs 8"EX.Xtivas

v,

yrji'.

'but the Greeks were stirred up

by the coming of spring and by the presence

of

Mardonius

in

Thessaly.'

See note on

23.

dpiOjjLov.

24.

irape^^vovTO,

'Iwvwv dY-ycXoi,
sons

who

6, 1.

had arrived.'
'some lonians as envoys,'
'

took upon themselves this duty.

unofficial per-

56

Notes

Page 27
ot

2.

'hut they led

TO "ydp

3.

Delos,'

iropp(i>Tp(i) irdv,

As

further than

for everything

festival there.

ov Tv Toirtov ovo-iv

causal use of the parti-

}Ji7ripois,

'since they were unacquainted with the geography,'

ciple,

and the Asiatic


of armed men

of the islands

place

'

full

the

were accustomed to go

far as that island they

annual

4.

'

north and east of Delos, the smallest of

i.e.

Cyclades.
for the

The relative should be resolved in


them on hardly as far as Delos.'

irpoii7a"yov.

translation:

'

And

coast.

(crrpaTids

i.e.

they thought every

fj-ecrTo.)

they were so

nervous.
TTiv 8^ Sdfiov

5.

t<rov direxeiv,

'

and Samos they thought

as far distant as the Pillars of Heracles,' which to the Greeks

were the end of


to-ov,

6.

10.

dfj-a

|JL^v

11.

oLfJia

84

ciple

things westward.

all

accusative of extent.

djMi

See note on 19, 22.

8.

iru9o|iVos.

answering to

iifxa

fuu

on

Note the causal use of the partiTranslate


and at the
^aav.
:

same time because Mardonius had learnt.'


The Tpb^evoi, or public
12.
irpo^cvos.

'

representatives,

looked after the interests of the states by which they were


appointed, answering roughly to our modern Consuls.
14.
dpa, *it was
words of another,

Xv iroXvv
strong

'

of Joel

Kttl
ii.

said,'

lrxvp6v,
2,

16.

iraGtifiaTa, i.e. at

TovTwv

over to his

exactly

a great people and a

Artemisium and Salamis.


if the Athenian fleet could be

irpo(rYvo|ji'vv,
side.'

'

there used of locusts.

17.

won

sometimes used to introduce the

'

Notice that Trpoayiyvofxai

is

used as the

passive of irpoaKrao/xai. (line 13), and, generally, that ylyvofxai

and

its

compounds

are employed as the passives of

verbs.
19.

iroXv.

24.

rds

See note on line

e^ iKilvbiv els

l\ijk

6.

yvo\Uvas.

Cf. line 13.

many

Notes

i'i7

Page 28
dXXi]v

2.

i\i<rdutv avTof,

and other

'

territory besides let

ihein cliooso thcuisrlvt's.'


8.

5vTs avTdvop.oi,

8.

irdpm

clude a splendid
this,'

lit.

16.

right

vjMis

^X*'''*

to con-

is set

on

inclined this way.'

is

the Biblical phrase, 'a strong

Cf.

and Ovid, an

negcis louftas

Lontjimnmm.

y^^'

''^'i*'

you

to

heart

out arm'

'^^'^ \&iu\

which you hold

(i.e.

Attica)

battle-ground.'

^'tuui

-'A6T]vaiovs,

'

Athenians to

to bring the

uuderstuiuiiiii; with the Persian.'

20.

TO)

22.

Awpttuo-iv.

called the

'

Cf.

PapPdpo).

Dorian

TV

(line 24).

ll^pa-ri

In poetry the Peloponnese

viro

MtjSwv,

Mark

Peloponnese by the Persians.'

according

to

tlie

is

sometimes

island.'

ntXoTrovviio-ou

^KirCiTTCtv

of the

is

ls 6pioXo"yav

19.

an

a specially

open

Cf. also the title Artaxerxes

anil stretched

rtriibu* esst' inanus

is

'it is

j>eace, seeing tluit the king's

vnrpp.TJKTjs.

x*^*

tlicm be independent.'

Itl

u>p\ir\^Uvov

since the king

'

hand

and

'

ravTQ

sense.

The verb

'

be cast

out

the construction

wiirTu (and its

compounds)

often used as a passive of /SctXXw.

Page 29
I.

(Tvv^iriirTcv

-^Cyvf<rQai,

'

it

fell

out that the two things

were coiucident.'
5.

k^' 6fjioXo-YC(;i,

7.

itroCovv, i.e.

diro8iKvvp.cvoi

wishes.'

See

'

with a view to an agreement.'

they waited,
yv(>i\i.r]v,

'

by way of exhibiting their own

5, 13.

II.
i\}ids Kara rr\v 'EXXdSa, 'the Spartans sent us to beg
you not to do anything revolutionary in the Greek world.
For the local sense of /card with the accusative cf. 3, 1'2; 12, 21.

of

12.

jitJt

15.

vfiiv 84 8ti

all, for

many

p.T]8v.

Cf. ovT

ov5a/jLU}s (line 14).

iroXXJiv ^vtKa,

reasons.

'

and

to

you indeed

least of

Notes

58

Understand

17.

irepl rr\% vfieWpas.

18.

apxTJv, an adverbial accusative,

first.'

Similarly Herodotus has

irrl

Cf. 26, 18.

777s.

to begin with,'

'

dpxw-

o-0as up/xrjdrjaav

'

at

Cf

the similar use of tAoj.


'

(|>pTai.,

it

spreads.'

otrivts del <}>aiv<r6e,

21.

'

inasmuch as you always show

yourselves.'
22.

irieto|Jie'vois

crvvax66}Ji0a,

'

however we sympathise

with you in your hardships.'


TO. els ir6X|xov dx,pT|(rTa

25.

iravra,

'

your belongings

all

unfit for war.'


26.

dv

^(os

o-vveo-TTiKT),

as long as this

'

war

is

fought.'

Cf.

12, 21.

TovTO) TToiTiTea Io-tI. The dative of the agent is the


27.
normal construction after verbal adjectives.
28.
Tvpavvos wv, causal, 'since he is a despot.' rvpawos
here has an invidious sense. Alexander was really a legitimate

national king.
30.

ctirep,

'

that

if,

is.'

Cf. 13, 30.

Page 30
avTof,

'

we

5.

Kttl

6.

iroXXairXacrCa

many

also ourselves,'

i.e.

as well as you.

'the power of the Persians

r\\i.lv,

is

times greater than ours.'

7.

TovTO oviihlliiv.

8.

d}Jtvvov|X0a

See note on 15,

8vv|X0a,

'

we

4.

will repel

them

as best

we

can.'
9.

fiilTe <rw

0VT6

"fwnis ireKrojjteOa.

linked with negative statement,

Note the prohibition

'do not you try to over-perWith

suade us, as surely as we will not obey them.'


cf.

dvairciOciv

dva5i.5daKLP (7, 22).


12.

'i<as

dv 6

TJXios

Kal

vvv,

'

as long as the

Sun

travels

along the same path as he does now.'


tt)v

avTT^v 686v,

cognate accusative with

177.

Cf. 11, 7

22, 2.
13.

\Lri-irort

ofioXo^iio-civ.

Mark

that

fxri

the infinitive after verbs of strong assertion.

is

often used with

14.

<rup.fuixo^ti preilicaU',

dfiw^^voi,

'

truHting to godn as

ciple here see note

on

5, 13.

Tov XoiiroO, genitive of time within which,

10.

not you for

show yourself making such

future

tlu'

See note on

the Athenians."

allies.'

For the present parti-

wreaking vengeance.'

'

l<i,

*and

24.

SoKwv xp1<""a virovp-yiiv, while appearing


useful service 'cognate accusative.
18.

ly.

to render

ov

ow8iv

any harshness

'

we do not wish you

hands

'seeing

6vTa,

20.

dxapi,

at the

do

pro]>osals to

to experience

of the Athenians.'

you

tlmt

are...,'

causal

use of the

participle.
Cf. 27, 12.

'irp6^vov.

24.

TO

\iXv

4>op(ur6ai

dvdpwirciov

i^v, 'it

we should come

for the Spartans to fear that

was quite natural


to

terms with the

Persians.'
^r\ 6^XoY>i<rb>ficv

For the moods see note on

i^v.

2, 12.

Page 31
1.

shame,

aUrxpws 7 Sokcitc

oppwSciv,

'you appear,

to entertain a fear.'

concessive

^irwrrdjitvoi,

use of

the

participle,

knowing the Athenian spirit.'


2.
Y^s ouSajiov, nowhere iu the world,'
'

to

'

your

though

partitive genitive

of place within which.


3.

ovT x<^P-

beauty and
4.

r\\Lil^

should be

vrrepPdXXovo-a,

'

nor laud so abounding in

fertility.'

cd(\oip.ev,
on receiving which we
Note that the relative may be used in

8c|d|Xvoi

willing....'

'

the neuter referring to inanimate antecedents which are masculine or feminine.


5.

KaTa8ov\w<rai,

6.

KwXvovra

8.

ols

9.

is

10.

to

Tifiwptiv,
rd

i.e.

by joining the Persians.

See note on 4, 17.


'which we must avenge.'

^r\ irouiv.

jie'-yKTra,

'to the uttermost.'

TO EX\t]vik6v, Hellenic nationality,' which, according


'

'

Herodotus in this passage, has four distinguishing features.

Notes

60
It

depends, he says, on

(iii)

common

(of all

13.

ovK dv v

14.

?(i)s

(ii)

common language,

omission

the

the

of

article,

people in the world).

'ixoi,

dv Kal

blood,

similar customs.

(iv)

Note

*A0T]vaovs.

12.

'Athenians'

common

(i)

worsliip,

it

'

would never be

ls '"epi'n,

right.'

so long as even one Athenian

survives.'
eiraivoviiev tt)v irpovoiav,

16.

See note on 22,

thought.'

trpodhiTi

17.

18.

o'lKCTas,

we thank you

'you had regard

iifJLcGv,

genitive of the object

'

cf.

for

your

fore-

9.

22,

for

us.'

For the

15,

'households,' including wife, children, and

servants.
Kttl v}iiv

f\

xdpis KirTrX7fpTai, 'and on your part the boon

owing to the generous


For vyXv see note on 19, 25.
stands complete,'

19.

we

can.'

20.

dvTi(m](r6n0a

av ^x"l^^;

b-ircos

'

mentioned.

^'^ will resist as best

Cf. 30, 8.

vvv

8e,

TovTcov ovTws exdvTwv, 'but as for the present,

things being as they are

'

Latin quae cum ita

22.

ov iroXXov xpdvov.

23.

ls TTiv TifieTcpav.

iiixds,

sint.

See note on 22, 16.


Cf. 29, 18.

Trapetvat els ti^v 'Attikt]v.


24.

offer just

Cf. 6, 18.

both Spartans and Athenians.

VOCABULARY
ABBREVIATIONS
aocuA.

ocuative.

neg.

ct

active.
ailjective.

neut

dj.

adverb.
aorlst

dv.
or.
ooiup.

conf
contr.
dat.

ncKative.
neuter.

nominative.

noui.
opt.

i-omi>aratlve.

pass.
pers.

conjunction.
contracted.

plup.

<lative.

pl.

optative.
passive.

personaL
perfect.
pluperfect.
plural.
preiMjsition.

pf.

demunstr.

demonstrative.

prep.

esp.

esj>ecially.

pres.

present.

fern.

feminine.
future.
genitive.
imi>erfect
imj>ersonal.
indeclinable.
indicative.

pron.
reL

pronoun.

fuL

subj.
subst.
Buperl.

subjunctive.
substantive.
superlative.

v. a.

verb active.
deponent.

impersonal.

middle.

?en.

uup.
impers.
incIecL

indie

relative.

V. d.

impers.
mid.

v.

Ut.

intlnitive.
intran.sitive.
literally.

V. n.

mid.

middle.

V. subst.

infln.

intrans.

v.

neuter.
substantive.

For the principal parts of many of the compound verbs reference


must be made to the simple verbs.

d-^ovXia

7?,

bad advice.
(borrowed comp.

a-yaOos, Vt ^v

BtXrCwv, superl.

dfjLCivwv or

dpwTTos or pt'XTwrros),
brace;

noble,

apwrra

superl.

{loud,

adv.

to, aros,

d.y>(tXCa

i],

dyyeXos

6, ov,

as,

image, statue.
message.
messenger.

dY^ikkut, v.a. fut. d77e\a), aor.


,

fiyyeiXa, pf. ^fyyeX/ca, report,

announce.
d-yw, v.a., fut. a^w, aor. ^7070;^,
lead, bring.

d-ywv

6,

wfos,

contest;

pl.

games.
olYvi]^o(jtai, v.d.

in the games).

d6Xov

t6, ov, prize.

v.a.,

aip^ti),

fut.

alp^au, aor.

eiXov, pf. fp-qKa, take, seize;

mid. choose.

best.

ayak^ia

from

adv. always, ever;


time to time.

d^i,

al'pw, v.a,, fut. dpCj, aor.


pf.

77p(ca,

^pa,

raise; so also in

mi'l.

alcddvofiai,

v.d.,

fut.

alad-q-

aor.
fiado/xrit',
riadrjfjLai, perceive.
aofxai,

pf.

shameful, disal<rxpos 0.,


adv.
graceful ;
al<rxps,
shamefully.
^v,

alrco), v.a. ask.

contend (esp.

aiTidofULi, v.d. blame, accuse.


al'Tios, a, ov, causing; guilty.

62

Vocahula^-y

aKovco, v.a., fut. cLKovaofxai, aor.


dKrjKoa,

pf.

iJKovffa,

hear

(with gen. of person) dKova>


apio-ra, have the best report,
;

be best

sjwken

of.

(iKpa 7), as, promontory, headland.


dKpo-PoXito|xai, v.d. skirmish.
dKpo-0Lvia rd, Jirstfruits (of
spoil).
^

aKpo-iroXis

aKwv,

ews, citadel.

17,

oi'cra, ov,

dXi]6eia

true; adv. dX-qGuls,

dXTiG-rjs, ^s,

truly.

dX(rKO|xai, v.d., fut. d\<J}ao/xai,

aor. edXojv,

edXw/ca,

pf.

to sea.

dva-SiSdo-Kb), v.a. teach othericise or better.

dva-Kpovojiai, v.d. back water.


dva-Xa|xpdv<u, v.a. take up.
dv-dXwTos, ov, impregnable.
dva-fiip-injo-Kw, v.a. remind.
dva-irdQoi, v.a. over-persuade.
dva-irXt'o), v.n. sail up, put out
to sea.

xinwilling.

as, truth.

17,

dva-ypd^(a, v.a. write up.


dv-dyu), v.a. bring up; put

fee

dva-crxcTos, op, tolerable.


dva-Tivw, v.n. stretch up.
dva-Tpeirw, v.a. overturn.
dv-i|ii, v.n. go up, rise.
dvv, prep, with gen., without.

dXXd, conj.

dvqp

but.

dXXos, 7;, 0, another, other;


01 dXXoi, f/ie rest; r\ dXXt]
'EXXds, ^^e rest of Greece.
dXXws, adv. othericise, besides.

adv. at the same time ;


prep, together with (with

dfjia, (1)

(2)

d^iapria

t),

as, error, sin.

See d'yaOos.

d}idv<av.

(with dat.)
mid. d|ivvonai, defend oneself ; repel; take vengeance.
dp.(j>, prep, around, about (usu.
with accus. in Prose).
condv (a), particle
(1)
v.a. help

ditional, with indie, or opt.


in the apodosis of a conditional sentence; (2) indefinite, with relative or
relative particle

dv

(a)

with subj.

= edv.

place against;

resist.

dv0p(6ireios,

a,

ov,

belonging

man, human.
dyBpuiros 6, 01;, human being,
man.
wvOpcairc, my good
to

felloic!

necessary.
7],

77s,

dv-6<rios, a, ov, unholy.


dvT-t'xft), v.n. hold out, resist.
dvTt, prep, with gen., against;
instead of.
dvTi-Ti0ii[JLi, v.a. set against,
set opposite.
d|i6-|iaxos, ov, a match in

battle.

d|LOS,

a,

ov,

worthy, worth;

d^Los TToXXov, worth much.


dir-ayyeXXa), v.a. bring back
word, bring tidings.
dir-d-yca, v.a. bring away, lead

away.

dvd, prep, with ace, up, up


along.
dva-^aivb), v.a. make to go up
v.n. go up.
dva-yKaius, adv. with '4\t\., it is

dvayKT]

mid.

dv-op66(i), v.a. set up, restore.

dat.).

dfivvo),

dv8p6s, mxin.

6,

dv6-i(rTT]p.i, v.a.

necessity.

dir-aXXdTTft),

v.a.

set

free;

mid. get free, depart.


diras, aaa, av, all together.
dirdn] rj, 775, deceit.
d'ir-eifii,

v.n. go

away.

dir-eXavvo), v.a. drive away.


dir-c'xa), v.n. be distant.

Vocahnhi I'll

{\\\

dp^w.
dttitt>^y.

dw6,

lift,

with

pri'p.

^i-ii.,

Jmin,

from.

iiiriitj

/'

begin.

nta*mHch as (with

dT(, I'unj.

diro 0v]j(rKw,

av6is, adv. again.

auTiKa, adv. at once.


avTop.oXiu>, v.n. desert.

avTo vop.os, ov, independent.


avT 6-TrTT]S 0, 01', eye-icitness.
avTos.

ahsftll.

v.n.

t;,

be

die,

killfd.

pron. self, in
oblique cases,
etc.
6 avros.

6,

person;

diro-8i8(i>p,k. v.a. /iiv /xicA*.

in

he, she, it,


the same.

dir6-KpT]pLVos. ov, precipitoun.

awTov, adv. un the spot.

diro-Kpivop.ai. v.d. atisicer.

d ^vClta,
appear;

diro-KTcivw, v.a.

kill.

diro Xap.pdvw, v.a. cut

from.
d-rro-Xciirw, v.a. leave behind.
d-iroXis, t, without a city.
dir-dXXv(ii, v.a. destroy ; lose.

mid. release

diro-Xvoftai,
excuse oneself.
diro-irtyirw, v.a. send away.
diro-TrXtw, v.n. sail atcay.
v.

i),

dificulty,

as,

v.a.

make

to

dig-

sink.

d-<|>6ovos,

off.

diro-Xt'-Yoixai, v.d. select

diropia

rule:

d^u>,

fut.

participle).

diro ^ivM,
v.a.
disembark ;
Mfut. tiiU nut, happen.
OLiro Bi^dj^w, v.a. digrtnbark.
diro-oiKwp.ai, v. luid. discluse.
diro 8T]piw. v.n. tjo uicay, deI'liit.

v.a.,

imd mid.

ungrudging,

ov,

lilitral: plentiful.
d<^-iKv{o\i.a\., v.d.

come, arrive.

d^-L<rra\Lai,
v.
(Iraw, rt'volt.
d-vap>-s,

'.

mid.

loith-

unpleasant.

dx.vop.ai, v.d. be grieved.

dxpr\<rroi,

ov,

unprofitable,

useless.

dis-

d-wp(a

7/,

as,

bad season.

tress.

diropos. ov, dificult.


diro-oTc'XXu), v.a. send
v.a.

diro-o-Tp'4>(>,

and

Paivo), v.n., fut. ^Tjao/jLai, aor,

away.
n. turn

away.
diro-oTpo<|>i]

7/,

v.n.

v.a.,

fut.

/3aXtD,

Jiee

away,

dir-uiUtit, v.a. repel.

dpa, particle,
seems ; after

then

as

it

all.

dpco-Ku), v.n., fut.

dpuTTcia

TO.,

prize

See d-yaOos.
beginning;

^s,

of

^ws, king.

come

to the rescue

PovXcvw, v.a. plan, devise;


mid. deliberate {with one^c^ovresolved on.
PovX-q 7/, ^s, council; advice.
povXop.ak, v.d. wish.
self); pf. pass. part,

rule,

adv. expressions,
KttT apxas, at the beginning:
dpxTJv, tu begin with.
;

6,

(with dat.).

ralour.

dpwTTos.
dp\r\ 7),
empire

pao-iXevs

PoT]0a), v.n.

number.
(jjv,

barbarian, not
6,
Greek, Asiatic.
Papvs, da, V, heavy.
Pdo-avos 17, ov, touch-stone,

Pao-iXcvta), v.n. reign.

^s, excellence.
6, ov,

Pdp^apos

test.

aor.

dp^<xu},

TJpeaa, be pleasing.
T),

aor.

throw,

shoot.

refuge,

Tjs,

escape.

dpiSfios

pf. ^^iSrjKa, go, nuirch.

?/3a\oj', pf. /S^/SXtj/co,

diro-^tvyu,

dpt-rtj

^lirjv,

^dXkoi,

Xv|Ji'vos,

Pu>p,6s 6, ov, altar.

Vocabulary

64
"Yap, conj. for ; Kal
iudiu'd, for uho.

^ap, for

6, oO, merchant-vessel
(Phoenician).

yauXds

y(, particle euclitic, at least, at

any rate ; yes;


yivos, t6, ovs, birth; family
kind.
yepas t6, y^pias, prize.
"Y<})vpa 7], as, bridge.
yf] 77, yrjs, earth, land.
-ye hi,

yiYVO\i.ai, v,d.

aor.

fut.

and

aor. ^yvu}v, pf. ^yvwKu, ob-

T7,

know.
mind;
r)s, opinion;

device, plan.
YpaiijJLaTio-Tii's 6, ov,

yvvr\

secretary.

acKos, icojnan

T],

wife.

with ace. oicing

Saijiovioi,

(2

Si,

strange

Of,

a,

good

sirs

and, now; on
the other hand (answering
conj.

to

but,

fxiv).

Sci, V.

impers., fut.

derjcrei, it is

necessary.
Seivos,

7),

6v, terrible,

strange,

monstrous.
StKa, indecl. ten.

among

themselves.

8ka-^kvw,

v.n. go across.
8ia-pdXX(i>, v.a. speak falsely

beg,

request

8ia-Xvw, v.a.
perse; Jinish.

8ka-vav(jLaxe(o, v.n. fight


at sea.
8i,a-ve'|xofjLat, v.

8ia-voi.a

(with

8o-Tr6TT]s 6, 01', master.


8VTpia TCL, cju, sccoud prizc
or place.
8vTpos, a, ov, second ; adv.
8uTpov, secondly.

8X0fiai, v.d., fut. di^ofxaL, pf.


d^de-^ai, receive.
particle, indeed, generally

for emphasis.
8T]i6ft),

v.a. ravage.

8t]X6, v.a. show.

out

mid. distribute.
thought, inten-

as,

r?,

it

tion; character.
8ia-'irpdTT0nai, v.

mid.

ac-

scatter

a-

complish.
broad.
8ia-TpkP(i), v.n. delay.
8ua-<|>aiva), v.n. shine through.
8ia-<j>iryw, v.n. escape.
8ia-<i>9ip, v.a. destroy, kill.
dia-yiia, v.a. disperse, wreck.
8l8<i)|ii,
v.a., fut. 5u)au}, aor.

idoJKa,

pf.

SeSoj/fo,

give,

v.d. pass on,


run one's course.
8i-i<rTa|jLai, v. mid. and pass.
8i-|-'pxo[iai,

gen.).

8tj,

two hundred.
break up, dis-

a,

at,

offer.

86|i6rr]S v, tjtos, cleverness.


fut.
V.d.,
derja-o/xaL,
Se'ofiai,

leant;

to,

of.

8ia-(rKe8dvvv)ii,
8ai|i6vios,

demo-

(2) with gen. through (of


place or time) by means of.
8i-aipop.ai,
mid. divide
v.

mislead.

yiyv<Ji(rK(ii, v. a., fut. yvucrofxaL,

serve,

(1)

because

8iaK6(rioi,

yeyevTjixai,

people;

01',

yiyova
become

happen.

yvwjxT)

6,

cracy.
8id, prep.

yvr](rofji.ai.,

pf.

iyevbixrjv,

yes and.

8i])jios

be posted at intervals.
8tKaios, a, ov, just, righteous.
justice;
trial;
8kt]
7;s,
7/,

penalty.
8nrXd<rios, a,

ov,

double.

8iKa), v.a. pursue.


8oKa), v.a., fut.

56^cj, thiiik

intrans. seem; impers. Sokci,

good;
seems; it
seemed good, it was
resolved; 88oKTai, it has
seems

it

^8o|, it

been resolved
resolved on.

8c8o-Y)xevov,

66

VrK'iiltnlur
S6Xo

6. 01', (riVAr.

SouX^

at, Mlavrry.

Tf,

SovXoM, v.a. ennhivf.


SfKixK^ Tj, fjt, drachma (silver
coin = 10/. about).
8p6fU>t 6, 01'. rununni; ractStmifia^
aor.

v.ii.,

Svv4us
power.
Svvaros,

(with subj.).
contr.

if

fapoi,

t6,

spring.
iavT6v, t/y,

v.n. fall

from.

4k(i, !ulv. there.


6,

redexive pron.

IkHvos,
that,

v.a. allow.
^yyvs, (1) adv. u>ar, nearly.
tuar.
(2) prep, with gen

KCi(r,

hind.

master of (with

lK-iro8wv, adv. out of the way.


Kwv, ovcra, du, icilling, willinqly.

cXaia

as, olive.

17,

clSov.

See opdw.

fXdTTwi', ov,

clKoCl^b),

V.a. conjecture, guess.

(Xavvw,

cIkos to, ores, f/if reasonable


thing, prohibility.
etp.1,

v.n.

//o

u-ill

shut

in,

imp. mid.
them take.

aor.
let

of

Xv0pdw, v.a. liberate.


hope, expect.

ram.

4|jk-P(iXXca>, v.a.
i\i.6s,

77,

6v,

^(jL-ireipos,

<|>Tl|l.

E. S.

neat. ride.

i\TTiX,<a, v.a.

used as pf. of <|>t])ii.


ttpTjfiai, used as perf. pass, of

tpi]Ka,

prep, with ace, into, to


against.
ls, ft/a, iv, one.

aor.

i\u),

eXevBcpos, a, ov,free.

shut up;

preverit.

els,

fut.

eXrjXaKa, drive;

pf.

i^Xacra,

alpt'cD,

^r]\ii.

less, synaller.

v.a.,

tXeVStuv,

go.

used as 2 aor. of

k-

with

K irXiJTTw, v.a. strike


(ihirin, a^^tound.

iB(ku, v.n. u'ish, be willing.


l, conj. i/' (with ind. or opt.);
cl 8i fiTJ, but failiug that.

V. subst., fut. eao/xai..

be

^K-irX-qpod), y.&.fill up.

/jlov,

cl|i.C,

out;

v.n. fall

K irXa'yeis, pf. part, of


ttXt^ttw.
CK-irXt'w, v.n. sail out.

leave be-

iyt, pers. prou., e/xov, or

send out.

v.a.

cast out.

promote.

^y-KpaTiis, (s,
gen.).

adv. thither.

iK-iri-ima,

"Y-KOTa-Xiir, v.a.

demonstr. pron.
t), 0,
yonder ; he, she, it.

lK-ir^p.irci),

iytipta. fut. (yepCb, aor. /^ft/xi,

tlpyoi, v.a.

into,

tKarov. intiecl. hundred.


tK-Paivu, v.n. disivibark.

rjpos,

Mm,

clirov,

Jail

int(>,

each ; pi.
t;,
oy,
l^KaoTOS.
(EKaoToi, each detachment.
(KOLT(pos. a, or, either {of two).

hini^elf.

,<nr,

in-

It

girength,

8vo, Svoiy, tico.

fop

n.

It, conj. whether. ..or.


(k or {^. prep, with ^en., out

be able.

able; iwasibU.

lav, ooiij.

on.

upon
throw onenclj
dra, julv. then.

of,
oy,

embark
and

v.a.

ewj,

fj,

poXXu),

tlo- -iriirTw,

fut. Svy^ffofiai,

i^iii'TJt^T;*',

Baivu, v.a.

lar

flc-ipxo^ai, v.d. come into.


t(r o8os J;. oi', entrance.

courm".

roiir***,

tlo-

my.
a,

ov,

skilled,

perienced (with gen.

).

C(i-iro8wv, adv. in the icay.


l|i.-irpo<r9(v),

adv. before.

ex-

Vocabulary

66
kv,

prep, with dat., iu,uithiti;


iv <roi, in your

itrC,

among;

kv-avrios, o, ov, opposite, opto.

^v-cip.k, v.n, be in.

some.

v-voOfj.ai, V.

there

See

dream.

marine.

oil,

come on.
pursue after.

7n,--ytYV0fiai, v.d.
eiri-SiciSKO), v.a.

v.a.

7ri-0u(i(o,

desire

out.

|-XaiJV, v.a. drive

out;vmrch

out.

i^-tpy6Xo\iai,

icork

v.d.

out,

accomplish.

come

v.d.

out,

go

it

is

out.

impers.

V.

7r-KifjLat,

v.d. attack.

v.a.

CTrt-Xe'-yu),

say besides.
mid. men-

v.n. sail on.

iri-irXft),

i'irC-(rr]\iov to, ov,

figure-head.

Tr-io-Ta|xat, v.d.

know.

necessary;
friendly.
ciri-rrjSes, adv. on purpose.
iiri-Tldrwii, v.a. place upon.
'7ri-<|)avTis, es, distinguished.
Tri-<|>po|jLai, V. mid. attack.
eiT{.-^T]^ilbi.y.n. put a question
liri-TT]5t.os, a, ov,fit,

|-vpCo-Ka), v.&.Jind out.

^Tro|xai, y.d.

follow.

|-0(rTpaKt5, v.a. ostracise.


cir-ayyeXXoiiai, v. mid. promise.
eir-aiv0), v.a. praise ; thank.

p-ydSop,ai,

v.d.

conj. when, since.

iri"yofiai, v.
iri-8TJ,
(iiT-t\.\n,,

in

c<

v.n.

^p-yov t6, ov,

go

on,

17,

l5o$, strife.

^pXOfJiai,

v.d.,

fut.

iXeijaofiai,

aor.

^Xdov,

pf.

^Xi^Xvda,

come, go.
k<nripa

pro-

v.a. ask.

ij,

^(Txaros,

as,
77,

evening ; west.
extreme;

ov, last,

TO '4(r\aTov, the extremity.

ed

Tr-| 6pxo[xai, v.d.

work, deed.

^pT]|xos, ov, desolate, deserted.

epwxdw,

command.
lireiTa, adv. then, next.

work, accom-

plish.

?pis

mid. press on.

conj. ichen, since.


be
v.n. be on ;

ir-|-ip.i,

attack; dis-

cuss.

to the vote.

alloiced, it is possible.

fir^C,

(with

tion.

K.

I|-<m(v),

to.

TrL-pdTT]S 6,

CTTi-iJLLjxvijo-Koiiai, V.

e^-aipTos, ov, special.


e|-aip(D, v.a. take out, choose

i^-ip\o\i.ai,

a vieic

to-

eiri-KaXeofiai, v. mid. call on.

of.

then

V-Tiv, v.a. stretch tight.


VTv0v, adv. hence; thence.
^.

toicards,

upon; with

dat.,

7ri-Xa|JLpav6), v.a.

cv-vTrvLOV TO, ov,

to,

gen.).^

mid. think

ivravda, adv.
thereupon.

with

(3)

IvcKa, on account of (with gen.).


adv.
thither;
there;
Iv0a,
then.
V-0v|Jtios, oi>, on the tnind (of
a scruple).
?viot, at, a,

with ace,

(1)

against ; with a view to.


(2) with gen., upon,
wards.

pou-er.

posed

prep.

come

after,

arrire.
Iir-c'x", v.n. icait.
lirqPoXos, ou, in possession of
(with gen.).

^TL,

still,

any

further; with neg.,

longer.

ready.
?Tos TO, ovs, year.
6v, adv. well.
'^TOtp.os, ov,

ViH'tilmhinf
cC-PY^Tt| 6,
cv voia r;, Of,

fvpt^^a

r6,

01',

arot,

<vpC<rKM, V.H.,
tv^>oi\

benefactor.

good

flit,

uill.

prize,

god-

ei/p^u, aor.

tvprjKa, find.

Jif.

tvpv\wpia

lijttvs,

wi',

r\\kipa

17,

pern. pron. we.

day.

at,

T^fUrtpot,
our.

Of,

a,

01',

Tj,

prun.

poBH.

i\vixQr]v, aor. pasH. of


Vj'iripos

hroitd

ai,

Tj,

<>-

^pM-

mainland, conti-

mill.

niriws, adv. gently.

tpacc.
v rv\itt, v.n. be fortunate.

tvTv^La

i),

at,

good fortune,

awrrsi.
(v^opiai, v.d. I'nnj.
i^ op^Uta, v.n. anchor

over

npws (), w, /kto.


Ti<rvxdt, v.n. be quiet.
ri(rv\iai i), at, quiet.
fJTTwv, Of, romp. adj. utaki-r,
less

adv. t^ttov,

less.

tiimnist, bliH'kdde.

i\9p6i, d, 6y, hateful: hostih'.


IX, v.a., fut. f^io or ax-qaui,
aor. faxoy, pf. (axn'^o-^ hold,
hare; v. ueut. (with inf.)
6e able (of seamen) /jm^ in :
hold oneself, be, epp. witli
.

adverbs, as KaXws
icell,

ovTws

'''"

^x*''' '^

*'^''

"5

as ire are ; mid.


lay hold of (with

{xop-cv,

^XOftai,
gen.).
IS

li\ti, it is

?w, davcn, morning; the

17,

east.

is, conj.
until.

ichile,

as long as,

BdXaTTa

17,

OaTTwv,

ov,

t;?,

6avpa

a,

0tos,

6,

01',

icest

uind.
7?,

Bopv^os

conj, either, or; than.


understood), conj. by
ichich way, where.
r[Sr\, adv. already, by this time,
(65(^

now.
r\ho\ixn.,

v.d., fut.

-qad-qaoixaL,

aor. Tjadriv, rejoice.

habit;
character.
T|Ki<rTa, adv. least; ov\ tjklOTtt, not least, especially.
i^0os

qKw,

t6,

ovs,

v.n.

custom,

hai^e

arrived.
ijXkos

6, ou,

confusion, ex-

ou,

6,

Qvpa

ojv,

as, door,

i],

17,

incense.

plank.

as, sacrifice.

9vw, v.a. sacrifice.

alive.

n,

super-

9ds 6, oP, Go(/.


6w, v.n. r;i.
0vi]orK, v.n., fut. 6avoi/xai,
aor. ^davov, pf. r^dvrjKa, die,
be killed.
0vt)t6s, 01', mortal.

Qva-Ca
61*,

divine,

ov,

natural.

6v|xid^aTa rd,

i<p<Js,

Tax^^s,

wonder.
6(do^ai, v.d. watch.
TO, arcs,

citement.

dvtpLos,

^(<|>vpos,

sea.

comp. of

quicker.

come,

have

Upos, d,

6u,

sacred; Upov

t6,

temple.
iTip.1,

v.a., fut.

T](TO},

aor. ^/ca,

throw, shoot.
l'0i, imperat. of erm, 510 /
iKTT]S 6, 01;, suppliant.
i'va, conj. JH ordiT ?/ia< (with
"
subj. or opt.).
6t'/jrf ;

Lirirevs

6,

iTTTTtis,

I'lnros
l'or9i,

Ccros,

0,

^ws,

horseman

pi.

cavalry.
01',

horse.

imperat. of olSa, know.


77,

oj/,

equal.

l'<rov

un.

52

t6,

Vocabulary

6H

v.a., fut. arrjau), 1 aor.

i'<rTT]}ii,

?(TTr)<ra,make to stand, place,

mid. and 2

up;

set

aor.
pf. ^arrjKa, stand,

and

(ffTTjv

burn down.
KaTa-Xa|ipdv(*>, v.a. seize, oc-

cupy

befall.

Kara -X lira),

halt.

icT^ov TO,

apv.a. place;
point; mid. and 2 aor. and
pf. act. place oneself, stand;

Ka0-io-TT)[ii,

enter on.
conj. ajid ; aho, too;
Kal Kai
even, actually ;
and; Kal
Kai, both
or T

Kal,

moreover; Kal

\Lr\v

KdC,

KaC,

and in particular.

8tj

ov,

6,

opportunity

and

fut.
Kaw), v.a.,
burn.
KaKos,??, ov, bad, evil, wicked;
cowardly ; iroXXd Kal KaKol,
many taunts; subst. KaKov

Kavacj,

evil,

disaster.

KaXu),

v.a.,

fut.

/caXecrw

or

aor. eKoXeaa, pf. k-

K\y)Ka, call, sum.mon.

KdXXos
KaXos,

t6, ovs, beauty.


Tj,

ov,

comp. KoW'nav,

superl. Ka.\\L<yTo%, beautiful,


noble ; adv. koXws, nobly.

Kara, prep.
(1) with ace, down, over,
along; according to; opposite
to.

(2)

KaT-i\<a, v.a. hold, restrain;

occupy.
Kar-i\yopi(ii, v.a. accuse.

with gen., doivn over

down from ;

against.
Kara-paiva), v.n. go dvicn.
6v,
ridicuKaTa-"YXa<rT6s,
lous.

KaTa-SovXoto, v.a. enslave.


Kara-8vca, v.a. and n. sink.

heat.

Kcip-ai, v.d., fut. KelcrofJLai, lie;

be laid, be placed, be set.


keXcuo), v.a. order, command.
K^p<a$,

horn

wing

make gain

KcpSaCvo), v.a. gain,

of
KTipvyiia

proclama-

aTos,

TO,

tion.

run a

Kiv8vv6vb>, v.n.
in danger.

K^vSvvos

KaKoco, v.a. damage.


KaXe'b),

accom-

v.d.

KaT-6p'Ydto)uii,
plish.

column.

yet.

(or

Kaift)

pieces.
KaTa-<|>Tj'y, v.n. escape.

Kc'pas t6,

crisis.

Kai-Toi, conj.

to

KaTa-rrXcw, v.n. sail down,


sail to land.
KaTappT]Yvv|ii, v.a. tear in

Ka-0|JLa TO, arcs,

although (with

participle).

Kaupos

mid. come

v.

terms.

Kd9r\\i.ai, v.d. sit doicn.

Ka-irp, conj.

v.a. leave behind.

KaTa-Xvoftai,

ov, sail.

\.<r\vp6s, a, 6v, strong.

TO,

Kara-KaCfa) (or KaraKaw), v.a.

danger, risk.

6, ov,

mid. communi-

KOivoofiai, v.
cate, sJiare.

common.

Koivos, v, ov, joint,


/xiovfjiaL,

Daid.

^'

Koji^toK-o-"-*

risk, be

fut.

Ko-

Qonvey ; go on one's

If ay.
^

Kovioprds
K6(r|ios

6,

ov,

b,

ov,

cloud of dust.
order; adorn-

nunt; credit.
v.a. overcome, conquer.
KpefTTwv, ov, comp. adj. of
KpaTepos, stronger, superior.

Kparc'w,

Kpivb),

V.a.,

^Kptva, pf.

fut.

decide, judge.
Krdo\Lai,v d. gain
jiai,

Kpivu),

aor

KiKpiKa, choose

possess.

pf. Kktt]-

Vonihuhtrtf

pAXOfUii, v.d., fut. fiaxoCifxai^


fKTora, kill.

lf.

Itghl.

KvicXooftai, V. mid. (ttirroMm/,

\Ltyd\ut^, adv. greatly.

po round.
kvkXos 0, 01',

\Uyapov
rirrlt-.

ratify.

Kvpo>,

v.ft.

KwXvM,

v.a. himirr, prrvent.

Xa^^vw,

v.a.,

XT^i/'O^at,

flit.

(Xa^oy, pf. efXTj^a,

Jiur.

f<iA',

conip.

fi^ya.

snpt'rl.

\itil<av,

Xd6p<^, atlv. secretly: trithoiit


thf kniixcledije of {wxih j^eli.).

chamber.

TV, ov, hall,

yitydXr),

p^'-yas.

^-yuTTOS.

important.
\Uyt9oi t6, ovs, tize, extent.
pL6-iLT]pLi, v.a. let go, remit.
gr,tit,

v.
mid. change
ours place, icithdrmc.

fi(6 (o-rapiai,

p.i^b)V, OV,

coinp. of (i^Y^s.

piXXw, v.n. be about


Xa(iira8T]-4K>p{a

torch-

aj,

^7,

r^lr.

XavdcLvu),
X^XTjt^d,

v.a.

X^-ycrt,

Xcia

T),

as,

Xckirw,

aor.

X<i>s 6,

Xfdos

d,

XoYaScs

pf.

plunder.

oi*,

77,

aor.

fut. \fi\pu},

X^Xotira, leave.
thin, small.

people.

01',

stone.

ot, oji',

picked men.

Xo-yiov t6, ov, oracle.


\6yos 6, 01', xcord ; account;

proposal,

speech

\Uv(a. v.a.

the rest.
pain, hurt.

Xvireo), v.a.

Xvo), v.a. loose, break.

and

n.,

remain, stay,
ground.

jcait

stand

for;
one's

fjLt'pos TO, oi'j, part, share.


peVos, 77, Of, middle.
peoTos, -n. Of, full (with gen.).
|jLTd, prep.

(1)

Xoyov

d^ios, urorth mentionincj.


XokfLOs 6, ov, pestilence.
remaining ; oL
Xoiiros,
df,
Xoiirof,

XTjaet.

piv, particle, indeed : on the


one luind, answered by 5^.
piv-Toi, eonj. however.

.<///

v.a.,

cj,

fut.

n,,

fXadoy,

escape notice.

/'XtToi', pf.

Xeirros,

and

v.a.

Xi^o/iai,

be
to ;
kcly ; be bound to.
\U\(jj. v.n. be a care ; iinpers.
ficXet, It is a care, fut. mI

{'2)

with ace, after.


with gen., with.

and

v.a.
ficra-PaXXb),
change, turn.

n.

TO, ov, space between tiro armies; battleground.

\iiT-aC\\t.\.ov

prep,

|iTa^v,

with gen.

be-

twren.

mid. be mad.
adv. much, greatly;

\uiCvo\i.ai, V.

fuiXa,

|iTaTrjiiro}tai,

v.

mid. send

for.

comp. [idXXov, more, rather:

pcTCupos,

Of,

about

|jtxpi, (1)

conj. until.

superl. ptoLXioTa, most


{in

round numbers).

\iavBa.V(a. v.a., fut. /ladrfo-ofjuii,

i^adoy, pf.
learn, Jind out.

aor.

/xefxadriKa,

[jiavTciov t6, ov, oracle.

\Laprvp(<a, v.n. bear witness.

\ia<m.y6<a, v.a. scourge, flog.


H'^X'H ^'

'J^'

l>ottle.

(2)

high in air.

prep, with gen. as far

as.
\i.r\,

neg. particle, not; do not;


after verbs of fearing,

lest,

etc.
p.il8ap.dis,

neg.

adv.

by

no

means.
p.T]8^,

neg. couj. nor; not even.

Vocahvlary

70
jn]8-(s,

not

fxrjd^v,

/xrjSefxla,

\ir]8Cl<a,

|v\ivos,

IvXov

no one.
v.n, medize,

one, none,

the Persians.

6,

indeed.
jjLTi-TTOTt, neg. adv. never.
\i-r\-ri,
ueg.
neither,
conj.

v.a.,

fut.

pf.

with

difficulty,

only ; adv.

ados,

i],

body

of

10,000.
77,

r;j,

mystic, connected with the mysteries.

|ivo-tik6s,

77,

oi/,

vav-d-yiov t6, ov, piece of wreck,


wreckage (usu. in pi.),

vaij-apxos

6,

ov,

admiral.

vav-p.ax.w, \.n. fight at sea.


vav-jxax^ia -q, as, fight at sea.
vavs i], veuQS, ship.

vaxn-LKOs,

Tj,

vos, a, ov,

bv,

new, young ; comp.

TO, ovs, cloud.

v.n., aor. ^pevaa,

swim.

oUttw,
oIkos

build.
house.
7], Tjs, lamentation.
contr. otjiai, v.d. think.

6, 01',

islander.

and

ol'o|iai,

what kind of; such


otos T, able.
ol'xofjiaw, v.d. be gone, be off.
v.a.
and n., aor.
okeXXcd,
olos, a, ov,

as

run aground.

c5/cetXa,

oXCyos, 7?, ov, small, little ; pi.


6\iyoi,few.
o[i-ai[j.os, ov, of the same blood.
ojiPpos 6, ou, rain.
op.o-'yXwTTOS,

speaking the

oj/,

ofjioios,

ov,

a,

like;

will

'ia-rai,

it

same;

adv.

be

ofjioiov

the

all

o^jloCws,

like-

wise.
6fio-\o"yia

7],

as,

agreement.

6|i6-Tpoiros, ov, of like charac-

VTitrosi], ov, island.

n. conquer

be

ter.

ofxov, adv. together.

conqueror.
vt<|>T6s 6, ov, snoic.

vofiCtw, v.a., fut.


ivd/xiaa, think.

6|xo-<|>pov(i),

vo/xLU),

aor.

Si.

but as

vv| i], vvKTos, night;


night watches.

plnr.

vvv, adv. tiow

chamber,

aros,

TO,

v.a. settle, colonise.

6fio-Xo7'w, v.n. agree.

little island.

vii(rL(ijTT|S 6, ov,

viKcib), v.a.

member of house-

6, 01;,

same language.

naval.

vo3Tpos, unusual, startling.

vy\a-i<s -q, iSos,

daofiaL,

fut.

hold or family.

ol|iw-YTJ

thousand.
myrtle branch.

p-vpiou, at, a, ten


[jtvpo-ivT]

ySeiv,

know.

olKO-8o}j.fa>, v.a.

[lovov, only.

p-vpids

plup.

dwelling.

ou, alone,

r],

way, road.

ov,

ol'KTijjia

\iov6o), v.a. isolate.

[xovos,

r?,

oiKCT-qs

liifjiPr]/j.aL.

adv.
hardly.

demonstr. pron.

this, this here.

relative adv. whither.


ol8a, pf. with pres. meaning,

fxvTjau},

mid. remember,

jioXis,

Vioi,

o8, TJSe, t68,

ot,

device.

77s,

7],

remind

vi^o%

t6, article, the ; 6 hi, but

T),

he.

68ds

nor.
\Lr]\a.vdo\La\., v.d. contrive.
|jLT]x^av7]

plur. timber.

favour

HTJv, particle, verily,

fii|xvT](rKa),

ov, icooden.

77,

t6, ov, log

vvv

it is.

v.n. be agreed.

ojiws, adv. however.


6vi8i^a), v.a. throw

in one's

teeth (with dat. of person).


ovojiacTTOs, bv, notable.
oirio-0e(v),

gen.).

prep, behind (with

Vnrnhnhini
adv. hack.
iwXiTTis 6, 01', hoplitf, hravijoirCflrw.

:\
chariot.

0, 01',

<5xos

Trd6os t6, oi't, $ujfering,

irhenever (with

conj.

6it6rt,
iiul.

ir

opt.).

oiroTtpos a, oy, tchichever {of


ttco).

ovov.

Hiiv. tchert-.

adv. an; how.

onitr

in

tfutt,

c'Oiij.

{'2)

that (with siihj. or opt.).


6pda. v.a., fut. 6)po^ai, uur.
fliof,

pf.

(ibpaica,

.<tt

bpos

mid.

start,

/>//

ont's heart.

boundary.

6. 01',

6ppo>S<u>, v.n. shrink, ft-ar.


OS. ^, 6, rel.

pron. tcho,

how

ichicJi.

as
great as; phir. lioio many,
as tmmy as: adv. 6<rov, as

oo-os,

Of,

77,

much
8<r-irp,

great,

<t.v.

wep,

o-rrep,

rel.

pron.

who, which.
oTi, who, whosohe who, inasmuch as

man-

ayuty6%

suffering,

ov, tutor.

6,

irois o, Tai56s, boy, child.


iraXaios. d. 6^, old, ancient
(K -iraXaiov, from of old.

irdXiv, inlv. hack; again.

irav

full force.

8T]pii. lulv. in

Trav TtXwS, iidv. altogether.


TrdvTws, adv. at all.
irapd, prep.
(1) with ace. to the side
of, to ; alongside of.
(2) with gen. from the side
of, from.
(3) with dat. at the side
of, )tt(ir, with.
irap-aY-ytX^w. v-*^- P^^"^ orders

along

{tlie line).

v.d. come to
come up, move;

irapa-'yCYVojJLai,

o<r-Tis, ^riv,

ever

aros,

navra^oQtv, nd\'. frumallsides.

per

see,

ceire.
6p\Laxi\uxi, V.

t6,

di^,i.-(.r.

ira\.h

&tr>s. (1)

it

tft.

tTa.QT]\ka

he.

the side of,

presiiit oneself.
irapa-8i8o)|jLi, v.a. deliver.

8t6, conj.

when.

OTi, conj. that

rrap-aivtw, v.a. exhort.

ov. rel. adv. where.

irapa-Xap.pdv,
v.a.
take
charge of, take with one.
irapa-o-Kvdta>, v.a. prepare,
provide; so also in mid.

ovSa^ov, neg. adv. nowhere.


ou8ap.uis,
neg.
adv. by no

Trapa-TOLTTW,
alongside.

because.
ov (owK, ovx), neg. particle,
;

not.

not even.
ouSeytit'a,

one's

side

{ei/xl)

irapov,
ovbev,

no one,

none.
ovK-CTi, neg. adv. no longer.
ovv, particle, therefore, then.

neg. ;idv. not yet.


ou-T, neg. conj. neither, nor.
ov-TOt, not surely.
ovTos, aihr), toOto, demonstr,
pron. this.
owT(s), adv. thus, so.
ov-irui,

up

irdp-eip.i, v.n. be present, be

meaiif!.

ovSi, nej^. conj. nor; nor yet


ov8-eis,

draw

v.a,

for
irdp<m{v),

irdp-eifii,

vance

els

the

present

is

possible.

it

pass by,

v.n.

at

to
;

ad-

{elfii).

irap-p\o|xai, v.d. pass; come


before [a council).
irap-t'xw, v.a. offer, provide,
hand over ; so also in mid.
irap-io-Tafiai,

beside;
over.

in

v.

act.

mid. stand
sense, win

Vocabulary

72

every

iras, iraaa, trav, all,

to

the whole.

-irdv,

v.a.

TTd(r\<a,

aor.

fut.

TretVo/xai,

pf.

iriirovda,

^iradop,

experience, suffer

be treat-

mould,

^-rrXaaa,

forye.
irXeuTTos,

Trarpis 17, t'Sos, country fatherland.


TraTp60v, adv., after a father,
as the son of oneh father.
Travw, v.a., fut. iravau), stop;
,

mid. cease,
Tre'Sr] i), ris,

rest.

fetter.

pi.

many, most.
comp. of

6v,

v,

adv.

irelaui,

aor.
per-

on land.

ire^TJ,

fut.

v.a.,

TreiSfa),

Tre^os

eireiaa,

pf.

TreweiKa,

TO,
ous,
multitude,
majority, amount.

irXtiOos

ir'p.Tr,

open sea.

v.a., fut.

make, do

v.a.

-rroUo),

?TrepL\fa, pf. ireirofX(f>a,

poor.
irevia ^, a?, poverty.
irevTC, indecl. _/zre.
irepi. prep, with ace, gen.,
and dat. around, about.
ircpi-YtYvoixai,

v.d.

overcome

survive, be saved.
Trpi-i[ii, v.n. survive.
Trepi-c'xw.v.a.

surround, hem

in.

irpi-opdw, v.a. overlook; alloiv.


-Trepi-TriTTTw, v.n. meet, collide

mid.

for oneself
verbal adj.

must be done.
v.n. be at war.

TroXep.a),

iroXc'fjLLos, a, ov,

6,

01',

hostile; subst.

enemy.
tear.

iroXtopKe'ci), v.a. besiege.

iroXis

7?,

eojs,

City.

TToXXdKis, adv. often.


TToXXairXdo-ios, a, ov, many
ti)nes as great.
iroXvis,
ttoWt],
iroXv,
much,
great, vehement; pi. many ;
01 iroXXoi, the majority ; to
iroXv, the greater part ; k-xA
rroXv, for a great distance.
Tropvo|xai, V. mid. go, march.
tropQ\i6<s 6, ov, strait.
01', passage.
or irpoo-w, adv. far
comp. TTOppWTf'pw.
irocros, 77, ov, how great.
Trpd^fia t6, aros, thing, act,

iro'pos 6,

TToppw

icith.

irUlw, v.a. press hard.


irdrTw, v.n., fut. ireaovfiai,
iireaov,

pf.

ireirTUKa,

matter

fall; be thrown.
TTia-Tivo),

v.a.

and

n. trust

trust.

rrio-Tos,

make

count, consider

TToXepLos

aor.
send.

tt^/xxI/u,.

man.

ttXivOos r?, 01^, brick.


irXoiov TO, ov, boat, ship.
irXovs 6, ov. voyage.

iroXe'iiios 6,

n-evi^s, 7?Tos,

aoi.

/u//.

irXT]p6a>, \. Si. fill ;

7roiT|Tos,

jrcT^a-yos to, ovs,

^irXevcra,

sail.

persuasion.
'jri,pdojiai, V. mid, attempt;
(with gen.) make an attack
on.

aor.

irXevaov/Jiai,

TToiovfiai,

oOj,

iroX.vs,

v.n., fut. irXevcro/jiou or

irXe'ft),

suade; 2 pf. TT^TToida and


mid. obey; trust (with dat.).
i7,

of

very

more.

TrX-rfp-qs, es,

on foot;
(arpards), land army

TTilos

f)i

much

irXtiwv, Of,

ed.

Tri6a)

superl.

ov,

7?,

iroXvs, very

fashion

77,

6v,

faithful; cred-

ible.

irXdTTw, v.a., fut. TrXdcrw, aor.

ttmes

pi. irpo.y^o.ra, fortroubles.

TrpaTTO), v.a., fut. Trpd^oj, aor.


^irpa^a, pf. wewpaxa,
do,

make ;

also neut.fare (2 pf.

TT^irpaya).

V(n'nhn/an/
wpLv,

(1

Uffor^, fiinnfili/.

iitlv.

(J)c'Mj. if
irpo,

ilh

pffj).

until

ti,rr (hilt,

K*'"-

l"/oi<.

tn ilffrttrr of.

foncard.
irpo Baivtf, v.n. tio forward.
irpo ooTT]? 0, oi'. Irmtor.
7rpo-ipT]To. plup. pas8. from
irpo 5-Av torrafixii,

mid.

v.

time.
irpo dv^'opAi, v.il. he Zfalouii.
irpo-Kcifiai. v.d. lie hf/ore one,
I'd !-<t he ore one.
>f<jrf

hfU>r,-

(}if

irpo-voia Tj. aj, forcthoittiht.


irpo-^tvos 6. 01', ptthlic fluent or
r, i>r( tentative.
ee

v.a.

Trpo-opdci),

before-

hand.
v.a.

irpo-irtfiirci),

irpoTipos. a. or, former ; adv.


irpoTtpov. before.
irpo Tidr^^i, v.u. put forward.

send forinird,

escort.

proclahn

V.n.

irpo-<^ilp,i,

Uad

irpo-dyta. v. a.

7:\

$atj

h,u,r,ha>ui.
irpo-x<*P^w. v.n. go forward ,
succeed.
irpii^va rj, 771, ttern.
irpwTos, 17, oy, firnt ; adv.
irpwTov, first.
irvXr| ij, T;y, galr.

irvvSdvopAi,

fut.

v.il.,

iTfu-

nor. (iri>d6fnji', pf.


ir^wva/xai, learn, hear of.

aonau,
iruis,

adv. how

comp. pqlv,
ov,
pqioTos. easy.
pairil^w, v.a. cane, beat.
piiTTw, v.a., fut. pivTu, aor.
pqiSios,

sup(

a.

il.

throw.

(pf}r>fa,

irpos. prt p.
(1)

with ace.

aguiti^t

^,

towards:

irith a cieic to.

with gen. y'row

(2)

the side

(<

in

'rrpQa--yiyvo\Lai,. v. d.

come over

side.

irpoo--8\o|iai, v.d. expect.


irpoo-tipLi. v.n.

Come

irpoo-TJKti,

irapers.

V.

to,

it

be-

it

front.
irpo<r-Kii8iis, s, related to {by
tiiiirriaiK'}.

rrpoo- KTOLOnai, v.d. tcin over.


irpo(r-\iiyvv\i.i, v.n.

reach.

add.
V.a. bring to,

ie silent.

^s,

T/>

o-iYxi,

o-o4>ia

T),

briiiij

as,

wisdom, clever-

ness.

and

<nrv8w, v.a.

n.

OTTovSaios, a, ov, serious, earnest, good.


oTao-td^w, v.n. be at variance.
o-TcXXfa),
v.a.,
trrfXcD,
aor.
eareiXa, send; equip.
77,

in

o-Tevo-^wpta

narrow

6',

to.

(TTti^avos

ev

the strait.
77,

as,

SJUICC.

V.n. go over

hasten,

be eager.

o-Tvu,

for ward.
irpoo--)(^a>p(td,

ariiiapQ,

sileiice ;
adv.
/n silence, quietly,
under one^s breath.
(TITOS 6, ov, com, provisions.
o-6s, (T7J, (t6v, pars. pron. your,
o'l-Yn

o-Tv6s.

Trpocr-Ti0T|fjLi, V.a.

irpocr<|>'pu).

fut.

show.

to.

becomes.
irpoo-6v, adv. and prep, with
geu. before (both of time and
place)
to irpdcrOcv, the
lull (IS

v.a.,

<r\.ydmi, v.a.

v.a. destroif
Inside": lose besides.

irpo<r-air-6X\vjit,

(iiif's

earthquake.

oii,

o-r]p.aivw,

uur. (a-qfxrjva, give a sii/nal;

oi'.

(3) with Jat. close to;


addition to.

to

<ra^oS, adv. clearly.


<rio-|xds 6,

6, 01',

wreath.

narrow

Vocabulary

74
wreathe.

o-T<|>avd, v.a.

cnr\\r\

i],

ijs,

peaa

aor.

v.a.,

<rTop'vvv|n.,

aud

cruv-dx0op.at, v.d. sympathise,


8u), \. a., fasten together.
o-xjv-e'Spiov t6, ov, council.

aw

pillar.
la-rpivaa,

(xt6-

streic,

sratter.

come

v.d.

(rvv-'pxop,ou.,

to-

gether.

army.
mid. march,

a-rp6.Tiv\ia to, aros,

o-TpaTvop.ai,

V.

o-vvwrrajMii,

v.

contend;

also

mid.

jneet,

of

war,

continue.

OTpaT-TTy^S

(rai'j)

7/,

idos, flag-

o-xpaT-iryos

6, oG,

(TTpaTid i]. as,


o-TpaToircSov
ment, fleet;
o-Tparos 6, ou,
(TV,

mid. make an

<rvv-T0enai, v.

agreement.

.hip.

general.

to,

happen

v.a.

<rMv-rvyf\d,v(i,

army.

together.

ov,

arma-

camp.
army, force.
aov, personal pron., thou,

you.
<rvy-Ka\(oi. v.a. call together.
cnry-Kar-ep-yd^oiiai, v.d.

icork

(rv\v6s,
(r<i>is,

considerable

6v,

7),

irequent

many.

pi.

pron.

<T(t)Q}v,

usually

themselves.
<r4)T6pos, a, ov, poss. pron.
reliexive,

their own.

<rx8a

as,

77,

raft; bridge of

boats.

u-itli.

o-wtw, v.a. save; bring safe.

<rvy-\i(a, v.a. confound.

o-v\da). v.a. plunder.

(rvX-Xa|iPdva), v.a. arrest.

Tttfiwas 6, ov,

crv\-\iyoi. v.a. collect.

rd^is

(TuX-Xo-yos

6, ov,

o-vfjL-Patvw. v.n.
crvfjL

pdXXw.

trufi-PovXevw, v.a. join in adlisiii^l ; mid. consult with.


(Tufji-PouXia 7], as, counsel.
o-vfi-povXos 6, ov, counsellor.
crvp.-[iaxta i), as, alliance.
(rti|x-|xaxos 6, ov, ally.

have an

in-

terview ; join battle.


(rv^t-iriirTw, v.n. fall together,

clash

order, arrange-

TaTTw,

happen.

v.n. meet.

coincide;

steward.

ment.

meeting.

(rv\L-\iCyvv\ii, v.n.

ews,

7],

together;

happen at the same time.

v.a., fut. rd^u, station,


draic up.
TavTT] {65(2 understood), adv.

way,

this

rdxos

here.

speed : Kara.
rdxos, icith speed.
raxvs, eta, v, quick; ws rdXLcrra and t7]v Taxto"TTjv
{65ov), as quickly as posro,

ovs,

sible.
T, conj. enclitic both,

nCvoi,

v.a.,

fut.

and.

revQ,

entangle ; aor.
part. pass. o-vfiir\aKis, en-

Ttx^t. v.a. fortify.


Tcixos TO, ovs, wall, fort.

tangled.

TcXos

<rv\L-'ir\iK(ii, v.a.

(rv}x-(|)paj,

v.n.

profit;

mid.

happeti.
(ru}i-<})opd

aor.

ereiva. Stretch.

t6, ovs,

end; adv. reXos,

at last.
Tipira, v.a. delight, please.

7),

as,

fortune, mis-

fortune, disaster.
o-vfi-<J>opos, ov, profitable.

(Tvv (rare in Attic Prose), prep,

with dat. with.

TTTapdKOvTa, indecl. forty.


re'cos. adv. meanwhile, for the
time.
riQj]\i.i,

idtjKa.

v.a.,
pf.

fut.

6Ti<ru},

TedeiKa,

aor.

place;

Voctihitlnrif
placf

njid.

ourttli,

Jar

vfi^Ttpot,

a.

your

rd

makf.
honour.
v.n. help

(NMtii

avengf

Of, hflp^ as$ittrtncf;

17.

(Mir* oHt', itomf,

tiho

a certain.

interri>gativi'

ri,

tnucJi

pi. so

prep.

with ace. under (mo-

(1)

tion to)
viro vvKTtt, totcards night, at nightfall.
(2) with gen. by (agent).
(3) with dat. under (rest
under).
;

so
so

v'iro-8\ou.ai, v.d.
tJiat time.

Tp4\Pu}, aor.
fTpfyfa, turn ; mid. turn oneself ; turn one's attention.
Tp^4>, v.a., fut. dp\po), pf.
TTpo<pa, nourish, maintain.

v.n.,

rpiaKoo-ioi,
dred.

Tpiijp-apx^os

fut.

8pa/xovfiai,

at,

6,

o,

tliree

/<j/;j-

rpir\pr\s V, ous, ship with tliree


banks of oars, trireme, man

of icar.
thou-

sand.
Tpoiros 6, ov, manner.
v.n.,

fut.
pf.

Teu^o/iai,

Tervx^lKO-i

meet with, happen.

Tvpavvos

6, ov,

tyrant, despot,

prince.

vtrrtpaia

i],

v4>-o-Ta|iai, v.

6,

outrageous

person.
v\Ltls, u>v,

pers. pron. you, ye.

after-

mid. wait,

lie

amhusli.
v.n.,

<|>aCvw,

trans.),

fut.

pf.

aor.

<pavCj,

Tre<p7}va

show;

give

(iu-

light,

shine; in mid. and pass.


be shown, appear.
4>dor)ia t6, utos, appearance,

phantom.
v.d.

4>iSofiai,

spare

(with

gen.).
v.a.,

fut.

oiau,

pf. (vrjvoxa,
in neut. sense,

ijpyKov,

ippwrn^s

day

folloicing

as,

adv. vo-Ttpov, after,


wards.

<f>cpta),

ov,

(with

serve

dat.).

^(pTjva,

^Ti'xov,

v.n.

vTT-ovpyioi,

in

Tpi(r-pLiipioi, ai, a, thirty

leave behind.

viro-XciiTft), v.a.

VTT oiTTevo). v.a. susjyect.

understood).
u<rTpos, a, oj', following, next;

trierarcJt,

ov,

undertake.
take up,

v.a.

sueep away.

{r]/x(pa

captain.

Tvy\aiv(it,

viro-Xafipdvw,

fut.

aor. e5pafj.oy, run.


TpidKOVTa, indecl. thirty.

aor.

iiiul.

ill

vircpnTJKTjs, es, very long,

many.

t6t, adv. then, at

Tpx,

lrt'p.

with ace. beyond, over.


with K'en. above, over;
on behalf of
virfpPdXXw, v.n. surpa.s ; so

inro,

many.
v.a.,

stored

['!)

6v5e, so (jrfat,go

tj5,

orTo(i'),
TO<rovTOS, oi'tt;,
yrcat,
so
much ; pi.

Tp^irw,

your

(1)

iil^ii

uf

sue It kind.
TOiovTOS. aiTT), ovTo(y). such.
TOiros i'. 01', place.
rocr6crh^.

pron.

he

v.d.

K<i(iai,

vWp,

t(,

! :

d5f,

roi6a-Si,

pron.

tchy !
6y5(, guch,

ichiit

pugH.
vpirtpa,

Of,

ttuay initside.

tY<K (I !<"<.
Tx, Tj.indelinitopron. enclitic,
ri%,

vw^K

ilat.).

Tifunpia

intt-resta.

Tip,aa*. v.a.
Ti^i>p<'i>.

ro

bring

mid.
down.

<|)po|xat.

sail,

aor.
bear,

move
bear

Vocabulary
and

v.a.

j>ivy<a,

and

^ofiai

ffpvyop,

<f>v-

Xtiftdjo), v.n.

(pv^ov/xou,

aor.

Xtifjitov

ire<peiiya,

Jlce,

pf.

n., fut.

from, escape.

flee

and

v.a.

4>y]\iC,

(pr/au},

speak.

S'ly,

sound, speak;

<}>6YyofjLai, v.d.

TO 4>9Yyop-*^v, tite voice.


^QiCpo), v.a., fut. (pdepu), aor.
ecpdapKa, spoil,

i(j>dLpa, pf.
ih- stray.

v.n. envy (with dat.).

4>6ov(>),

love

v.a.

he wont,

as

subst.

friend.

6,

^o^iia,y.?L. frifjJiten;

mid. and

cUu-<',

v.a.,

fut.

(ppdcro},

de-

think, be minded,

<|>pova>, v.a.

feel.
<|>p6vT]fia TO, aros, spirit.
<|>povifia)S,

adv. sensibly.
fugitive, exile.

<i)irYds 6, d5os,
17,

T7,

flight.

Tj^,

v.a.,

<J)uX(tt,

<|>VT]

use,

experience

(with dat.).
XP^iJia,

t6,

aros, thing,

ness;

pi.

xP'HK^Ta, goods;

XpT]<rTos, v, 6v, useful;

ri<>,

XaXcTTos,

0i;\d^w,

fut.

voice.

77,

61/,

6,

time

ov,

\<o\t.a t6, aros,

\p6v(a,

mound, mole.

country;

place,
position ; Kard x^P*^, in
the same position.
\(iip4<a, v.n. go, proceed.
7],

as,

t)/d)ifJios 6, ov,

\|/v8o|j.ai,

sand.

v.d.

lie,

ws, (1) adv. how ; as if.


conj. when; since;
(2)
that; in order that; s
c'nreiv, so to speak.

adv.

favour

difficult,

thanks.

adv. just as.


conj. so that.

ojcr-irep,
a)<r-T,

iTos,

deceive,

cheat; pf. pass. part. \(/ev(rfivos. cheated.


\{/T]<|>os Tj, ov, pebble ; vote.

oJcr-avTcos,

hard,

severe.

Xdpis

good,

after a time.
Xpv<r6s 6, ov, gold.

manner.

T],

busi-

point out, say.

4>pdTTa), v.a. fut. (ppd^w, fence


in, fortify ; also in mid.

<i)v-yTJ

Xpvcrofiai,

Xwpa

pass, /ear, be afraid.


(jwipos 6, oi;, fear.
<j>op|i6s 6, oO, basket.
<|>pd5<),

Xi-Twv 6, uvos, tunic.


XpdcD, v.a. give an answer (of
oracles) mid. xp<io|jLai, fut.

Xpdvos,

dear;

01/,

?/,

4)iXos

to

kind.

yiY^eo'Oai.
<|)(Xios, a, 01', friendly.
<})i,Xi

4)iXos,

hand; iv\<tp<rLv,
hand.

x^'-po^i

7),

hand

money.

<j>96vos 6, ov, envy.


<|)iX',

winter;

wj/os,

storm.
yjtip

fut.

n.,

pass the winter.

6,

iti

like

INDEX OF

PROI'KII

Thr reffreuces arc


Abydos, 24,

"JG

Acrnpolis (of Athens), 3

Adeimantus,

5,

Aeacus, Faiuily of, 8, 14


AegaleoK, Mount ('Throne of

11,

1,

(Men

18
of Aegina),
6,

15,

Alexander, 27, 28, 29


Ameiuias, 14

Men

of,

Aristeides, 12,

Artabanus, 3
Artemisia, Queen,

18
9,

10,

15,

16, 18, 21

Artemisium ('Temple of Artemis'), 1, 2


Asia, 23, 26
1,

etc.

etc.

Attic (adj.), 15, 16


Attica, 2, etc.

Belbina

Islet,

Men

of,

11

Eleusis, 8. 15

Island, 15

Euripus, Straits of, 8


Europe, 19, 23
Eurybiades, 2, 4, 5, 7

II

13,

Elis,

Euboea

Andros Island, 24

Athenians,
Athens, 2,

Dclos Island. 27
Dt'Uiaratus, 8
Dicai'us, 8
Dorians, 28

Ephesus, 22
Epidaurus, 11

etc.

Arcadia,

pagts of the Text

Egyptians, 21

Xerxes'), 17

Aegiua Island,
Ae^'inetans

to

NAMES

26

Boeotia, 1, 2, 81
Boeotians, 24

Carystus, 25
Chersonese (Thraciau), 26
Cilicia, Men of, 21
Corinth, Men of, 5
Cyme, 26
Cyprus, Men of, 21

Hellas (Greece), 4, etc.


Hellenes (Greeks), 1, etc.
Hellenic Nationality, 31
Hellespont (Dardanelles), 22,
23
Heracles, Pillars of, 27
Hermione, Men of, 11

lacchus (God), 8
Ionia, 23, 26
lonians, 15, 26
Isthmus of Corinth,

1,

etc.

Italy, 7

Macedonia,
Mardonius,

Medes

Man

of,

29

19, 20, 21, 24


(synonym for Persians),

13, 16, 30
Megara, 6
Megarians, 11

Index of Projyer Names

78
Mnesiphilus,

4,

Sicinnus, 11, 23
Sicyon, Men of, 11

Munychia Harbour, 12

Siris,

Peiraeus Harbour, 15
Peisistratus (Tyrant), Family

Peloponnese (The Morea),

1,

etc.

Peloponuesians,
Persians,

3,

1,

Men

etc.

of,

8,

(Lacedaemonians),

28, 29
Spartiate (Full Spartan Citizen), 2, 25, 26
15,

Susa,

etc.

Phalerum Harbour,
Phlius,

31

Spartans

of,

Sparta (Lacedaemon), 25, 30,

3,

20

17, 22

11

Tenos Island, Men

of,

Pythia (Pythian Priestess), 8

Thebes, Men of, 2


Themistocles, 4, etc.
Thespiae, 2
Thessaly, 24, 26
Troezen, 1, 11

Salamis (Island and Town),

Xerxes,

Phoenicians, 15, 21
Plataea, 2

Poseidon (God of Sea), 25


Psyttaleia Islet, 12, 19

1,

3,

14

etc.

etc.

Samos

Island. 26, 27

Zoster Promontory, 22

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