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INSTITUTE OF ROAD AND TRANSPORT

TECHNOLOGY
ERODE
Department of English

Submitted by
Name:
Roll No:
B.E/ B.Tech V- SEMESTER
Automobile Engineering
GE2321- Communication Skills Lab
October -2014

INDEX
S.N
O

DATE

EXERCISE

1.

RESUME

2.

ORAL
PRESENTATION

3.

GROUP
DISCUSSION

4.
5.

READING
COMPREHENSION
DIALOUGE
WRITING

6.

E-MAIL

7.

REPORT WRITING

8.

INTERVIEW

9.

SPOTTING
ERRORS

10.

PSYCHOMETRIC
TEST

REMARK
S

STAFF
SIGNATU
RE

RESUME

COVER LETTER
Nathakadaiyur,
September 19,2015.
From
Santosh Kumar S,
355/1, Lakshmipuram ,
Palayakottai (po),
Nathakadaiyur 638108,
Tiruppur district.

To
The Human Resource Manager,
TVS corporation,
Chennai 08.

Respected Sir/Madam,
SUB : Seeking for the post of Vehicle Designer reg.,
REF : The advertisement in THE HINDU dated on 15.08.2015
I, SANTOSH KUMAR.S completed my graduation degree in B.E AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING
would like to apply for the job of vehicle designer in your company. I believe my qualification is necessary
enough to serve your company. If I am selected of my aspiring job I promise you that I will try my level best
in uplifting our company and taking it to greater heights. My resume is attached herewith. I am waiting for
your call letter.
Thanking you,
Yours faithfully,
(Santosh kumar.S)

RESUME

S. Santosh Kumar,
355/1, Lakshmipuram,
Palayakottai (post),
Nathakadaiyur (via),
Tiruppur District,
Nathakadaiyur 638108.

Email: santi.nkdr@outlook.com
Phone No: 9944536956

OBJECTIVE:
An automobile enthusiast in quest for an opportunity to work with enthusiasm to meliorate the
growth of the company, with much passion and innovation for the ontogeny of my firm and society.
EDUCATION:
QUALIFICATION

BOARD/
UNIVERSITY

B.E
(AUTOMOBILE
ENGINEERING)

ANNA
UNIVERSITY

HSC

STATE BOARD

SSLC

STATE BOARD

SOFTWARE SKILLS:

Auto Cad
Creo 2.0
Ansys
Catia

NAME OF
INSTITUTION
INSTITUTE OF
ROAD
TRANSPORT
TECHNOLOGY,
ERODE
RAJENDRAN
MATRIC HIGHER
SECONDARY
SCHOOL ,
VADUGAPATTI.
RAJENDRAN
MATRIC HIGHER
SECONDARY
SCHOOL ,
VADUGAPATTI.

YEAR OF
PASSING
2013-2017

MARKS
(%)
76%

2012-2013

93.25%

2010-2011

85.2%

AREA OF INTEREST:

Emissions formation and Control


Designing
Steering system and Braking system

PAPER PRESENTATION AND TRAINING:

Paper-Presentation Presented on Continuously Variable Transmission in SAE Tier 1 event.


In plant training on TNSTC, Trichy.
Attended workshop on light vehicle design, Pune.

PROJECT PROFILE:

TITLE: Hybrid Diesel-steam engine


ABSTRACT: Finely atomized water, injected into hot cylinder in 1/2000 th a sec into those cylinder.
EXTAR CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES:

Microsoft developer
Routine blood donor
Android App developer
Member of Automobile Association

PERSONAL DATA:
NAME

: S. SANTOSH KUMAR

FATHERS NAME

: N. SEMALAYAPPAN

MOTHERS NAME

: S. NALLATHAL

HOBBIES

: Reading books, Drawing, Poem writing

LANGUAGE KNOWN

: English, Tamil

D.O.B

: June 9, 1996

GENDER

: Male

NATIONALITY

: INDIAN

MARIAL STATUS
PERMANENT ADDRESS

: single
: 355/1, Lakshmipuram,
Palayakottai (post) ,
Nathakadaiyur (via),
Tiruppur District,
Nathakadaiyur 638108.

DECLARATION:
I do hereby proclaim that the above given information is true to best of my knowledge.

PLACE: Nathakadaiyur
DATE :19.09.2015
REFERENCE:
Dr.R.SUBRAMANIAN.,Ph.d,
Head of the department,
Automobile Engineering,
Institute of Road and Transport Technology, Erode.

Mr.C.LOGANATHAN.,ME,
Associative professor,
Automobile Engineering,
Institute of Road and Transport Technology, Erode

Yours sincerely,
(S. SANTOSH KUMAR)

ORAL PRESENTATION

THE RISE AND FALL OF


EBOLA VIRUS

NASAS CURIOSITY MISSION

GROUP DISCUSSION

GROUP DISCUSSION
What is Group Discussion?
Group Discussion! Is a methodology or in a simple language you may call it an interview process or a group
activity. It is used as one of the best tools to select the prospective Candidates in a comparative perspective.
GD may be used by an interviewer at an organization, colleges or even at different types of management
competitions.
A GD is a methodology used by an organization to gauge whether the Candidate has certain personality traits
and/or skills that it desires in its members. In this methodology, the group of Candidates is given a topic or a
situation, given a few minutes to think about the same, and then asked to discuss the topic among themselves
for 15-20 minutes.
GD evaluation is done by the subject experts based on the discussions. A report will be prepared on analysing
the facts at the end of the discussion.

Some of the personality traits the GD is trying to gauge may include:

Communication skills

Interpersonal Skills

Leadership Skills

Motivational Skills

Team Building Skills

Analytical /Logical Skills

Reasoning ability

Different Thinking

Initiative

Assertiveness

Flexibility

Creativity

Ability to think on ones feet

Why GDs are implemented commonly:

The reason why institutes put you through a Group discussion and an interview, after testing your technical
and conceptual skills in an exam, is to get to know you as a person and gauge how well you will fit in their
institute. GD evaluates how you can function as a part of a team. As a manager or as a member of an
organization you will always be working in teams. Therefore how you interact in a team becomes an
important criterion for your selection. Managers have to work in a team and get best results out of teamwork.
That is the reason why management institutes include GD as a component of the selection procedure.
Company's Perspective:

Companies conduct group discussion after the written test to know more about your:

Interactive Skills(how good you are at communication with other people)

Behaviour (how open-minded are you in accepting views contrary to your own)

Participation (how good an active speaker you are & your attention to the discussion)

Contribution (how much importance do you give to the group objective as well as your own)

Aspects which make up a Group Discussion are:


In a Group Discussion (GD), you are expected to contribute meaningfully and help arrive at a consensus. It is
not a platform for you to fight your way through and dominate. Flexibility and gelling with the group is also
very important.
Make a note of the following points and youll get through with flying colours:
1. Arrive on time and dress formally. This is not a casual discussion, but one that will help you get a job
with a company. You need to look impressive, well groomed and confident.
2. If you have some doubts or want some clarifications on the subject/topic of the discussion, make sure
to ask and clear them out before the discussion begins and not after that..
3. Always carry a pen and a notebook. This allows you to refer to what others have said previously.

4. Be yourself and do not be arrogant. Body language is important, so be careful while using gestures and
do not ever get aggressive.
5. Initiating the discussion is a major plus point but do so only if youre very clear about the topic and
know a lot about the same.
6. Maintain eye contact with team members and not evaluators. Theyre not a part of the discussion.
Ensure that you get to speak your point, if the other members hear you, the evaluators will too.
7. Having said that, ensure that you listen as well and appreciate what others are saying. If you do not
agree with someones point, let them complete and then raise your objection. Do not interrupt.
8. Be positive and do not be over confident.
9. Try and sort out contradictions and arguments. Providing a meaningful direction to the discussion
always leaves a good impression on the evaluators.
10. Understand that the aim is not to speak often or for long periods. The aim is to be precise and clear
with your points. Ultimately, the discussion has to reach a conclusion and you must strive towards that.
Initiation Techniques
When you initiate a Group Discussion, you not only
If you can make a favorable first impression with your content and communication skills after you
initiate a Group Discussion, it will help you sail through the discussion. But if you initiate a Group
Discussion and stammer/ stutter/ quote wrong facts and figures, the damage might be irreparable.

If you initiate a Group Discussion impeccably but dont speak much after that, it gives the impression
that you started the Group Discussion for the sake of starting it or getting those initial kitty of points
earmarked for an initiator!
When you start a Group Discussion, you are responsible for putting it into the right perspective or
framework. So initiate one only if you have in depth knowledge about the topic at hand.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

There are different techniques to initiate a Group Discussion and make a good first impression :
Quotes
Definition
Questions
Shock statement
Facts, figures and statistics
Short story

7. General statement
13
Group Discussion in a nutshell.
Keep the following points in mind while summarizing a discussion:

Avoid raising new points.


Avoid stating only your viewpoint.
Avoid dwelling only on one aspect of the Group Discussion.
Keep it brief and concise.
It must incorporate all the important points that came out during the Group Discussion.
Do's and Don'ts in Group discussion
The Don'ts

Don't be nervous, shy or emotional.


Don't try to bluff as the panel will easily figure out that
Don't allow the criticism bother you
Don't be frivolous, keep yourself to the point
Don't criticize other members
Dont use foul language or slang, like yaar, princy, shit etc.
Don't loose your temper or calmness.
Don't ridicule or make fun of any of the members
Don't impose on others yourself or your arguments
Don't interrupt a participant, unless he finishes his speaking.
The Do's

Stick to the point and address the group as a whole.


Be logical while reasoning
Be assertive while putting your views
Listen to others attentively
Motivate others to speak
Keep calm and polite
Be positive and provide full contribution to the entire discussion
Use body language to your maximum advantage
Speak in Clear terms
Maintain a cordial atmosphere, cooperate with all, in order to reach the final goal.

INDIAN ARMY AS A CARRIER OPTION

SELVA BOOPATHY:
INDIAN ARMY is a carrier where one can prove himself that he has not just born to die but to do
something for the nation and to be the part of the nation which is going to become the no. 1 armed
force in the world.
M.RANJITH:
Salute to 'INDIAN ARMY' as I feel proud to say it loud, today many people chooses to that type
of career where they seeks high salaries, comforts and Luxury as they feel proud in that many
others hesitated to join army by which they would choose for other private jobs and rest of them
would like to prefer MNC's for better career options ant to get settled in foreign countries rather
to stay in India they didnt serve their service to nation,! The actually thing to be proud of is to
serve for nation, to fight for nation, to stand for nation I would definitely chooses to that career
where I got chance to die for my motherland because it's a thing to be proud that u die for your
country rather to die in an accident...! Indian army a life full of adventures, actions, discipline,
thrill, extended fights ,frenetic chases etc. Words are less to define it ! It's an fabulous duty every
one person that is in Indian army is a real hero salute to Indian army and proud to be Indian.
SANTOSH:
Risk of life is involved in every job one does but it is anyway better to die for your nation than be
killed in an accident. Indian Army offers you a well balanced life you will ever get. The contentment
which the soldier of the army gets for safeguarding its nation and protecting its citizen is beyond
words. It also brings in the respect from within the hearts of millions for protecting them.
Now coming to the exciting part. No job would give you time to play your favourite sport and for
that would also give you the salary apart from the Indian Army. There is a saying "boys and their
toys". No doubt we love equipment's and gadgets. Here we get all!
I would definitely go for the services in The Army as I know my family would be taken care of
even when I'm not around. My parents would have their share of bread and butter and would be
called brave parents for raising a son who was always ready to sacrifice his life for his
motherland.
SATHISH:
I'm here in favour of motion, some of my friends said that we join army to serve the nation not to
gain the hikes and accommodations but my dear friends we can serve the nation even by a simple
person as a responsible citizen by not causing harm to soil, by keeping our society clean and by
17

doing reforestation. Serve the nation doesn't only mean to fight at the border as territorial officer and
if you are deep hearted to your country then you can join Indian Army and then government will give
you the salary for your job as all government employees depending on your rank. Think if you are
working in any government sector then would you take salary and accommodations they give? Offcourse you take, same case is in army buddy!
RAMANAN:
I feel one can make an attempt to join the Indian army, but its upon
the army- if it accepts you or not. Not every one can make it to the
Olive green uniform and shining black boots.
As far as the attempt goes - the army offers you the following.
INTANGIBLE BENEFITS.
1) The uniform- which no money can buy.
2) The Respect - which comes from within the hearts of millions of people.
3) The Pride - Of standing in front of the entire nation and telling " yes I have repayed the debt of my
motherland". 4) The personality of a gentleman - the training and Lifestyle moulds you to become a
man and a gentleman i.e. tough arms and a noble heart.
5) the Lineage - of being a part of the breed, which has been believing- that independence does not
come free.
RATHISH:
Yes I think Indian army is on of the great carrier option for the youth. It provides the service to the
nation. It is one of the most responsible and honourable job. It is very good platform for the
youngster to become an officer at age of 22. When most of youngster are playing in the college. You
will be the one who guarding the frontiers. It provides better environment for the family. House
accommodation salary etc.
RAJU:
Is it necessary to have a fully toned muscular body and a perfect means 100% perfect mind with no
complexes at all, to become an ARMY OFFICER. How should I prepare for physical as I am
confident to clear the written in February.
PRAKASH:
Hi friends.
Today Indian army has become a great career option and reason I think is the quality lifestyle it
provide. Every day one has to deal with new situation. Everyday one has to wake up at 5 am and
sleep till 10pm and between this in every moment one has to make decision, one has to be ready for
taking responsibility and that's a person wants in his life adventure, discipline.

18

It generate a sense of immense patriotism, it provides a purposeful life and above all.
S.RANJITH:
Hi friend, I think that Indian Army cadet are prepared for nation security. In my mind Indian Army
give us external security and provide security. Army man means full of courage, leadership,
determination and confidence etc. Army man live in border and abroad and so far of our family. So
Army man is the greatest soldier of our motherland. I am preparation of Indian army officer.
M.RANJITH:
Hi all, I agree that defence career gives us social respect, economic security, bright future etc. But
, to be part of most prestigious organisations that is armed services, one should be passionate
about that. The sense of honour, feeling of satisfaction is more important than anything else.
Joining for the sake of salary or facilities, those will end up in corruption or something. The feel
of respect that comes from inside when I see a defence personnel inspires me to be part of it.
SELVA BOOPATHY:
Can you tell me at least one profession in which all the working people are treated equally or
corruption does not exist?
Adaptability is required in each and every work place, which is the key requirement for any
organization.
Army is and always be a respectable career. It not only moulds you with personality but also
discipline which everyone appreciate.
S.RANJITH:
Indian Army used to be made up of air-force, navy, military but in this globalized world this is too
short sigh, it must include business, economy, strong currency, R&D facilities, science and arts
because now a days countries do not fight physical fight. India & china is fighting but its for bigger
economy, business and various development. Now whole world is fighting but it is cold war.
So one can consider himself part of INDIAN ARMY by well contributing in any of area mention
above. And achieve victory, pride for country.
RAJU:
I also consider myself a patriot and everyone involved here in this discussion supports army as a
career....but just think for a second if this field had no demerits then why most of the enthusiastic
youth of our nation is living unemployed rather than joining the army. The basic recruitments for
army doesnt only take place through NDA or TES ,the people who are actually risking there lives on
the border rather than sitting in air conditioner rooms making strategies are selected by very basic
and simple tests....so its very easy to get inside. But then what???

19

What do they get??? just a meagre salary and after 10-15 years the same people end up doing the job
of security guard...can such an atmosphere bring up the feeling of PATRIOTISM!!!???
PRAKASH:
I appreciate all the above views and I am also in favour of joining the Indian army as a career option.
After no other job provides status, adventure, security and serving the nation altogether. Those who
saying that there is always a risk of life must think that it is better to die serving the nation than in
any accident.
RATHISH:
Joining INDIAN ARMY is a GOOD CAREER OPTION .Today the first priority is money for
everyone. And in technical field for engineers and doctors, ARMY pays a good package. Today, there
are a lot of engineering and medical colleges in India and students are choosing them to earn
M.RANJITH:
Definitely friends, Indian Army is the best carrier option as it provides a royal service alongwith a
chance to serve our nation. We need growth, job satisfaction, good salary, job security as the key
points in our carrier & all gets fulfilled in this job profile.
It also assures for secure future after retirement by providing the pension.
And in comparison with private sector the salary is also quiet enough & believe me no one can offer
that much salary at the start of your carrier.
I am an engineer still I want to be a part of defence services in India not because of facilities or
salary but for higher self esteem earned by serving to our motherland.
SELVA BOOPATHY:
It is one of the most Premier organisation in India a choosing to join Indian army is a respect in
itself. Today army has it hands in every field that are around individuals who seek for a career in any
MNC or private organisations. It provides all the facilities to its members and give them a special
respect. Army personnels are found everywhere while it be the field of Education, as doctors, as
engineers in big companies who are at premier positions. We get a better chance of serving our
nation directly through ARMY.
SATHISH:
Every career has its own joy and is equally important than the others. Because if everybody will join
the army then who will do the other tasks which are also very important for the development and the
prosperity of the country. But I would asked then definitely Indian army is a best career. Because it
has lots of facilities like canteen facilities, free medical aid for the whole family, job security, pension
scheme etc. Apart from that this life is very adventurous, full of courage, enthusiasm and totally
based on discipline. In this job one can get the chance to work for the country directly
SANTOSH:
20

I accept what my above friends have said about career in INDIAN ARMY, but I like too view
career in army in religious point of view , as we know all religion teaches us to be discipline,
dedication, devotion etc., this things are theoretical but Indian army is the application of this basic
religious principle , for example Im a Hindu but if we see it deeply its not " just a religion but a way
of living " similarly Indian army is not a " profession its way of living ".
M.RANJITH:
"When the going gets tough, the tough gets going" is a famous saying by the Indian Army, making
army as a career will teach you to lead a disciplined life. The dignity and pride in the uniform you
wear symbolizes the true patriotism for the country. Serving our motherland is a honour of respect
and joy for each and every citizen of our country.
RAMANAN:
Serving in our Indian Army is a GOD GIFT! Yes. When you are a part of Indian army then you are a
complete man. It will be more glad to us when we do something for our country. You can learn
responsibility, discipline from Indian army. You also feel proud by providing security to your
motherland. You will be respected by all.
SANTOSH:
I like to conclude by saying that, joining Indian Army and serving Indians is very best choice to
show our patriotism and love on our nation. As you all says it will be proud to be in Indian army and
also we learn a lot on how to live our life satisfyingly by serving our nation. There are lots of
milestones to be reached to join the Indian army. But once we join it then we fell the proud breeze.
We may not worry about our family as We take care of our nation and the Indian army will take
care of our family.

21

READING
COMPREHENSION

22

READING COMPREHENSION
Reading comprehension is the ability to read text, process it and understand its meaning. An
individual's ability to comprehend text is influenced by their traits and skills, one of which is the
ability to make inferences. If word recognition is difficult, students use too much of their processing
capacity to read individual words, which interferes with their ability to comprehend what is read.
There are a number of approaches to improve reading comprehension, including improving one's
vocabulary and reading strategies
Reading comprehension is defined as the level of understanding of a text/message. This
understanding comes from the interaction between the words that are written and how they trigger
knowledge outside the text/message. Comprehension is a "creative, multifaceted process" dependent
upon four language skills: phonology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. Proficient reading depends
on the ability to recognize words quickly and effortlessly. It is also determined by an individual's
cognitive development, which is "the construction of thought processes". Some people learn through
education or instruction and others through direct experiences.
There are specific traits that determine how successfully an individual will comprehend text,
including prior knowledge about the subject, well developed language, and the ability to make
inferences. Having the skill to monitor comprehension is a factor: "Why is this important?" and "Do
I need to read the entire text?" are examples. Lastly, is the ability to be self-correcting to solve
comprehension problems as they arise.
Reading comprehension involves two levels of processing, shallow (low-level) processing and deep
(high-level) processing. Deep processing involves semantic processing, which happens when we
encode the meaning of a word and relate it to similar words. Shallow processing involves structural
and phonemic recognition, the processing of sentence and word structure and their associated
sounds. This theory was first identified by Fergus I. M. Craik and Robert S. Lockhart.
Reading comprehension and vocabulary are inextricably linked. The ability to decode or identify and
pronounce words is self-evidently important, but knowing what the words mean has a major and
direct effect on knowing what any specific passage means. Students with a smaller vocabulary than
other students comprehend less of what they read and it has been suggested that the most impactful
way to improve comprehension is to improve vocabulary.
Most words are learned gradually through a wide variety of environments: television, books, and
conversations. Some words are more complex and difficult to learn, such as homonyms, words that
have multiple meanings and those with figurative meanings, like idioms, similes, and metaphors.

23

READING COMPRIHENSION - I

Read the passage and answer the questions given below:

Let us take a brief look at the planet on which we live. As earth hurtles through space at a speed of
70,000 miles per hour, it spins, as we all know, on its axis, which causes it to be flattened at the
Poles. Thus, if you were to stand at sea level at the North of South Pole you would be 13 miles
nearer the centre of the earth than if you stood on the Equator.
The earth is made up of three major layers a central core, probably metallic, some 4000 miles
across, a surrounding layer of compressed rock and to top it all a very thin skin of softer rock, only
about 20 to 40 miles thick - thats about as thin as the skin of an apple, talking in relative terms. The
pressure on the central core is unimaginable. It has been calculated that at the centre it is 60 million
pounds to the square inch, and this at a temperature of perhaps 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit.
The earths interior, therefore, would seem to be of liquid metal and evidence for this is given by the
behaviour of earthquakes. When an earthquake occurs, shock waves radiate from the centre just as
waves radiate outwards from the point where a stone drops into a pond. And these waves pulsate
through the earths various layers. Some waves descend vertically and pass right through the earth,
providing evidence for the existence of the core and an indication that it is fluid rather than solid.
Thus, with their sensitive instruments, the scientists who study earthquakes, the seismologists, can in
effect X-ray the earth. Iceland is one of the most active volcanic regions of the world. And it was to
Iceland that Jules Verne sent the hero of this book A journey to the Centre of the earth. This
intrepid explorer clambered down the opening of an extinct volcano and followed its windings until
he reached the earths core. There he found great oceans, and continents with vegetation. This
conception of a hollow earth we now know to be false. In the 100 years since Jules Verne published
his book, the science of volcanology, as it is called, has made great strides. But even so the deepest,
man has yet penetrated is about 10,000 feet.
This hole, the Robinson Deep mine in South Africa, barely scratches the surface; so great is the heat
at 10,000 feet that were it not for an elaborate air conditioning system, the miners working would be
roasted. Oil borings down to 20,000 feet have shown that the deeper they go, the hotter it becomes.
The temperature of the earth at the centre is estimated to be anything between 3,000 and 11,000
degrees Fahrenheit. Some scientists believe that this tremendous heat is caused by the breaking-down
of radio-active elements, which release large amounts of energy and compensate for the loss of heat

24

from the earths surface. If this theory is correct, then we are all living on top of a natural atomic
power house.

Answer the questions :


1. Choose the response which best reflects the meaning of the text.
(a) The outer layer of the Earth is compared to the skin of an apple
because
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

It is only 20 to 45 miles thick.


It is thin in proportion to the Earths mass.
It is relatively thin compared with the central core.
It is softer than the outer layers.

(b) Which of the following is not true?


It is thought that the interior of the earth is not solid because
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

There is great pressure at the centre.


Earthquake waves can move vertically.
The outer layer is made of rock.
The heat at the centre is too great.

(c) The Robinson Deep mine in South Africa is


(i)

Too deep to work in.

(ii)

Too hot to work in.

(iii)

Still in use.

(iv)

Very close to the surface.

(d) Since the publication of Jules Vernes book it has been proved that
(i)

the centre of the earth is not hollow.

(ii)

oil borings cannot go deeper than 20,000 feet.

(iii)

the earth is hot at the centre because heat is lost at the

surface.
(iv)

the earth is in danger of exploding.


25

(e) The behaviour of earthquakes is the evidence to show that


(i)

the outer layer is not semi-solid.

(ii)

the interior of the earth is not solid.

(iii)

the interior layer consists of compressed rock.

(iv)

earthquakes can be controlled.

(f) An elaborate air-conditioning system was indispensable in Robinson


Deep Mine because of the
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

Excessive internal pressure.


extreme cold condition.
excessive internal heat.
depth of the mine itself.

2) Decide whether the following statements are True or False.

(a)If you stand at the Equator you will be closer to the centre of the
Earth than if you stand at the poles.
(b)The shock waves from an earthquake cannot pass through the
Earths central core.
(c)Jules Verne suggested that the Earths centre was hollow.
(d)It is not known exactly how hot it is at the centre of the Earth.
(e)The earth travels through the space at a speed of 90,000 miles per hour.
(f)The earth is compared to a natural atomic power house.

3) Choose the definition which best fires these words or phrases as they are used in the text
(a) in effect
(i) Probably

(ii) effectively

(iii) actually

(b) Intrepid

26

(iv) Accurately

(i) Daring

(ii) foolish

(iii) experienced

(iv) Curious

(c) Has made great strides


(i) caused a sensation (ii) been accepted by scientists
(iv) improved mining techniques

(iii) developed immensely

(d)compensate for
(i) prepare for

(ii) allow for (i) make up for

COMPREHENSIVE PASSAGE: ANSWERS

1. A. (ii) it is thin in proportion to the Earths mass.


B. (iii) the outer layer is made of rock.
C. (ii) too hot to work in.
(iii) still in use.
D. (i) the centre of the earth is not hollow.
E.

(iii) the interior of the earth is not solid.

F. (iii) excessive internal heat.

2. (a) false
(b) false
(c) true
(d) true
(e) false
(f) true
3. (a) (i) actually
(b) (i) daring
27

(iv) exchange for

(c) (i) Developed immensely


(d) (i) make up for
READING COMPRIHENSSION II

Read the passage and answer the questions given below:

When a society undergoes rapid social change, its religion is likely to be affected. At sometimes,
people may feel disillusioned, or dissatisfied, their conservative, established religion may be
incapable of changing to accommodate their new needs. Under these circumstances, which may be
associated with revitalization, a prophet a charismatic leader, usually male, who offers solution in
times of extreme social unrest may emerge. A prophet is typically a person who has undergone
some intense spiritual experience: perhaps a spirit has shown him new truths and new ways of
behaving, or urged him to return to traditional ways. As a result of this experience, the prophet
usually feels he has a mission to fulfil among his fellows, and if he is convincing he may develop a
following.

The charismatic prophets who emerged among the Native Americans of the Great Plains during the
last decades of the nineteenth century are illustrative. At the time, Plains groups were undergoing
cultural deprivation. White people had seized their land and herded them onto reservations.
Alcoholism, measles, and whooping cough, introduced by whites, had killed thousands.
The relentless westbound expansion of white pioneers had left massacres and broken peace treaties
nits wake, and Native Americans were growing increasingly frustrated and desperate. In this context,
a series of charismatic Native Americans prophets emerged, predicting that-if people would only
follow them-the whites would be wiped out, the bison would return, lands would be recovered,
sickness and death would disappear, dead kinsmen would be restored to life, and everlasting
prosperity and happiness would reign. All that was needed to bring about the millennium was that
people have faith, pray, and repeatedly perform a ritual called the Ghost dance. The ghost dancing
was widely practiced, but to no avail.
The Jesus of the Christian religion, a man who broke away from religious orthodoxy during a time
of social upheaval, is another example of a prophet. Jesus persuaded people to give up their ways of
life and become his lifelong disciples. After his death, the church he founded continued under the
leadership of one of his followers, Peter, and eventually became an institution.

28

Answer the questions :


1 .What is the best title for the passage?
[ a] A history of religion
[ b] The origin of Religion
[ c] The birth of a Prophet
[ d] The need for Religion

2. All of the following may cause the need for prophet except
[ a] famine
[ b] pollution
[ c] an economic crisis
[ d] natural disasters

3. Accommodate is closest in meaning to


[ a] understand
[ b] listen
[ c] satisfy
[ d] recognize

4. The passage suggests that prophets


[ a] often see ghosts
[ b] talk to the dead
[ c] undergo mystical experience
[ d] are radical revolutionaries

29

5. Look at the word him in the passage.


Here him refers to 6. Before the arrival of Whites, Indians
[ a] were self sufficient
[ b] were hardly intoxicated
[ c] were not dissatisfied
[ d] were hunter gatherers

7. The word herded in the passage is closest in meaning to


[ a] forced
[ b] drove
[ c] reared
[ d] supervised

8. The third paragraph suggest that the Indian prophets


[a ] hated white settlers
[ b] wanted to become absolute leaders
[ c] made unrealistic claims
[ d] wanted to create illusions

9. Which sentence that describes the prophet?

10. The Ghost Dance is an example of all the following except


[ a] desperation
[ b] blind faith
[ c] religious fervour
[ d] intuition
30

ANSWERS :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

[ c]
[ b]
[ c]
[ c]
The prophet
[ a]
[ a]
[ a]

A prophet is typically a person who has undergone some intense spiritual experience: perhaps a
spirit has shown him new truths and new ways of behaving, or urged him to return to traditional
ways.

10.[ a]

31

DIALOGUE WRITING

32

DIALOGUE WRITING I
A dialogue between two friends:
Laurie: So, what are your plans for this weekend?
Christie: I dont know. Do you want to get together or something?
Sarah: How about going to see a movie? Cinemax 26 on Carson Boulevard is showing Enchanted.
Laurie: That sounds like a good idea. Maybe we should go out to eat beforehand.
Sarah: It is fine with me. Where do you want to meet?
Christie: Lets meet at Summer Pizza House. I have not gone there for a long time.
Laurie: Good idea again. I heard they justcame up with a new pizza. It should be good because
Summer Pizza House always has the best pizza in town.
Sarah: When should we meet?
Christie: Well, the movie is shown at 2:00PM, 4:00PM, 6:00PM and 8:00PM.
Sarah: My cousin Karen is in town. Can I bring her along? I hate to leave her home alone.
Christie: Karen is in town? Yes, bring her along. Laurie, you remember Karen? We met her at Saras
high school graduation party two years ago.
Laurie: I do not quite remember her. What does she look like?
Sarah: She has blond hair, she is kind of slender, and she is about your height.
Laurie: She wears eyeglasses, right? I remember her now. Yes, do bring her along Sara. She is such
a nice person, and funny too.
Sarah: She will be happy to meet both of you again.
Christie: What is she doing these days?
Sarah: She graduated last June, and she will start her teaching career next week when the new
school term begins.
Laurie: What grade is she going to teach?
Sarah: She will teach kindergarten. She loves working with kids, and she always has such a good
rapport with them.

33

Christie: Kindergarten? She must be a very patient person. I always think kindergarten is the most
difficult class to teach. Most of the kids have never been to school, and they have never been away
from mommy for long.
Sarah: I think Karen will do fine. She knows how to handle young children.
Laurie: I think the first few weeks will be tough. However, once the routine is set, it should not be
too difficult to teach kindergarten.
Christie: You are right. The kids might even look forward to going to school since they have so
many friends to play with.
Sarah: There are so many new things for them to do at school too. They do a lot of crafts in
kindergarten. I am always amazed by the things kindergarten teachers do.
Laurie: Yes, I have seen my niece come home with so many neat stuff.
Christie: Maybe we can ask Karen to show us some of the things that we can do for this Halloween.
Laurie: Maybe we can stop by the craft store after the movie. What do you think, Sara?
Sarah: I will talk to her. I think she will like that. It will help her with school projects when
Halloween comes.
Christie: Michaels is a good store for crafts. It always carries a variety of things, and you can find
almost anything here.
Laurie: There is a Michaels store not far away from Cinemax 26. I believe it is just around the
corner, on Pioneer Avenue. We can even walk over there.
Sarah: So, we plan to meet for pizza at noon, go to the movies at two, and shopat Michaels
afterward. Right?
Laurie and Christie: Yes.

34

DIALOGUE WRITING - II

A dialogue between a Candidate and an interviewer :


Candidate: May I come in, sir?
Interviewer: Yes, please come in.
Candidate: Good morning, sir.
Interviewer: Good morning, please sit down. What is your name?
Candidate: Sir, my name is Rohan Kapoor.
Interviewer: Which post have you applied for?
Candidate: Marketing officer, sir.
Interviewer: What is your educational qualification?
Candidate: B.A. Hons. in Economics. And I have postgraduate diploma in Marketing Management.
Interviewer: From which university did you pass B.A?
Candidate: Sir, I passed from University of Delhi.
Interviewer: What division did you get?
Candidate: First division, sir.
Interviewer: And from where did you do Marketing Management?
Candidate: From YMCA, Connaught Place.
Interviewer: What is your hobby?
Candidate: Sir, my hobby is reading books on marketing.
Interviewer: We need a marketing officer who is not only capable but also fluent and effective in
English Speaking.

35

Candidate: Sir, I am capable enough to join your reputed company.


Interviewer: Do you have any experience?
Candidate: I have three years experience as a marketing officer in Engineers India.
Interviewer: Are you still working there?
Candidate: Yes sir.
Interviewer: You are already working in a big government company. So why do you want to abandon
it?
Candidate: Sir, everyone wants better prospects (chances of success). No doubt the company is
good. But I am not having job-satisfaction. I want to develop my marketing talents further. And itll
be possible only in a big multinational where I am able to both learn and contribute.
Interviewer: Well, how much salary are you getting there?
Candidate: Sir, I am getting 15,000/- per month.
Interviewer: And how much minimum salary do you expect from our company?
Candidate: Any salary that you think your company should give me. But I am definitely seeking jobsatisfaction a marketing field where there is a possibility of development.
Interviewer: What motivated you to join our company?
Candidate: It is a reputed company. I have heard that it provides a good environment that nurtures
growth and talent development.
Interviewer: What is the main strength of your personality?
Candidate: I am enthusiastic and know how to motivate people.
Interviewer: What are your weaknesses?
Candidate: I may lose my sleep if I make mistake.
Interviewer: Where do you see yourself 5 years from now?
Candidate: Working happily at a senior position in this company.
Interviewer: What do you like most about your present job?
Candidate: Marketing tour to South India now and then.

36

Interviewer: And what do you dislike?


Candidate: I dislike resistance to new ideas.
Interviewer: Suppose you have to persuade a new dealer in a state to sell our mobiles what will be
your opening lines?
Candidate: I shall frame my opening lines after reading the body language of the dealer, especially
his face. Common opening lines may be: Good morning sir, I am Hiten, Marketing Officer of LG a
world leader whose new range of mobiles are rapidly increasing its market share in India. Would
you like to go for an association with us to boost business?
Interviewer: What is the best trait of a marketing officer in your opinion?
Candidate: The art of motivation.
Interviewer: Suppose we select you, then would you be able to join our company from the 1st of
coming month?
Candidate: Definitely sir.
Interviewer: OK, man we are almost satisfied with your answers. You may leave now. The boards
decision regarding selection will be conveyed to you within a week. Good luck.
Candidate: Thanking you very much sir.

37

EMAIL

38

EMAIL
Electronic mail, most commonly referred to as email or e-mail since around 1993, is a method of
exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients. Email operates across the
Internet or other computer networks.
An Internet email message consists of three components, the message envelope, the message header,
and the message body. The message header contains control information, including, minimally, an
originator's email address and one or more recipient addresses. Usually descriptive information is
also added, such as a subject header field and a message submission date/time stamp.
Types:
Web-based email
Many email providers have a web-based email client (e.g. AOL Mail, Gmail, Outlook.com and
Yahoo! Mail). This allows users to log into the email account by using any compatible web browser
to send and receive their email. Mail is typically not downloaded to the client, so can't be read
without a current Internet connection.
POP3 email services
The Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3) is a mail access protocol used by a client application to read
messages from the mail server. Received messages are often deleted from the server. POP supports
simple download-and-delete requirements for access to remote mailboxes (termed maildrop in the
POP RFC's).
IMAP email servers
The Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) provides features to manage a mailbox from multiple
devices. Small portable devices like smartphones are increasingly used to check email while
travelling, and to make brief replies, larger devices with better keyboard access being used to reply at
greater length. IMAP shows the headers of messages, the sender and the subject and the device needs
to request to download specific messages. Usually mail is left in folders in the mail server.
MAPI email servers
Messaging Application Programming Interface (MAPI) is a messaging architecture and an API based
on the Component Object Model (COM) for Microsoft Windows.
Do's and don'ts of Email writing
1. Don't put something in an email message that you would not want read by everybody. Email can
be misdirected, even when you are careful. Always double-check your list of recipients.
2. Don't send attachments (e.g., Word, Excel files) unless the recipient wants it and expects it. It is
much quicker to read text in an email than it is to open an attachment and read it there. Not all users
39

have the same types of computers or software. Using pure email makes it much more likely that the
recipient will be able to read what you sent.
3. Don't type in all capitals. This is the electronic equivalent of SHOUTING!
4. Don't send an email without a meaningful subject. Where someone receives many messages, it can
be very confusing and frustrating not to be able to judge the subject matter correctly from its subject
field. When you use the "reply" option, ensure that the subject field still accurately reflects the
content of your message.
5. Don't overuse carbon copies. Make sure if the recipients really need to see this information.
6. Don't immediately respond to messages that make you angry. Wait awhile, and determine if you
might want to consider methods other than email for responding.
7. Don't give your user ID or password to another person. System administrators that need to access
your account for maintenance or to correct problems can do so without your password.
8. Don't make changes to someone else's message and pass it on without making it clear where you
have made the changes.
9. Don't pretend you are someone else when sending mail, e.g. by using someone else's account to
send it.
10. Restrict yourself to one subject per message so recipients can use the "subject" field to manage
the messages they have received.
11. Use discretion when printing email messages. Printing ALL of your messages defeats the purpose
of email (paperless medium) and is a waste of paper.
12. Use the spell checker .Never send email with spelling errors .
13. Reply to original messages. This helps the recipient understand the context of the reply.
14. Use the auto-signature option in Exchange. This saves you from typing your name and other
contact info (email, phone, and fax) for every message.
15. Encourage others to communicate with you by email. Electronic communication is cheaper and
more timely than paper-based communication. The more we use it, the more money we save in an
institution.
16. Realize that sending e-mail is not the same as talking to a person face to face. A sentence that
might be clear to someone talking to you face to face might come across quite differently without the
tone of your voice or the look on your face. When being humorous, use emoticons to express humor.
The most common emoticons are:
A smiling face seen side-on;
An unhappy face seen side on;
A winking smiley face;
A mischievous smiley face;

40

17. Never deliver a negative message by email


18. Be more polite than when you speak
Because the tone and inflection are missing, it is more important to use friendly language, descriptive
adjectives and carefully chosen words..
19. Youre judged by your grammar and spellingjust as if you were writing a letter
Be careful about your grammar and spelling in your email.
EXAMPLE:
Hi Chris, Hello, how are you? Meh, I would not like to go and see your friend, I don't like concerts,
nor bands, obviously... I wouldn't even like to go to those boring activities you say, we'd rather go to
a shop centre, and buy an ice cream I can help you with you lessons of italian, there is an App that
you can download on you iPad called Duolingo, that would help you with that, ita has a lot lf
languages for you to learn! And finally, I am not taking my new super skateboard, I know you would
like to have one as mine, but my mother does not let me to let you use it, she says you will break it!
Sincerely, your best friend Hugo! :).
Dear Miss Black,
EXAMPLE:
I am writing to you because I need further information on studying English at your school. I am very
interested to know that whether your school has a three-week English course or just organizes a twoweek course.
2. My second concern would be about the cost of the provided course. Would your management team
provide a scholarship to eligible applicants? I wish I could grab the offer from you as my parents are
worried that they cannot afford to pay for the registration fees.
3. I would be grateful if you could tell me more about the accommodation. Would I stay with the host
family or with the other student?
I am looking forward to your response.
Yours sincerely,
Hopie

41

FORMAL EMAIL

42

INFORMAL EMAIL

43

REPORT WRITING

44

REPORT WRITING
Introduction
Writing an essay or a report is amongst the most important tasks in science. Unfortunately, it is still
badly neglected in many curricula.
Consider that science is always about how you express yourself and how you contribute to an
ongoing debate, very rarely insights or findings are completely "de novo" and "ex nihilo". So,
whatever you do or want to report on, is a part of an ongoing discussion. Consequently, the
presentation (and this does not primarily refer to the layout) is extremely important. This includes
easy to understand figures, a clear and logical structure (which itself is sort of a language people
have agreed upon) and a clear and precise language.
In other words: be scholarly and remember you are always standing on the shoulders of giants!
In the following we want to give you some guidelines which should help you write reports. However,
writing reports and essays is much like learning a language: you can only learn it through practise.
Theoretical knowledge is helpful to get started and to reflect on your own capabilities and skills, but
it can only be a guideline - not more. And, at the end of the day, there is also no point in thinking too
much about it: just do it, trial and error is often your best teacher.

2. Structure
A report or essay is structured as follows: Title, Name and Affiliation, Abstract, Introduction,
Methods (normally not present in an essay), Results, Discussion, Conclusions (optional) References,
each headed by an appropriate subtitle.

2.1 ABSTRACT: should be a short statement summarising the most important facts and conclusions
from the work. It should spare any details and be limited to typically 150-250 words (5-10
sentences). It is not a table of contents but should explain to a potential reader why s/he should read
the full article. It should briefly summarise the background, the main contents and the main
conclusions.

2.2 INTRODUCTION: should start with a few easy to understand statements explaining the general
context of your piece of work. It should narrow down to the specific sub-area of your work,
providing a motivation for this research area. It should then be followed by references to what other
people have done in the field, what the advantages and shortcomings of their insights / methods etc.
The reader should gain a fair overview of what is already there and why it is worthwhile to do more
research and why s/he should read on.
The Introduction should close with some few sentences providing a clear and concise statement
about the outline, the aims and the objectives of this work. Ideally, you should present your working
45

hypothesis or model which you are going to verify experimentally / computationally (research
report) or through a scholarly digest of the literature (essay, project module).

2.3 (MATERIALS AND) METHODS: should describe clearly which materials and methods
(chemicals, kits, machinery, algorithms, web-sites, programming language, computers etc.) you have
used, why you have used them, where they were taken from and what the main underlying rationale
was. Lengthy lists, e.g. of web-sites, gene names etc. should go to the appendix. The description
should enable anyone who is working in the field to easily reproduce this work. If you write an essay
you should briefly describe literature resources and e.g. key-words you used in PubMed or
SCOPUS / Web of Science for starting your investigations and how you proceed.
Reproducibility is among the key criteria to ensure scientific credibility and to avoid scathing
comments from colleagues. Some clear and well commented figures may help to illustrate the
methods and thus increase comprehensibility of the paper.

2.4 RESULTS: must be clearly separated and distinguishable from hypothetical statements,
speculations and generalisations. The latter should be put in the "Discussion" or, if "Results and
Discussion" have been put in one section into the "Conclusions" section.
Results should be described one after the other, with a clear separation between the experiments. You
should unambiguously (use labels and cross-references within the text) refer to figures which
illustrate the outcome.
Figures and, where necessary, tables should be clearly labelled and commented with a figure/table
caption explaining precisely what is displayed and what the symbols mean. Tables and Figures
should be "self-explanatory", i.e. all labels and abbreviations used in the table itself or on the figure
should be explained in the caption and an informative title should be provided for the Figure (e.g.
"The frequency of missing domains across clusters classified by types of annotation artifacts and real
evolutionary events"). Figures should not occur before they were mentioned in the text but ideally
close to where they are referred to, i.e. shortly after.
Do not report all the detailed information such as numbers in the text, try to summarise the
information in a meaningful way, avoiding unnecessary details -- and put the detailed information in
the tables and Figures (see Examples).
Note: the Results section in an Essay is of course the part which describes and summarises
knowledge and will fall together with the Discussion. This part will thus make up the major part of
the whole essay. It can be followed then by a brief section "Conclusions and Outlook".

2.5 DISCUSSION: summarises what has been done. It emphasises the significance of the work and
discusses the relationship to other works (e.g. the ones laid out in the introduction) in a fair and
comprehensible manner. It may close with a short paragraph comprising speculations about the wider
significance of the work and an outlook to the future. Anything that is not directly supported by your
own data or that have been stated by other authors should go in here (with references!).
46

Furthermore, you need to address possible weak points of your approach or methodology.
Conclusions and outlook is optional in a report on a project but highly recommended in an essay.
Here you can, based on the discussion you have done before, express an expert's evaluation of the
key points and your personal opinion about future developments.

2.6 REFERENCING:*EVERY* statement based on other's work, *EVERY* piece of text written
by others must be quoted, *EVERY* method (this includes programs, databases, ...) devised by
others (unless already in a text-book) *MUST* be referenced appropriately, *EVERY* piece of
research you build on must be acknowledged. This means that throughout the text there appear marks
such as "[14]" or "(Smith et al 1999)" when you refer to Smith's and colleagues' work. The
corresponding references must be listed at the end of the article in numerical or alphabetical order
respectively or in the order they have been introduced if name-tags have been used. Throughout the
text you must stick to one system and the reference list must be coherent and complete. Follow either
the Harvard or the Chicago system. The minimal information given in a reference is: The name of
the author (if one), both authors (if not more than two), both initials of all authors, journal name (in
an approved abbreviation), volume (bold or underlined):first page, year.
Books must be listed by Author, title, "in:" Editor, book title, publisher, year and city.
Web-links are acceptable only if certain resources have not been published or to indicate the source
of a download in addition to a proper reference but they do not count as a proper scientific source
(and neither does Wikipedia).
It is recommended to use pybliographer under Linux (or whatever is available under windows if you
happen to use MS products).
There is no guideline about an appropriate number of references: for a short report on a novel result
some 10 (but certainly not less) might do, for a review up to a few hundred may be appropriate.
Generally, as a rule of thumb, there will be between 20 and 70 in an original paper, some 5 - 20 in a
short report and around 15 to 40 in an essay or project module report.
Naturally numbers for theses will be higher.

2.7 RESEARCH PLAN:(End of Project Module Report, MOGL Module for MSc and PhD 3 month
literature- and 9 month transfer-report):
should contain a tabulated description of planed further research, structured as aims, objectives,
tabulated lists of pieces of planned research with time estimates and required materials.
Tasks must be clearly linked to the literature and the discussions given before, i.e. it must be obvious
and explicitly stated why steps are planned to be carried out, to which arguments given earlier on
they are related to and why it is justified and necessary to perform each individual piece of work,
why it is prioritised and which assumptions time estimates and required materials are based on.

47

REPORT ON WORK DONE


Submitted to
John Smith
123 High Street
Cambridge
CB1 1AA
14 September 2015
Submitted by
Peter Smith
123 The Way
Cambridge
CB1 1BX
Re: 2011/55
Dear john Smith,
I have discovered the following problem with the work you have done for me: The brick paving on
the driveway has been installed badly. The cement between slabs has not set or is missing and it is
dangerous to drive on.
The Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982 says that reasonable care and skill must be used while
working. In my opinion, you did not use reasonable care and skill when you carried out this work
and you have broken your contract with me.
I ask that you: Reset the paving. As a good will gesture I also request a 5% discount on the price of
the job for the inconvenience your poor quality of work has caused me as I havent been able to use
my drive for a long time.
Please contact me as soon as possible, and no later than 14 days from the date on this letter, to agree
a date by which this work will be put right.
If I do not hear back from you in the time suggested above, I will consider taking further action and
seeking legal advice.
I look forward to hearing from you.
48

Yours sincerely
Peter Smith
123 The Way
Cambridge
CB1 1BX
B556 7TT

REPORT - I
Report on how scientific method works :
The scientific method is fundamental to successful experimentation. It consists of four main
stages: observation, hypothesis, experimentation, and analysis. A successful scientific endeavor
covers each of these stages thoroughly.
Observation consists of noticing a phenomenon, asking questions about it, and researching
what is known about the phenomenon. For example, you might notice that two objects of the same
dimensions fall at the same rate. A question this might raise is whether the mass of these objects
affects how quickly they fall. You can then look for information from previous experiments or
equations that seek to explain the phenomenon.
After youre done observing, you move on to hypothesizing. A hypothesis is an educated
guess about the phenomenon. After doing research on falling objects and deriving equations about
them, you might hypothesize that objects of the same dimensions will fall at the same rate regardless
of mass because the same forces are acting on each object.
Once the hypothesis has been formed, you can move onto experimentation. A good
experiment will have a control, or a result against which other results can be gauged. For this
experiment, it could be falling objects of the same dimensions and same mass. The variable group,
which is compared to the control group, could include falling objects of the same dimensions and
variable masses. The results of these experiments would then be recorded accurately in pen so they
cannot be changed to better suit the hypothesis.
When the experiment is over, the data is analyzed. If the data correlates to the hypothesis, the
hypothesis is considered to be supported. If it doesnt, the hypothesis can be considered disproved.
Either way, the analysis is generally published as a scientific report, which is then subject to critique
by the experimenters peers. Ideally, the experiment is then repeated to determine if the results are
the same every time.

49

To be successful in science, the scientific method should be used for all experiments. The
experimenter should observe, hypothesize, experiment, and analyze to retain accuracy. When the
scientific method is employed
REPORT - II
Report on the book Proof of Heaven by Dr. Eben Alexander:
As a neurosurgeon, Dr. Eben Alexander believed that there was no tangible proof of heaven
or a spiritual afterlife. Though many of his own patients claimed they had spiritual experiences, Dr.
Eben listened to their stories but always had rational explanations for everything they had seen and
felt. Near-death experiences were nothing more than the innermost parts of the brain working
overtime in a traumatic event to help ease the pain and fear of a patient. The mind can conjure up all
kinds of visual pictures and ideas while being unconscious. Not until he had his own near death
experience did he understand what his patients were talking about. In his book, Proof of Heaven, Dr.
Eben Alexander explains his spiritual journey

A healthy, vibrant family man, Dr. Alexander was always more concerned about others than
he was about himselfwhich is why, the morning he woke up with an excruciating headache, he
ignored it so as to not worry his family. When he tried to get in the shower, pain shot through his
back and head, and he had no choice but to go back to bed. Still, he told his worried wife to go about
her business. He would take a small nap and wake up feeling fine. After some time passed and he
had not awakened, his wife went to check on him. What she found was a lifeless, unconscious shell
of her husband.

In a panic, she called emergency services, and Dr. Alexander was rushed to the hospital. After
several tests, medicines, and scans, he was still not doing well and was actually falling deeper and
deeper into a coma. He had less than 10% of his brain function left, and everyone was finally
addressing the fear that they were going to lose him. While lying there unresponsive and barely alive
on that bed, Dr. Alexander was experiencing something completely different.

As he explains it, he found himself in a brown, scary place where he had no idea who he was
or where he was. It was not a place anyone would like to stay very long. After some time there (he
did not have a sense of time so could not say how long), he saw a light and travelled to it. He went
through different layers of the spiritual world until finally coming to the most peaceful, loving place
he had ever been. Colours were beautiful and vibrant, and he was greeted by a beautiful guardian
who picked him up on a butterfly wing as she showed him where he was. Communicating only
telepathically, he could not only hear, but he could also feel the warmth, love, and compassion that
surrounded him. He had no idea who he was, and he did not care. He had no memories and no
thoughts of anything but the encompassing love. He never wanted to leave.
50

But somehow, he was falling back through the layersfalling away from that glorious place,
and he had no idea why. He suddenly saw people who looked familiar, and as he approached his
body, he started to feel the familiar human feelings. He realized that this was his family and that he
had to come back because they were not ready to lose him yet. He returned to his body and
miraculously had a full recovery.

Dr. Alexander allowed this event to transform his entire life, his work, and his beliefs. He no longer
excluded others near death experiences and instead compared them to his own. No longer a skeptic ,
he tried to convince his scientific colleagues of what he went though. They in turn, humoured him by
listening but dismissed what he was saying. This has not deterred Dr, Alexander from trying to get
his story out there, which is why he wrote Proof of Heaven. He is hoping that people will read,
believe, and listen to what he went through, and he hopes that it causes his readers to make the same
transformations in their own lives.

51

INTERVEW

52

INTERVIEW
Definition:
Interview is the widely used (election method. It is a face-to-face interaction between interviewee
and interviewer. If handled carefully, it can be a powerful technique in having accurate information
of the interviewee otherwise unavailable. At the same time, if the interview is not handled carefully,
it can be a source of bias, restricting or distorting the flow of communication.
Different scholars have defined interview differently. According to Scott and others, an interview
is a purposeful exchange of ideas, the answering of questions and communication between two or
more persons. Bingham and others define an interview as a conversation with a purpose.
Thus, interview can be defined as an attempt to secure maximum amount of information from the
Candidate concerning his/her suitability for the job under consideration.
It tries to achieve an accurate appraisal of the applicant in terms of his/her educational qualification,
training, family background, previous work experience and judge the applicants certain qualities like
manners, appearance, conversational ability, meet other people pleasantly, etc.
Objectives of Interview:
In the selection process, interview serves the following objectives:
1. Verifies the information obtained through application form and tests.
2. Helps obtain additional information from the applicant otherwise not available.
3. Gives the Candidate necessary facts and information about the job and the organisation.
4. Helps establish mutual understanding between the company and the Candidate and build the
companys image.
According to Richard Calhoon, employment interview serves the following three objectives:
First, it is the only way to see an applicant in action how he looks, his manner, his bearing.
Second, it is the only way to witness how he interacts and how he responds, his way of thinking, the
effect of his personality on others.
Third, it is perhaps the best way to get at the will do features of a performance- motivation,
initiative, stability, perseverance, work, habits and judgments.
Types of Interviews:
Four types of interviews for selection have been identified.
These are:
1. Preliminary Interview:
53

The interviews conducted to screen the applicants to decide whether further detailed interview will
be required are called preliminary interviews. The Candidate is given freedom by giving job details
during the interview to decide whether the job will suit him.
One of the drawback associated with the preliminary interview is that it might lead to the elimination
of many desirable Candidates in case interviewers do not have much and proper experience in
evaluating Candidates. The positive argument, if any, for this method is that it saves time and money
for the company.
2. Patterned Interview:
In this interview, the pattern of the interview is decided in advance. What kind of information is to be
sought or given, how the interview is to be conducted, and how much time is to be allotted to it, all
these are worked out in advance. In case interviewee drifts, he/she is swiftly guided back to the
structured questions. Such interviews are also called standardised interviews.
3. Depth Interview:
As the term itself implies, depth interview tries to portray the interviewee in depth and detail. It,
accordingly, covers the life history of the applicant along with his/her work experience, academic
qualifications, health, attitude, interest, and hobbies. This method is particularly suitable for
executive selection. Expectedly, depth interview involves more time and money in conducting it.
4. Stress Interview:
Such interviews are conducted for the jobs which are to be performed under stressful conditions. The
objective of stress interview is to make deliberate attempts to create stressful or strained conditions
for the interviewee to observe how the applicant behaves under stressful conditions.
The common methods used to induce stress include frequent interruptions, keeping silent for an
extended period of time, asking too many questions at a time, making derogatory remarks about the
Candidate, accusing him that he is lying and so on. The purpose is to observe how the Candidate
behaves under the stressful conditions whether he looses his temper, gets confused or frightened.
However, stress-inducing must be done very carefully by trained and skilled interviewer otherwise it
may result in dangers. Emotionally charged Candidates must not be subjected to further stressful
conditions. The Candidate should be given sufficient chance to cope with such induced stress before
he leaves.
Limitations of Interview:
Research studies have firmly established that, among all selection methods, interview has been the
most researched and carefully documented method.
However, interview suffers from some limitations also.
1. Interviewers may not have a clearly defined technique developed. This results in lack of validity in
evaluation of the Candidate.

54

2. There is always variation in offering scoring points to the Candidate by the interviewers.
3. Interview can help judge the personality of the Candidate but not his ability for the job.
4. A single characteristic of the Candidate found out on the basis of interview, may affect the
judgment of the interviewer on other qualities of the applicant. This is called halo effect.
5. The biases of interviewers may cloud the objectivity of interview.
6. Finally, interview is a time consuming and expensive device of selection.
The above listed limitations or defects in interview underline the need for observing certain
guidelines to make interviews more effective.
Guidelines for Effective Interviewing:
Below are given some guidelines, if observed, can make interview more effective:
1. The interview should have a definite time schedule known to both the interviewers and the
interviewee.
2. Interview should be conducted by the competent, trained and experienced interviewers.
3. The interviewers should be supplied with specific set of guidelines for conducting interview.
4. The interviewers should ensure an element of privacy for the interviewee.
5. A resume for all the Candidates to be interviewed should be prepared and the same be made
available to the interviewers before the interview starts.
6. The interview should not end abruptly but it should come to close tactfully providing satisfaction
to the interviewee.
7. The interviewers should show their sensitivity to the interviewee s sentiments and also
sympathetic attitude to him/her.
8. The interviewers should also evince emotional maturity and a stable personality during the
interview session.
Some major findings from research studies on the interview seem worth mentioning:
1. Structured interview are more reliable than unstructured interviews.
2. Interviewers are influenced more by unfavourable than by favourable information.
3. Inter-ratter reliability is increased when there is a greater amount of information about the job to
be filled.
4. A bias IS established early in the interview, and this tends to be followed by either a favourable or
an unfavourable decision.
55

5. Intelligence is the trait most validly estimated by an interview, but the interview information adds
nothing to test data.
6. Interviewerscanexplamwhytheyfeelanapplicantislikelytobeanunsatisfactoryemployee but not why
the applicant may be satisfactory.
7 Factual written data seem to be more important than physical appearance in determining
judgments. This increases with interviewing experience.
8 An interviewee is given more extreme evaluation (positive/negative) when preceded by an
interviewee of opposing value (positive/negative).
9 Interpersonal skills and motivation are probably best evaluated by the interview.
10. Allowing the applicant time to talk makes rapid first impressions less likely and provides a large
behaviour sample.
11. Nonverbal as well as verbal interactions influence decisions.
12. Experienced interviewers rank applicants in the same order, although they differ in the proportion
that will accept. There is a tendency for experienced interviewers to be more selective than less
experienced ones.
Interview DOs
Dress appropriately for the industry; err on the side of being conservative to show you take
the interview seriously. Your personal grooming and cleanliness should be impeccable.

Know the exact time and location of your interview; know how long it takes to get there,
park, find a rest room to freshen up, etc.

Arrive early; 10 minutes prior to the interview start time [or earlier if the event or employer
instructs you to do so.

Treat other people you encounter with courtesy and respect. Their opinions of you might be
solicited during hiring decisions.

Offer a firm handshake, make eye contact, and have a friendly expression when you are
greeted by your interviewer.

Listen to be sure you understand your interviewer's name and the correct pronunciation.

Even when your interviewer gives you a first and last name, address your interviewer by title
(Ms., Mr., Dr.) and last name, until invited to do otherwise.

Maintain good eye contact during the interview.

Sit still in your seat; avoid fidgeting and slouching.

56

Respond to questions and back up your statements about yourself with specific examples
whenever possible.

Ask for clarification if you don't understand a question.

Be thorough in your responses, while being concise in your wording.

Be honest and be yourself your best professional self. Dishonesty gets discovered and is
grounds for withdrawing job offers and for firing. You want a good match between yourself
and your employer. If you get hired by acting like someone other than yourself, you and your
employer will both be unhappy.

Treat the interview seriously and as though you are truly interested in the employer and the
opportunity presented.

Exhibit a positive attitude. The interviewer is evaluating you as a potential co-worker. Behave
like someone you would want to work with.

Have intelligent questions prepared to ask the interviewer. Having done your research about
the employer in advance, ask questions which you did not find answered in your research.

Evaluate the interviewer and the organization s/he represents. An interview is a two-way
street. Conduct yourself cordially and respectfully, while thinking critically about the way
you are treated and the values and priorities of the organization.

Do expect to be treated appropriately. If you believe you were treated inappropriately or


asked questions that were inappropriate or made you uncomfortable, discuss this with a
Career Services advisor or the director.

Make sure you understand the employer's next step in the hiring process; know when and
from whom you should expect to hear next. Know what action you are expected to take next,
if any.

When the interviewer concludes the interview, offer a firm handshake and make eye contact.
Depart gracefully.

After the interview, make notes right away so you don't forget critical details.

Write a thank-you letter to your interviewer promptly.

Interview DON'Ts
Don't make excuses. Take responsibility for your decisions and your actions.

Don't make negative comments about previous employers or professors (or others).

Don't falsify application materials or answers to interview questions.

57

Don't treat the interview casually, as if you are just shopping around or doing the interview
for practice. This is an insult to the interviewer and to the organization.

Don't give the impression that you are only interested in an organization because of its
geographic location.

Don't give the impression you are only interested in salary; don't ask about salary and benefits
issues until the subject is brought up by your interviewer.

Don't act as though you would take any job or are desperate for employment.

Don't make the interviewer guess what type of work you are interested in; it is not the
interviewer's job to act as a career advisor to you.

Don't be unprepared for typical interview questions. You may not be asked all of them in
every interview, but being unprepared will not help you.

A job search can be hard work and involve frustrations; don't exhibit frustrations or a
negative attitude in an interview.

Don't go to extremes with your posture; don't slouch, and don't sit rigidly on the edge of your
chair.

Don't assume that a female interviewer is "Mrs." or "Miss." Address her as "Ms." unless told
otherwise. (If she has a Ph.D. or other doctoral degree or medical degree, use "Dr.
[lastname]" just as you would with a male interviewer. Marital status of anyone, male or
female, is irrelevant to the purpose of the interview.

Don't chew gum or smell like smoke.

Don't allow your cell phone to sound during the interview. (If it does, apologize quickly and
ignore it.

Don't take a cell phone call.

Don't look at a text message.

58

INTERVIEW
1.Why do you want to work here? How can you help our company? Why should we be
interested in you?
Answer is always based on information youve researched in advance about the company and
their needs.
2. If you were choosing someone for this job, what kind of person would you select?
Answer is to generally state your own general qualifications without being too obvious. Leave
out the details.
3. If you could have any job, which one would you want at this company?
Answer has to do with the most general description of the jobNot a specific title.
4. What weaknesses do you have for this job?
Trap question. Never state anything negative! Answer is to ponder for a while and then state that
you cant think of any weaknesses that would compromise your performance at this job; or
negatively impact your performance of the jobs responsibilities.
5. What do you expect to get in this job that you havent gotten in you current/previous job
Trap question. Do not say anything negative. State that your current/previous jobs have met or
exceeded your expectations. With the new position you would hope to have broader
responsibilities and make greater contributions.
6. What do you see as your future here?
I would expect to be contributing at higher levels and have increased responsibility over time.
7. Are you considering other positions at this time?
Trap question. Simply say yes.
8. How does this opportunity compare?
From what Ive heard so far, very favourably...and I would like to learn more.
9. What other companies/opportunities are you looking at now?
As Im sure you can appreciate, Im not at liberty to say as I am still in discussions with these
companies. I need to protect their privacy, as I would for your company under similar
circumstances.
10. What are your short and long term goals?
Short range: To secure an appropriate new position where I can apply my skills and experience to
increase the companys productivity and profitability.
Long range: Assume more responsibility and make greater contributions over time for my
employer.
11. What motivates you?
59

Focus the answer on your core values and also on the values and priorities of the company you
are interviewing with (which you should have identified through your preliminary research).
12. What have you done to improve yourself during the last year?
Talk about professional development, training programs, educational curricula, study in your
field, on-the-job training, skill-building, relevant books youve read, etc.
13. How do you spend your spare time?
Say something inoffensive, apolitical, and innocuous. (reading, exercise, travel, home projects,
gardening, family activities, home projects, etc.)
14. Tell me about your health.
My health is excellent.
15. If you could relive your last 15 years, what changes would you make?
Nothing is perfect, but overall I would say that Im quite satisfied with the way my life and
career have developedso I wouldnt make any significant changes.
16. Tell me about your greatest achievement/disappointment in your life.
Give one personal example (like meeting your spouse and getting married; putting yourself
through college and graduate school; or saving up to buy your first house, etc.). Then give your
best professional accomplishment story. As for the disappointment, give an answer similar to the
one above implying that overall, I would say that Im quite satisfied with the way my life and
career have been developing, so I really cant think of any major disappointments.
17. What did you like best/least about your last job?
Trap question. Never state anything negative! Explain what you liked best. Then say that while
every job has its challenges, you have been fortunate enough to learn and grow professionally in
each of the positions you have held.
18. In your last position, how much of the work did you do on your own, and how much as
part of a team? Which did you enjoy more?
Talk in terms of your flexibility and adaptabilityyour ability to work in whatever mode seems
appropriate to the situation. Make it clear that you have been equally effective in teams or
working independently as each case demanded. You enjoy both; its more about what will work
best for the project and the company at that time.
19. What are some of the more difficult problems you have encountered in your past jobs?
How did you solve them?
Tell two or more pre-prepared accomplishment stories. Keep it positive!
20. Did you ever make suggestions to senior management? What happened?
Say yes. Tell some accomplishment stories and results in which you positively influenced
senior management.
21. At your previous job(s), what did you think management could have done to make you
function more effectively as an employee?
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Trap question. Never state anything negative! Say that the employer was very good in providing
resources and support to your position and that you have no complaints about this.
22. What has kept you from progressing faster and farther in your career?
Trap question. Never state anything negative! State: I dont know what could have given you the
impression that I am dissatisfied with the progress and pace of my career. I am quite satisfied
with where my career is at this point in my life. However, I am ready to take on greater
challenges.
23. What else should we know about you?
Tell one or two more of your best accomplishment stories. You can also repeat how well-suited
you think you are for the opportunity, and how interested you are in the job.
24. Tell me about the best/worst boss youve ever had.
Trap question: Never state anything negative! Say that while every boss has been different, you
have worked productively with, and learned something from each one. (Be prepared to give some
examples of what you have learned.)
25. Everybody likes to criticize. What do people criticize about you?
Trap question. Never state anything negative! Say that you cant think of any criticisms you have
received from colleagues on the job. Of course, there have been areas for developmentsuch as
when your supervisors would have given you your employee review, and they might have
made a suggestion for improvement. State that you have always taken these kinds of suggestions
seriously, and have taken steps to make the improvements that were requested, and that this has
made you stronger as a professional. (State at least one example).
26. Everyone has pet peeves. What are yours?
Trap question. Never state anything negative! Turn this question around by talking about your
high professional standards. Your only pet peeves are with yourselfpushing yourself hard
and not accepting mediocrity, for exampleor how you are always striving to reach your full
potential on the job, etc.
27. What is your leadership style?
Talk in terms of your flexibility and adaptabilityyour ability to lead in whatever mode seems
appropriate to the situation. Explain that its more about what approach will work best for the
project and the company at that time. Give an example or two demonstrating different leadership
styles using your accomplishment stories.
28. Are you geographically mobile? (or) Are you willing to put in a lot of extra time?
Ask for clarificationwhat exactly does the interviewer mean? Then, according to their answer,
either say, that would be no problem at all, or tell them youd like to give it some thought and
get back to them within 24 hours.

61

SPOTTING THE ERRORS

62

SPOTTING THE ERRORS


Rules and examples
1. Some nouns are singular in form, but they are used as plural nouns and always take a plural
verb.
(a) The cattle are grazing in the ground.(correct)
(b) The clergy is in the church.(incorrect)
2. There are some nouns that indicate length, measure, money, weight or number. When they are
preceded by a numeral, they remain unchanged in form.
(a) It is a three-years degree course.(incorrect)
(b) I have 10 dozen of shoes.(correct)
3. A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in person, number and gender.
(a) Each student must bring their books.(incorrect)
(b) Each student must bring his books.(correct)
4. While using everybody, anyone, anybody and each the pronoun of the masculine or the
feminine gender is used according to the content.
(a) Each of the 6 boys in the class has finished their task.(incorrect)
(b) Each of the 6 boys in the class has finished his task.(correct)
5. The pronoun one must be followed by ones.
(a) One must finish his task in time.(incorrect)
(b) One must finish ones task in time.(correct)
6. When 2 or more singular nouns are joined together by either or; neither nor; and or, the
pronoun is singular.
(a) Either Ram or Sham will give their book.(incorrect)
(b) Either Ram or Sham will give his book.(correct)
7. When a singular and a plural noun are joined by or, nor, the pronoun must be plural.
(a) Either the engineer or his mechanics failed in his duty.(incorrect)
(b) Either the engineer or his mechanics failed in their duty.(correct)
8. The use of few, a few, and the few should be used with care. They denote number.
(a) A few men are free from fault.(incorrect)
(b) Few men are free from fault.(correct)
9. Use of little, a little, the little.
(a) There is a little hope of his recovery.(incorrect)
(b) There is little hope of his recovery.(correct)
10. Use of elder, older.
(a) Ram is elder than all other boys of this area.(incorrect)
(b) Ram is older than all other boys of this area.(correct)
11. When a comparison is made by using a comparative followed by than, the word other
must be used to exclude the things with which it is compared.
(a) He is stronger than any man.(incorrect)
(b) He is stronger than any other man.(correct)
12. If the subject is the number of the singular verb is used.
(a) The number of students are very small.(incorrect)
(b) The number of students is very small.(correct)
13. Many a is always followed by the singular verb.
(a) Many a man were drowned in the sea.(incorrect)
63

(b) Many a man was drowned in the sea.(correct)


14. When as well as, along with, together with, no less than, in addition to, and not and
with join two subjects, the verb will be according to the first subject.
(a) Ram, as well as his ten friends, are going.(incorrect)
(b) Ram, as well as his ten friends, is going.(correct)
15. If two subjects are joined by either or, neither nor, the verb agrees with the subject that is
near.
(a) Either Ramesh or I are to do this work.(incorrect)
(b) Either Ramesh or I am to do this work.(correct)
16. When two singular nouns joined by and point out the same thing or person, the verb will be
singular.
(a) Bread and butter make a good breakfast.(incorrect)
(b) Bread and butter makes a good breakfast.(correct)
17. If two actions in a sentence are shown happening in the past, one after the other; the tense of
the action happening first should be past perfect and that of the second should be past
indefinite.
(a) The patient died before the doctor arrived.(incorrect)
(b) The patient had died before the doctor arrived.(correct)
18. Two actions in the past, one depending on the other, should have the sequence as follows:
Past perfect +future perfect
Had + past participle + would + have + past participle
(a) If you would have practiced regularly, you would win the match.(incorrect)
(b) If you would had practiced regularly, you would have won the match.(correct)
19. Since, because, as, and for, -all mean because, but there is a difference in their
degree. Since and because are used for stronger cases and as and for for weak cases.
(a) I respect him as he is my teacher.(incorrect)
(b) I respect him because he is my teacher.(correct)
20. The plural heaps and lots used colloquially for a great amount take a singular verb unless a
plural noun with of is added.
(a) There are lots of book.(incorrect)
(b) There is lots of book.(correct)
Find out error, if at all, in any part of the sentence.
1. Peoples above 75/ years of age/ are not allowed to travel/ by air/ No error
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
2.

She counted the books/ to make sure that/ none of them/ were missing/ No error
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

3. To make him succeed/ the correct thing to do/ is to punish him/ until he does not try/
No error
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
4. It being a holiday/ every student wanted/ to leave/ for their hometown/ No error
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
5. The invigilator asked him/ that why he had/ not brought/ his call letter/ No error

64

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

6. Now I understand / why Vishnu did not/ told me the reason/ why he was late/ No error
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
7. There is no doubt/ that the Pacific is/ the largest of all other oceans/ No error
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

8. Taking pity/ on the mouse/ the sage transformed it/ into a cat/ No error
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

9. With each academic year/ the number of applicants/ are increasing/ in all colleges/ No error
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

10. With a lot of persuasion/ the villagers agreed to/ participate in the/ family welfare
programme/

No error

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

Answers :
1. (
)

)
8. (

2. (
)

)
9. (

3. (

10. (

4. (

5. (

6. (

PSYCHOMETRIC TEST
1) Which group of shapes can be assembled to make the shape shown?

65

7. (

2) Which group of shapes can be assembled to make the shape shown?

3) Which group of shapes can be assembled to make the shape shown?

Verbal Ability Test

66

2
A

3
D

4
C

5
B

6
B

7
C

67

8
D

2
A

3
B

4
A

5
C

SIGNATURE:
DATE:

68