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Promptness 10%

A Report On


In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in NCM 107A


Submitted to:
Mylahrose Jovita N. Acaba, RN, MN

Submitted by:
Marie Daffodil L. Alba

June 20, 2014





Format & Org.


Conflict is defined as a disagreement in values or beliefs within oneself or
between people that causes harm or has the potential to cause harm. Conflict is a
catalyst for change and has the ability to stimulate either detrimental or beneficial
effects. If properly understood and managed, conflict can lead to positive outcomes and
practice environment, but if it is left unattended, it can have a negative impact on both
the individual and the organization (Johansen, 2012; Kolb, 2013; Morisson, 2008).
According to Deutsch (1973) defined conflict as a clash or a struggle that occurs
when ones balance among feeling, thoughts, desires, and behaviors is threatened. This
disturbance results in incompatible behavior that interferes with goals. Conflict is a
struggle between or among interdependent, independent, or dependent forces.
People may disagree on the four aspects of a conflict (Brinkert, 2010). These
aspects include facts, goals, methods of goal achievement, and the value or standards
used to select the goals or methods. This means that the actual facts of the dispute may
be in question, the goals each side wishes to achieve may not be the same, how to
achieve the agreed upon goal is not acceptable to one side or the other, or values are in

Causes & Sources

Newstrom (2011) stated that conflict occurs when people (a) have different set of
values, (b) have threats to status, (c) have contrasting perceptions, (d) lack trust, and
(e) have personality clashes.
1. Specialization A group that assumes responsibility for a particular set of tasks
or area of service sets itself apart from the other groups.
2. Multitask Roles The nursing role requires that one be a manager, a skilled
caregiver, a human relations expert, a negotiator, an advocate, and so forth.
Each role with its different tasks requires different orientations that may cause
3. Role Interdependence A role of nurse practitioner in private practice would not
be as complicated as one being a part of a multidisciplinary health care team.

4. Task Blurring This results from role ambiguity and failure to designate
responsibility and accountability for a task to one individual or one group.
5. Differentiation A group of people may occupy the same role, but the attitude,
emotion, and cognitive behaviors of these people toward their role differ.
6. Scarcity of Resources Competition for money, patients, and positions is an
absolute source of interperson and intergroup conflict.
7. Change Whenever change occurs, conflict is not far behind. As change
becomes more apparent or threatening.
8. Unequal Rewards When people are rewarded differently, conflict is often a
result unless they were involved in developing the reward system.
9. Communication Problems Ambiguities, perceptual distortion, language failures,
cultural misunderstands, and incorrectly used communication channels all may
cause conflict.
In conclusion, it is assumed that conflict exists within people and within groups;
the causes of conflict, although stated generally, are unique to a situation.

Types of Conflict
Recognizing conflict is part of our daily take in life, it suggests that mastering
conflict-management strategies is essential for overall well-being and personal and
professional growth. A need exist to determine the type of conflict present in a specific
situation, because the more accurately conflict is defines the more likely it will be
a) Intrapersonal conflict It occurs within a person when confronted with the need
to think or act in a way that seems at odds with ones sense of self. Questions
often arise that create conflict over priorities, ethical standards, and values.
b) Interpersonal conflict It transpires between and among patients, family
members, nurses, physicians, and members of other departments. Conflicts
occur that focus on a difference of opinion. Priority, or approach with others.
c) Organization conflict It arises when discord exists about policies and
procedures, personnel codes of conduct, or accepted norms of behavior and
patterns of communication.

In managing a conflict, there are about seven methods used in conflict
management. These methods often dictate the outcome of the conflict; depending on
the nature of conflict and the desired outcomes.

Strategies & Techniques

1. Avoiding This technique is usually common and is used among interpersonal
conflict. The parties involved in the conflict ignore it, either consciously or
unconsciously. There may be circumstances where avoidance is appropriate,
such as (1) when one of the parties is leaving so the conflict will resolve itself; (2)
the conflict is not solvable and not all that important; (3) there are other, more
important issues at stake.
Advantages: It does not make a big deal out of nothing; conflict may be
minor in comparison to other priorities.
Disadvantages: Conflict can become bigger than anticipated; source of
conflict might be important to one person or group than to others.
2. Accommodating This technique is often called smoothing or cooperating. In this
technique, one side of the disagreement decides or is encouraged to
accommodate the other side by ignoring or sidestepping their own feeling about
the issue. This is clearly a technique where one party gains, or wins, and the
other loses.
Advantages: One side is more concerned with an issue than the other
side; stakes not high enough for one group and that side is willing to give
Disadvantages: One side holds more power and can force the other side
to give in; the importances of the stakes are not as apparent to one side
as to the other.
3. Competing A technique that produces a winner and a loser. The concept is that
there is an all-out effort to win at all costs. This technique may be used when time
is too short to allow other techniques to work or when decision has been made
Advantages: Produces a winner; good when time is short and stakes are

Disadvantages: Produces a loser; leaves anger and resentment on losing

4. Compromising It is a method used where both sides can win and neither side
should lose. It useful for goal achievement and is often seen as appeasement;
each side gives up something and each side gains something.
Advantages: No one should win or lose, but both should gain something;
good for disagreements between individuals.
Disadvantages: May cause a return to the conflict if what is given up
becomes more important than the original goal.
5. Negotiating It is a technique used in collective bargaining and is very useful for
conflict management at all levels. It is used when the stakes are high; the idea of
it is that each party will gain something, so general agreement is reached, but
consensus is not necessarily the goal.
Advantages: Stakes are very high, and solutions are rather permanent;
often involves powerful groups.
Disadvantages: Agreements are permanent, even though even though
each side has gains and losses.
6. Collaborating It is when both sides work together to develop the optimal
outcome; it is designed to find the best solution so that all of the perceived
important goals are achieved. This requires maturity and a spirit of cooperation to
reach each others goals.
Advantages: Best solution for the conflict and encompasses all important
goals of each side.
Disadvantages: Takes a lot of time; requires commitment to success.
7. Confronting This technique heads off conflict as soon as the first symptoms
appear. Both parties are brought together, the issues are clarified, and some
outcome is achieved.
Advantages: Does not allow conflict to take root; very powerful.
Disadvantages: May leave impression that conflict is not tolerated; may
make something big out of nothing.
The key to a successful conflict management is an open, honest, and clear
communication. Also, courtesy in communicating is encouraged; it includes listening
attentively in each side. Most importantly, the use of foul languages and gestures are

not acceptable in the situation. There should be a normal tone of voice and both parties
must be calm when talking.
The setting for such discussions should be private, relaxed, and comfortable.
Ground rules such as not interrupting, which party should go first, time limits, must be
agreed before the beginning of the discussion. Also adherence to ground rules is a


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Kelly, P. (2012). Nursing Leadership & Management, 3 rd Edition. New York:
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Lussier, R. (2012). Management Fundamentals: Concepts, Application, Skill
Development, 5th Edition. Oklahoma: South- Western Cengage Learning.
Rigolosi, E. (2013). Management and Leadership in Nursing and Healtch Care:
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Yoder-Wise, O. (2013). Leading and Managin in Nursing, 5th Edition. St. Louis,
Missouri: Elsevier Mosby.

Knowledge of Subject Matter


Objective (S.M.A.R.T.)


Comprehensive Instruction


Relates topic to current situation


Integrates moral




Present ideas logically & systematically


Follows the outline to attain objective


Summarizes the lesson




Clear and well modulated voice


Articulate & correct grammar


Facial expression & pacing


Appearance, Poise & Composure


Properly dressed




Behaves appropriately


Strategy & Methodology


Appropriate teaching method & strategies


Motivates student to ask


Promotes critical thinking


Answers question


Evaluates students efficiency