Anda di halaman 1dari 110

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

(Model No : VMPT - 302 LC)

Technical Reference

Version 1.0

Technical Clarification /Suggestion :


/
Technical Support Division,

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,


Plot No :75,Electronics Estate,
Perungudi,Chennai - 600 096,INDIA.
Ph: 91- 44-24961852, 91-44-24963142
Mail : service@vimicrosystems.com,
Web : www.vimicrosystems.com
01 - 12 - 04 - 20

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

CHAPTER - 1
INTRODUCTION OF PNEUMATICS
SYSTEM

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[1]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS
1.1

VMPT-302 LC

APPLICATIONS OF PNEUMATICS

Pneumatics deals the use of compressed air, Most commonly, compressed air is used to
do mechanical work-that is to produce motion and to generate forces. Pneumatic drives have the
task of converting the energy stored in compressed air into motion.
Cylinders are most commonly used for pneumatic drives. They are characterized by robust
construction, a large range of types, simple installation and favorable price/performance. As a
result of these benefits, pneumatics is used in a wide range of applications.

Pneumatic linear cylinder and pneumatic swivel cylinder


Some of the many applications of pneumatics are
*
*
*
*
*
*

Handling of work pieces


(such as clamping, positioning, separating, stacking, rotating)
Packaging
Filling
Opening and closing of doors (such as buses and trains)
Metal-forming (embossing and pressing)
Stamping

1.2

Signal and information

A signal is the representation of information the representation is by means of the value or value
pattern of the physical variable.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[2]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Signal/physical variable
Pressure
7
bar
5
4
3
2
1

Time

0
Information
a) Analog

Pointer position
7
6
5
4

7
8

2
1

Time

b) Digital
Display
7
6
5

Pressure
bar

4
3
2
1
0

Time

c) Binary
Pressure

Supply
Pressure
Yes 1

No 0

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

Time

[3]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Analog signal
An analog signal is a signal in which information is assigned point by point to a continuous value
range of the signal parameter (DIN 19226. Part 5).
Application example
In the case of a pressure gauge, each pressure value (information parameter) is assigned a
particular display value ( = information). If the signal rises or falls, the information changes
continuously.
Digital signal
A digital signal is a signal with a finite number of value ranges of the information parameter. Each
value range is assigned a specific item of information (DIN 19226).
Application example
A pressure measuring system with a digital display shows the pressure in increments of 1 bar.
There are 8 possible display values ( 0 to 7 bar) for a pressure range of 7 bar. That is, there eight
possible value ranges for the information parameter. If the signal rises or falls, the information
changes in increments.
Binary Signal
A binary signal is a digital signal with only two value ranges for the information parameter. If the
signal rises or falls, the information changes in increments.
Application example
A control lamp indicates whether a pneumatic system is being correctly supplied with compressed
air. If the supply pressure ( = signal is below 5 bar, the control lamp is off (0 status). If the
pressure is above 5 bar, the control lamp is on ( 1status).
1.3

Signal flow in a control system

A controller can be divided into the functions signal input, signal processing signal output and
command execution. The mutual influence of these functions is shown by the signal flow diagram.
*
Signals from the signal input are logically associated (signal processing). Signals
for signal input and signal process are low power signals. Both functions are part
of the signal control section.
*
At the signal output stage, signals are amplified from low power to high power.
Signal output forms the link between the signal control section and the power
section.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[4]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

Command execution take place at a high power level-that is, in order to reach a
high speed (such as for fast rejection of a workpiece form a machine) or to exert
a high force (such as for a press). Command execution belongs to the power
section of a control system.

Command execution

Power
section

VMPT-302 LC

Signal Processing

Signal control
section

Signal output

Signal input

Signal flow in a control system


The components in the circuit diagram of a purely pneumatic controller are arranged so that the
signal flow is clear. Bottom up: input elements (such as manually operated valves), logical
association elements (such as two-pressure valves), signal output elements (power valves, such
as 5/2 - way valves) and finally command execution (such as cylinders).
1.4

Pneumatic and Electro pneumatic control systems

Both pneumatic and electro pneumatic controllers have a pneumatic power section (see fig 1.4).
The signal control section varies according to type.
*

In a pneumatic control pneumatic components are used, that is, various types of
valves, sequences, air barriers, etc.

In an electro-pneumatic control the signal control section is made up of a electrical


components, for example with electrical input buttons, proximity switches, relays,
or a programmable logic controller.

The directional control valves form the interface between the signal control section and the
pneumatic power section in both types of controller.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[5]

COMMAND EXECUTION

VMPT-302 LC

Power Components
Cylinder
Swivel cylinder
Pneumatic motors
Optical displays

Final control elements


SIGNAL OUTPUT

Pneumatic power
section

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

Electropneumatically
operated directional
control valves

SIGNAL PROCESSING

Relays
Contactors
Programmable logic
controllers (PLCs)

SIGNAL INPUT

Input Elements
Pushbuttons
Control switches
Limit switches
Reed switches
Ind.proximity sensors
Cap.proximity switches
Light barriers
Pressure-actuated
Switches

SIGNAL FLOW

Electropneumatic components

Electrical signal control section

Processing Elements

Fig. 1.4 Signal flow and components of a pneumatic control system.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[6]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

1.5

The structure and mode of operation of an electro pneumatic controller

The electrical signal control section switches the electrically actuated directional control
valves.

The directional control valves cause the piston rods to extend and retract.

The position of the piston rods is reported to the electrical signal control section by
proximity switches.

Fig.1.5 Structure of a modern electro pneumatic controller.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[7]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS
1.6

VMPT-302 LC

Advantages of electro pneumatic controllers

Electro pneumatic controllers have the following advantages over pneumatic control systems:
*

Higher reliability (fewer moving parts subject to wear)

Lower planning and commissioning effort. Particularly for complex controls

Lower installation effort, particularly when modern components such as valve


terminals are used

Simpler exchange of information between several controllers.

Electro pneumatic controllers have asserted themselves in modern industrial practice and the
application of purely pneumatic control systems is a limited to a few special applications

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[8]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

CHAPTER - 2
FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICAL
TECHNOLOGY

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[9]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS
2.1

VMPT-302 LC

Direct current and alternating current

A simple electrical circuit consists of a voltage source, a load, and connection lines.
Physically, charge carriers electrons move through the electrical circuit via the electrical
conductors from the negative pole of the voltage source to the positive pole. This motion of
charge carriers is called electrical current. Current can only flow if the circuit is closed.
There are two types of current - direct current and alternating current:
*

If the electromotive force in an electrical circuit is always in the same direction, the
current also always flows in the same direction. This is called direct current (DC) or a DC
circuit.

In the case of alternating current or an AC circuit, the voltage and current change
direction and strength in a certain cycle.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

Alternating current

Time t

Current 1

Current 1

Direct current

Time t

[ 10 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

3
S
4
V=12V

+
H

Fig. 2.1: DC circuit


Fig 2.1 shows a simple DC circuit consisting of a voltage source, electrical lines, a control switch,
and a load (here a lamp).
Technical direction of flow
When the control switch is closed, current I flows via the load. The electrons move from the
negative pole to the positive pole of the voltage source. The direction of flow from quotes
positive to negative was laid down before electrons were discovered. This definition is still
used in practice today. It is called the technical direction of flow.
2.2

Ohms Law

Electrical conductors
Electrical current is the flow of charge carriers in one direction. A current only flow in a material
if a sufficient number of free electrons are available. Materials that meet this criterion are called
electrical conductors. The metals copper, aluminum and sliver are particularly good conductors.
Copper is normally used for conductors in control technology.
Electrical resistance
Every material offers resistance to electrical current. This results when the free-moving electrons
collide with the atoms of the conductor material, inhibiting their motion. Resistance is low in
electrical conductors. Materials with particularly high resistance are called insulators. Rubber
and plastic-based materials are used for insulation of electrical wires and cables.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 11 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Source emf
The negative pole of a voltage source has a surplus of electrons. The positive pole has a deficit.
This difference results in source emf (electromotive force).
Ohms law
Ohms law expresses the relationship between voltage, current and resistance. It states that in a
circuit of given resistance, the current is proportional to the voltage, that is
*
*

If the voltage increases, the current increases.


If the voltage decreases, the current decreases.

R.I

V
R
I

=
=
=

Voltage;
Resistance;
Current;

Unit : Volt (V)


Unit : Ohm ()
Unit : Ampere (A)

Electrical Power
In mechanics, power can be defined by means of work. The faster work is done, the greater the
power needed. So power is work divided by time.
In the case of a load in an electrical circuit, electrical energy is converted into kinetic energy (for
example electrical motor), light (electrical lamp), or heat energy (such as electrical heater,
electrical lamp). The faster the energy is converted, the higher the electrical power so here, to
power means converted energy divided by time. Power increases with current and voltage.
The electrical power of a load is also called its electrical power input.
P
P
V
I

=
=
=
=

V.I
Power;
Voltage;
Current;

Unit
Unit
Unit

:
:
:

Watt (W)
Volt (V)
Ampere (A)

Application example
Power of a coil
The solenoid coil of a pneumatic 5/2 - way valve is supplied with 24V DC. The resistance of the
coil is 60ohm. What is the power?
The current is calculated by means of ohms law:

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 12 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

V
24V

0.4 A
R
60

The electrical power is the product of current and voltage:


P
2.3

V.I = 24V. 0.4 A = 9.6 W

Function of a solenoid

A magnetic field is induced when a current is passed through an electrical conductor. The strength
of the magnetic field is proportional to the current. Magnetic fields attract iron, nickel and cobalt.
The attraction increases with the strength of the magnetic field.
Air-core coil

Coil with iron core


and air gap

Fig. 2.3: Electrical coil and magnetic lines of force


Structure of a solenoid
The solenoid has the following structure:
*

The current-bearing conductor is wound around a coil. The overlapping of the


lines of force of all loops increases the strength of the magnetic field resulting in
a main direction of the field.

An iron core is placed in the centre. When current flows, the iron is also
magnetized. This allows a significantly higher magnetic field to be induced with
the same current (compared to an air-core coil)

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 13 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

These two measures ensure that an solenoid exerts a strong force on ferrous (=containing iron)
materials.
Applications of solenoids
In electro pneumatic controls, solenoids are primarily used to control the switching of valves,
relays or contractor. This can be demonstrated using the example of the spring-return directional
control valve:
*

If current flows through the solenoid coil, the piston of the valve is actuated.

If the current is interrupted, a spring pushes the piston back into its initial position.

Reactance in AC circuits
If a AC voltage is applied to a coil, an alternating current flows. This means that the current and
magnetic field are constantly changing. The change in the magnetic field induces a current in the
coil. The induced current opposes the current that induced the magnetic field. For this reason,
a coil offers resistance to an alternating current. This is called reactance.
The reactance increases with the frequency of the voltage and the inductance of the coil.
Inductance is measured in Henry (H)

1H 1

VS
1S
A

Reactance in DC circuits
In the case of DC circuits, the current, voltage and magnetic field only change when the current
is switched on. For this reason reactance only applies when the circuit is closed (switching on the
current)
In addition to reactance, the coil has ohmic resistance. This resistance applies both to AC circuits
and DC circuits.
2.4

Function of a capacitor

A capacitor consists of two metal plates with an insulating layer (dielectric) between them. If the
capacitor is connected to a DC voltage source closing the switch S1 in by this. If the circuit is
then interrupted, the charge remains stored in the capacitor. The larger the capacitance of a
capacitor, the greater the electrical charge it can store for a given voltage.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 14 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Capacitance is measured in Farad (F):

1F 1

AS
V

If the charged capacitor is now connected to a load (closing switch S2 in Fig. 2.6), the capacitor
discharges. Current flows through the load until the capacitor is fully.

Air-core coil

Coil with iron core


and air gap

mA

mA

S1

S2

V
+ + + + + +
-

- - - - -

Fig. 2.4: Function of a capacitor


2.5

Function of a diode

Diodes are electrical components that only allows current to flow in one direction
*

In the flow direction, the resistance is so low that the current can flow unhindered.

In the reverse direction, the resistance is so high that no current flows.

If a diode is inserted into a AC circuit, the current can only flow in one direction. The current is
rectified.
The effect of a diode on an electrical circuit is comparable to the effect of a non-return valve on
a pneumatic circuit.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 15 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Voltage V

Time t

Current I

Time t

Fig. 2.5: Function a diode


2.6

Measurement in Electrical Circuits

Measurement
Measurement means comparing an unknown variable (such as the length of a pneumatic cylinder)
with a known variable (such as the scale of a measuring tape). A measuring device (such as a
ruler) allows such measurements to be made. The (such as 30.4 cm)

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 16 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Measurement in electrical circuits


Electrical current, voltages and resistance are normally measured with multimeters. These devices
can be switched between various modes:
*

DC current and voltage, AC current and voltage

Current, voltage and resistance.

The multimeter can only measure correctly if the correct mode is set. Devices for measuring
voltage are also called voltmeters. Devices for measuring current are also called ammeters.

V
DC
+

10

20

30

40

DC

DATA/HOLD

AUTO

AC

PEAK HOLD

RANGE

TTL

A
mA

mV

OFF

F
nF

+
Cx
10A
!
A

A
mA

TTL
V

COM
!
400 mA
MAX

500V MAX

1000V
750V

Fig. 2.6: Multimeter

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 17 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Danger
*

Before carrying out a measurement, ensure that voltage of the controller on which
you are working does not exceed 24V!

Measurements on parts of a controller operating at higher voltages (such as 230V)


may only be carried out by persons with appropriate training or instruction.

Incorrect measurement methods can result in danger to life.

Please read the safety precautions in chapters 3 and 7!

Procedure for measurements on electrical circuits


Follow the following steps when making measurements of electrical circuits.

2.7

Switch off voltage source of circuit.

Set multimeter to desired mode. (Voltmeter or ammeter, AC or DC, resistance)

When measuring DC voltage or current, check for correct polarity. (+ probe of


device to positive pole of voltage source).

Select largest range.

Switch on voltage source.

Observe pointer or display and step down to smaller range.

Record measurement for greatest pointer deflection (smallest measuring range).

For pointer instruments, always view from vertically above display in order to
avoid parallax error.

Voltage Measurement

For voltage measurement, the measuring device (voltmeter) is connected in parallel to the load.
The voltage drop across the load corresponds to the voltage drop across the measuring device.
A voltmeter has an internal resistance. In order to avoid an inaccurate measurement, the current
flowing thought the voltmeter must be as small as possible, so the internal resistance of the
voltmeter must be as high as possible.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 18 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

V Voltmeter

Fig. 2.7. Voltage measurement


2.8

Current Measurement

For current measurement, the measuring device (ammeter) is connected in series to the load. The
entire current flows through the device
Each ammeter has an internal resistance. In order to minimize the measuring error, the resistance
of the ammeter must be as small as possible.

Ammeter

Fig. 2.8 Current measurement

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 19 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Resistance Measurement
The resistance of a load in a DC circuit can either be measured directly or indirectly.
*

Indirect measurement measures the current through the load and the voltage across the
load (Fig.2.9a). The two measurements can either be carried out simultaneously or one
after the other. The resistance is then measured using ohms law.

For direct measurement the load is separated from the rest of the circuit (Fig.2.9b). The
measuring device (ohmmeter) is set to resistance measurement mode and connected to the
terminals of the load. The value of the resistance is displayed.

If the load defective (for example, the magnetic coil of a valve is burned out), the measurement
of resistance either results in a value of zero (short-circuit) or an infinitely high value (open
circuit).
Warning
The direct method must be used for measuring the resistance of a load in AC circuits.

Current I
A

Voltage V

R=V
I

Fig. 2.9. Measuring Resistance

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 20 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Sources of error
Measuring device cannot measure voltage, current and resistance to any desired degree of
accuracy. The measuring device itself influences the circuit it is measuring, and no measuring
device can display a value precisely. The permissible display error of a measuring device is given
as a percentage of the upper limit of the effective range. For example, for a measuring device
with an accuracy of 05, the display error must not exceed 0.5% of the upper limit of the effective
range.
Application example
Display Error
A class 1.5 measuring device is used to the measure the voltage of a 9V battery. The range is set
once to 10V and once to 100V. How large is the maximum permissible display error for the two
effective ranges?
Range

Permissible display error

10V

10V .

100V

Percentage error

15
.
015
. V
100

015
.
.100 166%
.
9V

15
.
15
.V
100

15
.
. 100 16.6%
9V

100V .

Table 2.1 : Calculating the display error


The example shows clearly that the permissible error is less for the smaller range. Also, the device
can be read more accurately. For this reason, you should always set the smallest possible range.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 21 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

CHAPTER - 3
COMPONENTS AND ASSEMBLIES IN THE
ELECTRICAL SIGNAL CONTROL SECTION

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 22 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS
3.1

VMPT-302 LC

Power supply unit

The signal control section of an electro pneumatic controller is supplied with power via the
electrical mains. The controller has a power supply unit for this purpose (see Fig. 3.1). The
individual assemblies of the power supply unit have the following tasks:
*

The transformer reduces the operating voltage. The mains voltage (i.e. 230V) is applied
to the input of the transformer. A lower voltage (i.e.24V) is available at the input.

The rectifier converts the AC voltage into DC voltage. The capacitor at the rectifier
output smooths the voltage.

The voltage regulator at the output of the power supply unit is required to ensure that the
electrical voltage remains constant regardless of the current flowing.
Fig. 3.1 : Component parts of a power supply unit for an electro pneumatic controller.

Rectifier
Transformer

Stabilization
Powersupply unit

Safety Precaution
*

Because of the high input voltage, power supply units are part of the power
installation (DIN /VDE 100).

Safety regulations for power installations must be observed.

Only authorized personnel any work on power supply units.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 23 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS
3.2

VMPT-302 LC

Push Button and control switches

Switches are installed in circuits to apply a current to a load or to interrupt the circuit. These
switches are divided into pushbuttons and control switches.
*

Control switches are mechanically detented in the selected position. The switch
position remains unchanged until a new switch position is selected. Example;
Light switches in the home.

Push button switches only maintain the selected position as long as the switch is
actuated (pressed). Example : Bell push.

Normally open contact (make)


In the case of a normally open contact, the circuit is open if the switch is in its initial position (not
actuated). The circuit is closed by pressing the push button - current flows to the load. When the
plunger is released, the spring returns the switch to its initial position, interrupting the circuit.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 24 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

1.Actuator type (push button)

VMPT-302 LC

2.Switch element

3.Contact

Fig. 3.2: Normally open contact (make) - section and symbol


3.3

Normally closed contact (break)

In this case, the circuit is closed when the switch is in its initial position. The circuit is interrupted
by pressing the pushbutton.

1.

Actuator type (push button)

2.

Contact

3. Switch element

Fig. 3.3: Normally open contact (break) - section and symbol

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 25 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS
3.4

VMPT-302 LC

Changeover contact

The changeover contact combines the functions of the normally open and normally closed
contacts in one device. Changeover contacts are used to close one circuit and open another in
one switching operation. The circuits are momentarily interrupted during changeover.

1.
2.

Actuator type (push button)


Contact (Normally closed contact)

3.
4.

Switching element
Contact (Normally open
contact)

Fig. 3.4 Changeover contact - section and symbol


3.5

Sensors for measuring displacement and pressure

Sensors have the task of measuring information and passing this on to the signal processing part
in a form that can easily be processed. In electropnematic controllers, sensors are primarily used
for the following purposes:
*
*
*

No to detect the advanced and retracted end position of the piston rod in cylinder
drives
To detect the presence and position of work pieces
To measure and monitor pressure

Limit switches
A limit switch is actuated when a machine part or workpiece is in certain position. Normally,
actuation is effected by a cam. Limit switches are normally changeover contacts. They can then

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 26 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

be connected - as required - as normally open contact, normally closed contact or changeover


contact.

1.

Guide pin

4.

2.
3.

Positive opening lever5.


Housing
6.

Compressing spring

7.

Bent leaf spring


Contact pressure spring

8.
9.

Contact (Normally
open contact)
Contact blade
Contact (normally
closed contact)

Fig. 3.5: Mechanical limit switch: construction and connection possibilities


3.6

Proximity switches

In contrast to limit switches, proximity switches operated contactlessly (non-contact switching


reliability).
The following types of proximity switch are differentiated:

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 27 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS
*
*
*
*

VMPT-302 LC

Reed switch
Inductive proximity switch
Capacitive proximity switch.
Optical proximity switch.

Reed switch
Reed switches are magnetically actuated proximity switches. They consist of two contact reeds
in a glass tube filled with inert gas. The field of a magnet causes the two reeds to close. Allowing
current to flow. In reed switches that act as normally closed contacts, the contact reeds are
closed by small magnets. This magnetic field is overcome by the considerably stronger magnetic
field of the switching magnets.
Reed switches have a long service life and a very short switching time (approx.0.2 ms). They are
maintenance-free, but must not be used in environments subject to strong magnetic fields (for
example in the vicinity of resistance welders).

Fig. 3.6. Reed switch (normally open contact)


3.7

Electronic sensors

Inductive, optical and capacitive proximity switches are electronic sensors. They normally have
three electrical contacts.
*
*
*

Contact for supply voltage


Contact for ground.
Contact for output signal

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 28 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

In these sensors, no movable contact is switched instead, the output is either electrically
connected to the supply voltage or to ground (= output voltage 0V).
Positive and negative switching sensors
There are two types of electronic sensor with regard to the polarity of the output voltage.
*

In positive switching sensors, the output voltage is zero if no part is detected in the
proximity. The approach of a workpiece or machine part leads to switch over of the
output, applying the supply voltage.
In negative switching sensors, the supply voltage is applied to the output if no part is
detected in the proximity. The approach of a workpiece or machine part leads to switch
over of the output, switching the output voltage to 0V.

Inductive proximity sensors


An inductive proximity sensor consists of an electrical oscillator (1), a flip-flop (2) and an
amplifier (3). When a voltage is applied, the oscillator generates a high-frequency alternating
magnetic field that is emitted form the front of the sensor. If an electrical circuit is introduced into
this field, the oscillator is attenuated. The downstream circuitry, consisting of a flip-flop and an
amplifier, evaluates the behavior of the oscillator and actuates the output.
Inductive proximity sensors can be used for the detection of all good electrical conductors
(materials). In addition to metals, these include, for example, graphite.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 29 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Symbol

Metal
Schematic diagram

Function circuit diagram

Oscillator (1)

Flip-flop (2)

3
Amplifier (3)

Fig. 3.7 : Inductive proximity sensor

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 30 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS
3.8

VMPT-302 LC

Capacitive proximity sensor

A capacitive proximity sensor consists of a capacitor and an electrical resistance that together
form an RC oscillator, and a circuit for evaluation of the frequency. An electrostatic field is
generated between the anode and the cathode of the capacitor.
A stray field forms at the front of the sensor. If an object is introduced into this stray field forms
at the front of the sensor. If an object is introduced into this stray field, the capacitance of the
capacitor changes. The oscillator is attenuated. The circuitry switches the output.
Capacitive proximity sensors not only react to highly conductive materials ( such as metal) but
also to insulators of high dielectric strength (such as plastics, glass, ceramics, fluids and wood).
Symbol
Schematic diagram

Function circuit diagram

Oscillator (1)

Flip-flop (2)

3
Amplifier (3)

Fig. 3.8: Capacitive proximity sensor


Optical proximity sensors use optical and electronic means for object detection. Red or infrared
light is used. Semiconductor light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are particularly reliable sources of red
or infrared light. They are small and rugged, have a long service life and can be simply modulated.
Photo diodes or photo transistors are used as a receiver. Red light has the advantage that the light
beam can be seen during adjustment of the optical axes of the proximity switch. Polymer optical
fibers can also be used because of their low attenuation of light of this wavelength.

Optical Proximity sensor

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 31 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Three different types of optical proximity switch are differentiated;


*

One-way light barrier

Reflective light barrier

Diffuse reflective optical sensor.

3.9

Mechanical Pressure switch

In the mechanically actuated pressure switch, the pressure acts on a cylinder surface. If the
pressure exerted exceeds the spring force of the return spring, the piston moves and operates the
contact set.

Fig. 3.9:

piston-actuated
pressure switch

Diaphragm pressure switches are of increasing importance. Instead of actuating a mechanical


contact, the output is switched electronically. Pressure or force sensitive sensors are attached to
the diaphragm. The sensor signal is evaluated by an electronic circuit. As soon as the pressure
exceeds a certain value, the output is switched.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 32 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS
3.10

VMPT-302 LC

Relays and contactors

Construction of a relay
A relay is an electromagnetically actuated switch. When a voltage is applied to the solenoid
coil, an electromagnet field results. This causes the armature to be attracted to the coil core. The
armature actuates the relay contacts, either closing or opening them, depending on the design.
A return spring returns the armature to its initial position when the current to the coil is
interrupted.

1.
2.

Coil core
Return spring

3.
4.

Relay coil
Amature

5.
6.

Insulation
Contact

Fig. 3.10 : Construction of a relay


A relay coil can switch one or more contacts. In addition to the type of relay described above,
there are other types of electromagnetically actuated switch, such as the retentive relay, the time
relay, and the contactor.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 33 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Applications of relays
In electro pneumatic control systems, relays are used for the following functions:
*

Signal multiplication

Delaying and conversion of signals

Association of information

Isolation of control circuit from main circuit

In purely electrical controllers, the relay is also used for isolation of DC and AC circuits.
Retentive relay
The retentive relay responds to current pulses:
*

The armature is energized when a positive pulse is applied.

The armature is de-energized when a negative pulse is applied.

If no input signal is applied, the previously set switch position is retained (retention).

The behavior of a retentive relay is analogous to that of a pneumatic double pilot valve, which
responds to pressure pulses.
Construction and mode of operation
Electrically actuated directional control valves are switched with the aid of solenoids. They can
be divided into two groups:
*

Spring-return valves only remain in the actuated position as long as current flows through
the solenoid.

Double solenoid valves retain the last switched position even when no current flows
through the solenoid.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 34 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Initial position
In the initial position all solenoids of an electrically actuated directional control valve are deenergized and the solenoids are inactive. A double solenoid valve has no clear initial position, as
it does not have a return spring.
Port Designation
Directional control valves are also differentiated by the number of ports and the number of
switching position. The valve designation results from the number of ports and positions, for
example:
*

Spring-return 3/2-way valve

5/2-way double solenoid valve

The following section explains the construction and mode of operation of the major types of
valve.
3.11

Directly controlled 3/2-way valve

Fig. 3.11 shows two cross-sections of a directly controlled electrically actuated 3/2-way valve.
*

In its initial position, the working port 2 is linked to the exhaust port 3 by the slot in the
armature (see detail) (fig. 3.11a).

If the solenoid is energized, the magnetic field forces the armature up against the pressure
of the spring (Fig.3.11b). The lower sealing seat opens and the path is free for flow from
pressure port 1 to working port 2. The upper sealing seat closes, shutting off the path
between port 1 and port 3.

If the solenoid coil is de-energized, the armature is retracted to its initial position by the
return spring (Fig. 3.11a). The path between port 2 and port 3 is opened and the path
between port 1 and port 2 closed. The compressed air is vented via the armature tube at
port 3.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 35 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Manual override
The manual override a allows the path between port 1 and port 2 to be opened even if the
solenoid is not energized. When the screw is turned, the eccentric cam actuates the armature.
Turning the screw back returns the armature to its initial position.

3.11a
3.12

3.11a

3/2 Way valve normally open

Fig. 3.12 shows an electrically actuated 3/2-way valve, normally open. Fig.3.12a shows the valve
in its initial position, Fig. 3.12b actuated. Compared to the initial position of the closed valve (fig.
3.12) the pressure and exhaust ports are reversed.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 36 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Fig 3.12 : 3/2-way valve with manual override (normally open)


3.13

Pilot controlled directional

In pilot controlled directional control valves, the valve piston is indirectly actuated.
*

The armature of a solenoid opens or closes an air duct from port 1.

If the armature is open, compressed air form port 1 actuates the valve piston.

If the coil is de-energized, the armature is pressed against the lower sealing seat by the
spring. The chamber of the upper side of the piston is vented(Fig. 3.13a).

If the coil is energized, the solenoid pulls the armature down. The chamber on the upper
side of the piston is pressurized (Fig. 3.13b)

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 37 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Fig. 3.13 explains the mode of operation of the pilot control.


3.14

Pilot controlled 3/2-way valve

Fig. 3.14 shows two cross-sections of an electrically actuated pilot controlled 3/2-way valve.
*
*

In its initial position, the piston surface is only subject to atmospheric pressure, so the
return spring pushes the piston up (Fig. 3.14a, b) Ports 2 and 3 are connected.
If the solenoid coil is energized, the chamber below the valve piton is connected to
pressure port 1. The force on the upper surface of the valve piston increases, pressing the
piston down. The connection between ports 2 and 3 is closed, the connection between
ports 1 and 2 opened. The valve remains in this position as long as the solenoid coil is
energized.
If the solenoid coil is de-energized, the valve switches back to its initial position.

A minimum supply pressure (control pressure) is required to actuate the pilot controlled valve
against the spring pressure. This pressure is given in the valve specifications and lies-depending
on type - in the range of about 2 to 3 bar.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 38 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Comparison of pilot controlled and directly actuated valves


The greater the flow rate of a directional control valve, the higher the flow.
In the case of a directly actuated valve, flow to the consuming device is released by the armature
(see Fig. 4.2). In order to ensure a sufficiently large opening and sufficient flow rate, a relatively
large armature is required. This in turn requires a large return spring - against which the solenoid
must exert a large force. This results in relatively large component size and high power
consumption.
In a pilot controlled valve, flow to the consuming device is switched by the main stage (Fig.4.5).
The valve piston is pressurized via the air duct. A relatively small airflow is sufficient, so the
armature can be comparatively small with low actuation force. The solenoid can also be smaller
than for a directly actuated valve. Power consumption and heat dissipation are lower.
The advantages with regard to power consumption, size of solenoids and heat dissipation have
led to almost exclusive use being made of pilot controlled directional control valve in electro
pneumatic control systems.
3.15

Pilot controlled 5/2-way valve

Fig. 3.15 shows the two switching positions of an electrically actuated pilot controlled 5/2-way
valve.
*

In its initial position, the piston is at the left stop (fig.3.15a). Port 1 and 2 and ports 4 and
5 are connected.

If the solenoid coil is energized, the valve spool moves to the right stop (Fig. 3.15b). In
this position, ports 1 and 4 and 2 and 3 are connected.

If the solenoid is de-energized, the return spring returns the valve spool to its initial
position.

Pilot air is supplied via port 84.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 39 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

Fig. 3.15

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

VMPT-302 LC

Pilot controlled 5/2-way solenoid valve

[ 40 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS
3.16

VMPT-302 LC

5/3-way valve with exhausted initial position

Fig. 4.8 shows the three switching positions of an electrically actuated, pilot controlled 5/3-way
valve.

In its initial position, the solenoid coils are de-energized and the piston spool is held in the
mid-position by the two springs (Fig4.8a). Ports 2 and 3 and 4 and 5 are connected. Port
1 is closed.

If the left solenoid coil is energized, the piston moves to its right stop (Fig.4.8b). Ports 1
and 4 and 2 and 3 are connected.

If the right solenoid coil is energized, the piston moves to its left stop (Fig.4.8c). In this
position, ports 1 and 2 and 4 and 5are connected.

Each position is held as long as the appropriate coil is energized.

If neither coil is

energized, the valve returns to the initial mid-position.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 41 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Fig 3.16 Pilot-actuated 5/3-way double solenoid valve (mid-position exhausted)

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 42 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

CHAPTER - 4
COMPONENTS LIST OF PNEUMATIC PANEL

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 43 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Types of compressor
4.1

Air Compressor

The selection from the various types compressors available in dependent upon quality of air,
pressure, quality and cleanliness and how dry the air should be. There are varying levels of these
criteria depending on the types of compressor.

Types of
compressor

Reciprocating
piston compressor

Piston compressor

Rotary piston
compressor

Diaphragm
compressor

Sliding vane
compressor

Flow compressor

Axial-flow
compressor

Radial-flow
compressor

Twin-shaft screw
compressor

Roots
compressor

Reciprocating piston compressors


A piston compresses the air drawn in via an inlet valve. The air is passed on via an outlet
valve. Reciprocating compressors are very common and provide a wide range of pressures and
delivery rates. For higher pressures multistage compression is used with intercooling between
each stage of compression.
The optimum range of pressures for reciprocating compressors are approximately:
up to 400 kPa

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

(4 bar)

Single stage

[ 44 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

up to 1500 kPa

(15 bar)

Double stage

over 1500 kPa

(> 15 bar)

Treble or multi stage

Also, it is possible but not necessarily economic to operate in the following ranges:
up to 1200 kPa

(12 bar)

Single stage

up to 3000 kPa

(30 bar)

Double stage

over 3000 kPa

(> 30 bar)

Treble or multi stage

Diaphragm Compressor
The diaphragm compressor belongs to the reciprocating piston compressor group. The
compressor chamber is separated from the piston by a diaphragm. The advantage of this is that
no oil can enter into the air flow from the compressor. The diaphragm compressor is therefore
used where oil is to be excluded from the air supply, for example in the food, pharmaceutical and
chemical industries.
Rotary piston compressor
The rotary group of compressors use rotating elements to compress and increase the
pressure of the air. During the compression process, the compression chamber is continually
reduced.
Screw compressor
Two screw-shaped shafts (rotors) turn in opposite directions. The meshed profile of the
two shafts causes the air to flow which is then compressed.
Flow compressor
These are particularly suitable for large delivery quantities. Flow compressors are made
in axial or radial form. The air is made to flow by means of one or several turbine wheels. The
kinetic energy is converted into pressure energy. In the case of an axial compressor, the air is axial
compressor, the air is accelerated in the axial direction of flow by means of blades.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 45 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS
4.2

VMPT-302 LC

List of components

Air service unit

The air service unit is a combination of the following:

Compressed air filter (with water separated)


Compressed air regulator
Compressed air lubricator

However, the use of a lubricator does not need to be provided for in the power section of a
control system unless necessary, since the compressed air in the control section does not
necessarily need to be lubricated.
The correct combination, size and type of these elements are determined by the application and
the control system demand. An air service unit is fitted at each control system in the network to
ensure the quality of air for each individual task.
Compressed air filter
The compressed air filter has the job of removing all contaminants from the compressed
air flowing through it as well as water which has already condensed. The compressed air enters
the filter bowl through guide slots. Liquid particles and larger particles of dirty are separated
centrifugally collection in the lower part of the filter bowl. The collected condensate must be
drained before the level exceeds the maximum condensate mark, as it will otherwise be reentrained in the air stream.
The purpose of the regulator is to keep the operating pressure of the system (secondary pressure)
virtually constant regardless of fluctuations in the line pressure (primary pressure) and the air
consumption.
Compressed air lubricator
The purpose of the lubricator is to deliver a metered quantity of oil mist into a leg of the
distribution system when necessary for the operation of the pneumatic system.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 46 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS
4.3

VMPT-302 LC

3/2 PUSH BUTTON VALVE

This valve consists of three ports and two states. The valve is controlled by a push button and
spring force. When the push button is depressed, the internal piston moves, allowing pressurized
air to pass from ports P to A. At this stage the valve is active. Upon release of the push button,
the spring force moves the internal piston, there by terminating the air flow from ports P to A, and
returns to the initial position. Air from port A is exhausted through port R.

3/2 NC ROLLER VALVE


This valve consists of three ports and two states. The valve is controlled by a roller head
and spring force. When an external force activates the roller head, the piston moves, compacting
the spring force and allowing the flow of pressurized air from ports P to A. When the roller head
is de-activated, the spring force causes the valve to return to the initial position. Air flow from
ports P to A will terminated and Air is exhausted to atmosphere via the exhaust port R

5/2 Single Pilot Operated Spring Return Valve


This valve consists of five ports and two states. The valve is controlled by pilot air and
a spring. Pressurized air enters the valve through port P. If the controller at port X is active, the
piston will move and air flow will be established between ports P and B. When the controller at
port X is deactivated, the spring expands, terminating the air flow between ports P and B, there
by establishing air flow between Ports P and A.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 47 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

5/2 Double Pilot Operated Valve


This valve consists of five ports and two states. The valve is controlled at both ends by
pilot air, which are controlled by some controller
Pressurized air enters the valve through port P. If the controller at port X is active, the piston will
move and air flow will be established between ports P and B. If the controller at port Y is active,
the piston will move and airflow will be established between Ports P and A.

Shuttle valve (or gate)


This component is a control unit, which has two input ports, and one output port. Either
of the input ports must be active for the output port to operate. The output Port A is active (has
pressure) when pressure is applied to one or both P input ports.

Flow Control Valve


These valves are used to regulate air flow in a pneumatic systems (example to control the
piston speeds of the cylinders). As pneumatic pressure as well as the velocity of the piston are
directly proportional to the amount of flow of air, so we can control all these parameter by just
controlling the flow The air can flow only via the cross section which is adjustable by means of
the throttle screw.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 48 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

One-way flow control valve


In the case of the one-way flow control valve, the air flow is throttled in one direction
only. A check valve blocks the flow of air in the bypass leg and the air can flow only through the
regulated cross-section. In the opposite direction, the air can flow freely through the opened
check valve. These valves are used for speed regulation of actuators and if possible, should be
mounted directly on the cylinder.

Quick Exhaust Valve


Quick Exhaust Valves are used when lengthy return times is to be avoided, particularly with
single acting cylinder. The simple idea behind it, is to allow cylinder to return in its maximum
speed by reducing resistance to flow of the exhausting air, by expelling the air to atmosphere near
to cylinder via a large orifice opening.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 49 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Manifold
The manifold conducts pressurized air flow from the main pressure line and distributes it
to the various components connected to it. Generally Port A is the port used for the inlet of
pressurized air flow from the input component. The rest Ports B, C, D, and E are used to direct
pressurized air to the components. There is no restriction on the component that certain port
should act as inlet, it is user choice that any port can be used as inlet and rest as outlets.
A

Two pressure valve


The two pressure valve is switched based on the compressed air entering into both input
connections 1 and leaving via an output connection 2. Should both input connections being
receiving compressed air, the connection with the lower pressure takes precedence and is put out
(AND function).
2

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 50 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

CHAPTER - 5
APPLICATION AND SYMBOLS FOR
DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 51 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Symbol

Valve type

Applications
2

Pilot controlled spring


return 2/2-way valve

Shut-off function

12
1
2

Pilot controlled spring


return 3/2-way valve,
normally closed

Single-acting cylinders

12
3

Pilot controlled spring


return 3/2-way valve,
normally open

Switching compressed
air on and off

10
3

Pilot controlled spring


return 4/2-way valve

14
3

1
4

Pilot controlled spring


return 5/2-way valve

Double-acting linear
or swivel cylinders

14
5

3
1

14

12
5

1 3

Pilot controlled spring


return 5/2-way valve
(normally closed,

14

12
5

exhausted or pressurized)

1 3

14

12
5

1 3

Pilot controlled 4/2-way


double solenoid valve

Double-acting linear
or swivel cylinders
with intermediate
stop, with special
requirements regarding
behavior in event of
power failure.

14

12
3

Double-acting linear
or swivel cylinders
4

Pilot controlled 5/2-way


double solenoid valve

2
12

14
3

5
1

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 52 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

CHAPTER - 6
PERFORMANCE DATA OF SOLENOID COILS

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 53 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS
6.1

VMPT-302 LC

Performance data of solenoid coils

An electrically actuated directional control valve can be equipped with various different solenoid
coils. The valve manufacturer usually offers one or more series of solenoid coils for each type of
directional control valve, with connection dimensions to match the valve. The choice of solenoid
coil is made on the basis of the electrical performance data (Table 4.4)
Coil type

DC Voltage

AC Voltage

Voltages Normal
Special

12V,24V,42V,48V
on request

24V, 42V, 110V, 230V, 50Hz


on request

Voltage fluctuation

Max.10%

Max.10%

Frequency fluctuation

Max.5% at nominal voltage

Power consumption for


normal voltages

4.1 Wat 12V


4.5 Wat 24V

Pickup : 7.5VA
Hold : 6VA

Power factor

0.7

Duty cycle

100%

100%

Degree of protection

IP65

IP 65

Cable conduit fitting

PG9

PG9

Ambient temperature

5 - 40C

Medium temperature

10 - 60C

10 - 60 C

Average pickup time


10ms
10ms
Table 4.4 Performance data of DC and AC solenoid calls (Festo)
6.2

Specification of operating voltage

The voltage specification in Table 4.4 relates to the voltage supplied to the solenoid coils. The
solenoid coils are chosen to match the signal control section of the electro pneumatic control
system. If the signal control section operates with a DC voltage of 24V, for example, the
corresponding type of coil should be chosen.
To ensure proper operation of the solenoid coil, the voltage supplied to it from the signal control
section must be within certain limits for the 24V coil type, the limits are as follows:
Minimum Voltage : Vmin = 24V. (100% - 10%) = 24V.0.9 = 21.6V
Maximum Voltage : Vmax = 24V. (100% + 10%) = 24V.1.1 = 26.4V
If the signal control section operates with Ac voltage and there fore AC solenoid coils are used,

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 54 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

the frequency of the AC voltage must be within a specified range. For the AC coils described in
the table, frequencies up to 5% above or below 50Hz are permissible; in other words the
permitted frequency range is between 47.5 and 52.5 Hz.
6.3

Electrical connection of solenoid coils

The solenoid coil of a directional control valve if connected to the signal control section of an
electro pneumatic control system via a two-core cable.
There is a removable plug connector between the cable and the solenoid. When the connector
is inserted it is screwed down to protect the plug contacts against the ingress of dust and water.
The type of plug connector and cable conduit fitting are specified in the technical documentation
for the solenoid coil (such as PG9 in table 4.4)
6.4

Protective circuit of a solenoid coil

The electric circuit is opened or closed by a contact in the signal control section of the control
system. When the contact is opened, the current through the solenoid coil suddenly decays. As
a result of the rapid change in current intensity, in conjunction with the inductance of the coil, a
very high voltage is induced briefly in the coil. Arcing may occur at the opening contact. Even
after only a short operating time, this leads to destruction of the contact. A protective circuit is
therefore necessary.
Fig. 4.13 shows the protective circuit for a DC coil. While the contact is closed, current I1 flows
through the solenoid and the diode is de-energized (fig. 6.4 a). When the contact is opened, the
flow of current in the main circuit is interrupted (Fig. 6.5b). The circuit is now closed via the
diode. In that way the current can continue flowing through the coil until the energy stored in
the magnetic field is dissipated.
As a result of the protective circuit, current IM is no longer subject to sudden decay, instead it
is continuously reduced over a certain length of time the induced voltage peak is considerably
lower, ensuring that the contact and solenoid coil are not damaged.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 55 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

i1

IM = I1

ID =0

IM

ID=IM

+24V
0V

i1= 0

+24V
0V

Fig. 6.4 (a), (b) : Protective circuit of a solenoid coil


Auxiliary Functions
In addition to the protective circuit required for operation of the valve, further auxiliary functions
can be integrated in the cable connection, for example:
*

Indicator lamp (lights up when the solenoid is actuated)

Switching delay (to allow delayed actuation)

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 56 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS
6.5

VMPT-302 LC

Adapters and cable sockets

The protective circuit and auxiliary functions are integrated either into the cable socket or in the
form of adapter inserts i.e. illuminating seal (Fig. 4.14). Appropriate adapters and cable sockets
must be chosen to match the voltage at which the signal control section operates (for example
24V DC).

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 57 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Class of protection
Plugs, sockets and adapters are sealed in order to prevent either dust or moisture from entering
the plug connection. If the adapter, solenoid coil and valve have different classes of protection,
the lowest of the three classes of protection applies to the assembled valve, coil and cable conduit.
Explosion protection
If it is intended to use electrically actuated directional control valves in an environment subject
to explosion hazards, special solenoid coils approved for sch applications are required; these have
molded cables.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 58 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

CHAPTER - 7
APPLICATION OF ELECTRO PNEUMATIC
SYSTEM

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 59 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

A lifting device transfers work pieces from the one roller conveyor or to another a different
height. The task is to carry out the project engineering for the associated electro pneumatic
control system.
A positional sketch of the lifting device is shown in fig. 5.2. There are three pneumatic drives;
*

Drive 1A lifts the workpieces.

Drive 2A pushes the workpieces onto the upper roller conveyor.

Drive 3A is used as a stopper, for releasing and interrupting this supply of workpieces.

Fig 5.2 : Positional sketch of the lifting device

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 60 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Note
The packages first have to be separated to be fed singly; this is done at an upstream facility. The
optical proximity switch B6 is not taken into account for the purposes of further project
engineering of the lifting device.
7.1

Drives for the lifting device

Cylinder 1A requires a stroke of 500mm and a force of at least 600N, cylinder 2A a stroke of
250mm and a force of at least 400 N. Cylinder 3A requires a stroke of 20 mm and a force of
40N. On cylinders 1A and 2A the advance and retract speeds of the piston rods need to be
variable. The control system must allow soft braking of drives 1A and 2A.
To prevent the possibility of secondary damage, in the event of an electrical power failure the
piston rods for cylinders 1A and 2A are to be braked immediately and remain at a standstill. The
piston rod of the stopper cylinder 3A is meant to extend in these circumstances.
Movement cycle of the lifting device
The movement cycle of the lifting device is described in Table 5.2 (see positional sketch, Fig. 5.2).
It comprises four steps.

Step

Movement piston
rodcylinder A

Movement piston
rodcylinder 2A

Movement piston
rodcylindr 3A

End of step, step


enabling condition

comments

None

None

Retract

B5 triggered (package
present)

Open device

Advance

None

Advance

1B2 triggered

Lift package

None

Advance

None

2B2 triggered

Push out
package

Retract

Retract

None

1B1, 2B1 triggered

Retract drives to
initial position

Table 7.1 : Movement cycle of the lifting device

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 61 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS
7.2

VMPT-302 LC

Operator Control

The control system of the lifting device must enable the device to be run in a continuous cycle
(continuous operation). A single cycle operating mode is also necessary in which the sequence
is processed precisely once.
The operator control equipment for the system must conform to the relevant standards (see
section 7.4). The control panel for the lifting device is shown in Fig.5.3.
The following operating functions are specified in more detail in relation to the lifting device:
*
*
*

EMERGENCY STOP: When this is actuated, not only the electrical power supply, also
the pneumatic power supply must be shut down.
Reset : This returns the system to the initial position, i.e, the piston rods of cylinders 1A
and 2A retract, the piston rod of cylinder 3A extends.
Continuous cycle OFF: This stops the continuous cycle process. If there is already a
workpiece in the device, it is transferred to the upper roller conveyor. The piston rods of
cylinders 1A and 2A retract. The device is subsequently in its initial position.

EMERGENCY STOP

Main switch

EMERGENCY STOP

Continous
cycle on

Single
cycle start

Automatic
Continous
cycle off

Manual

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

Reset

[ 62 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Ambient conditions
The lifting device is used in a production shop in which the temperature fluctuates between 15 and
35 degrees centigrade. The pneumatic components of the power section and the electrical
connections of the valves are to be dust-tight and splash-proof. The electrical components of the
signal control section are installed in a control cabinet and must conform to the relevant safety
regulations.
Power supply
The following power supply networks are available:
*

Compressed air network (P = 0.6 Mpa = 6 bar)

Electrical network (V = 230 VAC)

The electrical signal control section and the main circuit are to be operated with 24V DC. A
power supply unit therefore needs to be provided to supply this voltage.
7.3

Overall conceptual design of the control system

The signal processing aspect of the lifting device is implemented as a relay control system. In
view of the small number of drive units, the valves are mounted separately.
As the linear guides of the lifting platform and of the pushing device are already part of the
station, cylinders without integrated guides are used. Double-acting cylinders are used for drives
1A and 2A. Drive 3A takes the form of a single - acting stopper cylinder.
Selection of cylinders
The cylinders are chosen on the basis of the requirements in terms of force and stroke, using
catalogues obtained from pneumatics manufacturers. On account of the required drive force,
cylinder 1A must have a piston diameter of at least 40mm, and cylinder 2A a piston diameter of
at least 40mm, and cylinder 2A a piston diameter of at least 32mm.
To ensure soft braking, cylinders with integrated adjustable end position cushioning are used for
drives 1A and 2A. The following cylinders would be suitable, for example:
*

Cylinder 1A : Festo DNGUL-40-500-PPV-A

Cylinder 2A : Festo DNGUL-32-250-PPV-A

A stopper cylinder is used for drive 3A; it is extended if the compressed air supply fails. This
requirement is met by a Festo STA-32-20-P-A type cylinder, for example

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 63 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Selection of directional control valves for the control chain


In order to obtain the required behavior for drives 1A and 2A in the event of a power failure, the
valves used are spring-centered 5/3-way valves with a closed mid-position. As the movements
of the piston rods are relatively slow, valves of a comparatively small nominal size are adequate.
Valves with 1/8-inch ports are used to match the smaller of the two cylinders directional control
valves of the festo MEH-5/3G-1/8 type would be suitable, for example.
A spring-return 3/2-way valve of the Festo MEH-3/2-1/8 type is used for actuation of stopper
cylinder 3A.
Pressure Sequence valve
The supply of compressed air for all three control chains must be shut off as soon as the electrical
power supply fails or an EMERGENCY STOP is triggered. An additional, electrically actuated,
spring-return 3/2-way valve is therefore necessary which enables the supply of compressed air
only when the electrical power supply is functioning properly and no EMERGENCY STOP
device has been actuated. In order to ensure that there is adequate flow, a Festo CPE14-M1H3GL-1/8 type valve is used.
Speed regulation
The advance and retract speeds of drives 1A and 2A are regulated by means of exhaust air flow
control. Function connectors reduce tubing work, because they are screwed directly into the
cylinder bore. The type of connectors required are those with a one-way flow control function,
for example festo GRLA-1/4 (cylinder 1A) or GFLA-1/8 (cylinder 2A).
Selection of proximity switches
The proximity switches are selected to match the cylinders. It makes sense to use positiveswitching sensors. For example, inductive sensors of type SMTO-1-PS-K-LED-24 are suitable
for cylinders 1A and 2A, and type SMT-8-PS-KL-LED-24 for cylinder 3A.
For controlling the device (see movement sequence) two proximity switches are needed for each
of cylinders 1A and 2A in order to detect the forward and retracted end positions. In the case of
cylinder 3A it is sufficient to have one sensor to detect the forward end position.
Positive-switching optical sensors, for example festo type SOEGRT-M18-PS-K, are used to
detect whether there is a workpiece ahead of the stopper cylinder or on the lifting platform.
Allocation table for the lifting device
The subsequent steps of the project design process are made easier by listing the cylinders,
solenoids, sensors, control elements and indicators (Table 5.3). Components belonging to an
individual control chain are shown on the same line of the table.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 64 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

Drive/
function

VMPT-302 LC

Actuated solenoid

Control
Element

Proximity switch

Advance

Retract

Cyl.1A

1M1

1M2

1B2

1B1

Control chain 1

Cyl.2A

2M1

2M2

2B2

2B1

Control chain 2

3M1

3B1

Cyl.3A
Comp.air

Other

Advance

Retract

Comments

Other

Control chain 3
Pressure sequence valve

0M1
B5

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

Package on lifting platform


S1

Main switch

S2

Emergency stop (Normally


closed contact)

S3

Manual (MAN)

S4

Automatic (AUT)

S5

Reset

S6

Continous cycle ON

S7

Single cycle START

S8

Continous cycle OFF

[ 65 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS
7.4

VMPT-302 LC

Displacement - step diagram for the lifting device

The displacement-step diagram for the lifting device is shown in Fig. 5.4. it illustrates the steps
in which the piston rods of the three cylinders advance and retract, and when the proximity
switches respond.

S4 (AUT)
S6
S7
1B1 ^ 2B1 ^ 3B1
B5
1

5=1

1
1B2
Cylinder 1A
1B1

0
2B2

1
Cylinder 2A

2B1

0
1
3B1
Cylinder 3A
0

Fig.5.4: Displacement-step diagram for the lifting device.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 66 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

CHAPTER - 8
SAFETY MEASURES FOR ELECTRO
PNEUMATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 67 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Numerous protective measures are necessary in order to ensure that electro pneumatic control
systems can be safely operated.
One source of danger is moving parts of machines and equipment. On a pneumatic press, for
example, care must be taken to prevent the operators fingers or hands from being trapped. Fig
8.0 provides an overview of sources of danger and suitable protective measures.
Fig.8.0 Moving parts of machines and equipment: sources and danger and protective
measures

8.1

Source of danger

Electric current is another source of danger. The dangers and protective measures relating to

Dangers from moving parts of machines and equipment


(Cylinder, axes, grippers, suction cups, clamping devices,
presses, workpieces, etc.)

Protection by
enclosure/covering
Cage
Grid

Protection by
control and
signalling devices
Warning lights
EMERGENCY STOP
Two-hand safety control

Protection by
signal processing
measures
Protection against
unsupervised startup
Setup procedure

electric current are summarized in Fig 8.1.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 68 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Fig 8.1 Electric current: Sources of danger and protective measures

Dangers from components through which electric current flows


(Power supply units, sensors, signal processing, components
solenoid coils of dielectrical control valves)

Protection against
contact with high
voltage
Safety extra-low
voltage
Covering/housing
Adequate distance
Grounding

8.2

Protection during
maintenance and
repair work
Main switch with
interclocking

Protection of
electrical equipment
against environmental
influences
Protection against
dust/foreign bodies
Protection against
water/moisture

Safety rules

In order to provide the best possible safeguards for operating personnel, various safety rules and
standards must be observed when designing electro pneumatic control systems. The key standards
dealing with protection against the dangers of electric current are listed below.
*

Protection measures for Electrical Power Installations up to 1000V (DIN VDE 0100).

Specifications for Electrical Equipment and Safety of Machines (DIN/EN 60204).

Degrees of protection of Electrical Equipment (DIN-VDE 470-1).

When a person touches a live part, an electric circuit is completed. An electric current flows
through the persons body.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 69 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS
8.3

VMPT-302 LC

Effect of electric current on the human body

The effect of electric current on the human body increases with the intensity of the current and
with the length of time in contact with the current. The effects are grouped according to the
following threshold values.
*

Below the threshold perception, electric current has no effect on the human body to
human health.

Above the let-go threshold muscles become cramped and functioning of the heart is
impaired.

Above the threshold of non-fibrillation, the effects are cardiac arrest or ventricular.

Up to the let-go threshold, electric current is perceived but there is no danger fibrillation,
cessation of breathing and unconsciousness. There is an acute risk to life.

The threshold of perception, let-go threshold and non-fibrillation threshold are plotted in fig for
alternating current with a frequency of 50 Hz. This corresponds to the frequency of the electrical
supply network. For direct current, the threshold values for endangering human beings are slightly
higher.
Electrical resistance of the human body
The human body offer resistance to the flow of current. Electric current may enter the body
through the hand, for example: it then flows through the body to reemerge at another point (such
as the feet-see fig). Accordingly, the electrical resistance RM of the human body (Fig ) is formed
by a series circuit comprising the entry resistance R01 the internal resistance R1 and the exit
resistance R02 (Fig ). It is calculated using the following formula:

RM R01 R1 R02
The contact resistances R01 and R02 vary greatly depending on the contact surface and the
moistness and thickness of the skin. This affects the total resistance RM. It may range between
the following extremes.
*

Less than 1000 ohms (large contact surfaces, wet, sweaty skin)

Several million ohms (point contact, very dry, thick skin)

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 70 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

I
G
~

R01

R1

R02

I
RL

G
~

RM

RM

U
~

RE

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 71 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS
8.4

VMPT-302 LC

Variables influencing the risk of accident

The current I through the human body is dependent on the source voltage V, the resistance RL
of the electric line, the resistance RM of the person and the resistance RE of the ground (Fig). It
is calculated as follows:

V
RL R M RE

According to this formula, a high current, i.e. a high level of danger, is obtained in the following
circumstances:
*

When touching an electrical conductor carrying a high voltage V


(Such as a conductor in the electrical supply network, 230V AC)

When touching a conductor at a low contact resistance R0 and consequently low


resistance RM (such as with large contact surfaces, sweaty skin, wet clothing)

10000
5000
ms
2000

Threshold of
non-fibrillation

Threshold of
perception

1000
500

Time t

Let-go
threshold

200

100
50
20
10
0

0.1

0.2

0.5

10

20

50

100

200

500

mA

2000

Current I

Danger zones with AC voltage (frequency 50Hz/60 Hz)

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 72 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

CHAPTER - 9
COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION OF ELECTRO PNEUMATIC
TRAINER

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 73 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

1. 3/2 way valve with pushbutton actuator N.C. assy.:


* Design: directly actuated, one side, with return spring.
* Pressure range: (-0.9 8 bar)
* Nominal Flow rate 1 ..2: 60 l/min
2. Quick-exhaust valve assy.:
*
*
*
*
*

Quick-exhaust valve with built-in silencer.


Design: Pop pet valve
Pressure range: (0.5 10 bar)
Nominal flow rate 1 2: 960 l/min
Nominal flow rate 2 3: 1100 l/min.

3. 3/2-way roller lever Valve Act. N.C. assy.:


The roller lever valve is actuated when the roller lever is pressed, for example by the cam of
a cylinder. After release of the roller lever, the valve is returned to its initial position by as
return spring.
*
*
*
*
*

Design: Pop pet valve, directly actuated, one side with return spring.
Pressure range: (-0.9 to 8 bar)
Nominal flow rate 12: 80 l/min.
Nominal flow rate 1 .. 4: 500 l/min.
Response time: Optimum.

4. 5/2 way Single Pilot Valve with Assembly:


The pneumatic single piloted valve is actuated by pneumatic signals, and following removal of
the signal is returned to its initial position by a return spring.
*
*
*
*
*

Design: Directly actuated, one side with return spring.


Pressure range: (0 to 10 bar)
Nominal flow rate 12: 500 l/min.
Nominal flow rate 1.... 4: 500 l/min.
Response time: Optimum

5. 5/2 Double Pilot Valve with Assembly:


The pneumatic double pilot valve is reversed by pneumatic signals form alternate sides. The
circuit state is retained after removal of the signal until the next counteracting signal.
* Design: Directly actuated, both sides

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 74 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS
*
*
*
*

VMPT-302 LC

Pressure range: (0 10 bar)


Nominal flow rate 12: 500 l/min.
Nominal flow rate 1 .. 4: 500 l/min.
Response time: Optimum.

6. Shuttle valve (OR) assy.:


The shuttle valve is switched through to the output by applying compressed air to one of the
inputs (OR function).
* Design: OR gate (shuttle valve)
* Pressure range: (1 10 bar)
* Nominal flow rate 12: 500 l/min.
7. Dual-pressure valve (AND):
The dual-pressure valve is switched through to the output by applying compressed air to both
of the inputs (AND function).
* Design: AND gate (dual-pressure valve)
* Pressure range: (1 10 bar)
* Nominal flow rate 12: 550 l/min.
8. Time-delay valve / adjust N.C. assy.:
The time delay can be set with an adjusting screw (infinitely variable).
*
*
*
*

Design Return Spring.


Pressure range - (2.5 8 bar)
Nominal flow rate 12 - 92 l/min.
Delay 30s

9. One-way flow control valve assy.:


The one-way flow control valve is a combination of flow control valve and a non-return valve.
The cross-section of the restrictor can be set by means of a knurled screw.
* Design Combined flow control valve.
* Pressure range - (0.5 10 bar)
* Nominal flow rate 0 220 LPM.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 75 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

10. Single-acting cylinder assy.:


*
*
*
*
*

Design Piston cylinder


Operating Pressure 10 bar
Stroke length Maximum 50 mm
Thrust at (6bar) 169 N
Spring return force minimal 13.65N

11. Double-acting cylinder assy.:


*
*
*
*
*

Design Piston cylinder


Operating Pressure 10 bar
Stroke length Maximum 100 mm
Thrust at (6bar) 188.5 N
Return Thrust at (6 bar) 158. 3 N

12. Manifold assy.:


Manifold with six (2x3) self-closing non-return valves. A common manifold (QS 6x6 =
multiple connector) for plastic tubing allows supply of compressed air to the control via six
Individual ports (QS-4 for plastic tubing PUN 4 x 0.75).
13. Filter regulator with gauge assy. With Lubricator:
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

Filter control valve with pressure gauge, start-up valve, quick push-pull connectors and
quick couplings, mounted on a swivel support.
The filter with water separator removes dirt, pipe sinter, rust and condensed water.
The pressure control valve regulates the supply air pressure to the set operating pressure
and compensates pressure fluctuations. The filter bowl has a condensate drain valve.
The start-up valve / shut off valve ventilates and vents the entire control. The 3/2 way
valve is actuated by a rotary button.
Design Sintered filter
Nominal flow rate 750 l/min
Input Pressure Maximum (16 bar)
Output pressure Maximum (12 bar)
Grade of filtration 40 m
Condensate quantity 22 c.cm.
Connector G 1/8

14. Plastic tubing:


* PUN 6 x 1
* Exterior diameter 6 mm

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 76 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

* Interior diameter 4 mm.


* Blue 15m
15. T connectors(4):
These shall be for branching of the tubes for making circuitry.
16. 5/2 way Hand lever valve:
* Hand lever valve with
* Flow 1600 l/min
* Work pressure (0 8 bar)
17. Read Switch, Electronic with cylinder attachment:
The proximity switch consists of a sensor, the mounting kit, and the cable. This proximity switch
gives a signal when it detects a magnetic field. The status is indicated by a LED.
*
*
*
*

Switching voltage 10 30 VDC


Switching Current Maximum 200mA
Switching power 6w
Switch accuracy - 0.1mm.

18. 3/2 way Single Solenoid Valve with LED, NC:


The status is indicated by an LED on the housing. The valve is equipped with a manual override.
The electrical connections feature polarity reversal protection for the LED and the suppressor
circuit.
Pneumatic Technical data:
* Design Spool valve, pilot controlled, with return spring.
* Pressure range 250 800 kPa (2.5 8 bar)
* Response time at 600 kPa (6 basr) On: 20 ms, Off: 30ms
* Nominal flow rate 1 .. 2 500 l/min.
* Electrical Technical Data:
# Power Consumption 1.5 W
# Duty Cycle 100%
19. 5/2 way Single Solenoid valve, with LED:
The status is indicated by an LED on the housing. The valve is equipped with a manual override.
The electrical connections feature polarity reversal protection for the LED and the suppressor
circuit.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 77 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Pneumatic Technical data:


* Design Spool valve, pilot controlled, with return spring.
* Pressure range 250 800 kPa (2.5 8 bar)
* Response time at 600 kPa (6 basr) On: 20 ms, Off: 30ms
* Nominal flow rate 1 .. 2 and 1 .. 4 500 l/min.
* Electrical Technical Data:
# Power Consumption 1.5 W
# Duty Cycle 100%
20. 5/2 way Double Solenoid valve, with LED:
The statuses are indicated by an LED on the housing. The valve is equipped with two manual
override. The electrical connections feature polarity reversal protection for the LED and the
suppressor circuit.
Pneumatic Technical data:
* Design Spool valve, with pilot control.
* Pressure range 150 800 kPa (1.5 8 bar)
* Response time at 600 kPa (6 bar) 10 ms
* Nominal flow rate 1 .. 2 and 1 .. 4 500 l/min.
* Electrical Technical Data:
# Power Consumption 1.5 W
# Duty Cycle 100%
21. Hand Sliding Valve:
* 3/2 way valve
* 1/8 G thread
* Flow 0- 400 l/min
Working Pressure (0-8 bars)

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 78 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

CHAPTER - 10
EXPERIMENTAL SECTION

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 79 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

BASIC PNEUMATIC SECTION

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 80 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

EXPERIMENT - 1
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Single acting cylinder

2
1

1
AND Gate

1
3/2 Push button valve

1
3/2 Push button

Component Description
FRL
Number

Compressor

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

Description

Compressed air supply

Air service unit, simplified representation

Single acting cylinder

Two pressure valve

3/2 Push button valve

[ 81 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

EXPERIMENT - 1
CONTROL THE SINGLE ACTING CYLINDER USING
TWO WAY PRESSURE VALVE
Aim
To construct a pneumatic circuit to control the single acting cylinder control by Two-way
pressure valve.
Apparatus Required
Compressor air
FRL
Two-way pressure valve
Single acting cylinder
Procedure
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Draw the circuit diagram.


Connect the compressor air supply to FRL unit.
Any two of the outputs of FRL unit directly connected to 3/2 push button valve inlet
first and second.
Both 3/2 push button valves outputs to give AND Gate input.
Check the all circuit.
Open the hand slide valve. The air passes in both 3/2 pushbutton valves input port.
When both push button is press the cylinder should be activated.

Truth table
Input 1

Input 2

Output

ON
OFF
OFF
ON

ON
OFF
ON
OFF

ON
OFF
OFF
OFF

Result
The pneumatic circuit of two way pressure valve was simulated.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 82 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

EXPERIMENT - 2
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Single acting cylinder

2
1

1
OR Gate

1
3/2 Push button valve

1
3/2 Push button

Component Description
FRL
Number

Compressor

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

Description

Compressed air supply

Air service unit, simplified representation

Single acting cylinder

3/2 Push button valve

Shuttle valve

[ 83 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

EXPERIMENT - 2
FOR USING OR GATE CONTROL TO SINGLE ACTING CYLINDER
Aim
To construct a pneumatic circuit to control the single acting cylinder.
Apparatus Required
Compressor air
Tube
3/2 push button valve
Shuttle valve
Single acting cylinder
Procedure
1.

Draw the circuit diagram.

2.

Connect the compressor air supply to FRL unit.

3.

Any two of the output of FRL unit to first 3/2 push button valve inlet and second 3/2
push button valve inlet.

4.

Both 3/2 push button valves outputs to give shut the valve inlet ports.

5.

Check the all circuits.

6.

Open the hand slide valve. The air passes in both 3/2 push button valve inlets.

7.

Press any one push button valve. The cylinder will be activated.

Truth table
Input 1

Input 2

Output

OFF
ON
OFF
ON

OFF
OFF
ON
ON

OFF
ON
ON
ON

Result
Thus the single acting cylinder controlled by OR Gate.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 84 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

EXPERIMENT - 3
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Double acting cylinter

1 3
5/2 Single pilot valve

3
3/2 Push button valve

Component Description
Number
FRL
Compressor

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

Description

Compressed air supply

Air service unit, simplified representation

3/2 Push button valve

Double acting cylinder

5/2 Single Pilot valve

[ 85 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

EXPERIMENT - 3
FOR USING 5/2 SINGLE PILOT VALVE, CONTROL TO
DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER
Aim
To construct a pneumatic circuit to control the single acting cylinder.
Apparatus Required
Compressor air
FRL
3/2 Push button valve
5/2 single pilot valve
Air tube
Procedure
1.

Draw the circuit diagram.

2.

Connect the compressor air supply to FRL unit.

3.

Connect any one of the outputs o FRL unit to 5/2 single pilot valve inlet port 1.

4.

Again one of the outputs of FRL unit to connect to any to 3/2 push button valve inlet.

5.

3/2 push button valve output connect to 5/2 double pilot valve (port 12).

6.

Both outputs of 5/2 double valve directly connected to double acting cylinder.

7.

When is press 3/2 push button valve the cylinder will be activated.

Result
The direct control of a double acting cylinder was simulated.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 86 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

EXPERIMENT - 4
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Double acting cylinder

3
5/2 Double pilot valve

3
3/2 Push button valve

3/2 Push button valve

Component Description
Number
FRL
Compressor

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

Description
Compressed air supply

5/2 Double Pilot valve

Air service unit, simplified representation

3/2-Push button valve

Double acting cylinder

[ 87 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

EXPERIMENT - 4
DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER CONTROL BY
USING 5/2 DOUBLE PILOT VALVE
Aim
To construct a pneumatic circuit to control the double acting cylinder using 5/2 double pilot
valve.
Apparatus required
Compressor
Air tube
3/2 push button valve
5/2 double pilot valve
FRL unit
Procedure
1.

Draw the circuit diagram.

2.

Connect the compressor air supply to FRL unit.

3.

Two outputs of FRL unit directly connected to 3/2 push button valves inlets. The both
outputs connected to double pilot (Port 12, Port 14).

4.

3/2 double pilot outputs (2, 4) are connect to double acting cylinder.

5.

Check for all circuit.

6.

Observe the working of cylinder.

Result
Thus the double acting cylinder controlled by 5/2 double pilot valve.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 88 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

EXPERIMENT - 5
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

3/2 Roller lever valve


2

W1

W2

Double acting
cylinder

W2

W1

3/2 Roller lever valve


2

One way flow control valve

5/2 Double pilot valve 1

Component Description
FRL
Compressor

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

Number Description
1
Compressor
1

5/2 Double pilot valve

Flow control valve

3/2 Roller lever valve

Double acting cylinder

[ 89 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

EXPERIMENT - 5
CONTINUOS RECIPROCATING OF DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER CONTROL
THE 5/2 DOUBLE PILOT VALVE
Aim
To construct a circuit to control the forward return stroke of a double acting cylinder by pilot
pressure.
Apparatus required
Air compressor.
Air tube.
Double acting cylinder.
3/2 roller lever valve.
5/2 double pilot valve and flow control valve.
Procedure
1.

Draw the circuit diagram.

2.

Connect compressor air supply to FRL unit.

3.

Connect any one of the outputs of FRL unit to 5/2 direction control unit port 1.

4.

Connect port 4 of DCV to blank end of the double acting cylinder.

5.

Connect the output of FRL unit to the input of two 3/2 roller lever valves to give pilot
pressure for 5/2 double pilot valve.

6.

The output of the two roller valves are connected to the either side of the 5/2 double pilot
valve properly.

7.

When the FRL valves is opened the higher pressure air enters the blank end of the cylinder
through DCT and the piston moves forward.

8.

At the end of the forward stroke the piston rod pressure the roller valve. The output of
roller valve is sent to double acting cylinder to change the position.

9.

Now the high pressure air from FRL unit is sent to rod end of the double acting cylinder
through the second position of the DCV the piston retracts.

10.

At the end of the return stroke the roller valve is pressed. The output of the roller valve
is sent to DC change the piston. This is repeated until the FRL valve is closed.

Result
The continuos reciprocating of double acting cylinder was simulated.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 90 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

EXPERIMENT - 6
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
3

3/2 Roller lever valve


2

W1

W2

Double acting
cylinder

3/2 Roller lever valve


2

Single acting cylinder

W3

W2

W3

3/2 Roller lever valve


2

One way flow control valve

5/2 Double pilot valve 1

FRL
Compressor

Component Description
Number Description
1
Compressed air supply

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

Air service unit, simplified representation

Double acting cylinder

Single acting cylinder

5/2 Double pilot valve

3/2 way roller lever valve

Distance rule

[ 91 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

EXPERIMENT - 6
STUDY THE CIRCUIT USING (A+B-A-B)
Aim
To design a circuit for the sequence A+B-A-B.
Apparatus Required
Compressor
FRL
5/2 Double pilot valve
Single acting cylinder
Double acting cylinder
3/2 Roller lever valve.
Air tube
Procedure
1.

Draw the circuit diagram.

2.

Connect the compressor air to FRL unit

3.

Are both outputs of FRL unit connected to all components.

4.

Test your all circuits.

5.

You will open the hand slide valve.

6.

Observe the working of cylinders.

Result
The circuit diagram for the sequence is drawn and executed.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 92 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

ELECTRO PNEUMATIC SECTION

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 93 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Mechanical Circuit

Electrical Circuit

24V

Single acting cylinder


Push button switch

14
2
S1
1

Solenoid coil

S1
3/2 Single solenoid valve

FRL

0V

Compressor

Material Description
Number

Description

Compressed air supply

Air service unit, simplified representation

3/2-way valve, pneumatically operated

Single acting cylinder

Electrical connection 24V

Electrical connection 0V

Pushbutton (make)

Valve solenoid

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 94 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

EXPERIMENT - 1
Controlling the single acting cylinder using electrically.
AIM
To construct a pneumatic circuit to control the single acting cylinder electrically using push button
switch.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
Compressor, FRL, solenoid coil, electrical trainer, single acting cylinder and batch card.
PROCEDURE
1.

Draw the circuit diagram.

2.

Electro controller gives - voltage to pneumatic panel.

3.

Input of push button is getting from solenoid valve output.

4.

Connect the air supply to FRL unit.

5.

Check all the connections carefully

6.

Test the circuit.

7.

Observe the working of the cylinder using the 3/2 single solenoid valve.

Result
Thus the movement of single acting cylinder was carried out using the 3/2 single solenoid valve.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 95 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Mechanical Circuit

Electrical Circuit
24V

24V
SPDT

Double acting cylinder

2
W1

W1

W2

solenoid coil

5
1

W2

5/2 Double solenoid valve

FRL
0V

0V

Compressor

Material Description
Number

SPDT -

Description

Pushbutton (make)

Electrical connection 24V

Electrical connection 0V

Valve solenoid

Compressed air supply

Air service unit, simplified representation

5/2 way valve

Double acting cylinder

Single Pole Double Through

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 96 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

EXPERIMENT - 2
Actuation of double acting cylinder using 5/2 double solenoid valve through SPDT switch.
AIM
To develop a electro pneumatic circuit to actuate a double acting cylinder.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
Compressor, FRL, Electrical controller, 5/2 Double solenoid valve, SPDT switch and Data Card.
PROCEDURE
1.

Provide power supply to the pneumatic trainer from control trainer by interfacing 24V +
and -

2.

Using the SPDT switch energize the corresponding solenoid valve to get the desired
movement in the cylinder.

3.

Design and draw the pneumatic circuit.

4.

Supply the Air to FRL unit.

5.

Assemble all the components.

6.

Check all the connections carefully.

7.

Test the circuit.

8.

Observe the working of the cylinder using the 5/2 double solenoid valve.

Result
Thus the movement of the double acting cylinder was carried out using the 5/2 DCV.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 97 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC
Electrical circuit

Mechanical circuit

+24V

1
3

Double acting cylinder

Push button switch


4

W1
5
5/2 Single pilot valve

W1

Solenoid coil

FRL

0V
Compressor

Material Description
Designation

Description

Pushbutton (make)

Electrical connection 24V

Electrical connection 0V

Valve solenoid

Compressed air supply

Air service unit, simplified representation

5/2 way valve

Double acting cylinder

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 98 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

EXPERIMENT - 3
Electrically control Double acting cylinder using pushbutton switch.
AIM
To construct a pneumatic circuit to control the single acting cylinder electrically using push button
switch.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
Compressor, FRL, 5/2 Double solenoid valve, electrical trainer, single acting cylinder and Batch
card.
PROCEDURE
1.

Draw the circuit diagram and connect the air supply to FRL unit.

2.

Connect the electrical circuit from 24V DC source to ON/OFF switch.

3.

Solenoid are connected to the pushbutton switch.

4.

When the solenoid is given a signal by a push button switch. DCV is activated to double
acting cylinder.

5.

When off button is pressed the signal solenoid are cut and the solenoids are de-energized
and the DCV comes to the original position.

RESULT
Thus the double acting cylinder is controlled electrically operated switch.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 99 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Pneumatic circuit diagram

Electrical circuit diagram

24V

3
3

Single acting cylinder

3
Push button switch
14

S1
2

Make switch
4

2
S1
On delay timer A1

T1

S1
A2

3/2 Single solenoid valve

FRL

Solenoid coil

0V

Compressor
3

Material Description
Number

Description

Distance rule

Single acting cylinder

Compressed air supply

Air service unit, FRL

3/2-Single solenoid coil

Electrical connection 24V

Pushbutton (make)

Relay with switch-on-delay

Electrical connection 0V

Make switch

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 100 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

EXPERIMENT - 4
Actuation of single acting cylinder using Time delay valve used to on delay timer.
AIM
To develop an electro pneumatic circuit for actuation of single acting cylinder using timer.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
Compressor Air, FRL, Time delay valve, electrical controller, single acting cylinder, 3/2 single
solenoid valve and Batch card.
PROCEDURE
1.

Provide power supply to electrical controller by interfacing the +ve to +ve and -ve to -ve.

2.

Provide power supply to pneumatic trainer from electrical controller by interfacing 24 +ve
to +ve and -ve to -ve.

3.

Using the SPDT switch energize the corresponding solenoid to get the desired movement
of the cylinder.

4.

Actual the time delay circuit.

5.

From dime delay give connection to single along cylinders to actual cylinder according to
time set.

6.

Design and draw the pneumatic circuit.

7.

Connect the air supply.

8.

Test the circuit.

9.

Observe the working of the cylinder.

Result
Thus the movement of single acting cylinder was carried out using time delay.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 101 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Mechanical Circuit

Electrical Circuit
24V
1

Single acting cylinder

3
Push button switch

T1

Make switch
4

2
Off delay timer
T1

S1

A1
5

A2
S1

3/2 Single solenoid valve

Solenoid coil
3

0V
FRL

Compressor

Material Description
Number

Description

Single acting cylinder

Compressed air supply

Air service unit, simplified representation

3/2-way valve with pushbutton

Electrical connection 24V

Pushbutton (make)

Electrical connection 0V

Make switch

Valve solenoid

Relay with switch-off delay

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 102 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

EXPERIMENT - 5
Actuation of single acting cylinder using OFF delay Timer.
AIM
To develop an electro pneumatic circuit for actuation of a single acting cylinder using OFF delay
Timer.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
Compressor Air, FRL, 3/2single acting cylinder, electrical controller, single acting cylinder, Timer,
Batch chord.
PROCEDURE
1.

Provide power supply to pneumatic trainer from electrical controller by inter facing 24+
and 24-.

2.

Provide 24V power supply to timer.

3.

Any one of the output of FRL unit direct connect to 3/2 single solenoid valve.

4.

Single solenoid valve out put is connect to single acting cylinder.

5.

Give +24V and -24V in Timer.

6.

Output of Timer connected to solenoid coil.

7.

Check the all circuit.

8.

Observe the working of cylinder.

9.

Observe the working circuit.

Result
Thus the movement of single acting cylinder was carried out using time delay.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 103 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Mechanical Circuit
Q1

Q2

Double acting cylinder

Flow control valve

Material Description
4

Number

W1

W2

5
5/2 Double solenoid valve

Description

Compressor

FRL

5/2 Double Solenoid Valve

Flow control valve

1
1
1

Double acting cylinder


Proximity sensor
Solenoid coils

3
1

FRL

Compressor

Electrical Circuit
+24V

Q1

Q2

Proximity
Sensor
W1

W2
Solenoid Coil

Solenoid Coil

0V

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 104 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

EXPERIMENT - 6
Continuos actuation of double acting cylinder using magnetic proximity sensor.
AIM
To construct a pneumatic circuit to control the double acting cylinder electrically using magnetic
proximity sensor.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
Compressor Air, FRL, 5/2 double solenoid valve electrical controller, sensor, double acting
cylinder and flow control valve.
PROCEDURE
1.

Draw the circuit diagram

2.

Connect the circuit diagram in all components.

3.

Connect air supply to FRL unit.

4.

Connect the electrical circuit from electrical controller to panel [24+ and 24-)

5.

Connect from proximity sensor output to 5/2 double solenoid valve input.

6.

Check all circuit in panel.

7.

Test the circuit.

8.

Observe the working in double acting cylinder activated.

Result
Thus the movement of double acting cylinder was carried out using the magnetic proximity
sensor.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 105 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Mechanical Circuit
P1

P2

P3

P4

Double acting cylinder

Double acting cylinder

Flow control valve

S1

S3
5

5/2 Double solenoid valve

S2

S4
5

3
1

3
1

5/2 Double solenoid valve

FRL

Compressor

Electrical Circuit
Material
+24V

3 4

Number

6 7

1
1
2

S1

S2

Solenoid coil

S3

S4

1
2
1
1
4
4
1

Description
Compressed air supply
Air service unit, simplified
representation
Double acting cylinder
5/2 Way valve
One-way flow control valve
5/2-way valve, with
selection switch
Electrical connection 0V
Pushbutton (make)
Valve solenoid
Electrical connection 24V

0V

Description

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 106 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

EXPERIMENT - 7
Simulation of Electrically sequencing circuit using a double acting cylinder and miniature cylinder.
AIM
To simulate the electrically sequencing circuit using Push button switch.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
Compressor Air, FRL, 5/2 Double solenoid valve, electrical controller, double acting cylinder,
Miniature cylinder then batch card.
PROCEDURE
1.

Draw the circuit diagram

2.

Connect the mechanical circuit in panel.

3.

To give the wiring connection as for as above the diagram.

4.

Check for all circuit.

5.

Test the circuit.

6.

Observe the working of the cylinders.

RESULT
Thus the sequence of double acting cylinders was carried out using push button switch.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 107 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

Mechanical Circuit
P1

P2

P3

Double acting cylinder

P4

Double acting cylinder

Flow control valve

S1

S3
5

5/2 Double solenoid valve

S2

S4
5

3
1

5/2 Double solenoid valve

3
1

FRL

Compressor

Electrical Circuit
+24V 1

3
4

Push button switch

P3

P2

Proximity
Sensor

S1

S2

P1
Proximity
Sensor

P4

S4

S3

Solenoid Coil

0V

Number
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
4
4
2

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

Description
Compressed air supply
Air service unit, simplified
representation
Double acting cylinder
5/2 Way valve
One-way flow control valve
5/2-way valve, with
selection switch
Electrical connection 0V
Electrical connection 24V
Magnetic proximity switch
Valve solenoid
Distance rule

[ 108 ]

ELECTRO PNEUMATICS

VMPT-302 LC

EXPERIMENT - 8
AIM
Study the circuit A+B+A-B- using electrically magnetic sensor proximity.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
Compressor Air, FRL, electrical controller, double acting cylinder, 5/2 Double solenoid valve
Magnetic proximity switch, miniature cylinder.
PROCEDURE
1.

Draw the electrical circuit and mechanical circuit.

2.

Provide power supply to electrical controller by interfacing the 24+ve to +24ve and
negative voltage.

3.

Any one output is push button have direct connected to electro pneumatic panel +24V or
-24V. This push button should be on.

4.

To give the wiring connection as fox as above the diagram.

5.

Check for all circuit connection.

6.

Connect the air supply to FRL unit.

7.

Test the circuit.

8.

Observe the working of the cylinders auto material reciprocating of circuit in A+B+A-B.

Result
Thus the movement of double acting cylinder were carried out using the circuit A+B+A-B.

Vi Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.,

[ 109 ]