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Resources & Forms of Energy

1. Energy is the ability to do work or make a change.


2. Fuel is burnt in the car to produce energy which moves the car.
3. Food is the living organisms fuel. Food is burnt in the body to get energy needed for
vital activities.

4. A body which moves has kinetic energy.


5.

Work (joule)=force (Newton) x displacement (meter)


F

The measuring unit of energy is the Joule

6. Raise a book & put it on a high shelf. Your energy is stored in the book. The stored
energy is potential energy.
When the book falls down, its potential energy is converted into kinetic energy.

Resources of energy
1. sun (permanent)

2- wind and water falls (renewable)

2. fuel(stored chemical energy )(non renewable)

Energy forms
1. Mechanical energy

Energy resources
Water motion& stretched spring

( potential+ Kinetic)
2. Light energy

Sun

3. Sound energy

TV& Radios

4. Electric energy

Wind, Electric generators& solar cell

5. Heat energy

Sun& heaters

6. Chemical energy

Food& Battery

7. Nuclear energy

Nuclear reactions

G.R Solar, wind, water falls are preferred

Because they are cheap and clean sources of energy


1. Kinetic energy is energy due to motion of object.
2. Potential energy is the energy stored in an object due to work done.
3. Mechanical energy is the sum of kinetic & potential energy.

Mechanical energy = potential energy + kinetic energy


By decreasing potential energy of the body the kinetic
energy increases and vice versa
At maximum height : The mechanical energy = potential energy only.

K.E = Zero at the maximum height


On reaching object at the ground: The mechanical energy = kinetic energy only.

P.E = Zero at the ground


At mid point: The mechanical energy = 2 x potential energy

OR

2 x kinetic energy

At any point: The mechanical energy = potential energy + kinetic energy

Potential energy increases when the objects weight or height increases.


P.E is directly proportional with weight and height.
Weight = Mass X gravity acceleration

Potential energy = weight x height


Joule

Newton

P.E
W X h

* Factors affecting the P.E are :


1- weight

2- height

If the weight is doubled; P.E is doubled


If the weight is reduced to half; P.E decreases to half.
If the height is doubled; P.E is doubled
If the height is reduced to half; P.E decreases to half.
Kinetic energy increases if the mass or the speed of the moving object increases.
K.E is directly proportional with mass and speed.
The following rule calculates kinetic energy .
Kinetic energy = x mass x (speed)2
Joule
Note:

Kg

m/sec

Speed = Velocity
K.E
1
m X V2
2

- Factors affecting the K.E are:


1- Mass

2-Velocity

If the mass is doubled; K.E is doubled


If the mass decreases to half; K.E decreases to half.
If the velocity decreases to half; K.E decreases to 1/4
EX. Compare between potential and kinetic energy.

Problem: Find the work done by a force of 60 Newton to move


a body a distance of 200 cm
Solution:

work = force x distance

60 x 200/100 = 60 x 2 = 120 Joule


Problem: Calculate the kinetic energy of a body has a mechanical
Solution: Mech. E = K.E + P.E
400 = K.E + 100
K.E = 400 100 = 300 Joules
Problem: find the potential energy of a stone of mass 200 gm
[Acceleration of gravity 10 m/s]
Solution: P.E = m x g x h
= 0.2 x 10 x 4 = 8 joule
A solved example:
Calculate the kinetic energy of a ball has a mass =0.5 kg & moves with a speed 3 m/s.
Solution:
Kinetic energy = x 0.5 x (3)2

= 2.25 Joules.

Problem :
Calculate the kinetic energy
of a bike of velocity of 20
m/s if its mass is 10 Kg.
Solution :

K.E = 1/2 x M x V

1/2 x 10 x 20 x 20 = 2000 Joule

Problem: A person threw a ball of mass 0.5 Kg upwards


velocity was 4 m/s. nd the work done (mechanical
energy)
[Acceleration of gravity 10 m/s]
Solution :K.E = 1/2 x mass x V
1/2 x 0.5 x 4x 4 = 4 joule
P.E = m x g x h
= 0.5 x 9.8 x 4 = 19.6 joule
Work = K.E + P.E = 19.6 + 4 = 23.6 joule