9 tayangan

The Mobile WiMAX simulation model is
implemented by using MATLAB code. The simulation model
consists of different phases which will help us to model the
transmitter and receiver section. In the next phase, the data is
being modulated by using the modulation methods QPSK and
QAM followed by OFDM transmitter. These phases can be
used to show the performance of these modulation methods
under varying condition. The Multipath Rician fading model is
implemented to introduce the fading in the transmitter data.
Receiver section is used to receive data from channel will be fed
into the OFDM demodulation. In the next phase, Fast Fourier
Transform is used to disassemble OFDM frame. After that
convolution encoding is applied to data and interleaving is
carried on by using MATLAB function. BPSK method is used
to change the data in the form of bit information to be symbols.
We had used

- lect06.pdf
- Wimax Based Ofdm
- 100510
- Turbo MIMO Equalization and Decoding in Fast
- Bit Error Rate
- FPGA-Based Bit Error Rate Performance Measurement of Wireless Systems
- 100-m0131x2a
- ARL-TR-4901
- Comparative Performance Analysis of Wireless Communication Protocols for Intelligent Sensors and Their Applications
- Module_II_Introduction_to_KPIs.pptx
- 04ECE108Ch3Two Termina Pull Up Inverters2015
- 46i9-Comparative Study of Bit Error
- Introduction to Digital Communication (2ed)_Ziemer.pdf
- Demodulating Subsampled Direct Sequence SS Signals
- Analysis and Performance Evaluation of a Pilot-Aided Interpolated
- BER of Adaptive Arrays in AWGN Channel
- Matlab
- Tems Parameters(Selim)
- 8QAMniPANA
- Thesis Matthias

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NETWORK UNDER MULTIPATH RICIAN

FADING CHANNEL

Sunil Kumar Gupta, Jyotsna Sengupta

Department of Computer Science,

Punjabi university Patiala (147002)

abr_sunil@yahoo.com, Jyotsna.sengupta@gmail.com

Abstract The Mobile WiMAX simulation model is

implemented by using MATLAB code. The simulation model

consists of different phases which will help us to model the

transmitter and receiver section. In the next phase, the data is

being modulated by using the modulation methods QPSK and

QAM followed by OFDM transmitter. These phases can be

used to show the performance of these modulation methods

under varying condition. The Multipath Rician fading model is

implemented to introduce the fading in the transmitter data.

Receiver section is used to receive data from channel will be fed

into the OFDM demodulation. In the next phase, Fast Fourier

Transform is used to disassemble OFDM frame. After that

convolution encoding is applied to data and interleaving is

carried on by using MATLAB function. BPSK method is used

to change the data in the form of bit information to be symbols.

We had used

Different functions to modulate and demodulate data.

I.

INTRODUCTION

A. What is WiMAX?

World Wide Interoperability for Micro Wave Access is

the IEEE 802.16 standard, that specifies a frequency band in

the range from 10 GHz to 66 GHz. Basically WiMAX is a

wireless internet that's able to covering a wide geographic

area by serving a vast selection of users at a very low cost. It

particularizes a metropolitan area networking protocol

which not only provides a wireless alternative for cable,

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) and T1 level services for last

mile broadband access and also provides a backhaul for

802.11 hotspots and automobile higher data rates WiMAX is

usually more established in cellular sector [1].

B. Multipath delay spread

The channel impulse response of a wireless channel

looks like a compilation of pulses, due to the multipath

reflections. The volume of pulses that may be eminent is

very large, and depends on the time resolution of the

communication or measurement system. So because of the

non line of vision propagation nature of the WiMAX

OFDM, we have to address multipath delay spread in this

channel model. To handle the effect of multipath

propagation, the delay spread parameter is employed. It

depends on terrain, distance, antenna directivity and

additional factors [3]. We can show a LOS and multipath

scenario. It shows that at different time, multiple reflections

of the same signal come to the receiver. This might result in

an Inter symbol Interference (ISI) causing noticeable

degradation in signal quality [2].

C. Fading Characteristics

In multipath fading, the received signal experiences

variation in its amplitude, phase and angle of arrival in a

add either constructively or destructively leading to a

complex envelope. Small scale fading has also been

addressed in this channel model due to the fixed deployment

of transmit and receive antenna. If there is no line of vision

signal component and there are multiple reflective paths that

are large in number then small scale fading is termed

Rayleigh fading [6]. When there is a line of vision

component in conjunction with the multiple reflective paths

then small scale fading is described by a Rician pdf, so in

this channel model Rician distribution is used. The key

component of this is the k factor that is the ratio of the direct

component power and the scatter component power [5].

II.

LITERATURE CITED

Lee et. al. [5] Here, all simulations are performed by

using Matlab programs. At First, the 88 data bits are

randomly generated for BPSK modulation. Next we use the

function in Matlab named as rsenc (msg,N,K,varargin) to

perform Reed-Solomon encoding with the output of 96 bits

(8 code word bits). Later, the 96 bits are input of Viterbi

(msg , template , Tx) in order to perform Convolution

encoding. At this stage, the output of data stream is 192 bits.

Next, the task of interleaving 192 bits is carried on by using

intrlv (data, elements). Now, it is ready to change the data in

form of bit information to be symbols. For BPSK, the

number of bits is equal to the number of symbols. The

function to modulate data is called as pskmod (x,M) in

which pskdemod (x,M) is a function to demodulate signal.

Loutfi et.al. [7] The simulation result shown in this

paper infers that mobile WiMAX system using Turbo

coding provides BER of 10-5 at Eb/No of 14 dB which is

better than LDPC coding by providing BER of 10-4 for

QPSK modulation scheme in the presence of Rayleigh

fading channel.

Ghosh et.al. The performance analysis of WiMAX

802.26e physical layer model, simulation is performed by

considering the standard test vectors specified in the

WIMAX standard. BER Verses SNR. BER is the number of

error bits occurs within one second in transmitted signal.

BER define mathematically as follow. When the transmitter

and receivers medium are good in a particular time and

Signal-to-Noise Ratio is high, and then Bit Error rate is very

low. In our thesis simulation we generated random signal

when noise occurs after that we got the value of Bit error

rate.

SNR= Signal Power/Noise Power

SNR= (Signal Amplitude/Noise Amplitude) 2

97 | P a g e

www.ijtra.com Volume 2, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct 2014), PP. 97-99

method remain the same which had been used by other

Khan et.al. [11] The WiMAX MAC (Medium Access

channels for the comparison. I had used MATLAB software

Control) layer simulink model is used; we use AWGN

to implement different functions related to this simulation

(Additive White Gaussian Noise) and different modulation

model. Various parameters which can affect the throughput

schemes used like QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying)

of the model are defined beforehand. Different metrics are

and QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation).

chosen to perform the evaluation and results are represented

Chowdhury et.al. [8] The performance of WiMAX

in tabular and graphical from [7].

MAC layer is based on the simulation results. Mobile

C. Methodology Used

WiMAX system using LDPC coding and Turbo coding and

The methodology which we have used to develop the

MIMO model is simulated for different modulation schemes

WiMAX Modelling using ideal Rician Channel for the

such as QPSK and 16-QAM under Rayleigh fading channel

physical layer is given as follows:

with the help of MATLAB.

Grewal et.al. [9] It is inferred that mobile WiMAX

system using LDPC coding has BER of approximately 10-4

at 9 dB of Eb/No for QPSK modulation. But, the BER is

approximately 10-4 at 13 dB of Eb/No for 16-QAM

modulation under Rayleigh channel.

Neha et.al. [10] BER performance of Mobile WiMAX

system using LDPC and Turbo coding is determined and

compared for above mentioned modulation schemes in the

presence of Rayleigh channel. Further, BER analysis of

mobile WiMAX system using MIMO model with STBC and

STTC is calculated as compared between STBC and STTC.

III.

1.

2.

Channel

The third variation in the modelling of WiMAX product

is with the replacement of Rayleigh channel by Rician

channel. For sub cities where there can be the prospects for

realizing the line of vision path in conjunction with

multipath structure, the wireless channel must be modeled as

the Rician channel and that is again the real time realization

of fading phenomenon of the wireless systems. In the

modeling of the Rician channel the multipath variations of

signal are superimposed over the line of sight component

which increases the overall strength of the whole

information at the receiver.[12]

Rician fading is characterized by a factor, which is

expressed as the power ratio of the secular (los or dominant

path) component to the diffused component. This ratio, k,

defines how in close proximity to Rayleigh statistics the

channel is. In fact when k=infinite, there isn't any and when

k=0, this method for Rayleigh fading. The ratio is expressed

linearly and not in decibels. While the Average path gain

vector parameter manages the overall gain through the

channel, the K-factor parameter controls the gains partition

into line-of-sight and diffuses components [4]. The other

blocks and properties of WiMAX model will continue to be

the same. [1]

B. Implementation

We have done the following for implementation and

analysis:

In this semester, I had implemented the Mobile

WIMAX simulation model by using Multipath Rician

Fading Channel. The throughput of the model is being

analysed and it is compared with the results already given

for various other channels. Basic encoding and modulation

3.

generate a random data stream of length 4400 bit

which we have used as the input binary data. We

have used Matlab 7 version in which data input of

bits is done by using inbuilt function of the Matlab.

We have used the random function which is used to

divide and assemble the data so that it nis possible

to convert long sequences of 0's or 1's in a random

sequence. If the input is given in a proper way then

it is possible to have better coding performance.

After the data is input then we have to check the

errors in data. There are many inbuilt functions

available In Matlab which can used for error

checking. The encoded data after error checking is

used to perform rated convolutional encoding. The

interleaving function is applied on the encoding

data.

Then various digital modulation techniques like

QAM, 16-QAM and 64-QAM, are specified for

WiMAX Physical layer so that we can say that it is

used to modulate the encoded data.

IV.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In this part of the report, we will presents and discuss all of

the results obtained by the computer simulation program

written in Matlab7. We have analyzed the wireless

communication system considering AWGN, Rayleigh

Fading and Rician Fading channel.

calculations with the synthetically generated data. The

results are shown in terms of bit energy to noise power

spectral density ratio (Eb/No) and bit error rate (BER) for

original values of system parameters. By varying SNR, we

have plotted Eb/No vs. BER by using the semiology

function. The Bit Error Rate (BER) plot obtained in the

performance analysis showed that simulator is valid for

Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) less than 25 dB.

98 | P a g e

www.ijtra.com Volume 2, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct 2014), PP. 97-99

the system over AWGN and fading (Rayleigh & Rician)

channels using modulation scheme. In this research work, it

has been shown that the performance of an OFDM based

WIMAX Communication system adopting different coding

schemes and digital modulation scheme.

The performance of Rician fading channel is worse than that

of AWGN channel and better than that of Rayleigh fading

channel. Because Rician fading channel has higher BER

than AWGN channel and lower than Rayleigh fading

channel. BER of this channel has not been much affected by

noise. The elapsed time taken for the implementation of the

simulation is reduced as compared to other models. The path

gain values for the Rician fading model are given foe certain

points as well as a total value.

V.

CONCLUSION

This thesis presents performance over MAC layer under

various modulation schemes in Rician channel. A key

performance way of measuring a wireless communication

equipment is the SNR versus PER. It might be figured for a

certain price of SNR at some signal power the performance

in relation to BER is less in QAM system compared to a

QPSK system.

To realize ideal conditions of propagation of WiMAX

system, the modeling can be achieved by assuming the

international calls highly efficient path i.e. AWGN channel.

For understanding the real time multipath structure of

WiMAX model, the channel is simulated as Rayleigh

channel in worst scenario wherein the performance in terms

of fading can be improved by changing the valuation on

Doppler shift. With the same criterion, the presence of line

of vision is usually justified by modeling WiMAX with

Rician channel. Also the performance can be improved by

implementing of antenna diversity techniques with BLAST

and also STBC with fading channel scenario.

[5] J. El-Najjar, B. Jaumard, C. Assi, Minimizing Interference

in WiMAX 802.16 based Mesh Networks with Centralized

Scheduling, Global Telecommunications Conference, New

Orleans, LA, USA, pp.1-6, 30Nov.4 Dec., 2008.

[6] K. Lee and D. Williams, A space-time coded transmitter

diversity technique for frequency selective fading channels,

Proceedings of IEEE Sensor Array and Multichannel Signal

Processing Workshop, Cambridge, Mass, USA, pp.149152,

March, 2000.

[7] M. Patidar, R. Dubey, and N.K. Jain Performanc analysis of

WiMAX 802.16e Physical Layer model proceeding 2012

Ninth International conference on, 2012, pp. 1-5.

[8] Muhammad Nadeem Khan, Sabir Ghauri , The WiMAX

802.16e Physical Layer Model , University of the West of

England, United Kingdom.

[9] Nuaymi Loutfi, 2007, WiMAX Technology for Broadband

Wireless Access, Wiley London.

[10]

Performance Analysis of WiMAX PHY by S.M. Lalan

Chowdhury, P. Venkateswaran, IEEE CASCOM Post

Graduate Student Paper Conference 2010 jadavpur

university, Kolkata, pp.13-16,Nov, 2010.

[11]

Simulation of WiMAX 802.16 MAC Layer Model:

Experimental Results by Neha

Rathore, IJ ECT Vol. 3

Issue 1, Jan.- March 2012, R.K.D.F. Institute of Technology

& Science, Bhopal, MP,India.

[12]

The WiMAX 802.16e Physical Layer Model by

Muhammad Nadeem Khan, Sabir Ghauri, University of West

of England, United Kingdom.

[13]

V. Grewal, A. K. Sharma, On performance

Enhancement of WiMAX PHY Layer with Turbo coding for

Mobile Environments, International Journal of Advanced

Science and Technology, Volume 31, pp.37-46, June, 2011.

REFERENCES

[1] Fan Wang, Amitava Ghosh, Chandy Sankaran, Philip J.

Fleming, Frank Hsieh and Stanley J. Benes, Mobile

WiMAX Systems: Performance and Evolution, IEEE

Communications Magazine, ISSN: 0163-6804,Volume 46,

Issue 10, pp. 41-49, October 2008.

[2] IEEE 802.16-2006: IEEE standard for Local and

Metropolitan Area Network- Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed

Broadband Wireless Access Systems.

[3] IEEE 802.16e-2005, IEEE Standard for Local and

Metropolitan Area Networks, part 16, Air Interface for Fixed

and Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Systems, IEEE

Press, 2006.

[4] IEEE 802.16-2004, IEEE Standard for Local and

Metropolitan Area Networks Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed

99 | P a g e

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