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Solutions 3 – Fundamentals Antennas and Propagation, Frühjahrssemester 2010

Problem 3.1 :
A uniform plane wave is propagating in direction of the positive z-axis. Find the polarization
(linear, circular, or elliptical), sense of rotation (CW or CCW), axial ratio (AR), and tilt angle
τ (in degrees) for
a) Ex = Ey and Δφ = 0 ,

E x ≠ Ey Δφ = 0 ,
b) and

c) E x = Ey and Δφ = π / 2 ,

E x = Ey Δφ = −π / 2 ,
d) and
E x = Ey Δφ = π / 4 ,
e) and

f) E x = Ey and Δφ = −π / 4 ,

Ex = 0.5Ey Δφ = π / 2 ,
g) and
Ex = 0.5Ey Δφ = −π / 2 .
h) and
In all cases justify the answer.

a) Linear because +φ = 0 .
b) Linear because +φ = 0 .
c) Circular because Ex = Ey and +φ = π 2 ,
LHCP / CCW, AR = 1 .
d) Circular because Ex = Ey and +φ = −π 2 ,
RHCP / CW, AR = 1 .
e) Elliptical because Δφ is not multiples of π 2 ,
CCW,
= 1.30656 ⋅ E 0 ⎫⎪⎪
1/ 2
OA = E 0 ⋅ [ 0.5 ( 1 + 1 + 2 ) ]
⎪⎬ ⇒
= 0.541196 ⋅ E 0 ⎪⎪⎪
1/ 2
AR : Ex = Ey = E 0 : OB = E 0 ⋅ [ 0.5 ( 1 + 1 − 2 ) ] ⎭
1.30656
⇒ AR = = 2.414
0.541196
1 ⎡ 2 ⋅ 1 ⋅ cos ( 45D ) ⎤ 1
τ = 90D − ⋅ tan−1 ⎢ ⎥ = 90D − ⋅ ( 90D ) = 45D
2 ⎢⎣ 1−1 ⎥⎦ 2
Solutions 3 – Fundamentals Antennas and Propagation, Frühjahrssemester 2010

f) Elliptical because Δφ is not multiples of π 2 ,


CW,
OA = 1.30656 ⋅ E 0 ⎫⎪ 1.30656
AR = OA / OB : ⎪
⎬ ⇒ AR = = 2.414
OB = 0.541196 ⋅ E 0 ⎪
⎪ 0.541196

1
τ = 90D − ⋅ ( 90D ) = 45D
2

g) Elliptical because: Ex ≠ Ey AND Δφ is not zero nor multiples of π .


CCW,
AR = OA / OB .

OA = Ey ⋅ [ 0.5 ( 0.25 + 1 + 0.75 ) ]1/ 2 = Ey ⎫⎪


⎪⎪ 1
⎬ ⇒ AR = =2
OB = Ey ⋅ [ 0.5 ( 0.25 + 1 − 0.75 ) ] = 0.5 ⋅ Ey ⎪⎪⎪
1/ 2 0.5

1 ⎡ 0 ⎤ 1
τ = 90D − ⋅ tan−1 ⎢ D D
⎥ = 90 − ⋅ ( 0 ) = 90
D
2 ⎣ − 0.75 ⎦ 2

h) Elliptical because: Ex ≠ Ey AND Δφ is not zero nor multiples of π .


CW,
AR = OA / OB .

OA = Ey ⎫
⎪ 1

⎬ ⇒ AR = =2
OB = 0.5 ⋅ Ey ⎪
⎪ 0.5

1
τ = 90D − ⋅ ( 0D ) = 90D .
2
Solutions 3 – Fundamentals Antennas and Propagation, Frühjahrssemester 2010

Problem 3.2 :
Write a general expression for the polarization loss factor (PLF) of two linearly polarized
antennas if
a) both lie in the same plane,
b) both lie in different planes.

z
θ

φ
φ y
x y
x

a) assuming that both polarization vectors are in the xy-plane:


G G G
ρw = ax cos φw + ay sin φw
G G G
ρa = ax cos φa + ay sin φa
2
G G 2 G G T G G
PLF = ρwT ⋅ ρa = ( ax cos φw + ay sin φw ) ⋅ ( ax cos φa + ay sin φa )
2 2
PLF = cos φw ⋅ cos φa + sin φw ⋅ sin φa = cos ( φw − φa )

b) arbitrarily directed polarization vectors:


G G G G
ρw = ax sin θw cos φw + ay sin θw sin φw + az cos θw
G G G G
ρa = ax sin θa cos φa + ay sin θa sin φa + az cos θa
G G 2
PLF = ρwT ⋅ ρa
G G G T
= ( ax sin θw cos φw + ay sin θw sin φw + az cos θw ) ⋅
G G G 2
⋅ ( ax sin θa cos φa + ay sin θa sin φa + az cos θa )
2
= sin θw cos φw sin θa cos φa + sin θw sin φw sin θa sin φa + cos θw cos θa
2
= sin θw sin θa ⋅ ( cos φw cos φa + sin φw sin φa ) + cos θw cos θa
2
= sin θw sin θa ⋅ cos ( φw − φa ) + cos θw cos θa
Solutions 3 – Fundamentals Antennas and Propagation, Frühjahrssemester 2010

Problem 3.3 :
A linearly polarized wave traveling in the negative z-direction has a tilt angle τ of 45°. It is
G G
G 4ax + jay
ρa =
incident upon an antenna whose polarization characteristics are given by 17

Find the polarization loss factor (PLF) dimensionless and in dB.

G G
G ax + ay
Polarization vector of the linearly polarized wave : ρw =
2
G G
G 4ax + jay
Polarization vector of the elliptically polarized wave : ρa =
17

2
G G 2 1 1 ⎛ 4⎞ 17
PLF = ρ wT ⋅ ρ a = (1 1) ⋅ ⎜ j ⎟ = 34 = 0.5 = −3dB
2 17 ⎝ ⎠

elliptical
LH / CCW

y
x
Solutions 3 – Fundamentals Antennas and Propagation, Frühjahrssemester 2010

Problem 3.4 : Problem taken from a previous exam

A right-hand circularly polarized antenna has normalized electric far-field pattern given as:

⎪ sin θ ⋅ cos φ 0D ≤ θ ≤ 180D, − 90D ≤ φ ≤ 90D

E ( θ, φ ) = ⎨

⎪ 0 elsewhere

a) Calculate the direction (θ,φ) of maximum radiation and the exact maximum
directivity in dB.
b) Find the 3-dB beamwidths in azimuthal and elevation planes.
c) A CW elliptically polarized plane wave propagates along –x-direction towards the
antenna. The major axis of the ellipse is positioned along the y-axis and is twice as
large as the minor axis. Find the polarization loss factor (PLF).
Note: It is assumed that the antenna is placed at the center of the coordinate system.

1 2 1
a) U = E ( θ, φ ) Æ U max = @ θ = 90D & φ = 0D
2η 2η

4πU max
D0 =
Prad

π π
π 2 π 2
1
Prad = ∫ ∫ πU sin θ ⋅ d θ ⋅ d φ = 2η ∫ ∫ π sin2 θ ⋅ cos φ ⋅ d θ ⋅ d φ
θ = 0 φ =− θ = 0 φ =−
2 2
π
π 2
1 1 π
Prad =
2η ∫ sin2 θ ⋅ d θ ⋅ ∫ π cos φ ⋅ d φ = 2η 2 ⋅ 2
θ =0 φ =−
2
π
Prad =

Thus
1
4π ⋅

D0 = π =4

D0 = 10 ⋅ log 4 = 6.02 dB

D
b) Azimuthal plane ( θ = 90 ):
U 1 = 1 @ φ1 = 0D
1
U2 =
2
@ 0.5 = cos φ2 ⇒ φ2 = cos−1
1
2
= 60D ()
D D
HPBW azimuthal = 2 ⋅ 60 = 120

D
Elevation plane ( φ = 0 ):
Solutions 3 – Fundamentals Antennas and Propagation, Frühjahrssemester 2010

U1 = 1 @ θ1 = 90D
1
U2 =
2
@ 0.5 = sin θ2 ⇒ θ2 = sin−1
1
2 ()
= 30D

HPBW elevation = 2 ⋅ ( 90D − 30D ) = 120D

c) the polarization vector of the RHCP receiving antenna at origin, looking in +x-
direction, is
G G
G a y − ja z
ρa =
2

The polarization vector of the incident wave (-x-direction, CW elliptically polarized)


is
G G
G 2a y + ja z
ρw =
5

Therefore, the PLF reads


G G G G 2
G G 2 a y − ja z 2a y + ja z 2+1 2 9
PLF = ρa ⋅ ρw = ⋅ = =
2 5 10 10

circular
RHCP

y
elliptical
x CW
Solutions 3 – Fundamentals Antennas and Propagation, Frühjahrssemester 2010

Problem 3.5 :
A λ / 2 dipole, with a total loss resistance of 1 Ω , is connected to a generator whose internal
impedance is 50 + j 25 Ω . Assuming that the peak voltage of the generator is 2 V and the
impedance of the dipole, excluding the loss resistance, is 73 + j 42.5 Ω , find the power.
a) supplied by the source (real),
b) radiated by the antenna,
c) dissipated by the antenna.

a
RL
Vg Ig

Rg Rrad

Xg
b
XA

Rg = 50 Ω, X g = 25 Ω, RL = 1 Ω, Rrad = 73 Ω, X A = 42.5 Ω

2 2
Ig = A= A
( 50 + 1 + 73 ) + j ( 25 + 42.5 ) 124 + j 67.5
I g = ( 12.442 + j 6.7724 ) mA = 14.166 ⋅ e− j 28.56 mA
D

a)
1 1
PS = Re {Vg I g * } = Re { 2 ⋅ ( 12.442 + j 6.7724 ) ⋅ 10−3W } → PS = 12.442 ⋅ 10−3 W
2 2

1 2
b) Prad = I g Rrad = 7.325 ⋅ 10−3 W
2

1 2
c) PL = I g RL = 0.1003 ⋅ 10−3 W
2

The remaining supplied power is dissipated as heat in the internal resistor of the generator, or
1 2
Pg = I g Rg = 5.0169 ⋅ 10−3 W
2
Prad + PL + Pg = ( 7.325 + 0.1003 + 5.0169 ) ⋅ 10−3 W=12.442 ⋅ 10−3 W
Thus,
Prad + PL + Pg = PS
Solutions 3 – Fundamentals Antennas and Propagation, Frühjahrssemester 2010

Problem 3.6 : Problem taken from a previous exam

Assume a horn antenna located at the origin of the coordinate system. Its E-plane lies in the
yz-plane and its H-plane lies in the xz-plane. The antenna is operated at 3 GHz. The figure
below shows the orientation of the antenna and its equivalent circuit. The radiation resistance
is RR = 45 Ω and the loss resistance is RL = 5 Ω. The maximum directivity of the antenna
appears in the +z-direction and is D0 = 12 dBi.
a) Calculate the maximum effective aperture of the antenna with the assumption of a
matched load and a matched polarization.
b) A generator with an internal impedance of Z G = 50 + j 20 Ω and a peak generator
voltage of VG = 4 V is connected to the antenna. Calculate the peak electric field
strength at z = 1km .
c) A lossless dipole antenna is located at z = 1 km and lies in the plane parallel to the
xy-plane. The E-field of the antenna is parallel to the xy-plane and assumes an angle
of 45° with respect to the x-axis. Calculate the polarization loss factor (PLF).

RL= 5Ω

y
x Rr= 45Ω
z

⎛ 12dBi ⎞
⎛ Rr ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ λ2 ⎞
a) ecd = ⎜ ⎟ = 0.9 , D0 = 10 ⎝ 10 ⎠
= 15.848 , Aem = ecd ⎜ ⎟ D0 = 0.011m
2

⎝ Rr + RL ⎠ ⎝ 4π ⎠

b) The E-field strength at R = z = 1 km distance can be calculated from the local power
E2
density Wt according to: Wt = (free-space wave impedance η). The radiated power Prad

1
is related as Wt = Prad D0 , where D0 = 12 dBi = 15.85. Using ZG = Rg +jXg , the
4π R 2
Vg ⎡ ⎤
2

⎢ RR ⎥  34.62 mW ,
radiated power can be calculated: Prad =
2 ⎢ ( RR + RL + Rg )2 + ( X A + X g )2 ⎥
⎣ ⎦
P D 2η V
where XA = 0. Finally, E = rad 0 2 = 5.74 ⋅ 10−3
4π R m

 
ρ t ρ r = cos2 450 = 0.5
2
c)
Solutions 3 – Fundamentals Antennas and Propagation, Frühjahrssemester 2010

Problem 3.7 :
The effective antenna temperature of an antenna looking towards zenith is approximately
5 K. Assuming that the temperature of the connected transmission line (waveguide) is 72 °F,
find the effective temperature at the receiver terminals when the attenuation of the
transmission line is given as 4 dB / 100 ft, and its length is :
a) 2 ft,
b) 100 ft.

TA … background radiation weighted with antenna pattern


Tcable … cable temperature
ILcable … cable insertion loss

Tx … effective temperature at receiver input

Determine cable insertion loss from : ILcable = exp(−2αL)

Calculate effective temperature according to : Tx = TAe−2αL + Tcable ( 1 − e−2αL )

5
Transfrom Fahrenheit to Kelvin: Tcable = 72D F = (72 − 32) + 273 = 295.2 K
9

TA = 5 K

Insertion loss over 100 ft : −4[dB] = 10 log10 e −2α → α = 0.46[Nepers]

Insertion loss for 1 ft : α = 0.0046 Np / ft

a) L = 2 ft : Tx = 4.91 K + 5.38 K = 10.3 K

b) L = 100 ft : Tx = 1.99 K + 177.5 K = 179.5 K


Solutions 3 – Fundamentals Antennas and Propagation, Frühjahrssemester 2010

Problem 3.8 :
In a long-range microwave communication system operating at 9 GHz, the transmitting and
receiving antennas are identical, and they are separated by 10 000 m. To meet the signal-to-
noise ratio of the receiver, the received power must be at least Pr = 10 μW. Assuming the two
antennas are aligned for a maximum reception to each other, including being polarized
matched, what should the gains (in dB) of the transmitting and receiving antennas be when
the input power to the transmitting antenna is 10 W ?

Data given:
f = 9 GHz → λ = 3 cm , R = 104 m , G0t = G0r , Pt = 10 W Pr = 10 μ W

Friis’ transmission equation:


Pr ⎛ λ ⎞⎟2 2
= ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ G0 = 10−6
Pt ⎜
⎝ 4πR ⎠

Results:
G0 = 10−3 ⋅ 12π ⋅ 105 = 3769.9
G0dB = 10 log 3769.9 = 35.76 dBi