235 tayangan

Diunggah oleh Prof.Dr.Mohamed Fahmy Mohamed Hussein

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- 11 Laser
- 12 Nuclear Physics and Isotopes
- 8 Light Nature_Waves and Photons
- The Coming Celestial Convergence
- Intellectual Life in the Middle Ages
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- Complete Project Gutenberg Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. Works by Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 1809-1894
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- 3 Fluids Second Part

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Content of Lecture

1. The Scientific Methodology

2. The simple harmonic motion versus the rotational motion

3. Analysis concerning the circular pathway

4. Analysis concerning the simple pendulum

5. Derivation of an operational formula for determining the gravitational

acceleration using a simple pendulum

6. Experimental work (see the lab session) (LINK)

7. Remarks on the rotational movement

1

International Agriculture Section - Course in Physics - by Dr. Mohamed Fahmy Hussein

Science is a way of acquiring knowledge. To do science, one must follow a specific universal

methodology. The central theme in this methodology is the testing of hypotheses. The overall goal

of science is to better understanding the Nature and our universe.

Various fields of study, like physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine have used science to

expand their knowledge base because science is neutral and unbiased in its operation. Learning and

making decisions about the environment also requires similar qualities. As a result, science has

become the dominant form of inquiry when studying the environment and its problems.

The broadest, most inclusive goal of science is to understand nature, or the match between

observed reality and some conceptual idea. Understanding encompasses all the other goals of

science, many of which are quite specialized. Explanation is perhaps the next most important goal

of science. Explanation consists of relating observed reality to a system of concepts, laws, or

empirically based generalizations. Explanation may also relate observed phenomena to a network

of causes, or link them hierarchically to lower-level mechanisms.

Another general goal of science is generalization, which may be considered in two ways.

First, generalization may be considered as the condensation of a body of empirical fact to a simple

statement. In the process of such condensation, it is likely that some detail must be omitted and the

phenomenon abstracted. Generalization may also involve isolating the phenomenon from other

aspects of the system of interest. This constitutes idealization. A second view of generalization is

the unification of apparently unrelated phenomena in the same abstract or ideal system of concepts.

Francis Bacon (1561-1626), 17th century English philosopher, was the first individual to

suggest a universal methodology for science. He believed that scientific method required the

process of induction. Karl Popper later refuted this idea in the 20th century. Popper suggested that

science could only be done using a deductive methodology.

2

International Agriculture Section - Course in Physics - by Dr. Mohamed Fahmy Hussein

Looking at the movement of a small ball on a circular track, we observe that the projections

(on a wall) of this movement will follow a simple harmonic motion (similar to that of a ball fixed at

the end of a simple pendulum).

We can use this relationship in order to understand both of these motions and to drive a

formula for the second motion. We can also use the derived formula for the determination of the

gravitational acceleration (g).

Note that all derivations are based on the assumption that the simple pendulum makes small

angle (Z) shifts (which are recommended to be <15º).

In Figure 1, it is easy to recognize that the force acting on the ball (fixed to the end of the

fiber cord) and producing the simple harmonic motion is (- m g cos (90-Z) = - m g sin Z).

This force is a component perpendicular to the line of the string and related to the vertical

force (the weight m g) acting on the ball downward, since the component (m g cos z) acting on the

line of the cord outward is canceled by tension in the cord inward.

When the ball on the circular track makes a complete turn, the ball of the simple pendulum

will finish one oscillation (moving forth and back; passing by the middle point that acts as the rest

position before the start of the pendulum movement).

On each point on the circular pathway, the ball has a constant linear velocity V1 acting on

the tangent to circumference at that particular point (as shown on the Fig. 1). However, this is also

the velocity of rotation; it is constant in magnitude but it has a changing direction, (otherwise the

ball will not rotate) and this change in direction involves acceleration.

Figure 1a.The simple harmonic motion is related to rotational motion. Since cos 90°=Zero, V2

vanishes at θ = 90° at the maximum value of the displacement y.

3

International Agriculture Section - Course in Physics - by Dr. Mohamed Fahmy Hussein

Figure 1b. The driving force (-mg sin Z) of the simple harmonic motion.

1. There could be a tangential linear acceleration a tangential acting on the same direction as V . 1

When it is present, it is related to αangular by (a tangential = αangular r). This means that V , in 1

general, is not constant. However, when the angular velocity ω is constant, V is also constant

1

(this it is the case in a steady moving centrifuge and at the tip of an airplane propeller, as

supposed in Fig. 1). In this last case, there is no a tangential term. In Fig. 1 and in the following

derivations, note that same symbol, a, is used for the acceleration of a simple harmonic motion.

DO NOT confuse it with and atangential.

2. In the case of non-constant angular velocity ω, the accelerations αcentripetal and αtangential have a

vector (=). This vector will vanish if ωis constant.

3. For a steady moving centrifuge there is only a centripetal acceleration αcentripetal = ω2 r.

In a steady-moving centrifuge, despite the constant magnitude of V1, the change of direction

means that there is an angular acceleration (centripetal acceleration α).

4

International Agriculture Section - Course in Physics - by Dr. Mohamed Fahmy Hussein

Since the track is circular, the force (= mass of the ball moving on the circumference

multiplied by the centripetal acceleration) acting on the ball should be pointing to the center of the

circle and perpendicular to the tangent V1.

Note that cos 90º = zero. Consequently, there is no component of this force in the direction of

the tangent. This means that the velocity V1 on the tangent is constant; only the direction of the

tangent is permanently changing. Otherwise, the ball will not follow the circular pathway, and

velocity on the tangent would be changing in both the direction and the magnitude (which is

contradictory to the supposed steady circular movement).

The ball of the pendulum moves with a linear velocity V2. This velocity decreases to zero at

both ends of the track, and has a maximum value at the middle. Since this velocity changes in

magnitude, there is a deceleration a (= a negative acceleration) for the simple harmonic motion.

From Fig. 1, there is a relationship between the linear velocity of the simple harmonic motion

V2 and the linear velocity tangent to the circular pathway V1, This relationship is determined by

cos θ. V2 vanishes at θ = 90°.

V2 = V1 cos θ

In addition to the expression of the velocity on the circular pathway by a tangent linear

velocityV1, the circular motion can also be expressed by dividing the angular displacement (θrad)

on the circumference by time, t. The result is known as angular velocity, ω, (also known as the

radian velocity, since measured in radians/sec) which can be related to V1 as the following:

Angular velocity ω =

However, the angular displacement θrad =

Consequently, angular velocity ω = *

Multiply both sides by r

ωr =

ωr =

ωr = V1

So the relation V2 = V1 cos θ will now read V2 = ωr cos θ

Also, in the shadowed right-angle triangle inside the circle in Fig. 1,

cos θ = i.e. vertical = r cos θ

Howerver, vertical =

Consequently, V2 = ω

Furthermore, from Fig. 1, there is a relationship between the deceleration (a) of the simple

pendulum and the centripetal acceleration (α) governed by cos (90-θ) i.e. sin θ:

a = - α cos (90- θ) or a = - α sin θ

In Figure 2, the centripetal acceleration α can be related to the angular velocity ωthrough the

method known as the “closed triangle” as following (Fig. 2).

5

International Agriculture Section - Course in Physics - by Dr. Mohamed Fahmy Hussein

In order to calculate the change in the linear velocity (V1) on the circular pathway (this is a

directional change, not a change in magnitude, remember!), when the angle γ is small (this is an

important condition and assumption, remember!), we have:

The arc AB ≈ the segment or the hypotenuse AB

And from the two similar triangles

= =

The segment AB is a distance. So it can be replaced by the product V ∆t. Consequently,

=

Multiply by V

∆V =

Divide by ∆t

∆V / ∆t =

α =

However, we have previously shown that:

ωr = V1 ,

Consequently,

α =

α = ω2 r

Gravitational Acceleration Using a Simple Pendulum

By changing the length (L) of the pendulum string, the square of the time of one oscillation

2

(t ) will proportionally change. A formula that is based on this relation can be found and used to

determine the gravitational acceleration (g).

From deriving the relationship of the circular movement to the simple harmonic motion, we

have already learned that the acceleration (a) of the simple harmonic motion is related to the

centripetal acceleration (α) by:

a = - α sin θº

In addition, we have previously shown that:

α = ω2 r

Consequently,

a = - ω2 r sin θº

a = - ω2 r

a = - ω2 y

However, we know that the force acting on the ball of simple pendulum is given by:

F = m * acceleration

= - m * g sin Z

Consequently, this negative acceleration (deceleration) of the pendulum is

Acceleration = - g sin Z

6

International Agriculture Section - Course in Physics - by Dr. Mohamed Fahmy Hussein

Acceleration = - g

Comparing the relation a = - ω2 y with Acceleration = - g

It can be noticed that:

ω2 y = g or ω = i.e. ω=

2

and g = ω2 L

However, we already know that:

ω = and for a circle θrad = 2π

Consequently, for one turn on a circle (corresponding to one oscillation of a simple

pendulum):

ω =

This means that:

=

=

g = 4π2

It is obvious that this relation can be used to calculate g by one reading for L and t .

2

However, it is interesting to write this relation in the following “ready to plot” form:

t2 = *L

This is the form of a linear equation, where t is the dependent variable (to be plotted on the

2

ordinate. i.e. on the vertical Y-axis). This variable proportionally changes with the change of

pendulum length L (to be plotted on the abscissa. i.e. on the horizontal X-axis) as the independent

variable.

This linear relationship is the basis for plotting your set of observations (t in function of L).

2

and its inverse

2 2

Note that if you multiply this inverse by 4π (=39.48) by, we get 4π .

This means that g can directly be calculated from the plot by the product 4π .

2

g = 4π2

This is the operational equation that we were looking-for!

3. Experimental Work

1. The needed equipment is fairly simple: a simple pendulum that you can arrange anywhere (by

fixing a string filament to a point on the top of metal bar fitted with a hanging block, and in the

lower end of the filament, fix a small copper or steel ball).

2. Use a stopwatch to record the time of 20 oscillations (one oscillation is the movement of the

pendulum ball from a start point forth, then back to the start point, this is equivalent to one

complete turn on the circumference of a circle, Fig. 1). Divide by 20 to get the time of one

oscillation.

3. Record the time readings. Start at short pendulum lengths. Then gradually increase the length.

7

International Agriculture Section - Course in Physics - by Dr. Mohamed Fahmy Hussein

OBSERVATIONS

2

L time of time of T X Y

2 2

cm 20 oscillations 1 oscillation sec L T

120 42.0 2.10 4.41 120 4.41

110 40.0 2.00 4.00 110 4.00

100 39.0 1.95 3.80 100 3.80

90 38.0 1.90 3.61 90 3.61

80 36.0 1.80 3.24 80 3.24

70 33.8 1.69 2.86 70 2.86

60 30.9 1.55 2.39 60 2.39

50 28.5 1.43 2.03 50 2.03

40 25.5 1.28 1.63 40 1.63

30 22.5 1.13 1.27 30 1.27

20 18.9 0.95 0.90 20 0.90

15 15.3 0.76 0.58 15 0.58

10 14.0 0.70 0.49 10 0.49

5 11.0 0.55 0.30 5 0.30

0 0.0 0.00 0.00 0 0.00

4. Plot the relationship of L and T2 as shown on Figure 3. Calculate g using the practical

relation:

g = 4π2

m/sec2 = dimensionless term or rad2 * m/sec2

Example:

To calculate the time needed for a simple pendulum to move with oscillation time of one

second (the time of one oscillation = 1 second), the needed length, L, can be calculated by:

= = = 0.253 m = 25.3 cm

Notes:

1. Experimental errors are unavoidable, however, be aware of recording observations quit

carefully and in well-organized manner. Otherwise, you will get false results (and poor

score!)

2. You must record units (or dimensions) for each term in any equation. No physical

quantity is acceptable if it is void of units (even dimensionless terms must be indicated

as such!).

3. Do not use too short (or too long!) filament lengths and do not let the ball move

through a great angle, nor to turn around itself while moving back and forth.

8

International Agriculture Section - Course in Physics - by Dr. Mohamed Fahmy Hussein

g = gravitational acceleration

6

calculate slope on student data

5 gaphic, take its

T2 sec2 (ordinate)

2

general best fit

4 L/T to be

used in the zero intercept best

3 equation: fit

g = 4π L/T

2 2

Assistant data

2

short statistical fit

1

0

0 40 80 120

L, cm (abscissa)

Figure 3: Get the inverse of the slope, substitute in the equation. That is all !

20

15

T2, deviation %

10

data

5

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

-5

-10

L = Length, cm

Figure 4. Too short and too long cords relatively give large errors.

9

International Agriculture Section - Course in Physics - by Dr. Mohamed Fahmy Hussein

0.6

0.5

V2

0.4

m s-1

0.3

of simple 0.2

pendulum

0.1

0

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Angle θ of corresponding rotational motion

0.00

the force

component of

the simple

harmonic -0.01

motion

- mg cos (90-Z)

= -0.02

- mg SIN Z

Newton

-0.03

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Angle, Z

Figure 5. Velocity and acceleration change during motion of the simple pendulum and the

corresponding rotational movement.

10

International Agriculture Section - Course in Physics - by Dr. Mohamed Fahmy Hussein

The reaction of the centripetal force is the centrifugation force.

An angle in radians rad =. (Note that the circumference = 2 π r)

It is equal to 3.14 rad. Its equivalent in degrees is 180º.

For a circle, the circle arc=2π r, so circle angle in rad = 2π= (2 * 3.14) rad = 6.28 rad.

Transformations:

Angle in rad = Angle in degrees *

= Angle in degrees *

= Angle in rad *

2 π = (i.e. π is the ratio: )

π is the ratio:) i.e. π is the ratio )

=

in addition, π is the ratio between the angle 180º and the angle 1 rad

where rad should only be expressed as (180º / π), not in degrees.

Definition and calculation of π:

11

International Agriculture Section - Course in Physics - by Dr. Mohamed Fahmy Hussein

If the angle (90º) between two perpendicular radius radials is divided into a great number (n) of

small angles, the value of any of these small angles will be.

And taking the sinus, sin =

Nevertheless, since the angle is small, the opposite is approximately equal to the arc, and the

hypotenuse is a radius in the circle. Consequently,

sin =,

i.e. it is equal to the value of the small angle as expressed in rad

However, this is also (by definition) the value of any angle in rad.

This means that, in the case of small angle (up to 15º),

= opposite / hypotenuse

= sin

Multiplying by n, we get: n (sin)

=n

Obviously, this can be expressed as =

But we already know that = π/ 2

So, n (sin) = π / 2

And π = 2 n (sin)

As n becomes a great number, the value of π will be numerically stable. That is why it is

expressed by the following limit (this is a definition of π):

π = 2 l im n ∝ (n sin )

→

2 2

2

r

(Where m r is the “moment of inertia” with respect to the rotation axis)

2

12

International Agriculture Section - Course in Physics - by Dr. Mohamed Fahmy Hussein

2 2

t=

t=

i.e., the angular velocity, ω=

If (n) is the number of rotations per minute (rpm),

The total angles (in rad) ωrad/min = 2π ∗ n

And, ωrad/sec = 2π ∗

n rev/sec ωin rad/sec * ()

=

In addition, dividing ωrad/sec by 60 you get ωin rad/min.

Also, knowing n rpm and the distance r from the rotation axis we can calculate α (which is

the unique acceleration in a centrifuge with a constant ω, since the constant ωmakes the tangential

acceleration vanished) using the equation:

α = ω2 r where, ωrad/sec =2π ∗

Example

If r = 0.20 m

(n rpm) = 6000

(n rps) = 6000/60 = 100

(The time of 1 revolution = 0.01 sec)

ω= (2 ∗ 3.14) ∗ () rps = 6.28 ∗ 100 rps = 628 rad/sec

ω2 = 394784 rad2/sec2

α = ω2 r = 394784 * 0.20 = 78957 m/sec2, (note that rad2 is usually dropped)

The centripetal acceleration can be calculated as “times” the gravitational acceleration (this is

called x g) g as following:

Divide the value of α by the value of g (which is about 10 m.sec-2). Here you get 7896 g.

(i.e. α is approximately 8000 times g).

Inverse Example:

In order to adjust α to 45 m.sec-2 (i.e. about 4.5 g), for a rotation axis, r, of 5 m,

ωwill be rad/sec = rad/sec, i.e. ωwill be 3 rad/sec.

n rps = = rps = 0.477 rps,

n rpm = (0.477)*60 = 28 rpm.

13

International Agriculture Section - Course in Physics - by Dr. Mohamed Fahmy Hussein

(To keep x g the same on a larger radius centrifuge, n rpm must be lowered. Inversely, to keep

x g the same on a smaller radius centrifuge, n rpm should be increased).

Note that the periodic time t in minutes is t =

And frequency f is the “inverse of the periodic time”, , and: f =

Note that the rigorous units of the angular velocity ωare rad.sec-1. However, rad is usually

omitted. Also in its relation to the angular acceleration α, which is α = ω r, the units for α are

2

rigorously m.rad2/sec2. However, rad2 is always omitted and we only retain m/sec2.

αCentripetal = ω2 r

Angular velocity ω =

Angular displacement θrad =

For a circle θrad = 2π

For the simple pendulum ω = =

For 1 revolution on a circle (corresponding to 1 oscillation of simple pendulum)

ω =

For n revolutions on a circle (corresponding to n oscillations of pendulum) during I minute:

ωrad/min =

Where n is the number of revolutions per minute (rpm), and the denominator t is 1 min.

Hence: ωrad/sec = 2π ∗

ωrad/sec = 2π ∗ n rps

n rps =∗

To get, divide by 60

= m αCentripetal = m ω2 r = m

=

=

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