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BS- Telecom Students Final Year Projects

Proposed
By Ghassan Husnain

1. Secure Communication in Adverse Wireless Networks


Background
For many years, wireless networks have been mostly single-hop: two devices
would communicate directly over the wireless medium. For example, your
cell phone with the cellular provider's base station, or your laptop with the
airport's access point or your home Wi-Fi router. But more and more
wireless devices are being used and multi-hop wireless communication is not
far from becoming reality in civilian applications. For example, wireless
sensor networks, small foot-print devices equipped with relatively shortrange radios, are expected to offer valuable services for monitoring the
environment,
buildings,
infrastructure,
etc.
However, the more important such wireless become, the more likely they are
to be attacked. There is already rich literature on a variety of attacks against
routing protocols, essentially seeking to deny communication across the
multi-hop wireless network. While there is already a wide range of alternative
schemes, recent results showed that we can still improve resilience
significantly, even against powerful adversaries.
Problem Statement Our latest results show that there is still space to
significantly improve over prior solutions. Thus, the objective of this thesis
(or theses, as it is possible that more than one spots be available) is to
design a new protocol or enhancements or variants of state-of-the-art secure
communication protocols, and perform detailed comparative performance
evaluation
and
analysis
with
prior
art.
Candidates should have very good wireless networking knowledge, be fluent
in programming, have experience with packet-level simulation, and be at
least comfortable with security basics.
References
W. Galuba, P. Papadimitratos, M. Poturalski, K. Aberer, Z. Despotovic, and W.
Kellerer, Castor: Scalable Secure Routing for Ad-hoc Networks, IEEE
Conference on Computer Communications (IEEE INFOCOM), San Diego, CA,
March 2010
P. Papadimitratos and Z.J. Haas, "Secure Data Communication in Mobile Ad
Hoc Networks," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (JSAC),
Special Issue on Security in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks, February 2006

2. Indoor Positioning based on Smartphone System


Description:
Due to signal attenuation caused by construction materials, the satellite
based Global Positioning System (GPS) loses significant power indoors. In
addition, the multiple reflections at surfaces cause multi-path propagation
serving for uncontrollable errors. An indoor positioning system (IPS) is a
network of devices used to wirelessly locate objects or people inside a
building. This project studies the architecture and algorithms for indoor
localization systems based on sound or RF signals. The system and protocol
will be based on Android platforms. One example configuration is shown
below where one of the six phones is the master phone which controls the
positioning system and is the main user interface. The master phone is also a
reference point. Two other anchor phones with fixed positions are the
additional reference points and the other phones are those to be localized.
The goal of the project is to analyze the cons/pros of sound and RF signals in
indoor localization and the different technologies that can be used to
improve the positioning performance.
Qualifications
You should
have taken courses and excel in wireless communications, wireless
networks (signal processing a big plus),
master a certain programing language (Matlab or C/C++ preferred),
have a keen interest in telecom technologies, programming, and
research,
have strong analytical skills,
speak and write outstanding English, and
be self-motivated, self-driven and communicative.
Maste
r
Phone
p

Anch
or

Anch
or

3. Splitting of User Traffic to Access Points in WLANs:


Population Game Theoretic Approach to Throughput
Optimization
Background
As the Wireless LAN (Local Area Network) standard is evolving towards
higher and higher aggregate throughput, more users are switching to the
wireless networks which oftentimes provide more than one choices of access
points (AP). In order to efficiently utilize all radio resources available in the
multiple access points of Wireless LAN, there have been many research
efforts to obtain decentralized solutions or algorithms to the throughput
maximization or utility maximization.
Inspired by evolutionary game theory which studies the behavior of large
populations of agents who repeatedly engage in strategic interactions, the
project aims at maximizing the aggregate throughput or utility of Wireless
LANs dynamically over time in a completely distributed manner, by
borrowing key ideas from the theory of evolutionary or population game,
which lends itself for balanced splitting of user traffic to access points.
Prerequisites
Strong mathematical backgrounds are mandatory.
Objectives
Conducting a thorough survey of evolutionary game theoretic approach
in the field of networking.
Proposing an incremental idea on how to maximize the aggregate
throughput by optimally associating users with access points based on
the evolutionary game approach.
Implementing the proposed idea in a network simulator (e.g., ns-3).
References
[1] S. Shakkottai, E. Altman, and A. Kumar, Multihoming of Users to Access
Points in WLANs: A Population Game Perspective, IEEE Journal on Selected
Areas in Communications, vol. 25, no. 6, August 2007.

[2]W. H. Sandholm, Evolutionary Game Theory, Encyclopedia of Complexity


and System Science, R. A. Meyers, ed., pp. 3176-3205, Springer, 2009.
Requirements

Basic skills: Probability, Programming, Simulation

A good mathematical background is essential. Particularly, you should


be knowledgeable in Lyanpunov stability or at least willing to study it.
For your information, this notion is used to determine the stability of
differential equations.

(Optional) It is strongly recommended that you write the thesis using


LaTeX for aesthetic and professional reasons.

4. Traditional Types of Payment vs. Mobile Payment


Background
Multifunctional mobile smart devices gained consumer acceptance and high
popularity in quite a short term. One of the advantages provided by
smartphones is an opportunity to extend their
functionality with the help of mobile applications. And, currently, mobile
payment is one of the most popular areas of developments. Accordingly,
there is a range of available mobile paymen
t solutions and mobile wallets in the market. A considerable increase in the
share of mobile payments is expected during the nearest years1. At the same
time, traditional types of payment, such as cash, bank credit/debit cards, and
electronic payments are still favorite means of payment among consumers 2.

Problem area and research questions


Consumers have a number of alternatives to make a payment. In different
contextual situations one type of payment might be more preferred than
another, for example, cash can be used when buying at a grocery market, a
debit/credit card used for payment in the store, electronic payment used to
purchase books or traveling tickets, and mobile payment used to pay for
parking or for a new mobile game. Consequently, the research questions to
address are:
What is the current situation in the payment market, that is, what is the
market share for each of the payment alternatives?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of traditional (cash, bank
cards, and electronic payment) and mobile payments?
How do consumers perceive different types of payment?
What are the most common types of purchases associated with different
types of payments? Are there any differences? What are the most common
trends?
What type of payment will most likely be used in one or another payment
situation, and why?
What is the most typical consumer (in terms of age, education, level of
incomes, etc.) for each type of payment?
What are consumer experience and expectations related to different types
of payment?

Expected contribution
The main problem to address in the thesis projects is an analysis and
comparison of different types of payment. The main approach is to look into
consumer payment behaviour and to analyze motives behind the consumers
decision to prefer one type of payment over another. The main contribution
will be a generalized scenario of usage for each payment type, describing
the typical user, its experience and expectations, most common types of
purchases, and the most likely contextual situation when this type of
payment occurs.
1Gartner,

2013. Mobile payment to increase 44% this year.Available


at:http://www.outlaw.com/en/articles/2013/june/mobile-payments-to-increase-44-this-yeargartner-predicts/
2Wheeler

J., 2013. 2013 Mobile trends and predictions. Available


at:http://www.themobilists.com/2013/01/22/2013Mobile-predictions

Readings
Constantiou I.D., Damsgaard J. and Knutsen L., 2006. Exploring perception and use
of mobile services: user differences in an advancing market. International Journal of
Mobile Communication , Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 231247.
Mallat N., 2007. Exploring consumer adoption of mobile payments A qualitative
study. Journal of Strategic Information Systems , Vol. 16, pp. 413 432

5. Implement Lazy Susan


Lazy Susan is a distributed denial of service prevention system, described in
this Tech Report which uses shared secrets and delays as "proof of work". It
would be nice to build and evaluate it. One can envisage an implementation
being done purely at the HTTP level, with apache server side plugins and
some fairly simple proxy code to run in a front end (eventually destined for
an OpenWRT router for example) to rate limit attempts to reach sites which
have not issued permits yet. This might also be linked with signposts (see
project idea above) as a prevention of DDoS attacks on a given signpost in
the cloud.

6. Performance Evaluation of Base Station Sleeping and Resource


Allocation in Green Cellular Networks
Background
Energy-efficient green cellular networks have become a hot research topic nowadays to deal with
the dramatically increasing energy consumption of cellular infrastructure. As one of the key
features of 5G networks, the energy-efficient design is valued by operators from both the
environmental and economic viewpoints. For cellular networks, BSs are dominant in energy
consumption and consume around 60-80% of the total network energy. The objective of this
project is to seize the opportunity of tracking the trafc variation in the temporal and spatial
domains of the network to adapt the radio resource allocation accordingly such that a great
amount of energy can be saved. As one of the most popular and efcient energy saving schemes,
BS sleeping has a great potential in energy saving when the trafc load is low. The following
figure illustrates several simple BS sleeping patterns.

Examples of BS sleeping patterns: (a) (2,3)-off scheme, (b) (3,4)-off scheme [1]

Besides traffic-aware BS sleeping, there are also new technical problems that need to be
addressed and will be studied in this project. For example, users in sleeping cells need to be reassociated to the active BSs. Second, traffic-aware sleeping makes both the topology of active
BSs and the interference scenarios change. So new frequency reuse pattern, scheduling, and
power control schemes should be developed accordingly.

Thesis Work
The main purpose of the thesis is to make a general study of the energy-efficient operations in
green cellular networks from the following three respects, which is partitioned according to the
time scale: (1) BS sleeping design, (2) User association, (3) scheduling and power control. The
goal is to minimize the total energy consumption of the system while satisfying QoS
requirements.
The following is what we currently expect in part of the work:
Literature survey of existing BS sleeping schemes and its corresponding
association and scheduling techniques;
Implement a simulation platform:
Design or choose a dynamic BS sleeping algorithm and implement it.
Analyze the impact of different parameters on the performance.
Design or choose a user association algorithm and implement it. Analyze the
impact of different parameters on the performance.
Design or choose a scheduling or power control algorithm and implement it.
Analyze the impact of different parameters on the performance.
Evaluate the relationship of energy consumption and QoS (delay or blocking
performance).

Qualifications
You should

have taken courses and excel in wireless communications, wireless networks,


master a certain programing language (Matlab or C/C++ preferred),

have a keen interest in telecom technologies, programming, and research,

have strong analytical skills,

speak and write outstanding English, and be self-motivated, self-driven and


communicative.

Help

[1] Z. Niu, TANGO: traffic-aware network planning and green operation, IEEE
Wireless Commun. Mag., vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 2529, Oct. 2011.

[2] K. Son, H. Kim, Y. Yi, and B. Krishnamachari, Base station operation and user
association mechanisms for energy-delay tradeoffs in green cellular networks, IEEE
J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 29, no. 8, Sep. 2011.

7. Performance Evaluation of Device to Device Communications in


Cellular Networks
Background
Device-to-device (D2D) communications underlayed to a cellular infrastructure has recently
been proposed to increase spectrum and energy efficiency. An example of D2D using downlink
and uplink resources is illustrated in the following figure. D2D takes advantage of the physical
proximity of communication devices and enables direct communications between devices. The
proximity of devices may allow for extremely high bit rates, low delays, and low power
consumption. Different from traditional cellular architecture, D2D requires new peer discovery
methods, physical and MAC layer procedures, and radio resource management algorithms that
help realize the potential advantages of D2D communications.

D2D Communications with Downlink and Uplink Resources [1]

The most recent trend in network assisted D2D communications is to allow for multiple hops and
to form clusters of user equipments to cooperate in order to help another to communicate with
each other and/or with the cellular infrastructure.

Thesis Work
The goal of the thesis is to investigate how D2D communications can be integrated with
traditional cellular structures, with emphasize on cooperation techniques between the user
equipments and infrastructure nodes from both algorithm and protocol perspectives. The final
definition will be made together with the applicant. The following is what we currently expect in
part of the work:

Literature survey of existing D2D communications and cooperative communication


techniques and analyze the issues in integrating D2D in cellular networks;
Implement a simulation platform and observe the performance gain in spectral and energy
efficiency.

Design or choose a centralized scheduling algorithm and implement it. Analyze the impact
of different parameters on the performance.

Design or choose a distributed scheduling algorithm and implement it. Analyze the impact
of different parameters on the performance.

Evaluate the impact of signaling overhead, user proximity, and traffic load on the network
performance.

Qualifications
You should

be a bright Master of Science student in electrical engineering, applied physics or similar


with excellent grades,
have taken courses and excel in wireless communications, wireless networks (signal
processing a big plus),

master a certain programing language (Matlab or C/C++ preferred),

have a keen interest in telecom technologies, programming, and research,

have international experience (valuable, but not required),

have strong analytical skills,

speak and write outstanding English, and

be self-motivated, self-driven and communicative.

[1] Gbor Fodor, et al., Design Aspects of Network AssistedDevice-to-Device


Communications, IEEE Communications Magazine,March 2012.
[2] Gbor Fodor, et al.,A Distributed Power Control Scheme for CellularNetwork
Assisted D2D Communications, IEEE Globecom 2011.