This is a guide for reducing the loss through finding proper size and location of the distributed systems.

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This is a guide for reducing the loss through finding proper size and location of the distributed systems.

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Generation

Adnan Anwar, Student Member, IEEE, and H. R. Pota, Member, IEEE

power losses and hence improve reliability and voltage prole. Determination of appropriate size and location of DG is

important to maximize overall system efciency. In this paper,

an optimization method has been presented to determine the

appropriate size and proper allocation of DG in a distribution

network. Results obtained from this method have been compared

with using the repeated load ow method. A new approach to

perform repeated load ow by using simulation engine openDSS

COM server through Matlab programming is also introduced

here. Both optimized method and repeated load ow based

method have been compared for three IEEE distribution test

systems. This analysis shows that using appropriate size and

location of DG, total power loss in primary distribution system

can be reduced signicantly.

Index TermsDistributed generation, Optimum size, Optimum

location, Power loss, Sensitivity analysis.

I. I NTRODUCTION

The growth of electricity demand is increasing rapidly. DG

is one of the better alternatives to full this ever growing

energy demand. Moreover, it reduces system energy loss,

alleviates transmission congestion, improves voltage prole,

enhances reliability and provides lower operating cost. Because of small size compared with conventional generation

units, DG is more exible to install in terms of investment and

time. As a result, integration of Distributed Energy Resources

(DER) with distribution network offers a promising solution;

therefore, an intensive level of research is needed to understand

the impacts of distributed resources on Distribution System.

Before operating distributed and dispersed generation in power

system, different technical, environmental, commercial and

regulatory issues should be analysed properly. Most signicant

technical barriers are protection, power quality, stability and

islanding operation. However, there are some other issues

which should be analysed before to maximize these technical

benets. From previous studies, it has been seen that different

penetration level and various placement of DER will impact

the distribution system differently [1]. Moreover, improper

DG size and inappropriate allocation of DER may lead to

higher power loss than when there is no dispersed generation

in the system at all [2]. Therefore, detail and exact analysis

method is required to determine the proper location and size

of DG more accurately and precisely. In distribution system,

Adnan Anwar and H. R. Pota are with the School of Engineering and Information Technology (SEIT), The University of New South Wales at Australian

Defence Force Academy (UNSW@ADFA), Canberra, ACT 2600, Australia.

E-mail:Adnan.Anwar@student.adfa.edu.au and h.pota@adfa.edu.au.

reduce system losses and hence improve voltage prole [3].

In our study, we will try to focus on optimum location and

size of DG to decrease total system power loss. In most

of the previous researches of DG sizing and allocation, DG

has been connected with grid directly. Signicant risks are

associated in connecting such equipment directly to utility

distribution system. The insulation level of the machines may

not synchronize with the system. Therefore, direct connection

of DG is often discouraged [4]. In our analysis, we have

connected DG through a three-phase step down transformer.

The organization of this paper is as follows; Denition

of DG is discussed in section II. Section III describes

distribution losses with the variation of DG size and location.

Previous analysis methodology is discussed in section IV.

Objective of our analysis is given in Section V. Our analysis

Methodology is shown in Section VI. In Section VII, test

system and analytical tools have been discussed. Simulation

results and discussion have been presented in section VIII.

Evaluation of estimation performances have been analyzed and

compared in Section IX. Finally, the paper is concluded by

brief remarks in Section X.

II. D EFINITION OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND

RATING OF DG ( SIZE )

Generally, Distributed generation means the electric power

generation within distributed network to full the rapid energy

demand of consumers. However, distributed generation can be

dened in a variety of ways.

1) The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) denes

distributed generation as generation from a few kilowatts up to 50 MW [5].

2) International Energy Agency (IEA) denes distributed

generation as generating plant serving a customer on-site

or providing support to a distribution network, connected

to the grid at distributed level voltages [6].

3) The International Conference on large High Voltage

Electric Systems (CIGRE) denes DG as smaller than

50-100 MW [5].

Although there are variations in denitions, however, the

concept is almost same. DG can be treated as small scale

power generation to mitigate the consumer energy demand.

Distributed Generation can come from a variety of sources

and technology. To analysis the DER impacts, different types

of generator groups can be considered [7]. Here, we will

S IZE AND L OCATION

In a distribution system power loss varies with numerous

factors. Real power losses of a distribution system depend on

the resistance of distribution lines, core losses of transformers

and motors. As dielectric and rotational losses are so small

compared with line losses, therefore, only line losses are

considered in this analysis. The complex power Sij from node

i to j and Sji from node j to i are

Sij = Vi Iij

(1)

Vj Iji

(2)

Sji =

Where, Vi and Vj are the voltages at node i and j respectively. The line current Iij which is measured at bus i in the

positive direction of i to j and Iji which is measured at bus j

in the positive direction of j to i. Therefore, power loss in any

line between node i and j can be written as the algebraic sum

of power ows determined from (1) and (2) [8].

SLij = Sij + Sji

(3)

be calculated using (3) and taking the summation of all line

losses, total power loss of the network can be calculated using

equation (4) where n is the number of lines.

Loss =

n

SL (k)

(4)

k=1

change the power loss prole of that system. Actually, in

a distribution network, power loss curve with the variation

of power generation at a particular location is approximately

quadratic function because Line Losses I2 R and I S

considering I is the line current, R is the resistance, and S is

the apparent power owing through the line [9]. Therefore, as

the DG size is increased in any location of a power distribution

network, the total system losses are reduced to a minimum

value. With further increasing of DG, losses again start to

increase. This trend of losses with DG size variation is given

in Fig. 1 for a test case to demonstrate the sizing and location

issues of DG. Here, for DG size PDG2 we get the minimum

power loss which is called optimum DG size for that bus.

for our analysis purpose.

As the technical design of each distribution network is

unique, therefore, it can not be answered what should be

the optimum generation capacity or rating of DG [5]. The

maximum size or rating of DG which can be connected to

a distribution network depends on numerous factors, such as

voltage level within the distribution system, power loss prole

and other technical, environmental, commercial and regulatory

issues. In our paper, we will focus on the technical issues only.

As DG offers lots of benet, the penetration of DG in

distribution system is increasing rapidly. Therefore, DG should

be allocated in an optimal way to maximize the system

efciency.

PL1

PL3

PL2

PDG1

PDG2

PDG3

Size of DG (kW)

power should ow from the substation to the consumer end and

conductor sizes are also decreased gradually [3]. When a DG

is placed in the network, it is desirable that power should be

consumed within the distribution network and thus improves

power prole. Any size of DG more than the optimum size will

create reverse ow of power towards distribution substation.

Therefore, excessive power ow through small sized conductors towards the transmission area will increase the power loss

in distribution network.

IV. P REVIOUS M ETHODOLOGIES

A good number of research work is going on DG integration

with grid and its safe and reliable operation [3], [10-17].

However, only a few studies have been done on DG sizing

and allocation issue. Different methodologies to determine

optimum location and size have been discussed in different

literatures. The 2/3 rule is often used in capacitor allocation

studies in power distribution network. Similar approach can be

performed in DG allocation to reduce system power loss [10].

In the paper [10] authors have used this analytical method and

rule of thumb for analysing the distribution system which is

radial and has uniformly distributed loads. Rule is simple and

easy to use but it cannot provide the proper solution when

the load distribution type is changed. Moreover, it can not be

applied in meshed network.

In [11], analytical approaches for both radial and networked

distribution systems with different types of load conguration

are given. Here, separate algorithms have been used for radial

and meshed networks. To simplify the analysis, authors have

considered only overhead lines for which uniformly distributed

parameters like R and L per unit length are same along the

feeder. Results obtained from the analysis are very quick; however, one generalized algorithm is expected for both radial and

meshed networks. Besides, in practical distribution system,

conductor sizes are gradually decreased from substation to

load centre, therefore, this analysis procedure would be very

complex when line parameters are not uniformly distributed.

One major limitation of this approach is, they have only solved

the location problem for a xed size of generator but they have

not considered DG sizing issue in their analysis.

exact loss formula in [3]. Authors have considered the loss

coefcients constant. Here they have considered both sizing

and location issues. This process takes only two load ows to

determine the location and size of DG. Although the technique

is very fast; however, this methodology can be applied only if

DG delivers real power [12]. This is one major limitations of

this approach. For load ow, authors have considered NewtonRaphson algorithm. Although Newton-Raphson approach has

an excellent convergence characteristics but in distribution

system because of smaller X/R ratio it can not be decoupled.

Moreover, in distribution network, multi-phase, unbalanced

operation, unbalanced distributed load and dispersed generation makes the Newton-Raphson approach unattractive [13].

For selection optimum size and location of DG, several

genetic algorithms (GA) and fuzzy logic based methods have

been discussed in [14], [15], [16], [17]. Although GA provides

almost near optimum output but they are computationally very

demanding and have a slow convergence [3].

As load ow represents the system states, therefore it can

be used for planning the future expansion of power systems.

We can calculate the system loss from the load ow result

and doing the load ow repeatedly, we can easily tell the

location and size of DG for which we get the minimum

power loss of the system. This method is known as exhaustive

load ow (ELF) method. Although this ELF method gives the

exact answer; however, it needs lots of load ow computation.

Therefore, ELF method needs to be optimized to get accurate

answer and less computational time.

In the previous literatures, researchers have considered

radial distribution system but they have not considered three

phase unbalanced system. As, distribution system is three

phase and unbalanced, therefore, more detailed analysis is

needed based on these type of distribution networks.

V. P ROBLEM F ORMULATION

The main goal of our analysis is to determine optimum

size and location of dispersed generation so that it can reduce

the real power loss in a distribution system. This analysis is

important for efcient power system planning and operation.

Distributed generation not only reduces the power loss of

a system but also improves the voltage prole. However,

inappropriate size and allocation of DG can cause low or overvoltage in the distribution system [18]. Therefore, another goal

of our analysis is to check whether the voltage prole remains

within permissible limit. So, voltage constraint becomes,

Vmin V Vmax

(5)

line voltages within predetermined limits; as a result end

user can get a constant voltage output [19]. Impact of DG

on voltage regulation with the presence of voltage regulator

is discussed in [20]. The test systems, which we used for

our analysis, comes with voltage regulators which maintain a

permissible voltage limit throughout the analysis. During our

analysis, we considered Vmin=0.94 pu and Vmax=1.06 pu In

section IX-B, we will show how optimum size and location

of DG impacts on voltage level of the interconnecting bus.

In our analysis, repeated load ow for loss reduction

has been performed in a different approach by integrating

openDSS with Matlab which makes the analysis faster, more

accurate and efcient. Base on sensitivity, a new methodology

has been proposed to calculate optimum size and location

of DG. Finally, these two methods have been analysed and

compared.

For any distribution system, if DG size is varied from PDG1

to PDG2 and their corresponding change in power loss is

respectively PL1 to PL2 , then the sensitivity factor becomes,

dPL

PL1 PL2

=

dPi

PDG1 PDG2

(6)

bus using equation (6) and the bus with maximum sensitivity

is identied. Only those buses which have sensitivity factors

close to the maximum value have been considered in our

analysis. Thus solution space is reduced to only a few buses.

After that, for each of these buses, power loss has been

determined using large step size of DG variation and then

a quadratic curve has been formed using these few samples.

The minimum value of the curve represents the optimum size

for that bus and corresponding generation is the optimum DG

size. The bus which is responsible for minimum loss of the

system is the appropriate location for DG allocation. The ow

chart of our analysis methodology is given in Fig. 2.

VII. T EST S YSTEM AND A NALYTICAL T OOLS

Our analysis method has been implemented on three IEEE

distribution test systems. These are IEEE 34 node test feeder,

13 Node test feeder and 123 Node test feeder. The rst one,

IEEE 34 Node test feeder is an actual feeder located in Arizona

and its nominal voltage is 24.9 kV [21]. The second one,

IEEE 13 Node test feeder is small but good for test cases. The

third one, IEEE 123 Node test feeder operates at a nominal

voltage of 4.16 kV and contains overhead, underground line

segments with various phasing, unbalanced loading with all

conguration of loads [21]. Single line diagrams of the test

feeders are shown in the appendix. The basic data for these

three test feeders can be obtained from [22]. For analysis purpose, we have developed several Matlab programs to perform

the tasks 3 to 12 shown in ow chart. Only for three phase

unbalanced load ow we have used Open Distribution System

Simulator (OpenDSS). OpenDSS has an in-process COM

server DLL through which the user can design and execute

custom solution modes and features externally [23]. We have

interfaced openDSS COM server with our Matlab program

and load ow results have been imported from openDSS. Then

Matlab programs have been used to nd out optimum size and

location of DG.

Start

300

280

with a small penetration of DG

260

240

220

200

180

160

140

power loss for large variation of DG size

6. Continue until loss starts to

increase and record each sample

120

0

no

9. Check

whether all

sensitive buses

have been

analysed?

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

DG Size (kW)

Fig. 3. Power loss prole with the variation of DG size (for 34 Node test

system)

95

Actual

Approximate

90

represents the min loss of that bus

200

85

80

75

70

65

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

number 76 for 123 bus test system

yes

10. Find the bus which has min power loss

11. Find corresponding DG size

12. Print optimum DG size and location

End

Fig. 2.

result obtained from repeated load ow. For the other two test

systems, IEEE 13 Node test system and IEEE 34 Node test

system, we have obtained optimum DG size and location using

exhaustive search and proposed method. Results obtained from

simulation are shown in table I. For all of the three test

systems, results from our proposed method are quite similar

with repeated load ow approach but our method is quite

faster.

TABLE I

C OMPARISON OF THE RESULTS OF TWO METHODS

Fig. 3 shows the trend of power loss with the variation of

DG size for each bus of 34 Node test system. This gure

has been obtained using repeated load ow method. In that

analysis procedure, DG which is responsible for minimum

loss at each bus has been identied rst and that is optimum

DG size for that bus; therefore, the bus which has minimum

loss among the whole network is considered as the optimum

location for that network. Although repeated load ow is

inefcient due to its large number of load ow computations

and thus called exhaustive approach but it gives us accurate

results. Using this methodology, optimum location of DG for

123 Node test system is bus 76 and optimum DG size is

1.32 MW. Now, using our methodology, for same test system,

we have found the optimum size of DG is 1.32 MW and

optimum location is bus 76 which is similar with the generated

Test

System

13 Bus

34 Bus

123 Bus

Repeated load ow

Optimum

Optimum

Size (MW)

Location

1.28

Bus 675

1.10

Bus 844

1.32

Bus 76

Proposed Method

Optimum

Optimum

Size (MW)

Location

1.29

Bus 675

1.15

Bus 844

1.32

Bus 76

For 123 Node test system, at bus number 76, power loss

curves using both methods have been shown in Fig. 4. We

considered the output of repeated load ow as the actual case

and output using our method is the approximate one. From the

gure we can say, our methodology has a very good match

with the actual case; moreover, it takes less no of solution

space and time.

Voltage after adding DG

as below:

DG

PLoss PLoss

P LR =

100%

(7)

PLoss

where,

PLoss =Power loss of the system before introducing DG

DG

=Power loss of the system after adding DG

PLoss

1.1

1.05

1

0.95

0.9

0.85

0.8

Phase3

Phase2

Phase1

For 123 bus test system, before adding any DG, total system

power loss was 95.3 kW. Adding an additional DG of optimum

size on the optimum location, this loss becomes 65.3 kW.

Therefore, active power loss is reduced by 31.5%. Therefore,

overall system efciency improves. Using optimum size and

location, active power loss reduction for the three systems are

summarized in table II.

Voltage before adding DG

Voltage after adding DG

1.1

TABLE II

ACTIVE P OWER LOSS REDUCTION IN DIFFERENT TEST SYSTEMS

1.05

1

0.95

0.9

0.85

Test

System

13 Bus

34 Bus

123 Bus

Before

After

adding DG adding DG

110.4

85.4

272.8

125.5

95.3

65.3

0.8

PLR

Phase1

22.6%

53.9%

31.5%

Phase2

Voltage variation at three phases of bus 844

Phase3

Voltage before adding DG

Volatge after adding DG

1.1

Voltage range for static voltage stability varies from country

to country and utility to utility. However, ANSI standard

should be maintained to supply a steady-state voltage on

consumer side of a distribution network [19]. The acceptable

steady state voltage range of systems between 1kV and 132

kV is considered within 6% of the nominal voltage [24]. For

123 bus test system, nominal voltage is 4.16 kV and voltage

base is 4.16 kV, therefore, acceptable voltage should be within

0.94 pu to 1.06 pu For the other two test systems, we get the

same voltage range for steady state voltage stability. In our

analysis, using voltage regulator and allocating optimum size

of DG in optimum location voltages remain within acceptable

limit which is shown in Fig. [5].

1

0.95

0.9

0.85

0.8

Phase1

Phase2

Voltage variation at three phases of bus 76

Phase3

Fig. 5.

work.

X. C ONCLUSION

The impact of proper allocation and sizing of DG is

very signicant. Power Loss of distribution system increases

overall system cost and has a major impact in power system

management. From our analysis, we can come to know that,

improper DG size and inappropriate DG allocation may cause

a greater system loss than the loss without DG. DG should

be allocated in those locations where they provide higher

reduction of losses. Although DG is usually consumers

property, nevertheless, it is the interest of utilities and

engineers to determine the appropriate size and location for

safe, reliable and stable operation of the distribution system.

Our analysis method identies this sizing and location issues

accurately and precisely in a faster manner. To understand the

impact of proper allocation and size of DG properly, more

1.05

A PPENDIX

Fig. 6.

[12]

[13]

[14]

[15]

[16]

Fig. 7.

[17]

[18]

[19]

[20]

[21]

[22]

[23]

[24]

Fig. 8.

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analysis

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He received B.Sc in Electrical and Electronic Engineering from Islamic University of Technology

(IUT), Bangladesh in 2008. In 2009, he joined at

the University of Asia Pacic (UAP) as a lecturer.

He is currently pursuing his Masters by Research

at the University of New South Wales, Australian

Defence Forces Academy, Canberra, Australia. His

research interests include computer aided analysis of

power distribution network, optimization of distribution system, power system dynamics and control,

integration of renewable energy sources in distribution system and smart grids.

SVRCET, Surat, India, in 1979, the M.E. degree

from the IISc, Bangalore, India, in 1981, and the

Ph.D. degree from the University of Newcastle,

NSW, Australia, in 1985, all in electrical engineering. He is currently an Associate Professor at the

University of New South Wales, Australian Defence

Force Academy, Canberra, Australia. He has held

visiting appointments at the University of Delaware;

Iowa State University; Kansas State University; Old

Dominion University; the University of California,

San Diego; and the Centre for AI and Robotics, Bangalore. He has a

continuing interest in the area of power system dynamics and control, exible

structures, and UAVs.

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