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Int. 1.

Mechanics, Jo1 22, No. 1. pp. 27-36, 1987
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Biophysical and Electronic Engineering Department, Viale Causa 13, 16145 Genova, Italy


Mathematics Department, Piazza di Porta S. Donato 5, 40127 Bologna, Italy
(Received 6 August 1984; received for publication 28 May 1986)
Abstract-A non-linear thermodynamic model of heat-conducting anisotropic solid is elaborated
which turns out to be in a conservative form. Then, through the associated main field variables,
the symmetry and the hyperbolicity properties are investigated. As outstanding applications, the
analysis of the grow of the wave discontinuities and the evaluation of the critical time are performed.
Finally, the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions for the system of equations are given in detail.
The well-known







relating the (material) time derivative 4 of the heat flux q with the temperature gradient g
and q itself, is widely applied when dealing with heat conduction in non-stationary
conditions. For example, equation (1.1) models heat conduction in dielectric solids at low
temperatures; in this instance the relaxation time v and the heat conductivity K are such
that K/V z Co, C being the heat capacity and u an average value of the phonon velocity
[l]. While K and v are often viewed as constant parameters, a far better model is obtained
by letting K, v be functions of the (absolute) temperature 9. Irrespective of such a dependence,
equation (1.1) along with the energy balance
pt = -divq

+ pr,


where e is the internal energy, p the constant mass density and T the heat supply, implies
that temperature pulses (second sound) propagate with a finite speed U 2: &@C
This complies with some experimental results [3] indicating that, in defect-free crystals at
low temperatures, the propagation speed of heat pulses is close to the mean speed of
thermal phonons.
Recently, Pao and Banerjee [4] have advocated the validity of the relation



T and K being temperature dependent tensors, as the generalization of (1.1) to anisotropic

solids. As shown in [5], equation (1.3) is compatible with thermodynamics provided that
K is positive definite, Z = K- T is symmetric, and e takes the form
e = e. + q.Aq,

e. = e&4,


where A = - )6 (Z/8), a prime denoting differentiation with respect to 6.

Underlying (l.l), (1.3) is the requirement that, in stationary conditions (q = 0, 6 = 0),
Fouriers law is recovered. It is the purpose of this paper to point out that Fouriers law
is recovered from a wide class of constitutive equations and hence that more general
outstanding models are available. Such a class will be characterized merely through



compatibility with thermodynamics and the internal energy being a function of 0 only,
which condition is suggested by stability and wave propagation properties.
The system of first-order quasi-linear differential equations, arising from the thermodynamic analysis of the heat conductor (Section2), turns out to be in a conservative form.
This enables us to introduce the associated main field and to investigate the symmetry
and the hyperbolicity properties of the system-well posedness of the Cauchy problem(Section 3). In fact, through a straightforward procedure we find the constitutive conditions
guaranteeing that the system is symmetric-hyperbolic and we prove that the characteristic
speeds are influenced by the heat flux component in the direction of propagation. The
hyperbolicity motivates the analysis of the grow of the wave discontinuity and the
evaluation of the critical time exhibited in Section 4. Finally, the conservative form of the
system allows us to describe the behaviour of the shock waves through appropriate
conditions (Section 5).


In order to model non-stationary heat conduction in anisotropic undeformable solids

we introduce a vector function a(x,t), of position x and time t, whose time evolution is
governed by



the scalar m(B) being undetermined as yet; stability requirements for (2.1) lead us to assume
that the tensor N(8) is positive definite [6]. On letting e, q, and the entropy 1be given by
constitutive relations of the form
e = e(O,a),

17= ~(6 a),

4 = q(Ra),


the state of the heat conductor is specified by the pair (d,a). So the heat conductor, as
described by the equations (1.2), (2.1) and the constitutive relations (2.2), may be viewed
as a material with hidden variables [7,8].
Letting $ = e - 0s and paralleling previous derivations [S], we conclude that (2.1) and
(2.2) are compatible with the second law of thermodynamics if and only if

4 =



B 0,

tl =


the subscripts 0, a denoting partial derivatives. In stationary

a = -mN-g.
Hence Fouriers law q = -Kg is recovered if
a =


conditions (2.1) reduces to



Henceforth we look at a as defined by (2.6). As a consequence, (2.4) may be written as

I,//,= &N-K-q

whence it follows that KN is symmetric. An obvious integration yields

$ = t,bo-+ &a.KNa,

= h(e).


Meanwhile, insertion into (2.5) shows at once that the conductivity tensor K must be
positive definite, just as it happens in Fouriers theory of heat conduction.
Owing to (2.3) the requirement that the internal energy e = $ + 817be independent of

Second sound and internal energy in solids




KN = Bm2B2


B being a symmetric constant tensor; the positive definiteness of K and N, along with the
symmetry of KN, implies the positive definiteness of B. Then (2.6) becomes
Accordingly, the entropy may be written as





while the constitutive equation (2.1) becomes

= -mg - mK-q.


We append some comments on (2.9)-(2.11). First, as shown above, compatibility with

thermodynamics and the requirement e = e(6) imply that the hidden variable a is in fact
B-q/me2. Now, in view of the arbitrariness of m we might choose m = tl- in which case
(2.11) reduces to (1.3) with

T(B) = pB2K(B)B_.

This relation means that, as to the dependence on 8, the tensorial relaxation constants T
are merely 0 times the conductivity tensor K; this should be true for [4] where the
requirement e = e(e) is adopted.
Second, according to (1.4) [S], in the case of the evolution equation (1.3) e is independent
of q if and only if (K-T/e) = 0; this conclusion follows at once from (2.12) as well.
Third, the expression (2.10) for q says that, as we should expect, for each temperature 8
the entropy happens to be maximum at equilibrium, namely when q = 0.



So as to avoid cumbersome calculations and to make the procedure apparent, henceforth

we confine our attention to isotropic solids. In such a case we may write
K = ~1,

B- = ~1,

I being the identity tensor; while T is necessarily a constant, no assumption is made about
the dependence of K on 0. For the sake of convenience the function m is viewed as the
derivative with respect to 8 of a function l(e), namely
m = I;

the only requirement on 1 is, of course, I # 0. Accordingly, owing to (1.2) and (2.1 l), the
behaviour of the heat conductor is governed by the system of first-order quasi-linear
differential equations


and T. RI'GC,FRI

/)i + divq = pi-.


a different procedure to derive the system (3.8) is exhibited in [9].

Evidently, the system (3.l), in the unknowns
P and q, is in a conservative
system is compatible
with the entropy inequality

p?j + div

form. Such a

2 $


t/ being given by


as a consequence
of (2.10).
Let z run over 0, I. 2, 3; the indices i,j = t , 2. 3 denote
the Atuples u, F,, Fi. f defined as




\ve can vvrite the system (3.1) in the form

where ?,, = ?:?t, Pi = ?;?.Y~.Similarly,
(3.2) becomes

= f(u)

if we let h, = -prl,

hi = -qi!O and k = -pr/Q, then

?,h,(u) G k.


The equations (3.4), along with the inequality (3.5) may be viewed as a system admitting
a supplementary
law [ 10.11 J. The associated theory [lZ-151 allows us to
say that in the present case there exists a 4-tuple ti, named main field, such that

dh, = ti.dF,,
and four scalar functions

g*(u) such that


Accordingly, upon regarding

system (3.4) as


ii as the 4-tuple




of new unknown


we may write the


It is apparent that, provided onty the functions h, are of class C2, the matrices ?i;,/%Gi,
x = 0, 1, 2. 3, are symmetric. The system (3.8) is then symmetric in the sense of Friedrichs
[16] if the hessian matrix C*h,/CiiiiG
is positive definite. It is worth mentioning
that, besides
other properties. the symmetry guarantees the (local) well-posedness
of the Cauchy problem
[17, IX].

Second sound and internal energy in solids


In order to determine the conditions ensuring the symmetry of the system (3.8) we need
the explicit expressions of ii and g=. To begin with we consider the relation (3.6) in the case
a = 0; it is a simple matter to show that
i& = -_,




Then, as it must be, the substitution of (3.9) into (3.6) with a = 1, 2, 3 results in three
identities. Apart from inessential constants, the relations (3.6), (3.7) imply that

/ia= ti.F,

- h,.

Hence, in view of (3.9) we find at once that

We are now in a position to investigate the symmetry of the system (3.8).

Observe that, on account of (3.7) for a = 0,

ali;, _

wduSudu = dii-d$

-0 =


and that, owing to the definitions of ii and F,,

Then the matrix ~2~,,/GXi is positive definite, and the system (3.8) is symmetric, if and
only if
e > 0,

T >



As a comment on the relevance of the conditions (3.10) we note that since

and, owing to (3.6),

then ho is the Legendre conjugate function of &,. Thus the positive definiteness of ~2&,/~GX
implies the positive definiteness of d2h0/aF,aF, and hence the convexity of h, = -pq.
Accordingly, the conditions (3.10) imply that the concavity of q holds, which ensures the
thermodynamic stability. In a more direct way, the fact that the conditions (3.10) guarantee
the thermodynamic stability is easily seen by considering the expression (3.3), namely

Because the symmetry of a system implies the hyperbolicity, the conditions (3.10) ensure
the hyperbolicity of the system (3.8)-or (3.1). Indeed, a detailed derivation of the
characteristic speeds shows that the hyperbolicity is ensured by the weaker condition
er > 0.



Consider the system (3.1) and look for waves such that 8 and 4 are continuous on the
space-time domain while the time and spatial derivatives of 8 and q suffer jump
discontinuities across the wavefront. Letting 8. and q, denote the derivatives of 8 and q
along the normal n to the wavefront and letting 1 be the normal speed of the wavefront,
it follows straightaway from (3.1) that

-n~evbi + chi = 0,




where qn = q-n and p] denotes a wave discontinuity. It is evident that 1. = 0 is a

characteristic speed; specifically, if 1 = 0 then [qJ
= 0, Cd,,] = 0 while [(q x n),,] is
undetermined. This means that the characteristic speed E.= 0 has multiplicity 2. NOW,
upon taking the inner product of (3.12) with n and comparing with (3.11) we arrive at
%2+ 2/3q,i - y = 0



The equation (3.13) has two distinct real roots provided only that 7 > 0. As it must be in
view of the symmetry property, this occurs in fact as a consequence of (3.10). However, it
is evident that the weaker condition re > 0 is enough for guaranteeing that 7 > 0. The
two roots A+, A- are different in sign, namely A+ > 0,1_ < 0. Moreover, A+ # ii._1 unless
b = 0 or qn = 0. Now, B = 0 means 1e2 = c, c being a constant. In such a case (3.1),
reduces to the relation



(g+$ >


which coincides with the Maxwell-Cattaneo

equation apart from the factor ee2. The
instance q. = 0 corres onds to propagation into a region where q is orthogonal to n. In
conclusion, I, = + 9 7 if the constitutive relation 1e2 = c holds or if q,, = 0 in the region
ahead of the wave. If, instead, b # 0 then the forward speed i+ and the backward speed
I- are affected by the value of qn; A+ 2 11-1 depending on whether /?q,, 2 0.
The propagation modes connected with the speeds I.* may be expressed as

C(qx 4.J = 0,
It is the purpose

of the next section

to examine

the time evolution

of the discontinuities

Cq,.,l,l?,,,l along the rays.






So as to arrive at definite results, while avoiding cumbersome


relations, henceforth we
confine our attention to plane w_aves propagating at the speeds i,. Moreover, because
[(q x n),,] = 0, no information concerning the waves is lost if we disregard q x n and set



where q = q,,/le2. Accordingly the system (3.1) simplifies to

Second sound and internal energy in solids

li +





Assume that the region ahead is in an equilibrium

state u0 (with 4 = 0). A subscript 0
denotes the value of a quantity at the state u 0; for example, letting r, I be the right and left
eigenvectors of A(u) - i.(u)I, with the normalization
condition Ici.r(j) = 6j, r0 and I, denote
the corresponding
eigenvectors of A(Q).
to the general theory on first-order
systems of differential
[19,20] the discontinuity
vector [u,,] is proportional
to the right eigenvector
co, namely

and the growth

of the amplitude

II is governed

by the Bernoulli




where 6/6t is the usual Thomas delta derivative;

vector uO, n and b are expressed as
a = (Vj:r),,
b = - (Vd. r)o.
The solution

since we are dealing

v =

with a constant


4 = 1-w.

of (4.2) is given by
II(t) =

bexp(bt) -t all(O)[exp(bt)



As it us usually the case, the system (4.1) is supposed to be dissipative, that is b > 0. Then.
in view of the denominator
of (4.3), there exists a critical time t, > 0, such that IfI(t)j -* x
if and only if one of these two circumstances
as t-t,,


a > 0,

II(O) < - $ c 0;


a < 0,

l-I(O) > -;

> 0.

By way of example, assume that C = e is independent

but lengthy, calculation

of the temperature




owing to the structure of r it follows at once that the amplitude

II coincides with Co,,].
Now for the sake of definiteness choose 1 > 0 and 1. = i., , and hence i. = d/i. So, in view
of the kinematical
of compatibility

[e]= -i.[e,,],
we may write the conditions

(i), (ii) as

[d](O)> $



if(3ld + 417, > 0,


if(3lB + 41), < 0,


l ,,

C&O)< +



the characteristic

time T being defined


According to (4.4), (4.9, the discontinuity

I[e]l g rows provided the initial value I[d](O)j
is greater than the critical initial amplitude
Bo/T14 + 3(lQ/r),l which accounts for the
dissipation due to heat condition. If one of the restrictions (4.4), (4.5) holds then there exists
a finite critical time t, given by


We append a comment on (4.4)-(4.6). The critical initial amplitude is proportional

T-l, the critical time to T. So if, as it seems reasonable,
T is small then a large critical
initial amplitude
is needed for the discontinuity
I[811 to grow; meanwhile
the wave
becomes unbounded
(shock wave) in a short time.
We end this section by considering
three simple examples for the constitutive
1. First, I(0) a 6; then 41 + 3rd > 0 and the discontinuity
grows provided [e](O) > 19,/47.
l(0) a -0-l;
then 41 + 3ltI < 0 and the discontinuity
[e](O) < -0,/27. Third, I(0) a 8- l/3., the critical initial amplitude is infinite and the initial
dies out in time.


We have seen above the conditions

under which a wave discontinuity
increases in
is described
strength and becomes unbounded
after the time f,. Since the continuum
through a system of equations in a conservative
form, we are in a position to account also
for the resulting shock waves.
Letting s be the speed of the shock wave and n be the normal to the shock front, we
may write the Rankine-Hugoniot
conditions corresponding
to the system (3.1) in the form

+ 4.4= 0,
[-s$q + lnj
Ifs = 0 equation

(5.2) yields

= 0.



Second sound and internal energy in solids

[l] = 0;
thus the assumption I # 0 implies that

Eel] = 0.
Moreover, ifs = 0 equation (5.1) provides

As a consequence the shock with s = 0 is in fact a characteristic shock. Accordingly we

let s # 0.
Consistently with the previous notation, denote by the subscript 0 the limiting values
ahead of the shock; it follows from (5.2) that

where q, 8, I stand for the limiting values behind the shock. Upon inner multiplying by
and substituting into (5.1) we obtain


( 1

1 (4.)0 + $(l

- IO)- sp(e - e,) = 0.


The conditions (5.3), (5.4) characterise the shock; specifically, (5.4) yields
e = e(eO, qo; s)
and then substitution into (5.3) provides
q = q(eo, qo; s).


On the basis of thermodynamics with hidden variables we have elaborated a non-linear

constitutive model of heat-conducting crystals essentially under the only assumption that
the internal energy be a function of the temperature only. The generality of the model is
expressed through the scalar function I = m and the tensors B and K: the most
common descriptions of heat conductors are easily recognised as suitable particular cases.
Furthermore the model turns out to be described by a conservative symmetric system of
differential equations provided only that the specific heat C and the relaxation time T are
positive. Under these assumptions the main features of temperature-rate waves, critical
time and shock waves have been investigated.
Both the generality and the handiness of the present model allow us to believe that it
may be applied successfully to a large extent when dealing with heat conduction in solids.


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