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Non-&or

Mechanics, Jo1 22, No. 1. pp. 27-36, 1987

Printed in Great Britain

CO?&7462,87/S3.00 + 0.W

Pcrgamoo Joumak Ltd.

ENERGY IN SOLIDS

A. MORRO

Biophysical and Electronic Engineering Department, Viale Causa 13, 16145 Genova, Italy

and

T. RUGGERI

Mathematics Department, Piazza di Porta S. Donato 5, 40127 Bologna, Italy

(Received 6 August 1984; received for publication 28 May 1986)

Abstract-A non-linear thermodynamic model of heat-conducting anisotropic solid is elaborated

which turns out to be in a conservative form. Then, through the associated main field variables,

the symmetry and the hyperbolicity properties are investigated. As outstanding applications, the

analysis of the grow of the wave discontinuities and the evaluation of the critical time are performed.

Finally, the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions for the system of equations are given in detail.

1. INTRODUCTION

The well-known

Maxwell-Cattaneo

equation

VIj+q=

--Kg,

V,K>O

(1.1)

relating the (material) time derivative 4 of the heat flux q with the temperature gradient g

and q itself, is widely applied when dealing with heat conduction in non-stationary

conditions. For example, equation (1.1) models heat conduction in dielectric solids at low

temperatures; in this instance the relaxation time v and the heat conductivity K are such

that K/V z Co, C being the heat capacity and u an average value of the phonon velocity

[l]. While K and v are often viewed as constant parameters, a far better model is obtained

by letting K, v be functions of the (absolute) temperature 9. Irrespective of such a dependence,

equation (1.1) along with the energy balance

pt = -divq

+ pr,

(1.2)

where e is the internal energy, p the constant mass density and T the heat supply, implies

that temperature pulses (second sound) propagate with a finite speed U 2: &@C

[2].

This complies with some experimental results [3] indicating that, in defect-free crystals at

low temperatures, the propagation speed of heat pulses is close to the mean speed of

thermal phonons.

Recently, Pao and Banerjee [4] have advocated the validity of the relation

TQ+q=

-Kg,

(1.3)

solids. As shown in [5], equation (1.3) is compatible with thermodynamics provided that

K is positive definite, Z = K- T is symmetric, and e takes the form

e = e. + q.Aq,

e. = e&4,

(1.4)

Underlying (l.l), (1.3) is the requirement that, in stationary conditions (q = 0, 6 = 0),

Fouriers law is recovered. It is the purpose of this paper to point out that Fouriers law

is recovered from a wide class of constitutive equations and hence that more general

outstanding models are available. Such a class will be characterized merely through

27

28

compatibility with thermodynamics and the internal energy being a function of 0 only,

which condition is suggested by stability and wave propagation properties.

The system of first-order quasi-linear differential equations, arising from the thermodynamic analysis of the heat conductor (Section2), turns out to be in a conservative form.

This enables us to introduce the associated main field and to investigate the symmetry

and the hyperbolicity properties of the system-well posedness of the Cauchy problem(Section 3). In fact, through a straightforward procedure we find the constitutive conditions

guaranteeing that the system is symmetric-hyperbolic and we prove that the characteristic

speeds are influenced by the heat flux component in the direction of propagation. The

hyperbolicity motivates the analysis of the grow of the wave discontinuity and the

evaluation of the critical time exhibited in Section 4. Finally, the conservative form of the

system allows us to describe the behaviour of the shock waves through appropriate

Rankine-Hugoniot

conditions (Section 5).

2. THERMODYNAMIC

ANALYSIS

we introduce a vector function a(x,t), of position x and time t, whose time evolution is

governed by

pti=

-mg-Na,

(2.1)

the scalar m(B) being undetermined as yet; stability requirements for (2.1) lead us to assume

that the tensor N(8) is positive definite [6]. On letting e, q, and the entropy 1be given by

constitutive relations of the form

e = e(O,a),

4 = q(Ra),

(2.2)

the state of the heat conductor is specified by the pair (d,a). So the heat conductor, as

described by the equations (1.2), (2.1) and the constitutive relations (2.2), may be viewed

as a material with hidden variables [7,8].

Letting $ = e - 0s and paralleling previous derivations [S], we conclude that (2.1) and

(2.2) are compatible with the second law of thermodynamics if and only if

4 =

-tie,

em+.,

$:Na

B 0,

tl =

(2.3)

(2.4)

(2.5)

a = -mN-g.

Hence Fouriers law q = -Kg is recovered if

a =

mN_K-

(2.6)

q.

I,//,= &N-K-q

$ = t,bo-+ &a.KNa,

= h(e).

(2.7)

Meanwhile, insertion into (2.5) shows at once that the conductivity tensor K must be

positive definite, just as it happens in Fouriers theory of heat conduction.

Owing to (2.3) the requirement that the internal energy e = $ + 817be independent of

a

29

gives

KN

-em2

whence

KN = Bm2B2

(2.8)

B being a symmetric constant tensor; the positive definiteness of K and N, along with the

symmetry of KN, implies the positive definiteness of B. Then (2.6) becomes

(2.9)

Accordingly, the entropy may be written as

)~=to-f(-&P(&,

rlo=

-I(/&

(2.10)

= -mg - mK-q.

(2.11)

thermodynamics and the requirement e = e(6) imply that the hidden variable a is in fact

B-q/me2. Now, in view of the arbitrariness of m we might choose m = tl- in which case

(2.11) reduces to (1.3) with

(2.12)

T(B) = pB2K(B)B_.

This relation means that, as to the dependence on 8, the tensorial relaxation constants T

are merely 0 times the conductivity tensor K; this should be true for [4] where the

requirement e = e(e) is adopted.

Second, according to (1.4) [S], in the case of the evolution equation (1.3) e is independent

of q if and only if (K-T/e) = 0; this conclusion follows at once from (2.12) as well.

Third, the expression (2.10) for q says that, as we should expect, for each temperature 8

the entropy happens to be maximum at equilibrium, namely when q = 0.

3. SYMMETRY

AND HYPERBOLICITY

OF THE SYSTEM

we confine our attention to isotropic solids. In such a case we may write

K = ~1,

B- = ~1,

I being the identity tensor; while T is necessarily a constant, no assumption is made about

the dependence of K on 0. For the sake of convenience the function m is viewed as the

derivative with respect to 8 of a function l(e), namely

m = I;

the only requirement on 1 is, of course, I # 0. Accordingly, owing to (1.2) and (2.1 l), the

behaviour of the heat conductor is governed by the system of first-order quasi-linear

differential equations

A. MORRO

and T. RI'GC,FRI

Ill

Evidently, the system (3.l), in the unknowns

P and q, is in a conservative

system is compatible

with the entropy inequality

p?j + div

form. Such a

2 $

(3.2)

i!

t/ being given by

(3.3)

as a consequence

of (2.10).

Let z run over 0, I. 2, 3; the indices i,j = t , 2. 3 denote

itltrodllcing

the Atuples u, F,, Fi. f defined as

Cartesian

components.

Upon

?,F,(u)

where ?,, = ?:?t, Pi = ?;?.Y~.Similarly,

(3.2) becomes

= f(u)

if we let h, = -prl,

(3.4)

hi = -qi!O and k = -pr/Q, then

?,h,(u) G k.

13.5)

The equations (3.4), along with the inequality (3.5) may be viewed as a system admitting

a supplementary

conservation

law [ 10.11 J. The associated theory [lZ-151 allows us to

say that in the present case there exists a 4-tuple ti, named main field, such that

(3.6)

dh, = ti.dF,,

and four scalar functions

F

I

system (3.4) as

=c?i;l

ii as the 4-tuple

&,i=f.

(3.7)

;G

of new unknown

variables,

(3.8)

It is apparent that, provided onty the functions h, are of class C2, the matrices ?i;,/%Gi,

x = 0, 1, 2. 3, are symmetric. The system (3.8) is then symmetric in the sense of Friedrichs

[16] if the hessian matrix C*h,/CiiiiG

is positive definite. It is worth mentioning

that, besides

other properties. the symmetry guarantees the (local) well-posedness

of the Cauchy problem

[17, IX].

31

In order to determine the conditions ensuring the symmetry of the system (3.8) we need

the explicit expressions of ii and g=. To begin with we consider the relation (3.6) in the case

a = 0; it is a simple matter to show that

i& = -_,

Pi=j$.

4i

(3.9)

Then, as it must be, the substitution of (3.9) into (3.6) with a = 1, 2, 3 results in three

identities. Apart from inessential constants, the relations (3.6), (3.7) imply that

/ia= ti.F,

- h,.

Observe that, on account of (3.7) for a = 0,

dl

ali;, _

wduSudu = dii-d$

-0 =

dii.dF,

Then the matrix ~2~,,/GXi is positive definite, and the system (3.8) is symmetric, if and

only if

e > 0,

T >

0.

(3.10)

then ho is the Legendre conjugate function of &,. Thus the positive definiteness of ~2&,/~GX

implies the positive definiteness of d2h0/aF,aF, and hence the convexity of h, = -pq.

Accordingly, the conditions (3.10) imply that the concavity of q holds, which ensures the

thermodynamic stability. In a more direct way, the fact that the conditions (3.10) guarantee

the thermodynamic stability is easily seen by considering the expression (3.3), namely

Because the symmetry of a system implies the hyperbolicity, the conditions (3.10) ensure

the hyperbolicity of the system (3.8)-or (3.1). Indeed, a detailed derivation of the

characteristic speeds shows that the hyperbolicity is ensured by the weaker condition

er > 0.

32

Consider the system (3.1) and look for waves such that 8 and 4 are continuous on the

space-time domain while the time and spatial derivatives of 8 and q suffer jump

discontinuities across the wavefront. Letting 8. and q, denote the derivatives of 8 and q

along the normal n to the wavefront and letting 1 be the normal speed of the wavefront,

it follows straightaway from (3.1) that

-n~evbi + chi = 0,

(3.11)

-j.p#+)j+Q3..]

=0,

(3.12)

characteristic speed; specifically, if 1 = 0 then [qJ

= 0, Cd,,] = 0 while [(q x n),,] is

undetermined. This means that the characteristic speed E.= 0 has multiplicity 2. NOW,

upon taking the inner product of (3.12) with n and comparing with (3.11) we arrive at

%2+ 2/3q,i - y = 0

(3.13)

where

The equation (3.13) has two distinct real roots provided only that 7 > 0. As it must be in

view of the symmetry property, this occurs in fact as a consequence of (3.10). However, it

is evident that the weaker condition re > 0 is enough for guaranteeing that 7 > 0. The

two roots A+, A- are different in sign, namely A+ > 0,1_ < 0. Moreover, A+ # ii._1 unless

b = 0 or qn = 0. Now, B = 0 means 1e2 = c, c being a constant. In such a case (3.1),

reduces to the relation

rlj=

C2

-7

(g+$ >

PO

equation apart from the factor ee2. The

instance q. = 0 corres onds to propagation into a region where q is orthogonal to n. In

conclusion, I, = + 9 7 if the constitutive relation 1e2 = c holds or if q,, = 0 in the region

ahead of the wave. If, instead, b # 0 then the forward speed i+ and the backward speed

I- are affected by the value of qn; A+ 2 11-1 depending on whether /?q,, 2 0.

The propagation modes connected with the speeds I.* may be expressed as

C(qx 4.J = 0,

It is the purpose

to examine

of the discontinuities

4. GROWTH

OF

DISCONTINUITIES

AND

CRITICAL

TIME

relations, henceforth we

confine our attention to plane w_aves propagating at the speeds i,. Moreover, because

[(q x n),,] = 0, no information concerning the waves is lost if we disregard q x n and set

u=

8

04

li +

Au.,

33

(3.1)

with

state u0 (with 4 = 0). A subscript 0

denotes the value of a quantity at the state u 0; for example, letting r, I be the right and left

eigenvectors of A(u) - i.(u)I, with the normalization

condition Ici.r(j) = 6j, r0 and I, denote

the corresponding

eigenvectors of A(Q).

According

to the general theory on first-order

quasi-linear

systems of differential

equations

[19,20] the discontinuity

vector [u,,] is proportional

to the right eigenvector

co, namely

cu.,1=

and the growth

of the amplitude

II is governed

nro,

by the Bernoulli

equation

6l-I

bt+all+b=O

(4.2)

vector uO, n and b are expressed as

a = (Vj:r),,

b = - (Vd. r)o.

The solution

v =

with a constant

?/al

s,!;y

(

>

4 = 1-w.

of (4.2) is given by

II(t) =

bW3

bexp(bt) -t all(O)[exp(bt)

11

(4.3)

As it us usually the case, the system (4.1) is supposed to be dissipative, that is b > 0. Then.

in view of the denominator

of (4.3), there exists a critical time t, > 0, such that IfI(t)j -* x

if and only if one of these two circumstances

occur:

as t-t,,

(9

a > 0,

II(O) < - $ c 0;

(ii)

a < 0,

l-I(O) > -;

> 0.

straightforward,

but lengthy, calculation

yields

of the temperature

13.Then

34

II coincides with Co,,].

Now for the sake of definiteness choose 1 > 0 and 1. = i., , and hence i. = d/i. So, in view

of the kinematical

condition

of compatibility

[e]= -i.[e,,],

we may write the conditions

(i), (ii) as

[d](O)> $

()

4+3

(4.4)

(4.5)

l ,,

C&O)< +

()

4+3

the characteristic

as

I[e]l g rows provided the initial value I[d](O)j

is greater than the critical initial amplitude

Bo/T14 + 3(lQ/r),l which accounts for the

dissipation due to heat condition. If one of the restrictions (4.4), (4.5) holds then there exists

a finite critical time t, given by

(4.6)

to

T-l, the critical time to T. So if, as it seems reasonable,

T is small then a large critical

initial amplitude

is needed for the discontinuity

I[811 to grow; meanwhile

the wave

discontinuity

becomes unbounded

(shock wave) in a short time.

We end this section by considering

three simple examples for the constitutive

function

1. First, I(0) a 6; then 41 + 3rd > 0 and the discontinuity

grows provided [e](O) > 19,/47.

Second,

l(0) a -0-l;

then 41 + 3ltI < 0 and the discontinuity

grows

provided

[e](O) < -0,/27. Third, I(0) a 8- l/3., the critical initial amplitude is infinite and the initial

discontinuity

dies out in time.

5. SHOCK

WAVES

under which a wave discontinuity

increases in

is described

strength and becomes unbounded

after the time f,. Since the continuum

through a system of equations in a conservative

form, we are in a position to account also

for the resulting shock waves.

Letting s be the speed of the shock wave and n be the normal to the shock front, we

may write the Rankine-Hugoniot

conditions corresponding

to the system (3.1) in the form

[-sspe

+ 4.4= 0,

[-s$q + lnj

Ifs = 0 equation

(5.2) yields

= 0.

(5.1)

(5.2)

35

[l] = 0;

thus the assumption I # 0 implies that

Eel] = 0.

Moreover, ifs = 0 equation (5.1) provides

let s # 0.

Consistently with the previous notation, denote by the subscript 0 the limiting values

ahead of the shock; it follows from (5.2) that

(5.3)

where q, 8, I stand for the limiting values behind the shock. Upon inner multiplying by

and substituting into (5.1) we obtain

rez

r;e;;

( 1

7

1 (4.)0 + $(l

(5.4)

The conditions (5.3), (5.4) characterise the shock; specifically, (5.4) yields

e = e(eO, qo; s)

and then substitution into (5.3) provides

q = q(eo, qo; s).

6. CONCLUSIONS

constitutive model of heat-conducting crystals essentially under the only assumption that

the internal energy be a function of the temperature only. The generality of the model is

expressed through the scalar function I = m and the tensors B and K: the most

common descriptions of heat conductors are easily recognised as suitable particular cases.

Furthermore the model turns out to be described by a conservative symmetric system of

differential equations provided only that the specific heat C and the relaxation time T are

positive. Under these assumptions the main features of temperature-rate waves, critical

time and shock waves have been investigated.

Both the generality and the handiness of the present model allow us to believe that it

may be applied successfully to a large extent when dealing with heat conduction in solids.

REFERENCES

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

(1963).

A. Morro, Temperature waves in rigid materials with memory. .\leccanica

12. 73-77 ( 1977).

C. C. Ackerman and R. A. Guyer, Temperature pulses in dielectric solids. Anh. Ph.rs. SO. I ZR- 185 (I 968 t.

Y.-H. Pao and D. K. Banerjee, Thermal pulses in dielectric crystals. Lerr. .4ppl. Engng Sci. I. 33-41 ( 1973).

B. D. Coleman, M. Fabrizio and D. R. Owen. On ihe thermodynamics of second sound in dielectric cr>stali.

Archs ration. .Vech. Analysis 80, 135- I58 ( 1982).

6. A. Morro, A Gronwall-like

inequality and its application to continuum thermodynamics. Boil. Lfr. .&It/r. Ircrl.

B. 1. 553-562 (1980).

7. A. Morro, Wave propagation in thermo-viscous materials with hidden variables. .-IrcIt. .\/rv/t. 32. I-t% 161

(1980).

8. A. Morro, Evolution equations for dissipative bodies and hyperbolicity. .-tcrr~ .\lct II. 18. X7-231

I IW~I

36

A. MORROand T. RUGGERI

9. A. Morro and T. Ruggeri, Propogazione del calore ed equazioni costituriue, p. 54. Quaderno CNR, Pitagora,

Bologna (1984).

10. K. 0. Friedrichs and P. D. Lax. System of conservation equations with a convex extension. Proc. narn. Acad.

Sci. USA 68, 1686-1688 (1971).

11. S. K. Godunov, An interesting class of quasilinear systems. Soo. Math. 2, 947-948 (1961).

12. G. Boillat, Sur lexistence et la recherche dequations de conservation suppltmentaires pour les systtmes

hypcrboliques. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris A 278, 909-912 (1974).

13. T. Ruggeri and A. Strumia, Main field and convex covariant density for quasi-linear hyperbolic systems.

Ann. Inst. H. Poincard 34, 65-84 (1981).

14. T. Ruggeri, Symmetric hyperbolic system for a viscous heat conducting fluid. Acta Mech. 47, 167-183 (1983).

15. T. Ruggeri, Struttura dei sistemi alle derivate patiali compatibili con un principio di entropia e termodinamica

estesa. Boll. (In. Mat. Ital. Suppl. Fix Mat. 4, 261-279 (1985).

16. K. 0. Friedrichs, On the laws of relativistic electro-magnetofluid dynamics. Communs. pure appl. Math. 27,

749-808 (1974).

17. A. Fisher and D. P. Marsden, The Einstein evolution equations as a first order quasilinear symmetric

hyperbolic system. Comm. Math. Phys. 28, l-38 (1972).

18. A. I. Volpert and S. I. Hudiaev, On the Cauchy problem for composite systems of non-linear differential

equations. Math. USSR Sbornik 10, 544-571 (1972).

19. G. Boillat, La propagation des ondes. Gauthier-Villars, Paris (1963).

20. G. Boillat and T. Ruggeri, On the evolution law of weak discontinuities for hyperbolic quasi-linear systems.

Wave Motion 1, 149-152 (1979).

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