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EFFECTS OF PGF2α AND GnRH ON REPRODUCTIVE

PERFORMANCE OF RED SINDHI CATTLE IN DISTRICT


TANDO MUHAMMAD KHAN.

PROJECT REPORT

BY

GROUP LEADER

SARFARAZ NAWAZ SANJRANI 2K3-AV-71

GROUP MEMBERS

HYDER RAZA HAJANO 2K3-AV-38


MUSHTAQUE ALI MAGSI 2K3-AV-57
NABI BUX SOLANGI 2K3-AV-63
SAJID AZIZ SAMO 2K3-AV-74
AIJAZ HUSSAIN GADEHI 2K2-AV-79

DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY MEDICINE


FACULTY OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND VETERINARY SCIENCES
SINDH AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITY TANDO JAM
2007

I
II
EFFECTS OF PGF2α AND GnRH ON REPRODUCTIVE
PERFORMANCE OF RED SINDHI CATTLE IN DISTRICT
TANDO MUHAMMAD KHAN.

BY

GROUP LEADER

SARFARAZ NAWAZ SANJRANI 2K3-AV-71

GROUP MEMBERS

HYDER RAZA HAJANO 2K3-AV-38


MUSHTAQUE ALI MAGSI 2K3-AV-57
NABI BUX SOLANGI 2K3-AV-63
SAJID AZIZ SAMO 2K3-AV-74
AIJAZ HUSSAIN GADEHI 2K2-AV-79

A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED THROUGH THE DEPARTMENT


OF VETERINARY MEDICINE FACULTY OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
AND VETERINARY SCIENCES TO SINDH AGRICULTURE
UNIVERSITY, TANDOJAM IN CONNECTION WITH THE PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE SEMINAR OF
FINAL PROF. DVM
2007

III
IV
DEDICATION

WE DEDICATE THIS HUMBLE EFFORT TO

TO
Almighty ALLAH,
Our Respected Parents
And
Teachers

Who pursued us to face the reality and


the hurdles of the melancholic life with confidence
without their support, encouragement, and
Prayers we could not have gained success
in any step of
Life

V
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER PARTICULARS PAGE

APPROVAL CERTIFICATE BY THE SUPERVISOR I

RESEARCH CERTIFICATE II

PROJECT REPORT RELEASE FORM III

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS IV

LIST OF TABLE V

ABSTRACT VI

1 INTRODUCTION 1

2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 4

3 MATERIAL AND METHODS 14

4 RESULTS 16

5 DISCUSSION 19

6 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTION 20

LITERATURE CITED 22

SYNOPSIS 27

VI
EFFECTS OF PGF2α AND GnRH ON THE REPRODUCTIVE
PERFORMANCE OF RED SINDHI CATTLE IN DISTRICT
TANDO MUHAMMAD KHAN.

By

Group Leader

SARFARAZ NAWAZ SANJRANI

Members

SAJID AZIZ SAMO


HYDER RAZA HAJANO
MUSHTAQUE ALI MAGSI
NABI BUX SOLANGI
AIJAZ HUSSAIN GADEHI

APPROVAL CERTIFICATE BY THE SUPERVISOR

SUPERVISOR

DR. MUJEEB-UR-REHMAN MEMON


Assistant professor
Department of Veterinary Medicine
Faculty of A.H and V. Sciences
Sindh Agriculture University Tando Jam

DATE OF THESIS RELEASE 2007

7
DEPARTEMENT OF VETERINARY MEDICINE
FACULTY OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND VETERINARY SCIENCES,
SINDH AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITY, TANDO JAM.

RESEARCH CERTIFICATE

It is Certified that the research work presented in this project report entitled
“EFFECTS OF PGF2α AND GnRH ON REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF
RED SINDHI CATTLE IN DISTRICT TANDO MUHAMMAD KHAN” has been
carried out by Mr. SARFARAZ NAWAZ, SAJID AZIZ, HYDER RAZA, MUSHTAQUE
ALI, NABI BUX AND AIJAZ HUSSAIN, under my supervision and guidance in
connection with partial fulfillment of the requirements for the seminar of final Prof DVM
and I confirmed that the work is original.

Date_______________2007 (DR.MUJEEB-UR-REHMAN MEMON)


Assistant Professor
Department of Veterinary Medicine
Faculty of A.H and V. Sciences
Sindh Agriculture University Tando Jam

8
SINDH AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITY TANDO JAM

PROJECT REPORT RELEASE FORM

WE, SARFARAZ NAWAZ SANJRANI, SAJID AZIZ SAMO, HYDER


RAZA HAJANO, MUSHTAQUE ALI MAGSI, NABI BUX SOLANGI AIJAZ
HUSSAIN GADEHI , hereby authorize the Sindh Agriculture University, Tando jam to
supply copies of our project report to libraries or individuals upon request.

(SARFARAZ NAWAZ SANJRANI)

(SAJID AZIZ SAMO)

(NABI BUX SOLANGI)

(MUSHTAQUE ALI MAGSI)

(HYDER RAZA HAJANO)

(AIJAZ HUSSAIN GADEHI)


Date …………………….

9
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I offer my humble thanks to “Almighty Allah” Who enabled me and my

group members to complete one of our life’s academic urges. I express my real thoughts and

feelings to my concerned teacher of seminar Dr. Mujeeb-Ur-Rehman Memon, Assistant

Professor, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary

Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University Tando jam, for his courteous professional advises,

thesis transcript checking and its improvement, motivation, fruitful suggestions and

encouragement during the undergraduate study.

Furthermore, I am grateful to Dr. Mohammad Urs Samo, Professor and

Chairman, Department of Animal Reproduction, Dr. Shamsudin Bughio, lecturer,

Department of Veterinary Pharmacology, Sindh Agriculture University Tando jams. Dr.

Hamzo Khan Otho and Dr. Abdul Gaffar Otho for their precious guidance, help, and

valuable suggestions during research work and during management of the manuscript.

Special thanks are extended to Haji Dr. Abdul Jabbar Otho, veterinary

laboratory technician at Red Sindhi Cattle Breeding and Research farm district Tando

Muhammad Khan Dr Dildar Hussain Kalhoro and Dr Irshad Korejo, and Mr Rab Nawaz

Sanjrani for their help and cooperation in conducting research work. Special thanks are

offered to Dr. Sajid Aziz Samo for his cooperation and help in thesis management and his

Co-workers Mr. Rashid Mehdi Samo, for computerizing the manuscript with great care and

zeal.

SARFARAZ NAWAZ SANJRANI

10
LIST OF TABLES

TABLE PARTICULARS PAGE #

1. Summery of reviews table.


12

Effect of PGf2α and GnRH on occurrence of estrus in Red


2.
Sindhi cattle 16

Effects of PGf2α and GnRH on frequency of estrus signs in


3. 17
Red Sindhi cattle.

Effects of and GnRH on number of services per conception in


4. 18
Red Sindhi cattle.

5. Research Pictures

11
AN ABSTRACT OF THE PROJECT REPORT OF

TITLE: EFFECTS OF PGf2α AND GnRH ON REPRODUCTIVE


PERFORMANCE OF RED SINDHI CATTLE IN DISTRICT TANDO
MUHAMMAD KHAN.

REG. NO. 2K3-AV-71 FOR SEMINAR FINAL PROF. DVM


2K3-AV-74, 63, 57, 38, 2K2-AV-79

Fifteen apparently healthy postpartum anestrous RED SINDHI cattle were

used for present investigations during the month of November 2007- December 2007. The

animals were divided into 3 groups. Group-A (control), group-B (PGf2α) and group-C

(GnRH) and the occurrence of estrus was recorded in all the groups.

The treatment group C, (GnRH) induced behavioral estrus in 60% of the

animals within 3-6 days followed by group A (40%) within 6-35 days and group B (20%)

within 9-15 days after treatment. The intensity of estrus signs was also of the same order it

indicates that highest percentage of estrus signs were observed in group C, followed by

group A and group B.

It was found that the treatment group C (GnRH) was better in showing estrus

signs. The number of services per conception recorded was 1.29, 1.33 and 1.26 for groups A,

B and C respectively. The higher conception rate was found in group-C (40%) followed by A

(20%), and B (0%) groups. The over all mean conception rate was found to be 39%.

It was concluded that hormonal treatment induced early cyclic activity,

reduced service period, produced prominent estrus signs and increased conception rate in

post partum anestrous Red Sindhi Cattle. Administration of GnRH treatment was useful

treatment regime to minimize the number of anestrous animals.

12
CHAPTER -I

INTRODUCTION

Anestrous is the main factor that negatively affects reproductive performance

of animals breed in these regions of the globe. Several factors affect postpartum anestrous,

including suckling and maternal-offspring bond, and pre- and postpartum nutritional status.

The short duration of estrus and the tendency to show estrus during the night, greatly affect

the efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) programs in B. indicus cattle managed in

tropical areas. Several restricted suckling or weaning procedures (temporary or permanent),

and hormonal treatments have been used to induce ovulation and cyclicity in postpartum

cows. Most of hormonal treatments are based on progesterone/progestogen (P4) releasing

devices associated with estradiol benzoate (EB), or a combination of GnRH/PGF

(2alpha)/GnRH (Ovsynch). A treatment with GnRH/PGF2 (alpha)/GnRH has presented

inconsistent results, probably due to the variable number of cows in anestrous. Treatments

using P4 devices and EB have resulted in apparently more consistent results than Ovsynch

programs in B. indicus cattle; however, pregnancy rates are low in herds presenting high

anestrous rates and moderate to low body condition. The addition of an eCG treatment at the

time of device removal, which increases plasma progesterone concentrations and pregnancy

rates in anestrous postpartum suckled B. indicus cows, may be useful to improve

reproductive performance of beef cattle in tropical climates (Baruselli et al. 2004).

The most important factors causing increased calving interval are poor

detection of the estrus, silent heat sign, delayed estrus and anestrous. After parturition, repeat

breeding and seasonal influence on reproduction which results in long calving interval

13
(Lindell et al. 1980). Postpartum anestrous causes long calving interval. It is due to

persistence of corpus luteum (C.L) of previous pregnancy or failure in the resumption of

ovarian cyclicity (Jainudeen and Wahab, 1987) and causes reduced fertility in cattle’s true

anestrous 58% and silent anestrous 32% (Samad et al, 1984). The incidence of postpartum

anestrous was reported 31-69%. It has been found that hormonal treatment can effectively

reduce the interval to first ovulation, and synchronize of estrous. The presence of C.L, PGF2

alpha brings animal in heat within 6 days (Smith et al, 1998). Administration of

gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) causes a predictable release of LH. It stimulates

the release of both FSH and LH (Foster et al, 1980), and improves fertility in repeat

breeding cattle. It reduces progesterone concentration (Lucky and Stevenson, 1986).

Administration of GnRH hormone during early postpartum period causes reduced calving

interval especially in problem animals. Prostagalandin and its analogue have a positive

effect on uterine tone, and it may shorten the interval from parturition to complete involution

of uterus in dairy cattle (Stefan et al, 1984).

It is considered as drug of choice in reproductive management and it may

overcome the anestrous problems and produces a number of other advantages like reduce

calving interval, efficient management, seasonal attracts of the marketing and profitable

dairy business. In developing countries, like Pakistan the veterinary extension services are

lacking and farmers are not familiar with management of reproductive problems particularly

the anestrous cases. The induction of estrous in anestrous cattle can be attempted by

enucleating of corpus luteum within the use of PGF2 alpha. Therefore this research work is

proposed to investigate the effects of prostaglandins and gonadotropin releasing hormone on

postpartum anestrous in Red Sindhi Cattle.

14
OBJECTIVES

1. To device managemental tool to minimize anestrous problems in postpartum Red

Sindhi cattle.

2. To reduce calving interval.

15
CHAPTER-II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Amaya et al. (2007). To determined whether dairy cows can be induced to

ovulate by the treatment with gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) followed by

prostaglandin F (2 alpha) (PGF (2 alpha)) during the early postpartum period and to describe

their ovarian and hormonal responses according to ovarian status. In conclusion, a 7-day

GnRH-PGF (2 alpha) synchronization protocol can effectively induce dairy cows to ovulate

as early as 21 days postpartum, regardless of ovarian status.

Kasimanickam et al. (2006). Investigated the effects of timing of

prostaglandin F2(alpha) (PGF2(alpha)) administration, controlled internal drug release

device (CIDR) removal and second gonodotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) administration

on the pregnancy outcome in CIDR-based synchronization protocols. In conclusion, in a

CIDR-based Ovsynch synchronization protocol, delaying administration of prostaglandin

and CIDR removal by 12 h, or timing of the second GnRH by 16 h, did not affect pregnancy

rates to FTAI. Therefore, there may be an opportunity to make changes in synchronization

protocols with out adversely affecting FTAI pregnancy rates.

It was hypothesized that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) treatment

at the time of insemination and 12 days later increases conception rates. in high producing

dairy cows during the warm season (López et al. 2006).

16
Alnimer. (2005). In his study, A total of 226 out of 245 postpartum lactating

dairy cows in a commercial dairy farm were allocated in two groups of estrous

synchronization protocols in order to evaluate reproductive performance. One group was

treated with oestradiol benzoate (ODB) and PGF2alpha on day 10 of the estrous cycle with

insemination at the detected estrus, the second group underwent the Ovsynch (OVS)

protocol (GnRH + PGF2alpha + GnRH) with timed AI. The results indicate that pregnancy

rates for first AI were similar, but overall pregnancy rates up to the fourth AI tended to be

higher for OVS than EPE cows, while days open was tended to be lower for OVS than EPE

cows.

Ahuja et al. (2005). In this study anestrous and lactating Bos Taurus by Bos

indicus crossbred cows with minimum body condition were studied to determine the

efficacy of GnRH+PGF 2alpha combinations for induction of estrus and/or ovulation on

pregnancy rate during the months of the year when temperatures are greater. The Ovsynch

and CO-Synch protocols resulted in greater pregnancy rates compared with the Select Synch

protocol in Bos Taurus/Bos indicus cows with minimum body condition that were anestrous

and lactating during the summer months in a tropical environment.

Bridges et al. (2005). In their two experiments evaluated a modified delivery

of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) after a melengestrol acetate (MGA) treatment in

Angus and Bos indicus x Bos Taurus (BI) heifers. In conclusion, treating yearling BI heifers

with split treatments of PGF2alpha (given on two consecutive days) improves estrous

response and pregnancy rates by increasing PGF2alpha-induced luteolysis.

17
Bartolome et al. (2005). The objective of this study was to compare

pregnancy rates to resynchronization and timed AI (TAI) protocols in lactating dairy cows

that received GnRH at 23 d and were diagnosed not pregnant at 30 d after the pre-enrollment

AI. In addition, there were no differences in pregnancy losses. For cows without a CL,

GnRH on day 0 increased the proportion of cows with a CL on days 7 and 17 and plasma P4

concentration on day 17 in cows with ovarian cysts but not for cows in proestrus. The CIDR

insert increased pregnancy rate in cows with ovarian cysts but reduced pregnancy rate for

cows in proestrus.

Dalton et al. (2005). The objective of this study was to compare conception

rates of cows exhibiting spontaneous estrus and receiving artificial insemination (AI) before

completion of a timed AI protocol with cows that did not display estrus spontaneously, but

were inseminated after 1 of 3 GnRH-PGF2alpha protocols. Pregnancy was diagnosed 38 to

45 d after AI by palpation per rectum of uterine contents. Nearly 11% of all cattle exhibited

spontaneous estrus and received immediate AI. Herd did not influence the percentage of

cows detected in estrus and inseminated. Conception rates did not differ among treatments.

Conception rates differed between herds, but no interaction of herd x treatment was

detected. No differences were detected between herds for days in milk, milk production, AI

service number, or parity.

Kieth et al. (2005). The objective of this research was to determine if

PGF2alpha-induced milk letdown (ML) is an accurate indicator of luteolysis, allowing cows

to be synchronized to begin the Ovsynch protocol (GnRH-7d-PGF2alpha-2d-GnRH-24h-AI)

at the most beneficial time of the estrous cycle (days 5-9), and determine if this would

improve pregnancy rate (PR). Therefore, the ML test indicated luteolysis with sufficient

18
precision to time the initiation of the Ovsynch protocol between days 5 and 9 of the cycle,

however, this did not alter PR compared to starting the protocol randomly throughout the

cycle. Initiating the Ovsynch protocol between days 5 and 9 of the cycle increased PR, and

improved the efficacy of each injection.

Wittke et al. (2005). Determined the efficacy of a protocol for the

synchronization of ovulation followed by timed AI (OVSYNCH) was compared with a

reproductive management protocol based on induction of estrus after rectal palpation using

PGF2alpha. Quality of estrus as accessed by the AI technician did not reveal a relationship

to conception rate after OVSYNCH and timed AI.

Santos et al. (2004). Investigated the estrus detection rate after PGF2alpha

tended to be lower in multiparous cows receiving bST, and bST reduced returns to estrus in

nonpregnant cows. Pregnancy loss was similar for cows inseminated following ED or the

Ovsynch protocol. There was a positive impact of bST on fertility of cyclic cows

inseminated at fixed time or at detected estrus, but effective resynchronization protocols are

needed to optimize reinsemination of non-pregnant bST-treated cows.

Borman et al. (2003). In this study an oestrous synchronisation protocol was

developed for use in lactating dairy cows using PGF (2alpha), GnRH, and oestradiol

cypionate (ECP). The PGP protocol increased the number of cows that ovulated after the

first PGF (2alpha) injection and produced a more mature dominant follicle at the time of the

second PGF (2alpha) injection. Adding ECP to PGP (PGPE (1)) enhanced the expression of

estrus and increased ovulation percentage. The combination of PGP and ECP is potentially a

new method to routinely synchronise estrus and ovulation in dairy cows.

19
DeJarnette et al. (2003). Investigated the effects of two pre-synchronization

treatments on synchronized AI pregnancy rates of lactating dairy cattle were compared.

However, the numeric shift towards reduced pregnancy rates in Co synch-treated cows

suggests the 12h interval between GnRH and AI may be important to optimize conception

rates in GnRH-PGF(2alpha)-based TAI protocols in dairy cattle. Each of the pre-

synchronization protocols evaluated in present study performed with comparable efficacy.

Although the Co synch protocol facilitates more efficient labor utilization, numeric trends

toward reduced conception warrants further investigation.

Mialot et al. (2003). In their research the effects of various factors on

ovulation, apparent early pregnancy and pregnancy rates were studied using logistic mixed

models. There was no significant difference In conclusion, although pregnancy rates were

similar for the two treatments, the combination of GnRH+PGF2alpha+GnRH in suckled

beef cows induced a lower rate of ovulation than treatment with PRID+PGF2alpha,

particularly in anestrous cows.

Willard et al. (2003). A study was conducted to evaluate whether

administration of GnRH post insemination would improve reproductive performance in

heat-stressed dairy cattle. Estrous cycles of Holstein cows were synchronized using the

OvSynch protocol and cows were artificially inseminated. The treatment of heat-stressed

dairy cows with GnRH post insemination (Day 5 or 11) results in the appearance of more CL

tissue, increased serum concentrations of P (4) and a tendency toward greater pregnancy

rates.

20
Cavalieri et al. (2002). In their investigation administration of GnRH was

compared to ODB at synchronised pro-oestrus results in similar reproductive performance.

Treatment with GnRH reduced the proportion of cows detected in estrus following

treatment. This may offer advantages to the way AI is managed by enabling insemination at

a fixed-time and removing the need for the detection of estrus.

Richardson et al. (2002). In this study, our objectives were to determine the

fertility of heifers after synchronization of estrus using PGF2alpha, preceded by

progesterone (P4), GnRH, or both, and to examine the variability of estrual characteristics in

heifers before first and second AI. In dairy heifers, conception and pregnancy rates were

greatest with P4+PGF, followed by P4+GnRH+PGF and GnRH+PGF, respectively. The

opposite was observed among treatments in beef heifers. Administration of P4 without the

preceding injection of GnRH produced the lowest pregnancy rates in beef heifers.

Dejarnette et al. (2001). Investigated the efficacy of GnRH and PGF2alpha

(7-day injection interval) for estrus synchronization is diminished by estrous expression

before PGF2alpha (premature estrus; PE). Effects of modifications to GnRH-PGF2alpha

protocols on the incidence of PE and other indicators of reproductive performance were

evaluated. GnRH-PGF2alpha injection intervals resulted in similar synchronized

reproductive performance. GnRH and PGF2alpha injections eliminated the occurrence of

premature estrus and improved conception rate per AI of late-calving cows.

Dejarnette et al. (2001). Determined the effect of GnRH pretreatment on

estrus detection rate, precision of estrus, and reproductive performance of postpartum beef

cows synchronized to estrus using GnRH and PGF2alpha was evaluated. The pretreatment

21
with GnRH tended to increase pregnancy rates during a 6-d synchronization period,

primarily through enhanced conception rates of cows bred by TAI. In contrast to our

hypothesis, GnRH pretreatment did not increase the percentage of animals detected in estrus

or the precision of estrus expression.

Martínez et al. (2000). In this research work determined the estrous response

and pregnancy rate in beef cattle given a controlled internal drug release (CIDR-B) device

plus prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF) at CIDR-B removal, and estradiol or gonadotropin

releasing hormone (GnRH). There were no differences among groups for estrous rates or

conception rates. In cattle given a CIDR-B device and estradiol plus progesterone, treatment

with either EB or E-17 beta effectively synchronized estrus and resulted in acceptable

conception rates to fixed-time artificial insemination.

Foote and Riek. (1999). Conducted a study on eighty multiparous Holstein

cows at calving to receive either 100 micron of GnRH or saline 13 or 14 d postpartum (PP).

The treatment of normal cows with GnRH had no significant effects on the first estrus or the

first estrous cycle PP, on services per conception, days open, or any other reproductive trait

measured. Treated abnormal cows were equivalent to the control normal cows. Thus, GnRH

given 13 to 14 d PP to cows characterized as undergoing slow involution of the reproductive

system, but with no other clinical problems, seems to assist in promoting rapid normal

reproductive function. Subsequent losses due to culling were greatly reduced.

Momcilovic et al. (1998). This study was done to determine the reproductive

performance of lactating dairy cows treated with GnRH and/or PGF2a for synchronization

of estrus and ovulation. There was a significant effect of time of year on pregnancy rate and

22
days from calving to conception, there was no effect of body condition score and lactation

number on the reproductive characteristics evaluated. it was concluded that better

reproductive performance was observed in cows inseminated at a synchronized ovulation

than in those inseminated at a synchronized estrous period.

Stolla et al. (1998). Showed that estrus detection has a tremendous impact on

the reproductive efficiency in dairy farms. Recently the systematic use of hormones for

synchronization of estrus and ovulation has been propagated. These programs are designed

to facilitate estrus detection and/or increase its efficiency. Prostaglandin programs are used

to improve estrus detection and reproductive management in dairy operations. All cows are

treated up to three times in weekly or biweekly intervals at the end of the voluntary waiting

period. Treatment with GnRH will induce a new follicular wave and provide a dominant

follicle in a defined growth phase at the time of PG administration seven days later.

Cruz et al. (1997). In this experiment, Luteinizing hormone (LH)

concentrations were measured in suckled beef cows treated during the postpartum period

with prostaglandin F2alpha and then gonadotropin releasing hormone. PGF2α may exert a

fertility effect by causing a LH release independent of progesterone withdrawal;

administration of PGF2 alpha 30 h before GnRH elevated the GnRH-induced LH release

and ovulation response. In addition, cows with subnormal luteal phases had GnRH-induced

LH surges of less area and peak amplitude than cows with normal luteal phases.

23
Table-1: Indicates summary of reviews

S. No
Author Year Parameter Particulars used Results

Ovarian and Ovulate as early as


PGF2alpha
1. Amaya et al. 2007 hormonal 21 first day
and GnRH
responses postpartum
No effect on
Kasimanickam Pregnancy CIDR
2. 2006 pregnancy rate to
et al. outcome GnRH
FTAI

Increased
3. Lopez et al. 2006 Conception rate GnRH
conception rate
OBD, PGF2alpha,
Reproductive ovsynch Higher pregnancy
4. Alnimer 2005
performance (GnRH+PGF2alph rate for OVS
a+GnRH)
Induction of estrus Ovsynch and CO- Greater pregnancy
5. Ahuja et al. 2005
and ovulation Synch rate

Occurrence of PGF2alpha and Improved estrus,


6. Bridges et al. 2005 estrus and MGA melengestrol pregnancy rate and
pregnancy rate acetate luteolysis
Increase pregnancy
Bartolome et Compare
7. 2005 GnRH and CIDR rate and reduced
al. pregnancy rate
proestrus

Conception rate GnRH and No effect on estrus


8. Dalton et al. 2005
and estrus PGF2alpha and conception rate

Increased
9. Kieth et al. 2005 Pregnancy rate Ovsynch protocol
pregnancy rate

1 Estrus and Ovsynch and


Wittke et al. 2005 No effect
0. conception rate PGf2alpha

1 bST, PGf2alpha Positive impact of


Santos et al. 2004 Estrus
1. and ovsynch bST on estrus

24
PGF2alpha, GnRH
Increased estrus
1 Estrus and and
Borman et al. 2003 expression and
2. ovulation ECP(oestradiol
ovulation %.
cypionate)
1 Dejarnette et GnRH, PGF2alpha Reduced
2003 Pregnancy rate
3. al. and TAI conception rate

1 Ovulation and Lower rate of


Mialot et al. 2003 Ovsynch protocol
4. pregnancy rate ovulation

Ovsynch protocol
1 Reproductive Greater pregnancy
Willard et al. 2003 and progesterone
5. performance rate
(P4)

1 Occurrence of
Cavalieri et al. 2002 ODB and GnRH Reduced estrus
6. Estrus

Increased
1 Richardson Estrus, conception GnRH, PGF2alpha
2002 conception and
7. et al. and pregnancy rate and Progesterone
pregnancy rate
Reduced premature
1 Dejarnette et PGF2alpha and estrus and
2001 Estrus occurrence
8. al. GnRH improved
conception rate
Occurrence of
1 Dejarnette et GnRH and
2001 estrus and duration No effect
9. al. PGF2alpha
of estrus
Occurrence of PGF2alph, GnRH
2 Increase Estrus and
Martinez et al. 2000 estrus and and CIDR-B
0. conception rate
pregnancy rate removal
Estrus cycle, Increased estrus
2
Foote and Riek 1999 services per GnRH cycle and
1.
conception conception rate

2 Momcilovic Estrus and GnRH and Increased ovulation


1999
2. et al.. ovulation PGF2alpha and estrus period

2 Estrus and PGF2alpha and Increased follicular


Stolla et al.. 1998
3. ovulation GnRH growth

2 Fertility and PGF2alpha and Increased luteolysis


Curz et al.. 1997
4. ovulation GnRH and ovulation

25
CHAPTER-III

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Fifteen apparently healthy cattle of Red Sindhi cattle breed showing no estrus

and repeat breeding problem were selected at random and included in this study.

The animals were divided into three treatment groups. Comprising five

animals in each group at Distt. Tando Muhammad khan.

EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL

Group Treatment Natural service

A Normal saline 2ml Day of occurrence of estrus

B PGf2α 2ml Day of occurrence of estrus

C GnRH 2ml Day of occurrence of estrus

Group A. The cows received 2ml of normal saline on day 1st of experiment, observed for

estrus and served as control group.

Group B. The animals of this group received 2ml synthetic analogue of prostaglandin f2α

(PGf2α) dalmazine (cloprostenol) on day 1st of experiment and observed for

estrus.

Group C. The animals of this group received single dose of 2ml (GnRH) Dalmarline

(Lacirelin acetate) on day 1st of experiment and observed for estrus.

All the animals were observed twice a week (morning and evening) for

occurrence of estrus.

26
The following parameters were recorded in each group.
1. Signs of estrus

2. Occurrence of estrus

3. Number of services per conception

4. Fertility rate / conception rate

Natural service was provided and no any palpation was done for pregnancy

diagnosis. Non return was considered as a positive result.

Statistical analysis

The collected data was statistically analyzed by using computer statistical

software (MSTATC). The mean and percentage of occurrence of estrus, number of services

per conception and fertility/conception rate of each group was calculated.

27
CHAPTER-IV

RESULTS

The study was conduct to determine the effect of PGf 2α and GnRH on

fertility rate in postpartum anestrus of Red Sindhi Cattle. The results are presented as under.

Occurrence of first postpartum estrus

Occurrence of the animals showing estrus during the study period is

presented in Table-1. The percentage of the animals found 40%, 20% and 60% respectively,

indicating that the treatment regime C, in which administration of GnRH was found to be

useful for management of postpartum anestrus.

Table -1. Effect of PGF2α & GnRH on the occurrence of estrus in Red Sindhi Cow.

Total number of
Treatment No. of animals
Animals in Percentage (%)
groups observed in estrus
groups.
A. Normal Saline 5 2 40% (21 days)

B. PGF2α 5 1 20% (9-15 days)

C. GnRH 5 3 60% (3-6 days)

Mean 05 02 40%

28
Frequency of estrus signs in Red Sindhi Cattle

The estrus sign and frequency of estrus were most observed in group C

treated with GnRH as compared to B treated with PGF 2 alpha. The frequent urination,

nervous and excitable, mucous discharge, bellowing, stand to be ridden & mounting were

common signs followed by A. B. & C groups. The main estrus signs shown by the animals

of group C (71.43%) followed by group A (57%) and group B (14.28%). (Table-2) indicates

the estrus signs shown by animals with little variation in intensity were in group C (stand to

be ridden, 67%; mounting, 33%; frequent urination, 33%; nervous and excitable, 100%;

mucous discharge, 100%; bellowing, 100% and others, 67%), followed by group B (stand to

be ridden,100% and no any other signs was seen) and in group A (stand to be ridden, 50%;

frequent urination, 50%; mucous discharge,100% and bellowing,50%). Swelling of vulva

and twitching of tail were common signs observed in all groups.

Table -2: Effect of PGF2α and GnRH on frequency of estrus signs in Red Sindhi Cow.

Treatment group
Estrus signs observed Group-A Group-B Group-C
No. of Animals No. of Animals No. of Animals
(2) (1) (3)
Stand to be ridden 01 50% 01 100% 02 67%
Mounting Nil 0% Nil 0% 01 33%
Frequent urination 01 50% Nil 0% 01 33%
Nervous and excitable Nil 0% Nil 0% 03 100%
Mucous discharge 02 100% Nil 0% 03 100%
Bellowing 01 50% Nil 0% 03 100%
Others(swelling of vulva,
Nil 0% Nil 0% 02 67%
twitching of tail)
Mean 57% 14.28% 71.43%

29
Number of services per conception

During the present study period, natural service was provided when the cattle

indicated the signs of estrus. The animals have positive effect on hormonal treatment. The

number of services per conception of postpartum anestrus of Red Sindhi Cattle after various

treatments A, B, and C was found to be as in Table-3, indicates on mean basis that out of 05

animals, 02 showing estrus signs were served by natural service. Out of these 02 animals

only 01 (39%) was conceived.

Table-3: Effect of PGF2alpha and GnRH on number of services per conception in Red
Sindhi Cattle.

Group Total no. No. of No. of No. of Conception


of animals in animals animals rate (%)
animals estrus served conceived

A 05 02 02 01 50%

B 05 01 01 Nil 0%

C 05 03 03 02 67%

Mean 05 02 02 01 39%

30
Pic-1: Dalmarelin (lecirelin acetate)
Group – C: (GnRH)

Pic-2. Dalmazin (cloprostenol)


Group – B: (PGF2alpha)

31
Pic-3: Group A treated animal (CT) symbol. Along
with the owner (Mr. Rehmatullah Hingoro)

Pic-4. Group A treated animal (CT) symbol.

32
Pic-5: Group A treated animal (CT)

Pic-6. Group Members working in the field along


with the care taker of animals in research.

33
Pic-7: Group leader along with care taker of
animals in research.

Pic-8. Care taker along with animals in research.

34
CHAPTER –V

Discussion

In the present study the treatment of GnRH was given in group C on day first

of the study. The present result in group C 60% animals (3) were came in estrus this might

have reduced the calving stress and helped animal to resume ovarian activities earlier.

Similar findings have also been reported by other scienctists (Nash et al. 1980; Cavestany

and Foote. 1985) PGf2 alpha and GnRH is also effective for the management of first

postpartum estrus.

We found the GnRH treated animals had reduced services per conception ,

which were recorded is 39% improvement in the first service pregnancy rate where as

Rayos et al. (1999) found that the GnRH treated animals had reduced services per

conception, which were recorded is 9.3% improvement in the first service pregnancy, 8.3%

in total pregnancy rate and reduction in services per conception from 1.49%(control) to

1.39% for cattle treated with GnRH at the time of first insemination.

The higher conception rate found in group C (60%) as compare to groups B

(20%) and group A (40%). The overall conception/fertility rate is 39% in Red Sindhi Cattle.

These results are in partial agreement with the findings in the Table No 3.(Patterson et al.

1995) who reported the conception rate of 28.8 and 44.4 in Red Sindhi Cattle. (Bhat et al.

1993) also observed highly significant improvement in conception rate due to PGF2α

treatment. The direct effect of PGF2α on conception rate, it can be interpreted with caution

as the higher conception rate in PGF2α treated groups may simply reflect its effect on

conception rate.

35
CHAPTER - VI

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

Summary
The present study was conducted to determine the effect of PGf2α and GnRH

on fertility rate of postpartum anestrus in Red Sindhi Cattle. 15 postpartum anestrus Red

Sindhi Cattle were selected and divided into three treatment group. Group A was given

normal saline. In group B prostaglandin F2α (PGf2α) and group C was given GnRH. The

major objective was to investigate the effect of reproductive hormones (PGf2α and GnRH) to

device a managemental tool to minimize anestrus problems in postpartum Red Sindhi Cattle

and to reduce calving interval. The data were collected on induced estrus, observed intensity

of estrus and related signs, service period, number of service per conception and improve

fertility/conception rate.

In group A (control) 40% of animals came in estrus, in group B (PGf2α) 20%

and C (GnRH) 60% of animals responded in terms of induction of estrus. The conception

rate was recorded as 20%, 0% and 40%. The estrus signs were observed more prominent and

frequent in treatment group C as compared to regular estrus (control animals). The major

common and prominent signs noted induced in treated and control groups were as stand to

be ridden, mounting, frequent urination, nervous and excitable, mucous discharge and

bellowing were recorded most frequent during the study period on vital observation in Red

Sindhi Cattle.

36
Conclusions
It can be concluded from the present study that PGf2α and GnRH treatment in

postpartum anestrus Red Sindhi Cattle.

1. Induced cyclic activities.

2. Showed prominent estrus signs.

3. Reduced service period.

4. Reduced number of services of per conception and improved conception rate.

Suggestions

On the basis of observations made during the present study it can be

suggested that:

• This therapy is a suitable managemental tool to increase conception rate in cattle.

• Prostaglandin (PGf2α) can be used to induce estrus, decrease service period and

avoid economic losses.

• Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) can be used to overcome seasonal stress

and bring the animal back to reproductive function.

• Hormonal profile during treatment regime is suggested to be under taken on a large

number of Red Sindhi Cattle in future studies.

• Causes of anestrus should be investigated.

37
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42