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Summary

Notes
for
Science

Form 4 Chapter 1
Scientific method
Observing a phenomenon

Identifying the problem

Makina a hypothesis

Planning the investigation

Conducting the experiment

Collecting data

Analyzing and interpreting data

Making a conclusion

observingphenomenon
identifyingproblem- phenomenon
hypothesis- Thethe, Thethe
planninginvestigation- hypothesis
conductingexperiment- investigation experiment
collectingdata- experiment

analyzinginterpretingdata- data
Analyzing & Interpreting
Conclusion- data hypothesis

Form4 Chapter 2
Body coordination
Nervous System ( )

Central Nervous System

Brain & Spinal cord ( )

Control the centre of nervous


system

Neurones

Peripheral Nervous System

Consists of nerves
emerging from the brain and
the spinal cord (Cranical
nerves and Spinal nerves)

Link receptors and


effectors with CNS

Sensory Neurone Send nerve


impulses from sensory organ /
receptors to CNS

Relay Neurone / Interneurone sends


impulses from sensory neurone to
motor neurone.

Motor Neurone Receive nerve


impulses from relay neurone and
send to effector

Structure of a neurone
Dendrite : receive impulse from other neurone
Dendron : transmit impulses from dendrite to cell body
Cell bosy : control all cell activities
Axon : transmit impulses out of cell bodu
Myelin shealth : - to ensure the impulses transferred in one direction
- to speed up transmission
Terminal dendrite : transmit impulses to dendrite of other neurone

Pathway of Nervous Impulses


Receptor

Reflex Action

Sensory neurone

CNS

Motor Neurone

Effector

Involuntary action does not go through brain


Fast
Reflex Arc :
Stimulus

Recepto
r

Sensory
neurone

Synapse

Relay
Neurone

synapse

Motor
neurone

Effector

Respons
e

Proprioceptor
A.k.a Strentch receptor
Found in muscle, tendons, ligaments, joints
Funtion : -maintain body balance & coordination
-Coordinate movements and make us aware of our position

Brain
Cerebrum() : control voluntary action
Cerebellum() : Maintain body coordination & maintain body balance
Medulla Oblongata : Controls involuntary action

Endocrine System (hormonal)


Endocrine Gland
Pituitary Gland

Hormone
Growth Hormone

Function
-Master gland

Thyroid Gland

Thyroxine

-promotes growth
-control metabolism rate

Pancreas
Adrenal Gland
Ovary
Testis

Insulin
Adrenaline
Progestrone & Oestrogen
Testrosterone

-stimulate growth
-Control blood sugar level
-increase heartbeat
-Female secondary sexual development
-Male secondary sexual development

Form 4 Chapter 3
Mitosis :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Chromosome thicken and shorten


Replication take place
Chromosome arrange at the equatorial plate of the cell
Chromatids move and divide to opposite poles of the cell, the cell start to separate
Two daughter cells produced

Meiosis :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Chromosome thicken and shorten


Replication & crossing over take place
Chromosome arrange at the equatorial plate of the cell
Chromatids move and seperate to opposite poles of the cell, the cell start to divide
Two daughter cells produced
Chromosome arrange at the equatorial plate of the cell
Chromatids separate and cells start to divide
Four daughter cells are produced
Mitosis

Meiosis

Place occurs
Cell division
Daughter cells
Genetic contents of

Somatic cells-roots and shoot tips


1
2
Same as parental cell

Reproductive cells in ovary, testis


2
4
Different from parental cell

daughter cell
No. of Chromosome
Crossing over
Variation

Same number as parental cell


No
No

Half number of parental cell


Yes
Yes

Functions

-Produce new cells for growth and replace

-Produce gamete for sexual

damaged cells

reproductions, ensure that the


chromosome number of a species is
maintained

Sex determination :
Male = XY
Female = XX
Formation of Twins
Identical Twins ; 1 ovum, 1 sperm, 1 placenta
Non-identical Twins : 2 ova, 2 sperm, 2 placenta
***Siamese Twins

Mutation
Chromosome Mutation :
1. Downs syndrome - extra chromosome 21, total chromosome 47 instead of usual 46
2. Klinefelters syndrome XXY, small testes and sterile
3. Turners syndrome XO, no ovaries, cant develop normal secondary sexual
characteristics.
Gene Mutation :
1. Colour blindness it gene is recessive and found in X chromosome, male > female
2. Albinism when a gene mutation occurs that interferes with melanin production, has
light coloured skin, pink eyes, white hair
3. Sickle cell anaemia less oxygen being transported by red blood cells
***Factors that cause Mutation : Radioactive substances, ultra-violet light, chemical substances
Variation
Discontinuous :
Continuous :

Form 4 Chapter 4
Endothermic (heat adsorbed) : Melting, Evaporation, Boiling, Sublimation ( particle )
Exothermic (heat released) : Freezing, Condensation, Sublimation ( particle )
Differences between Solid, Liquid and Gas

Arangement of the

Solid
Closely packed, fixed

Liquid
Loosely packed

Gas
Far apart from each

particles
Movement of the

position
Only vibrate

Move freely

other
Move freely

particles
Kinectic energy
Density
Ability to compressd
Forces of attraction

Low
high
no
strong

medium
medium
no
medium

high
Low
Yes
weak

between particles

Structure of Atom

Proton
Neutron
Electron

Mass
1
1
negligible

Charge
+ve
Neutral
-ve

Symbol
P
n

*** NUCLEON NUMBER = PROTON NUMBER + NEUTRON NUMBER***

Isotopes

Location
Nucleus
Nucleus
Orbit

***Same proton number but different neutron number


Use of isotope :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Iodine-131 : diagnose thyroid cancer


Cobalt-60 : kill cancer cells
Gamma ray : Sterilize medical equipment or surgical tools
Phosphorus-32 : trace the uptake of water and minerals in plant
Carbon-14 : determine age of plant
: carbon dating find out the age of ancient artifact
6. Irradiation : sterilize canned food, packet foods and processed food
7. Sodium-24 : detect the leakage of pipe / underground pipe

Substances
Atoms
Elements (metal/noble gas)

Molecules
Formed by at least 2 atoms

Ions
(metal + non-metal)

No charge
Not soluble in water
Force attraction between

(non-metal + non-metal)
No charge
Not soluble in water
Force attraction between

Have charge
Soluble in water
Force attraction between

particles is strong
Very high boiling point and

particles is weak
Low boiling point and

particles is strong
High boiling point and

melting point
Conducts electricity in solid

melting point
Cannot conduct electricity

melting point
Only conduct electricity in

and molten state

molten state

Metals and non-metals

Physical state
Surface appearance
Ductility
Malleability
Density
Melting and boiling point
Electrical conductivity
Heat conductivity
Tensile strength

Metals
Solid & Liquid(mercury)
Shiny
Ductile
Malleable
High
High
Yes
Good
High

Non-metals
Solid, Liquid & Gas
Dull
Not ductile
Not malleable
Low
Low
No
Weak
Low

Uses of metals :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Zinc : casing of batteries


Aluminium : cooking utensild
Iron : vehicles, bridges and railway tracks
Tin : plate iron cans
Lead : cable wrappers, electrodes for car batteries
Copper : kitchen utensils, electric wires and water pipes
Silver : coins, photographic film and jewellery
Gold : jewellery

Use of non-metals
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Diamond : to cut glass


Sulphur : to make fertilisers
Chlorine : disinfectant in swimming pools and water purification for plants
Graphite : pencil lead
Nitrogen : insecticides

Purifying Substances

Two ways : Distillation & Crystalllisation

Distillation:

Distillation = boiling + condensation


-separation of petroleum into different
fraction at different temperature
-separation of pure alcohol at the
boiling point 78C from a mixture of
alcohol and water

*** Porcelain chips is to break bubbles


Condenser = liebig condenser

Crystallisation :

A proses of producing crystals froma saturated solution


Cooling the saturated slowly produces large crystal
Can be used to obtain and purify common salt

Form 4 Chapter 5

Physical change does not involve new substances, revisable


Chemical change involve new substances, not revisable

*** Endothermic : absorb heat (ammonium chloride)


*** Exothermic : release heat (sodium hydroxide)

Equations:
Metal + water = metal hydroxide + hydrogen
Metal + hydrochloric acid = metal chloride + hydrogen
Metal + nitric acid = metal nitrate + hydrogen
Metal + Sulphuric acid = metal sulphate + hydrogen
Metal + acid = Salt + hydrogen
Metal + oxygen = metal oxide
Carbon + metal oxide = metal + carbon dioxide
Reactivity series of metals
Potassium

Iron

Sodium

Tin

Calcium

Lead

Magnesium

Copper

Aluminium

Silver

Carbon

Gold

Zinc

Platinium

Extraction of metals
Tin oxide = tin ore
Coke = carbon
Limestone is used to remove
impurities
Furnace is heated up to 1400C
Slag= impurities
Hot wasted gasses = oxygen
(left), carbon
dioxide/furnace gas(right)
Molten tin is channeled out from
the furnace
Tin oxide + Carbon = Tin +
Carbon dioxide

Electroplating

***Anode might be copper, silver or chromium


***Electrolyte might be copper (II) sulphate or Silver Nitrate

Anode become thinner


Cathode cover with a layer of brown(copper) or silver(silver) solid
Using small electric current to ensure the brown or silver coated on the cathode
Coating key in industry

Purification

Anode = impure metal (mass decrease)


Cathode = pure metal (mass increase)

The production of electrical energy by a simple cell

Two different metals dipped in an electrolyte give a voltmeter reading.


Chemical energy
Electrical energy

Various type of cells


Cells
Dry cell

Advantage
-Light and easily

Disadvantage
-not long-lasting

Usage
Radio, calculator,

carry along

-not rechargeable

torch

Lead-acid

-constant current
-rechargeable

-heavy and expensive

Vehicle

accumulator

-supplies high

-Electrolyte(sulphuric

voltage for long

acid) will corrodes

period

spills over easily (can

-long-lasting

kill people)
-not rechargeable

-supply higher

-more expensive

Silver oxide-zinc cell

current than dry cell


-long-lasting

-not rechargeable

Watch

Nickel-cadmium

-constant current
-long-lasting

-expensive

Mobile phone

battery

-rechargeable

Alkaline battery

Watch, toy, torch