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CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY, SOCIAL POLICY


0061. Aikman, S. MARCHING TO DIFFERENT RHYTHMS: INTERNATIONAL NGO
COLLABORATION WITH THE STATE IN TANZANIA. Development in Practice. 2010,
20(45):498510.
This contribution examines relationships between international NGOs and state education
institutions in their efforts to achieve Education for All. It does this through an investigation of
Oxfam GBs multi-level and multi-strategy approach to education in Tanzania. Looking at
three components of this programme, it explores what a one-programme approach means for
Oxfam GBs education work and investigates its partnerships and advocacy relationships at the
local and national levels with different state education institutions and agents. The boundaries
of partnership and collaboration are discussed and it concludes that advocacy-practices need to
be viewed as multiple, part of a process, and emergent.
0062. Backman, C. VOCABULARIES OF MOTIVE AMONG EMPLOYERS CONDUCTING CRIMINAL BACKGROUND CHECKS. Acta Sociologica. 2011, 54(1):2338.
The use of criminal records in the recruitment process has increased dramatically in Sweden
over the past decade. The article analyses the various vocabularies of motive used to account
for the practice in order to examine how it is justified and legitimized by those resorting to it:
employers, representatives of employers organizations and union representatives in the business sector who endorse criminal background checks as part of the employee screening
processes. The dominant vocabulary as articulated in the interviews appealed to notions of corporate risk and security. However, it was contested by an alternative vocabulary focusing on an
individuals right to privacy and reintegration, and by a third vocabulary centring on the notion
of trust. To stress their character as moral actors, employers who checked criminal records
avoided relying on the risk vocabulary alone. They tended in addition to incorporate elements
of the rights vocabulary to justify their actions against the values embodied in it. Even though
the results of the study suggest parallels between the increase in the use of criminal background
checks and a shift toward a control society or a society of exclusion, they also show that
legal rights of the individual still inform the justificatory discourses at least in Sweden.
0063. Banga, S. THE BLANK SPOT ON THE MAP: WILLIAM LEAST HEAT-MOON
AND BIOREGIONALISM. Journeys. 2010, 11(2):5169.
William Least Heat-Moon is a contemporary American writer well known for his first bestseller, Blue Highways (1982), and for his numerous subsequent contributions to road narratives. His second book, however, departs from this model by producing a deep map of a
single Kansas county. Drawing upon recent ecocriticism, I argue that although Heat-Moon is
often classified as a local color journalist, PrairyErth (a deep map) (1991) suggests why he is
also an unlikely bioregionalist who unsettles wasteful approaches to governing local ecosystems. With a painterly habit of focusing on absence, Heat-Moon uses negative space and what
he calls skewed vision to reveal place indirectly. By understanding that these techniques are
metonymic, we also understand something about bioregionalism and travel writing in general:
these genres not only register absences and symbolic substitutions, but teach us about the
intimacy and interdependence of a modern life in which isolation is a fiction.
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2014, Baywood Publishing Co., Inc.
http://baywood.com

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0064. Bano, M. MADRASAS AS PARTNERS IN EDUCATION PROVISION: THE


SOUTH ASIAN EXPERIENCE. Development in Practice. 2010, 20(45):554566.
Madrasas, Islamic schools, are prominent non-state education providers in South Asia, especially for hard-to-reach children in Muslim communities. Recent attention on madrasas has,
however, focused on their alleged links with militancy, overshadowing analysis of their role as
education providers. Based on a comparative analysis of the state-led madrasa-modernisation
programmes in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan, which aimed to introduce secular subjects in the
madrasa curriculum, this contribution argues that madrasas can be important partners to advance
Education for All. The forging of such a partnership is, however, contingent on the state making a
serious financial commitment to the reform programme and building a trusting relationship with
the religious elite.
0065. Batley, R., and Rose, P. COLLABORATION IN DELIVERING EDUCATION:
RELATIONS BETWEEN GOVERNMENTS AND NGOS IN SOUTH ASIA. Development in
Practice. 2010, 20(45):579585.
Collaboration between governments and non-state providers of basic services is increasingly
a focus of attention by international agencies and national policy makers. The intention of such
collaboration is to support common goals for achieving universal provision. Drawing on
research in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan, the contribution shows that collaboration can be
successful where NGOs do not depend on limited sources for their funding, and invest time in
building an informal relationship with government officials. In such cases, not only can collaboration strengthen NGO service provision directly, but it also provides opportunities for NGOs
to engage in broader policy advocacy through insider influence.
0066. Beech, N. LIMINALITY AND THE PRACTICES OF IDENTITY RECONSTRUCTION. Human Relations. 2011, 64(2):285302.
The purpose of this article is to contribute a conceptualization of liminality, a state of
in-between-ness and ambiguity, as it applies to identity reconstruction of people in organizations. Liminality is discussed in anthropological and organizational literatures and a composite
understanding is developed here. This incorporates a dialogical perspective and defines liminal
practices along with varying orientations of dialogue between the self and others. Application
of this conceptualization is illustrated by analysis of two cases and a broader application of the
concept to the identity work literature is discussed.
0067. Berry, C. WORKING EFFECTIVELY WITH NON-STATE ACTORS TO DELIVER
EDUCATION IN FRAGILE STATES. Development in Practice. 2010, 20(45):586593.
This viewpoint uses evaluation reports from Nepal, Afghanistan, and Yemen in order to
learn lessons about how donors and governments can work more effectively with non-state
actors to deliver education in fragile states. The evaluation framework draws on the Development Assistance Committee principles for good international engagement in fragile states. The
analysis concludes that a more effective partnership requires better regulation of non-state actors,
increased efforts to build community capacity to hold schools and local government to account
for the quality of services, and more upfront and systematic analysis of the conflict dynamics of
investment in the education sector.
0068. Bisel, R. S., and Barge, J. K. DISCURSIVE POSITIONING AND PLANNED
CHANGE IN ORGANIZATIONS. Human Relations. 2011, 64(2):257283.
This study uses discursive positioning theory to explore how planned change messages influence organizational members identity and the way they experienced organizational change.
Based on an in-depth case study of a home healthcare and hospice organization that engaged in a
multiyear planned change process, our analysis suggests that workers experienced salient change
messages as constituting unfavorable identities, which were associated with the experiences of
violation, recitation, habituation, or reservation. Our study also explores the way discursive and
material contexts enabled and constrained the governing boards change messages as they

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responded to external and internal audiences. We highlight the importance of viewing messaging
as a process of information transfer as well as discursive construction, which has important implications for the way change agents approach issues of sense making, emotionality, resistance, and
materiality during planned change processes.
0069. Broadus, A. D. et al. ATTITUDES ABOUT ADDICTION: A NATIONAL STUDY
OF ADDICTION EDUCATORS. Journal of Drug Education. 2010, 40(3):281298.
The following study, funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), utilized the
Addiction Belief Inventory to examine addiction attitudes in a national sample of U.S. college/
university faculty teaching addiction-specific courses (n = 215). Results suggest that addiction
educators view substance abuse as a coping mechanism rather than a moral failure, and are
ambivalent about calling substance abuse or addiction a disease. Most do not support individual efficacy toward recovery, the ability to control use, or social use after treatment. Modifiers
of addiction educator attitudes include level of college education; teaching experience;
licensure/certification, and whether the educator is an addiction researcher. Study implications, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.
0070. Brooks, E. M. Imagination, Cognition and Personality. THE BASIS OF EPISTEMOLOGY: HOW THE MIND UNDERSTANDS AND DEVELOPS MEANING.
Imagination, Cognition and Personality. 2011, 30(2):225235.
The neurophysiological mechanism of meaning is explained as being essentially the same as
that of consciousness. While consciousness and meaning are not the same semantically, at the
physiological level, the difference between the two functions is mainly that, in the case of
meanings, the underlying qualities are not available to consciousness and unlike consciousness, meanings are understood by the individual as being in the mind instead of in the
environment. With the presupposition of the Identity Theory, both consciousness and meaning
reduce to Understandings within the mind. They are similar mental (physical) constructions.
0071. Brown, G. et al. THE IMPORTANCE OF POLICY IN PERCEPTIONS OF
ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE. Human Relations. 2010, 63(10):15871609.
Organizations create policies in an effort to reduce injustice, as well as address the needs and
interests of organizational members. We argue that individuals can make fairness judgments
related to organizational policies, which are independent from other dimensions of fairness
(i.e. distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice). Results of a field study
with 164 union members found that (a) individuals make judgments about the fairness of policies that are distinct from other forms of justice, (b) perceptions of policy justice predict
variance in behaviors beyond other forms of justice, and (c) perceptions of policy justice interact with distributive and procedural justice to predict behaviors. More specifically, results
show that policy justice interacts with distributive justice to predict turnover intentions and citizenship behaviors towards the union. Policy justice also interacts with procedural justice to
predict turnover intentions. However,this interaction was in the opposite direction from what
we originally predicted. We discuss the implications of these findings for justice research and
practice, as well as provide avenues for future research.
0072. Butterfield, R. M., and Pemberton, C. L. A. AN EXPLORATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELIGIOSITY AND RETENTION. Journal of College Student
Retention. 2011, 12(4):443467.
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between religiosity and retention at
Idaho State University (ISU). Attrition is a problem that has, and continues to plague higher education. Research shows that students who are more integrated in education (both in and out of
class) are more likely to remain enrolled. For this study, religious involvement was examined as
an avenue of educational integration. Data were obtained from 103 respondents to a mail survey.
Factor analysis revealed three useable factors regarding religious attitudes and behaviors. These
factors were analyzed along with demographic variables to explore the relationship between

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religiosity and retention. The demographic information showed that the sample was representative of the ISU student population. Although statistically significant differences based on
demographics in terms of enrollment were not found, significant differences were noted between
males and females across some enrollment related demographic variables.
0073. Canaan, J. E. ANALYSING A NEOLIBERAL MOMENT IN ENGLISH HIGHER
EDUCATION TODAY. Learning and Teaching. 2010, 3(2):5572.
English higher education, like other parts of the public sector and higher education in other
countries, is currently undergoing considerable change as it is being restructured as if it were a
market in which universities, departments and academics compete against one another. This
restructuring is producing new processes of subjectivity that discipline those who work and
study in higher education institutions. Feminist poststructuralists have suggested that this
restructuring is enabled partly through new forms of accountability that seemingly offer the
carrot of self-realisation alongside the stick of greater management surveillance of the burgeoning number of tasks that academics, amongst others, must perform. This paper, located in
the context of these changes, builds on Judith Butlers insight that processes of subjection to the
dominant order through which the self is produced entail both mastery and subjection. That is,
submission requires mastery of the underlying assumptions of the dominant order, which concomitantly introduces possibly subversive responses to subjection. This paper explores a
neoliberal moment I recently experienced when I had to fill out a form introduced for modules
that failed to reach newly introduced marking benchmark criteria. As I suggest, the process of
being subjected to the disciplining that this new criterion demanded, brought me the mastery
necessary to avoid such disciplining in future. However, individual subversion did not
significantly challenge these forms of accountability; only a collective scholarship with
commitment could do so.
0074. Casely-Hayford, L., and Hartwell, A. REACHING THE UNDERSERVED WITH
COMPLEMENTARY EDUCATION: LESSONS FROM GHANAS STATE AND NONSTATE SECTORS. Development in Practice. 2010, 20(45):527539.
Between 199506 and 200506, more than 85,000 children between the ages of 8 and 14 years
participated in a complementary education programme in rural areas of northern Ghana. School
for Life, a non-profit organisation, provides nine months of instruction in the childrens spoken
language. An impact assessment of the programme demonstrates that complementary education
programmes are able to help children attain basic literacy in their mother tongue within a shorter
timeframe and more cost-effectively than formal state primary-school systems can.
0075. Clarke, J. SO MANY STRATEGIES, SO LITTLE TIME . . . MAKING UNIVERSITIES MODERN. Learning and Teaching. 2010, 3(3):91116.
This article examines the modernisation of universities in the U.K., arguing that heterogeneous
policy objectives and strategies have become condensed in the construction of higher education as
a governable system and the university as a corporate enterprise. It argues that managerialism
has displaced and subordinated professional and administrative logics for the coordination of universities, articulating them into supporting roles. Finally, it examines some of the cultural
psychological states associated with the contradictory and uncomfortable assemblage that is the
modernized university: identifying fantasy, dissociation and professional melancholia. It concludes with an argument that nostalgia for a lost academic community cannot be a foundation for
political challenges to the present model.
0076. Cockrell, C. N., and Shelley, K. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACADEMIC
SUPPORT SYSTEMS AND INTENDED PERSISTENCE IN DOCTORAL EDUCATION.
Journal of College Student Retention. 2011, 12(4):469484.
This study investigated the relationship of formal academic support systems and stage of
doctoral study on persistence, satisfaction, and knowledge of resources, expectations, and customs in doctoral education. Doctoral students (N = 141) enrolled in four public institutions in a

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southeastern state were surveyed. An online questionnaire, adapted from the 1999 Survey on
Doctoral Education, was used to survey participants. Approximately 94% of the participants
self-reported intent to persist. The majority of the participants also indicated belonging to at
least one support system within the doctoral program. Doctoral programs may consider offering several forms of support to improve doctoral student satisfaction and knowledge of
resources while increasing persistence. Statistically significant correlations were found in student satisfaction with the advisor relationship and advisor practices. Based on these findings,
doctoral programs also should give close attention to the relationship between the advisor and
the student.
0077. Cogan, M. F. PREDICTING SUCCESS OF ACADEMICALLY DISMISSED
UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS USING QUALITY POINT STATUS. Journal of College
Student Retention. 2011, 12(4):387406.
This study explored the outcome of academically dismissed students reinstated the semester
following academic dismissal at a medium-size Midwestern University. Logistic regression
was utilized to identify predictors that may assist academic administrators in making decisions
regarding future reinstatement activities. The overall model correctly classified 73.7% of the
subjects in the sample. In addition, a combination of six factors accounted for 32.5% of the total
variance in academic status; however, 19.2% of the variance was accounted for by a single
factor (term of dismissal quality point status). These results indicate the need for careful consideration regarding this little known measure available to higher education academic
administrators.
0078. Commins, S. NON-STATE PROVIDERS, THE STATE, AND HEALTH IN POSTCONFLICT FRAGILE STATES. Development in Practice. 2010, 20(45):594602.
Relations between states and non-state providers in fragile states occur within specific complex political and economic contexts. Moreover, donor approaches to specific fragile states
shape the flow and priorities of aid resources. In the health sector, fragile states have dramatically poor health outcomes, with higher mortality and morbidity rates than other low-income,
relatively stable states.
0079. Copeland, K. J., and Levesque-Bristol, C. THE RETENTION DILEMMA: EFFECTIVELY REACHING THE FIRST-YEAR UNIVERSITY STUDENT. Journal of College
Student Retention. 2011, 12(4):485515.
Student success results from positive learning environments which strive to meet the basic
psychological needs of students, foster self-determined forms of motivation, and cultivate
learning outcomes such as knowledge transfer, meta-cognition, and engagement. Low firstyear student retention rates lead many universities to assess factors associated with student success. By surveying the needs, interests, and goals of 390 first-year students at Missouri State
University, we proposed and tested a conceptual model using group differences and structural
equation modeling. Results supported our general hypothesis that certain antecedents
(e.g., expectations, teachers influences) and motivational processes can lead to enhanced
learning outcomes. Results suggested that autonomy supportive environments allow the basic
need for perceived competence to more successfully impact self-determined forms of motivation. Suggestions are made for institutions to focus on creating positive, autonomy supportive
learning environments in which to improve student satisfaction and success and therefore lead
to better first-year student retention.
0080. DeStefano, J., and Moore, A.-M. S. THE ROLES OF NON-STATE PROVIDERS
IN TEN COMPLEMENTARY EDUCATION PROGRAMMES. Development in Practice.
2010, 20(45):511526.
This contribution reviews ten case studies of complementary education programmes conducted by the USAID-funded Educational Quality Improvement Program 2. The state-nonstate relationship in each case is explored to reveal the arrangements that permit non-state

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providers to extend the reach and improve the effectiveness of education, particularly for populations that are underserved by the state system. Non-state providers improve on the standard
models of state schooling by changing the mix of inputs at the school level, altering the institutional incentives that govern how schools operate, and setting up political accountability
relationships closer to the points of service delivery.
0081. El Akremi, A. et al. THE ROLE OF JUSTICE AND SOCIAL EXCHANGE RELATIONSHIPS IN WORKPLACE DEVIANCE: TEST OF A MEDIATED MODEL. Human
Relations. 2010, 63(11):16871717.
Using data collected on two occasions spaced apart by three months (N = 602), we examined
the relationships between a) distributive, procedural, informational, and interpersonal justice
(measured at Time 1) and b) perceived organizational support (POS), leader-member exchange
(LMX),and organization- and supervisor-directed deviance (measured at Time 2). We found
that POS fully mediated the relationship of procedural justice but not distributive justice to
organization-directed deviance. In addition, LMX fully mediated the relationships of informational justice and interpersonal justice to both supervisor-directed deviance and organizationdirected deviance. The implications of these findings for the study of justice and social
exchange relationships as predictors of workplace deviance are discussed.
0082. Evans, J. A. INDUSTRY INDUCES ACADEMIC SCIENCE TO KNOW LESS
ABOUT MORE. American Journal of Sociology. 2010, 116(2):389452.
How does collaboration between academic research and industry shape science? This article
argues that companies relative indifference to theory nudges their academic partners toward
novel, theoretically unanticipated experiments. The article then evaluates this proposition
using fieldwork, archival materials, and panel models of all academic research using the popular plant model Arabidopsis thaliana and the companies that support that research. Findings
suggest that industry partnerships draw high-status academics away from confirming theories
and toward speculation. For the network of scientific ideas surrounding Arabidopsis, industry
sponsorship weaves discoveries around the periphery into looser, more expansive knowledge.
Government funding plays a complementary role, sponsoring focused scientific activity in
dense hubs that facilitate scientific community and understanding.
0083. Evans, M. FOR US OR AGAINST US: COERCION AND CONSENSUS IN HIGHER
EDUCATION. Learning and Teaching. 2010, 3(2):3954.
In debates about the admission of state school pupils to Oxbridge various individuals within
those institutions have challenged the idea that universities should be vehicles of social change.
At the same time, Oxbridge and other universities have accepted the responsibility of enabling
entrepreneurship and other market-led initiatives. I want to explore some of the implications of
this position in terms of the making of the person in higher education and in particular the ways
in which conservative refusals of the recognition of class, gender and race differences reinforce
wider structural inequalities.
0084. Fleming, P., and Sturdy, A. BEING YOURSELF IN THE ELECTRONIC SWEATSHOP: NEW FORMS OF NORMATIVE CONTROL. Human Relations. 2011, 64(2):177200.
This article extends research about high-commitment management practices in tightly
controlled work environments typified by the call centre. One promising research avenue suggests that normative management systems in such contexts, involving fun exercises and
culture programmes, etc., are more about distracting employee attention away from other,
more taxing controls. This article develops such an approach by exploring the specific nature
and conditions of such distraction. An empirical study of a call centre in which employees
were encouraged to just be themselves (in relation to lifestyle differences, sexuality, diverse
identities, etc.) reveals how the distractions are partly informed by the dysfunctions of existing
technical, bureaucratic and conventional cultural controls, all of which homogenize workers.
Furthermore, the new regime not only serves to distract employees, but proves instrumental in

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capturing their sociality, energy and authentic or non-work personalities as emotional


labour. At the same time, it gives rise to some contestation and less individualistic forms of
authenticity. These outcomes have wider implications for our understanding of worker
autonomy in and around hybrid control systems.
0085. Fliaster, A., and Schloderer, F. DYADIC TIES AMONG EMPLOYEES: EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF CREATIVE PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY. Human Relations.
2010, 63(10):15131540.
Our article makes three contributions to the literature. First, while previous research on creativity and innovation has focused on individuals and teams, we investigate creative dyads.
Second, we consider not only benefits that knowledge workers gain from resourceful partners
but also tie-related costs that both partners incur. As a result we develop a research framework
in which a dyads creative performance is explained by the amount of knowledge that the tie
partners exchange, the level of responsiveness among them, and the efficiency of knowledgerelated collaboration. We test empirically hypotheses drawn from this framework, collecting
data on 1128 possible non-directed ties among employees directly involved in the new product
development of a medium-sized German aerospace company and analyzing these data using
the Multiple Regression Quadratic Assignment Procedure (MRQAP). In the final sections we
discuss managerial consequences, limitations of our study, and directions of future research.
0086. French, R. B., and Simpson, P. THE WORK GROUP: REDRESSING THE BALANCE IN BIONS EXPERIENCES IN GROUPS. Human Relation. 2010, 63(12):18591878.
The intention of this article is to explore and develop Wilfred Bions theory of groups, and to
contribute to its wider application across the social sciences. Bion suggested that groups operate simultaneously in two strictly contrasting ways, based on distinctive mental states, which
he called basic-assumption mentality and work-group mentality. He believed that these
mentalities determine a groups capacity to achieve its purposes. However, the development of
these ideas has tended to focus on the regressive tendency in group functioningon basicassumption mentality. This article attempts to redress the balance by ascribing equal
importance to the notion of work-group mentality. First, it extends Bions framework, developing
the concept of the work group in parallel with the basic assumptions; second, it considers the
dynamic relationship between these two mentalities, in order, finally, to explore the application
of Bions ideas via a case example.
0087. Fuller, B. et al. EXPLORING TOUCH AS A POSITIVE WORKPLACE BEHAVIOR. Human Relations. 2011, 64(2):23l256.
Whereas most research has focused on the negative aspects of touch in the workplace
(i.e. sexual harassment), this study focuses upon the positive use of touch. In an effort to
explain individual differences in the use of workplace touch, three sequential studies are used
to introduce the concepts of workplace touch self-efficacy and workplace touch initiation
anxiety. In Study 1 we develop scales to assess the constructs. Study 2 provides an initial examination of the construct validity of the measures developed in Study I. Results of Study 3 indicate
that supervisor reports of touch self-efficacy and physiological touch anxiety are related to subordinate reports of supervisor touch.
0088. Geddes, D., and Stickney, L. T. THE TROUBLE WITH SANCTIONS: ORGANIZATIONAL RESPONSES TO DEVIANT ANGER DISPLAYS AT WORK. Human Relations.
2011, 64(2):201230.
This article examines management and coworker reactions to employee anger expressions
that violate salient emotion display norms, for example, deviant anger, and explores whether
these reactions can promote subsequent positive change at work. Full-time US employees volunteered information about workplace anger expressions they personally witnessed and felt
went too far. Using open-ended survey questions, we identified three categories of deviant
anger (physical acts, intense verbal displays, and inappropriate communication), as well as

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various formal and informal sanctioning and supportive responses initiated by organizational
observers. Additional data collection and generalized linear modeling analysis revealed that
when coworkers and management responded supportively to the angry employee (rather than
with sanctions or doing nothing), favorable change occurred, improving the problematic situation. Implications for future research, management practices, and employee socialization are
discussed.
0089. Giulianotti, R. SPORT, PEACEMAKING AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION: A
CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS AND MODELLING OF THE SPORT, DEVELOPMENT AND
PEACE SECTOR. Ethnic and Racial Studies. 2011, 34(2):207228.
In recent years, a wide variety of organizations (notably the UN and nongovernmental organizations) have used sport as an interventionist tool to nurture peacemaking across divided
communities. This paper examines and theorizes these peacemaking initiatives across the
expanding sport, development and peace (SDP) sector. I begin by locating SDP projects
within their historical contexts, and as significant elements within the emerging global civil
society. I then set out three ideal-type models of SDP project; namely, the technical,
dialogical, and critical. Each model is examined through a set of common social heuristics,
such as its core objectives and paradigmatic methods. The models may be employed to analyse
other peacemaking and development fields. The first two models are most influential among
existing SDP projects; the potential benefits of the critical model are also outlined.
0090. Glendinning, M. MULTIFACETED MONOLITH: THE HIDDEN DIVERSITY OF
MASS HOUSING. Social Analysis. 2010, 54(2):4759.
Present-day perspectives on the post-war era of state-sponsored social housing generally
portray the movement, internationally and nationally, as one of overwhelming, alienating
homogeneity. If, however, we look carefully at what was done on the ground, we discover a
very different picture, one of subtle and almost limitless diversity. This article combines a short
international overview with a single national case study, that of Great Britain. There diversity
was fostered by strong tensions between municipal and national state agencies and between
production- and design-oriented professionals, many of whom were in fact employed by
agencies of the state.
0091. Gray, J. BUILDING A HOUSE IN NEPAL: AUSPICIOUSNESS AS A PRACTICE
OF EMPLACEMENT. Social Analysis. 2011, 55(1):7393.
The subject of auspiciousness and inauspiciousness in South Asian society has largely been
analyzed as a temporal condition in which there is a harmonious or inharmonious conjunction
of people and events in time. In this article, the construction of houses by high-caste people
living in a hamlet in Nepal is used to argue for a reconceptualization of auspiciousness and
inauspiciousness as practices of emplacement in space and time. The analysis demonstrates
how the rituals associated with the various stages of construction ensure the new houses compatibility with its spatial milieuthe soil, the site, the cardinal directions, and the reigning
deities, as well as the vital force of the earth. Together with the auspicious timing of each stage
of construction and its associated ritual with the owners horoscope, the result of the building
process shows auspiciousness to be a harmonious conjunction of person, place, and time.
0092. Harvey, P., and Harris, K. J. FRUSTRATION-BASED OUTCOMES OF ENTITLEMENT AND THE INFLUENCE OF SUPERVISOR COMMUNICATION. Human Relations.
2010, 63(11):16391660.
Psychological entitlement is a relatively stable tendency toward inflated self-perceptions
and unrealistic expectations concerning praise and rewards. This study investigates two behavioral outcomes of entitlementpolitical behavior and co-worker abuseand the mediating
role of job-related frustration. We also examine the impact of supervisor communication
(i.e. evaluative and informative communication) on the relationship between psychological
entitlement and frustration. Results of a study of 223 employees suggested that entitlement was

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 27

positively associated with both political behavior and co-worker abuse, and that frustration
partially or fully mediated both relationships. Additionally, results suggested that relatively
high levels of supervisor communication reduced job frustration for less-entitled employees
but exacerbated the frustration reported by those with stronger entitlement perceptions.
0093. Henderson, S. OFF THE STREETS AND INTO THE FORTRESS: EXPERIMENTS IN HIP SEPARATISM AT TORONTOS ROCHDALE COLLEGE, 19681975. The
Canadian Historial Review. 2011, 92(1):107134.
Torontos Rochdale College (19681975) represented something much more than simply a
new venue for countercultural experimentation and identity in the centre of English Canadas
biggest city. It served as a bridge between the hip emphasis on public performativity that characterized the Yorkville scene of the mid-1960s and the more private hip separatism of the early
1970s. The symbolic association between Rochdale and impenetrability was central to both
Rochdalians self-identification and its perception by outsiders; there also were connections
between Rochdale and the broader trend toward hip separatism in the years after 1968.
0094. Jones, L. I., and Torres, C. A. STRUGGLES FOR MEMORY AND SOCIALJUSTICE EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA. Development in Practice. 2010, 20(45):
567578.
Popular-education programmes conducted by social movements are reshaping politics and
education in Latin America. Negotiating with governments, they promote social justice while
educationally challenging neo-liberal educational standardisation. Moving from a defensive
towards an offensive strategy, some movements support themselves economically while developing new educational strategies. They encounter both support and opposition from the social
democratic governments in the region. They are at odds with the international bilateral and
multilateral organisations that promote neo-liberal top-down policies, and some of these new
social movements have moved beyond social action in specific regions and national borders
creating regional alliances for their struggle.
0095. Khapova, S. N., and Arthur, M. B. INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACHES TO
CONTEMPORARY CAREER STUDIES. Human Relations. 2011, 64(1):317.
This is the opening article in a Human Relations special issue on Interdisciplinary
approaches to contemporary career studies. After introducing a story of an exceptionalbut
real career, we argue for an urgent shift toward greater interdisciplinary inquiry. We reflect on
the story to describe differences in the way each of psychology, sociology, social psychology,
and economics views the concept of career. We turn to explore what career researchers, representing each of the above social sciences, might not see on their own. In contrast, we highlight
how social scientists can move toward (a) appreciating the limitations of our separate
approaches, (b) introducing more appropriate research methods, (c) maintaining a wider crossdisciplinary conversation, and (d) better serving the clientthe personin our future research.
We continue with a preview of the remaining five articles in this special issue, and propose that
these can serve as stimuli for a wider conversation.
0096. Kinjo, H. EFFECTS OF SELF-PACED ENCODING AND PRACTICE ON AGERELATED DEFICITS IN BINDING THREE FEATURES. International Journal of Aging and
Human Development. 2010, 71(3):185208.
Although much literature suggests that the age-related decline in episodic memory could be
due to difficulties in binding features of information, previous studies focused mainly on
memory of paired associations rather than memory of multiple bound features. In reality, however, there are many situations that require binding multiple features together simultaneously.
Thus, this three-part experimental study using a working memory task examined two fundamental questions: whether and how well older adults perform a working memory task that
requires them to bind three features together (Experiment 1), and whether and how much older
adults memory of units of three bound features could be improved by self-paced encoding and
3 weeks practice (Experiments 2 & 3). The results indicated that although older adults

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performed as well as young adults in remembering one unit of three features, they showed a
deficit in remembering two units, making more severe errors than young adults, and the difference between the two age groups increased when remembering three units. However, older
adults improved their memory performance substantially by two means: self-paced encoding
and practice. The former primarily shortened reaction times while the latter primarily
improved memory accuracy. With self-paced encoding, older adults were also capable of binding at least three units during encoding. Thus, it is possible to assume that under an optimal
encoding period, the age-related deficits occur probably not at encoding but at retention and or
retrieval.
0097. Konrad, A. M. et al. ASYMMETRICAL DEMOGRAPHY EFFECTS ON PSYCHOLOGICAL CLIMATE FOR GENDER DIVERSITY: DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF
LEADER GENDER AND WORK UNIT GENDER COMPOSITION AMONG SWEDISH
DOCTORS. Human Relations. 2010, 63(11):16611685.
This research examined the association between gender composition of the work context and
perceived reward and social outcomes for women and men. A nationally representative sample
of 594 male and 430 female Swedish medical doctors responded to a survey asking them to
report the gender composition of their medical unit, the gender of their immediate supervisors,
and the gender of the head of their work organizations. Participants also responded to previously validated measures of perceived fairness, discrimination, organizational support,
exclusion, and gender harassment. Findings indicated that: 1) women who worked in medical
units with a larger percentage of men reported more gender harassment; 2) women who had a
male supervisor reported less organizational support; and 3) women who worked in an organization with a male head reported more gender discrimination. For men, gender composition
was unrelated to any of the outcome measures.
0098. Korica, M., and Molloy, E. MAKING SENSE OF PROFESSIONAL IDENTITIES:
STORIES OF MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES. Human
Relations. 2010, 63(12):18791901.
This article presents an exploratory account of how medical professionals understand the
relationship between new technology and their professional identities. Drawing on interview
data with senior surgeons from a variety of surgical disciplines, the article draws attention to
how new technologies provide occasions for the evaluation of existing intra- and inter-professional
relationships, and professional identity as a whole. In particular, the role of changing insider/
outsider dynamics is emphasized, as is the importance of recognizing professional identity as in
constant flux at micro-, meta- and macro-levels. The implications for existing theory are discussed, and further research questions identified.
0099. Kuecker, G. D., and Hall, T. D. RESILIENCE AND COMMUNITY IN THE AGE
OF WORLD-SYSTEM COLLAPSE. Nature and Culture. 2011, 6(1):1840.
In this essay we explore how humans might face systemic collapse and/or entry into a dark
age through forms of community resilience. We also note that nature, types of communities,
and degrees of resilience differ in core, peripheral, and semiperipheral areas of the contemporary world-system. Core or global north or first world communities have all but disintegrated
due to neoliberal policies. However, communities in peripheral and semi-peripheral areas
are more emergent, and more resilient. These areas are most likely to have or to creatively
develop strategies to overcome global collapse. We further argue that social scientists need
to develop new definitions of community that go beyond contemporary conceptualizations.
0100. Kunzendorf, R. G. et al. MULTIPLE STYLES OF SELF-CONTROL PREDICT COLLEGE STUDENTS ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION. Imagination, Cognition and Personality.
2011, 30(2):185199.
Two hundred thirty-nine college students were administered Higgins Revised Self-Control
Scale, Huang, DeJong, Schneider, and Towvims Composite Drinking Scale, and our own

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 29

Multiple Styles of Self-Control Scale. Greater amounts of alcohol consumption were associated with two styles of self-controlSociopathic and Consequence-Oriented stylesand
lesser amounts of drinking were associated with 2 more of the 14 styles under studySuppressive and Self-Soothing styles. These findings suggest that the most effective way to negate an
impulse is to weaken the impulse itselfthrough either suppression or self-soothingand that
the least effective way is to try rationally to counteract the impulse by thinking about the
consequences of giving in to it.
0101. Lewis, T. F., and Mobley, A. K. SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND DEPENDENCY
RISK: THE ROLE OF PEER PERCEPTIONS, MARIJUANA INVOLVEMENT, AND ATTITUDES TOWARD SUBSTANCE USE AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS. Journal of Drug
Education. 2010, 40(3):299314.
Many college students are using substances at levels consistent with Substance Abuse or
Dependence, yet little explanation for this phenomenon exits. The aim of this study was to
explore a risk factor profile that best separates those with low and high potential for having a
Substance Use Disorder (SUD). A discriminant function analysis revealed that participants
with a high probability of having a SUD misperceive others alcohol and marijuana use to a
greater extent than those with a low probability of having a SUD. Implications for educators
and counselors on college campuses are discussed.
0102. Lyon-Callo, V. TO MARKET, TO MARKET TO BUY A . . . MIDDLE-CLASS
LIFE? INSECURITY, ANXIETY, AND NEOLIBERAL EDUCATION IN MICHIGAN.
Learning and Teaching. 2010, 3(3):6390.
Corporatisation of universities and restructurings of K-12 schooling in the United States
occurred during a period of broad economic, social and political restructurings, which have
transformed the lives of middle-class Americans. Community and individual level investments
in education are frequently represented as antidotes to increased insecurities confronting these
subjects. This paper draws upon my interactions within both the school system and the university in which I work to explore how such practices continue to make sense to students, parents,
and policy makers despite the lack of evidence demonstrating that such strategies overcome
declining economic security and to suggest possibilities for alternative practices to produce
collective mobilisations against inequality.
0103. MacCormick, J. S., and Parker, S. K. A MULTIPLE CLIMATES APPROACH TO
UNDERSTANDING BUSINESS UNIT EFFECTIVENESS. Human Relations. 2010, 63(11):
17711806.
We propose four theoretically competing climates that are important for business-unit performance: climates for external control, internal control, internal flexibility, and external
flexibility. Using a sub-sample of 620 business units from multiple companies across different
industries and countries, we identified mechanisms by which climates influence business performance, accounting for different stakeholder interests. Climate for external control related
directly to perceived business performance; climates for external flexibility and internal control both related to customer loyalty, which in turn predicted perceived business performance.
Importantly, we show the moderating role of context whereby climate for internal flexibility
was positively associated with perceived business performance, but only when market volatility was high. Drawing on the notion of ambidexterity, business units with higher effectiveness
measures for all stakeholders also had high levels of all four climates, concurrently. The study
supports the value for organizational effectiveness of having multiple climates that collectively
accommodate an internal- and external-focus, as well as control and flexibility.
0104. Majumdar, S. K. et al. MERGERS, JOBS, AND WAGES IN THE UNITED STATES
TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY. Human Relations. 2010, 63(10):16111636.
This article evaluates the human capital consequences of several mergers of local
exchange companies that took place between 1988 and 2001 in the telecommunications

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industry of the United States. Most firms in the sector underwent one merger event while
other firms underwent two events. The levels of jobs and average wages in the firms are
assessed after the merger events and analysis reveals that, while the first merger events experienced by firms led to growth in employment and compensation, second merger events,
which included several mega-mergers of the late 1990s and early 2000s, have led to stagnation and decline in employment levels and to negative human capital outcomes with declines
in wage levels.
0105. Maldonado-Molina, M. M. et al. EFFECTS OF BEVERAGE-SPECIFIC ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION ON DRINKING BEHAVIORS AMONG URBAN YOUTH. Journal
of Drug Education. 2010, 40(3):265280.
Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to
liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use
on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated
in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic regression tested the effects of beverage-specific use on consequences (e.g., alcohol use in the past
month, week, heavy drinking, and ever drunkenness). Compared to wine users, adolescents
who reported drinking hard liquor during their last drinking occasion had increased odds of
alcohol use during the past month (OR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.01-2.05), past week (OR = 3.37;
95% CI = 1.39-8.18), and ever drunkenness (OR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.07-2.29). Use of hard
liquor was associated with increased risk of alcohol-related consequences. Early selection of
certain alcoholic beverages (e.g., hard liquor) may result in negative health outcomes and
problematic alcohol use over time.
0106. Maranto, C. L., and Griffin, A. E. C. THE ANTECEDENTS OF A CHILLY CLIMATE FOR WOMEN FACULTY IN HIGHER EDUCATION. Human Relations. 2011,
64(2):139159.
The literature on womens under-representation in academia asserts that faculty women
face a chilly climate, but there are few theoretically based studies examining this proposition. Relational demography, organizational justice, and social network theories all
identify possible antecedents of chilly climate. Using survey data of faculty at a private
Midwestern US university, we test whether the perception of exclusion (chilly climate) is
influenced by demographic dissimilarity, and perceptions of fairness and gender equity.
We find that faculty women perceive more exclusion from academic departments with a
low representation of women, consistent with relational demography. Perceptions of procedural fairness and gender equity are powerful factors that foster inclusion and warm the
climate for both men and women. The chilly climate for women faculty is a complex phenomenon with multiple causes. Policies that fail to address these multiple causes are
unlikely to be effective.
0107. Marinova, S. V. et al. ARE ALL GOOD SOLDIER BEHAVIORS THE SAME?
SUPPORTING MULTIDIMENSIONALITY OF ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP
BEHAVIORS BASED ON REWARDS AND ROLES. Human Relations. 2010, 63(10):
14631485.
This article tests an integrative conceptual model of organizational citizenship behaviors
(OCB) that combines two dominant distinctions in types of OCB (individual versus organizational target and promotive versus protective orientation). Challenging past research that has
viewed OCB as unidimensional, we propose conceptually meaningful differences in the ways
that employees perceive roles and rewards in relation to different dimensions of OCB. Results
from four non-overlapping samples representing over 1550 employees support systematic
similarities and differences between four specific types of OCB: helping, taking charge, compliance, and sportsmanship. We discuss theoretical and practical implications, emphasizing the
value of future research that focuses on specific types of OCB.

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 31

0108. Mayer, J. D. et al. PERSONAL INTELLIGENCE EXPRESSED: A MULTIPLE


CASE STUDY OF BUSINESS LEADERS. Imagination, Cognition and Personality. 2011,
30(2):201224.
An individuals intelligences promote success in a wide range of life areas, including at
school and at work. A recently proposed intelligence, personal intelligence (PI), is defined as
the capacity to reason about personality and to use personality and personal information to
enhance ones thoughts, plans and life experience. This article employs a multiple case study
of well-known business leaders to see if the expressions of PI are really identifiable in peoples
life expressions. High PI leaders, compared to other leaders, appeared interested in their own
and others personalities, possessed theories of how they were the same as and different from
others, used their identities to motivate themselves, and were able to better speak from the
heart.
0109. Miller, M. K. EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VIDEO GAME
RATINGS IMPLEMENTATION AND CHANGES IN GAME CONTENT AS REPRESENTED BY GAME MAGAZINES. Politics and Policy. 2010, 38(4):705735.
Video game regulation is intended to lessen the potentially negative effects of games by limiting childrens access to age-inappropriate games. Self-regulations, such as the current rating
system, could also encourage manufacturers to reduce sexual and violent content in an attempt
to avoid ratings that would limit their potential buyers. The purpose of this article was to determine if the implementation of the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) was
associated with changes in game content. A content analysis of video game magazine articles
released before and after the establishment of the ESRB ratings determined that violent content
and some sexual content increased nonsignificantly until 2004, when these elements became
significantly more extreme. Other sexual content increased in early years but was stable after
the adoption of the ratings system. Because manufacturers did not dramatically alter game content after the 1994 rating system came into effect, they may also be unlikely to change the
content if the ratings system is modified in the future.
0110. Moulden, H. M. et al. A DESCRIPTION OF SEXUAL OFFENDING COMMITTED
BY CANADIAN TEACHERS. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse. 2010, 19:403418.
The aim of this investigation was to describe teachers who sexually offend against youth and
the circumstances related to these offenses. Archival Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System
reports were obtained from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and demographic and criminal characteristics for the offender, as well as information about the victim and offense, were
selected for analyses. A descriptive approach was used to analyze the qualitative reports for a
group of113 Canadian sexual offenders between 1995 and 2002. The results provide a description of adult male teachers who offended within their position of trust as well as offense and
victim characteristics.
0111. Murray, F. THE ONCOMOUSE THAT ROARED: HYBRID EXCHANGE
STRATEGIES AS A SOURCE OF DISTINCTION AT THE BOUNDARY OF OVERLAPPING INSTITUTIONS. American Journal of Sociology. 2010, 116(2):341388.
Conventional wisdom suggests that when institutional logics overlap, the production of
hybrids signifies collapse, blending, or easy coexistence. The author provides an alternative
interpretation: hybrids can maintain a distinctive boundary and can emerge from contestation,
not coexistence. This alternative interpretation is grounded in an analysis of a critical moment
at the academic-commercial boundary: the enforcement of patents to a key technology on academic geneticists. In their reaction to commercial encroachment, skilled actors (scientists) took
the resources of the commercial logic and transformed their meaning to establish hybrid strategies that preserved the distinctive institutions. Thus, hybrids must be reconsidered as emerging
from conflict and produced through boundary work to maintain the distinction and resilience of
logics.

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0112. Ndlovu-Gatsheni, S. J. THE WORLD CUP, VUVUZELAS, FLAG-WAVING


PATRIOTS AND THE BURDEN OF BUILDING SOUTH AFRICA. Third World Quarterly.
2011, 32(2):279293.
The recent hosting of the World Cup by South Africa invoked what Michael Billig has termed
banal nationalism, manifesting itself through blowing of Vuvuzelas, waving and displaying
of the national flag on vehicles, as well as the wearing of sports regalia (Football Friday) by the
people across racial, ethnic and class divisions. The support for the national teamBafana
Bafana occupied the national centre stage and became the main symbol around which national
pride and unity crystallised. How long will this national unity survive the event? Is South Africa
experiencing one month of fake nationhood? Is this national unity a sign of triumphalism over
divisive nationalisms of the past? This article deploys a combination of Billigs concept of
banal nationalism, Foucaldian discourse analysis and a historical approach to examine how
South African nationalists used the World Cup to enhance the project of nation building. The article analyses the various debates about the nation provoked by the hosting of the World Cup,
particularly how the mega-event spawned a strong spirit of national unity on the one hand, while
simultaneously bringing into sharp focus glaring class divisions and threats of xenophobia, on
the other. It brings together the views of left-leaning dissenters, Afro-pessimists and nationalist
optimists on the impact and meaning of the World Cup for South Africa. Its key hypothesis is that
these competing perspectives cannot be understood without acknowledging the local context of a
society emerging from apartheid oppression and racism, existing within a global terrain that is
provoking contradictory notions of belonging and being an aspirant nation with a weak sense of
nationhood.
0113. Nielsen, K. et al. DOES TRAINING MANAGERS ENHANCE THE EFFECTS OF
IMPLEMENTING TEAM-WORKING? A LONGITUDINAL, MIXED METHODS FIELD
STUDY. Human Relations. 2010, 63(11):17191741.
The introduction of team-working often has positive effects on team members but places significant new demands on managers. Unfortunately, little research has examined whether the
impact of the intervention may be enhanced by providing managers with training during
the change process. To test this possibility we carried out a longitudinal intervention study
(with a no training comparison group) in a part of the Danish elderly care sector that was
implementing teamwork. Kirkpatricks (1998) training evaluation model was used to examine
the effects of training team managers in issues such as teamwork, transformational leadership
and change management on the outcomes of team implementation. We used a combination of
quantitative and qualitative research methods to isolate the impact of manager training on the
success of the teamwork intervention. The results identified some significant, but modest,
incremental positive effects that could be attributed to the manager training. The results also
showed that significant organizational changes during the intervention had an impact on both
the team intervention and the transfer of manager training.
0114. Nss, M. W. CONTRADICTORY EVIDENCE AS A GUIDE FOR FUTURE
RESEARCH: INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PASTORAL LABOUR
AND PRODUCTION. Nomadic Peoples. 2010, 14(1):5171.
While there is a general agreement that labour has a significant effect on agricultural production, questions have been raised as to whether this is the case for pastoral production. While a
review of the literature reveals a prevalent assumption of a positive effect of labour inputs,
studies quantifying the relationship have found contradictory evidence for this assumption.
Consequently, it could be questioned if it is still justifiable to maintain the assumption of a positive relationship between pastoral labour and production. This article argues that this position
is still tenable as previous studies raise important unanswered questions. First, previous studies
have been characterized by varying sample sizes, an important issue if the effect of pastoral
labour is marginal as some evidence suggests. Second, previous studies have used different
measures of pastoral production and as such do not represent clear-cut evidence for or against
the assumed positive relationship.

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 33

0115. Oborn, E., and Dawson, S. KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE IN MULTIDISCIPLINARY TEAMS: STRUGGLE, ACCOMMODATION AND PRIVILEGE. Human
Relations. 2010, 63(12):18351857.
The importance of translating knowledge across occupational boundaries is frequently identified as a means of generating innovation and improving performance. The creation of the
multidisciplinary team is an institutional response to enable such translation and synergy, yet
few studies examine the processes of knowledge generation and translation in such teams. This
article offers a case study that analyses these processes in decisions about the diagnosis and
treatment of patients. Polanyis concept of tacit integration is used to reveal how meaning is
developed and manifest in team decisions and to examine how the discursive resources embedded in tacit knowledge shape clinical practice. We highlight the foundations and dynamics that
privilege the knowledge of some team members to be reconstituted as multidisciplinary group
practice. Privileged knowledge then becomes embedded in the practices of the group. We conclude that the creation of a multidisciplinary structure may support rather than challenge
existing power hierarchies.
0116. Perkins, R., and Neumayer, E. IS THE INTERNET REALLY NEW AFTER ALL?
THE DETERMINANTS OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS DIFFUSION IN HISTORICAL
PERSPECTIVE. The Professional Geographer. 2011, 63(1):5572.
Recent anxieties over the digital divide have centered on the observation that uptake of the
Internet is shaped by a number of identifiable, place-based factors. Yet is the Internet any more
a product of material geography than previous communication technologies? Our contribution
in this article seeks to address this question by deploying quantitative techniques to examine
whether the country-level adoption of past communication networksmail, telegrams, and
telephonewas shaped by similar socioeconomic factors. Our results reveal striking similarities in the domestic attributesincome, education, and trade opennessinfluencing rates of
uptake across all four technologies during their major periods of diffusion.
0117. Peterson, E. B. et al. ADOLESCENTS ATTENTION TO TRADITIONAL AND
GRAPHIC TOBACCO WARNING LABELS: AN EYE-TRACKING APPROACH. Journal
of Drug Education. 2010, 40(3):227244.
The objective of this study was determine if the inclusion of Canadian-style graphic images
would improve the degree to which adolescents attend to, and subsequently are able to recall,
novel warning messages in tobacco magazine advertising. Specifically, our goal was to determine if the inclusion of graphic images would 1) increase visual attention, as measured by eye
movement patterns and fixation density, and 2) improve memory for tobacco advertisements
among a group of 12 to 14 year olds in the western United States. Data were collected from
32 middle school students using a head-mounted eye-tracking device that recorded viewing
time, scan path patterns, fixation locations, and dwell time. Participants viewed a series of
20 magazine advertisements that included five U.S. tobacco ads with traditional Surgeon
General warning messages and five U.S. tobacco ads that had been modified to include nontraditional messages
0118. Petersen, E. B., and Davies, B. IN/DIFFERENCE IN THE NEOLIBERALISED
UNIVERSITY. Learning and Teaching. 2010, 3(2):92109.
In this article the authors take up the invitation to respond to the previous articles in the special issue. They discuss why it is so difficult to speak and write about gender and sexuality, and
difference more generally, in the neoliberalised university. They make the case that the
neoliberal university engages and uses categorical difference, and the individuals inhabiting
these, mainly for auditing purposes. The authors develop the argument that despite the enterprise universitys official commitments to diversity and inclusion, it remains indifferent to
difference, understood as openness to becoming different, to differenciation in a Deleuzian
sense. Difference is privatised and depoliticised and is only acceptable if it is useful and
exploitable in pre-specified ways and if it conforms to and facilitates neoliberal agendas.

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0119. Radcliffe, A. M. et al. DOES WRITTEN EMOTIONAL DISCLOSURE ABOUT


STRESS IMPROVE COLLEGE STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE? RESULTS
FROM THREE RANDOMIZED, CONTROLLED STUDIES. Journal of College Student
Retention. 2011, 12(4):407428.
Several early studies and subsequent reviews suggested that written emotional disclosure
(WED)writing repeatedly about personal stressful experiencesleads to improved academic performance of college students. A critical review of available studies casts some doubt
on this conclusion, so we conducted three randomized, controlled experiments of the effects of
WED versus control writing on grade point average (GPA) of college students. In all three
studies, WED writing was implemented effectivelyit contained more negative emotion
language and generated more negative mood than did control writing. In Study 1, WED did not
influence GPA during either the writing semester or subsequent semester among 96 students
with headaches.
0120. Raub, S., and Robert, C. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF EMPOWERING LEADERSHIP ON IN-ROLE AND EXTRA-ROLE EMPLOYEE BEHAVIORS: EXPLORING
THE ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT AND POWER VALUES. Human
Relations. 2010, 63(11):17431770.
In this research we examined the impact of empowering leadership behaviors (ELBs), psychological empowerment, and individual-level power values on a broad range of employee
behaviors. Drawing on self-determination theory, we hypothesized that ELBs would have
direct effects on in-role and affiliative extra-role behaviors, but that the impact of ELBs on
challenging extra-role behaviors would be mediated by psychological empowerment. Further,
we hypothesized that individual-level power values would moderate the mediated effect of
ELBs on challenging behaviors. Responses to questionnaires from 541 employees and their
supervisors were obtained from 16 hotel properties located in II Middle Eastern and Asian
countries. Results supported our hypotheses of direct and mediated effects of ELBs on
employee behaviors, and supported moderated mediation involving psychological empowerment and power values such that psychological empowerment was more strongly related to
challenging behaviors for individuals low in power values.
0121. Rose, P. ACHIEVING EDUCATION FOR ALL THROUGH PUBLICPRIVATE
PARTNERSHIPS? Development in Practice. 2010, 20(45):473483.
Education is commonly regarded as a state responsibility. Non-state provision is, however,
increasingly prevalent in many developing countries in response to the inaccessibility and poor
quality of state provision. Its unplanned growth has led to proposals for developing public
private partnerships. However, as a number of the papers in this collection indicate, such partnerships are insufficiently developed in national planning, with potentially adverse
consequences for equity. More often, non-state providers are attempting to develop relationships with the state, both to strengthen their own service delivery as well as to put pressure on
government to improve the quality of its own provision.
0122. Rumens, N. WORKPLACE FRIENDSHIPS BETWEEN MEN: GAY MENS PERSPECTIVES AND EXPERIENCES. Human Relations. 2010, 63(10):15411562.
Challenging the heteronormative bias in the current literature on mens workplace friendships, this article uses qualitative interview data to explore how gay men understand and
experience workplace friendships involving other gay and heterosexual men. Developing a
Foucauldian approach, this study suggests that gay mens experiences and perspectives on
workplace friendships can supplant negative stereotypes of mens friendships, by understanding them as relational sites for developing empowering organizational gay sexualities and
genders. From a Foucauldian theoretical orientation, we can examine how gay men can(not)
avoid falling into the trap of treating gender and sexuality in dichotomous and heterosexist
terms, allowing them and their male work friends to explore new possibilities for workplace
friendships that are more gender and sexually complex than is currently assumed. This article

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 35

advocates future research on this matter as it could potentially enrich extant critical scholarship
that has often bathed organizational masculinities in a negative light.
0123. Sanders, M. J., and McCready, J. W. DOES WORK CONTRIBUTE TO SUCCESSFUL AGING OUTCOMES IN OLDER WORKERS? International Journal of Aging and
Human Development. 2010, 71(3):209229.
Older workers are the fastest growing segment of the labor force, yet little is known about
designing jobs for older workers that optimize their experiences relative to aging successfully.
This study examined the contribution of workplace job design (opportunities for decisionmaking, skill variety, coworker support, supervisor support) to dimensions of successful aging
(social network, emotional support, personal control, generativity) in a sample of 109 older
workers in the retail homebuilding industry. Older workers completed four standardized tests
reflecting the job design and successful aging variables. Results indicated that job design contributed to 23% of the variance in generativity and 15.5% of the variance in personal sense of
control scores. Skill variety and coworker support were the most important job design variables
for successful aging outcomes. The potential for workplaces to become social institutions that
contribute to dimensions of successful aging is discussed.
0124. Selim, M. SEEKING THE DEAD: NARRATIVES OF JOURNEYS IN VIETNAM.
Journeys. 2010, 11(2):7098.
This article focuses on the search for people killed in the war of liberation fought by the Vietnamese against the United States. The author, an anthropologist, worked in a special center in
Hanoi dedicated to this type of search. Her aim was to discover the logic guiding the behavior
of the families who undertook lengthy journeys at considerable expense to find the bodies of
deceased relatives. At the dawn of the twenty-first century, finding the victims of the war
became a mass development in Vietnam, abundantly covered and promoted by the local media.
All social strata appeared to be involved, with little variation, despite differing levels of education. This detailed study of family journeys is based on numerous witnesses accounts.
0125. Shear, B. W., and Zontine, A. I. READING NEOLIBERALISM AT THE UNIVERSITY. Learning and Teaching. 2010, 3(3):3262.
Ongoing transformations of the universityfrom changing working conditions to issues of
affordability and access, increasing accountability measures and commodification of academic productionare increasingly referred to as university corporatisation and are unfolding
within and concomitant to neoliberal globalisation. In this paper we outline some of these processes as they are occurring at the University of Massachusetts Amherst and explore the
limitations and possibilities of a critical response mounted by a number of students and faculty
in the Department of Anthropology. Drawing on ethnographic data and interviews with group
participants, as well as our own experiences with the group, we describe and assess this project
as a means to investigate and respond to neoliberal governance. Through this analysis we
problematise conventional discourses and imaginings of university corporatisation and
neoliberalism and explore the sometimes contradictory subject positions that complicate our
efforts to respond critically to university corporatisation.
0126. Solem, M. et al. EXPERIENCING GRADUATE SCHOOL: A COMPARATIVE
ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS IN GEOGRAPHY PROGRAMS. The Professional Geographer.
2011, 63(1):117.
This article focuses on the role of departmental culture and academic climate in shaping the
experiences of masters and doctoral students in geography. Structured logging of experiences
at nine geography graduate programs over six months reveals the types of support provided
to graduate students; how students cope with emotional, academic, and financial challenges;
and ways students become integrated (or not) in department communities. Analysis of log
data considers variation by subgroups (gender, citizenship, program type, full-or part-time
status, race, and ethnicity). For all students, the findings indicate the importance of unplanned,

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spontaneous, and other informal events, as well as relationships of a more formal nature with
advisors and faculty in the department and beyond. Students also noted the importance of
having access to resources, professional development opportunities, and support from peers as
factors affecting their sense of progress and belonging in a department community.
0127. Srivastava, P. PUBLICPRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS OR PRIVATISATION?
QUESTIONING THE STATES ROLE IN EDUCATION IN INDIA. Development in Practice. 2010, 20(45):540553.
This contribution examines the Government of Indias proposed publicprivate partnership (PPP) strategies in education in its Tenth and Eleventh Five Year Plans. The analysis
aims to ascertain the states role as financier, manager, and regulator of education in view of
the proposed PPP strategies. The analysis shows that strategies strongly link PPPs in education
with privatisation, and further, that despite assertions of a greatly expanded role for the
state, the proposed strategies result in a diminished role for the state in education financing,
management, and regulation.
0128. Sussman, S. et al. A CONCISE HISTORY OF SCHOOL-BASED SMOKING PREVENTION RESEARCH: A PENDULUM EFFECT CASE STUDY. Journal of Drug
Education. 2010, 40(3):217226.
School-based cigarette smoking prevention was initiated shortly after the first Surgeon Generals Report in 1964. This article highlights a sequence of events by which school-based
tobacco use prevention research developed as a science, and illustrates a pendulum effect, with
confidence in tobacco use prevention increasing and decreasing at different points in time.
Suggestions are offered to advance school-based smoking prevention research.
0129. Timmons, J. C. et al. RETAINING THE OLDER WORKFORCE: SOCIAL
POLICY CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE UNIVERSALLY DESIGNED WORKPLACE.
Journal of Aging and Social Policy. 2011, 23:119140.
Even in the midst of massive layoffs that come with an economic downturn, employers must
remain aware of the pending impact of their aging workforce. Losing older employees to retirement drains knowledge and expertise. In response, employers are looking at new ways to retain
older workers at the same time that older workers are reevaluating the traditional approach to
retirement. This article presents findings from case study research consisting of interviews
with key employees at 18 companies in 13 states. Five of those companies subsequently participated in in-person site visits. Interviews were held with a wide range of informants, including
company leadership, supervisors, and older workers. Findings include a description of the cultural context within which the development of formal and informal older worker retention
strategies occurred, as well as the retention strategies themselves. The discussion section
explores the universal nature of these retention initiatives and how consideration of universality benefits not only older workers but a range of diverse groups as well.
0130. Toren, C. THE STUFF OF IMAGINATION: WHAT WE CAN LEARN FROM
FIJIAN CHILDRENS IDEAS ABOUT THEIR LIVES AS ADULTS. Social Analysis. 2011,
55(1):2347.
Through an analysis of Fijian childrens essays about the future, this article explores ideas of
sociality, personhood, and the self that are the very stuff of intersubjectivity and thus of the
imagination, as this gives rise to the lived social reality that is manifested in peoples ideas and
practices. The material presented here bears on a single aspect of data derived from 75 essays
by Fijian village children aged between 7 and 15 years old, that is, their constitution over time
of a spatiotemporal orientation toward a view of generations to come. I use this example of
spatiotemporal orientation to show how, seen through the perspective derived from long-term
participant observer fieldwork, data such as these enable an ethnographic analysis of meaningmaking as a transformational, historical process.

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 37

0131. Tran, V. et al. THE ROLE OF SOCIAL IDENTITY, APPRAISAL, AND EMOTION IN DETERMINING RESPONSES TO DIVERSITY MANAGEMENT. Human
Relations. 2011, 64(2):161176.
In this article, we address the question of why employees may resist or support any aspect of
diversity management. More specifically, we propose a dynamic model that explains how and
why specific social identities triggered by diversity management influence employees appraisals of diversity management, in turn eliciting specific emotions and specific behavioral
responses such as resistance or support to various implementations of diversity management
policies and practices. We rely on Intergroup Emotion Theory (IET) as the overarching theoretical framework, which draws from Social Identity Theory (SIT) and appraisal theories of
emotion. The contribution of our model is to provide an additional lens to the diversity literature, moving from emotive reactions to diversity to emotional yet rational responses, which
may be further understood via the iterative nature of the model. We discuss implications for
future research.
0132. van Knippenberg, D. et al. DIVERSITY FAULTLINES, SHARED OBJECTIVES,
AND TOP MANAGEMENT TEAM PERFORMANCE. Human Relations. 2010, 64(3):307
336.
Faultline theory suggests that negative effects of team diversity are better understood by
considering the influence of different dimensions of diversity in conjunction, rather than for
each dimension separately. We develop and extend the social categorization analysis that lies
at the heart of faultline theory to identify a factor that attenuates the negative influence of
faultlines: the extent to which the team has shared objectives. The hypothesized moderating
role of shared objectives received support in a study of faultlines formed by differences in
gender, tenure, and functional background in 42 top management teams. The focus on top management teams has the additional benefit of providing the first test of the relationship between
diversity faultlines and objective indicators of organizational performance. We discuss how
these findings, and the innovative way in which we operationalized faultlines, extend faultline
theory and research as well as offer guidelines to manage diversity faultlines.
0133. Waldroup, H. TRAVELING REPRESENTATIONS: NOA NOA, MANAO
TUPAPAU, AND GAUGUINS LEGACY IN THE PACIFIC. Journeys. 2010, 11(2):129.
Paul Gauguin has earned his place as one of the most significant artists of the European
avant-garde. His works have also traveled to the postmodern Pacific, taking on roles outside his
original artistic project. As an index of the tourist fantasy of Tahiti, adorning postcards and
advertisements for cruise ships, Gauguins paintings in a popular context underscore the intertwined histories of colonialism and exoticism. As a powerful symbol of imposed identities,
they have also become one site of many for politicized response through the production of creative works by indigenous scholars, artists, and activists. The critical discourse on the artist,
therefore, needs to shift: while continued art historical analysis of the artists work is still
needed, scholars should also account for the various sociopolitical arenas that Gauguins work
inhabits in the twenty-first century. Considering Gauguins relationship to a variety of nineteenth-century vernacular productions, both written and visual, as well as the current popular
reproduction of his works and appropriation by indigenous artists and writers, the language of
photography and its role as material culture provides a rich model through which to re-examine
his work. This essay argues that Gauguins work and legacy are both productions of travel, and
objects that have traveled to the present.
0134. Ward, R. A. HOW OLD AM I? PERCEIVED AGE IN MIDDLE AND LATER
LIFE. International Journal of Aging and Human Development. 2010, 71(3):167184.
Literatures on perceived age and developmental issues in middle and later life are joined in analyzing perceived age and its implications for well-being. Respondents aged 40-74 (N = 2,696) are
drawn from the national MIDUS survey, containing developmental variables such as personal
growth and insight into past. People generally feel (felt age) and would like (ideal age) to be

38 / ABSTRACTS IN ANTHROPOLOGY, Vol. 68(1), 2014

younger, but these exhibit different predictors and outcomes. Younger felt age is associated with
positive developmental assessments and enhanced well-being, whereas younger ideal age is associated with less positive assessments and lower well-being. The association between felt age and
well-being is moderated by developmental assessments. The contrasting patterns exhibited by felt
age and ideal age reflect the complexities of age perceptions. It is suggested that felt age entails perceptions of current circumstances as they relate to expectations about aging, whereas ideal age
reflects a comparative overview of the life cycle.
0135. Wei. L.-Q., and Lau, C.-M. HIGH PERFORMANCE WORK SYSTEMS AND
PERFORMANCE: THE ROLE OF ADAPTIVE CAPABILITY. Human Relation. 2010,
63(10):14871511.
High performance work systems (HPWS) represent a systematic and integrated approach of
managing human resources toward the alignment of HR functions and the achievement of firm
strategy. The relationship of HPWS with firm performance has been extensively examined,
though the mechanism underlying HPWSperformance relationship is not well researched, especially at the organizational level. Based on the dynamic capabilities perspective, this study
examines a model with adaptive capability as the mediator in the relationship between HPWS
and firm performance, aiming to understand how HPWS is positively associated with organizational outcomes. Institutional environment as a contextual factor that influences the relationship
between adaptive capability and performance is also examined. Empirical results from a sample
of Chinese firms indicated that HPWSfirm performance linkage was partially mediated by
adaptive capability. In addition, the effect of HPWS on adaptive capability was stronger for firms
in an institutional environment with location advantage than firms in other environments.
0136. Westring, A. F., and Ryan, A. M. PERSONALITY AND INTER-ROLE CONFLICT
AND ENRICHMENT: INVESTIGATING THE MEDIATING ROLE OF SUPPORT. Human
Relations. 2010, 63(12):18151834.
Although researchers have discussed the relationships between personality and inter-role conflict and enrichment, little research explores why these relationships exist. This study examines
the role of perceptions of support as one such mechanism. We expect that individuals with more
positive core self-evaluations will perceive greater levels of support, which will enable them to
avoid inter-role conflict and take advantage of opportunities for inter-role enrichment. In the current study, the inter-role conflict and enrichment faced by student-parents managing the demands
of school and their parenting responsibilities are examined. Student-parents with more positive
core self-evaluations were found to perceive and seek out greater levels of support, which related
to more effective management of multiple life roles. Based on our findings, we argue that future
research should continue to investigate the mechanisms by which personality affects the
management of multiple life roles. Suggestions as to how practitioners can utilize the findings
from this study to help individuals more effectively manage the demands of multiple life roles are
provided.
0137. Wilson, K. Y. AN ANALYSIS OF BIAS IN SUPERVISOR NARRATIVE COMMENTS IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL. Human Relations. 2010, 63(12):19031933.
This study explored supervisors explanations for performance ratings assigned to subordinates. It was suggested that supervisors may emphasize a different set of factors across groups
in arriving at an overall evaluation that would reflect different implicit theories of performance
for different ethnic groups. Operationally, these differences were predicted to be reflected as
differences across groups in the factors cited by supervisors in justifying their performance ratings of subordinates. The study also examined the consistency between these assigned ratings
and the written justifications. Using a sample of bank staff, supervisors written summaries of
subordinate performance were content analyzed to identify the types of comments made across
groups and the match or mismatch with overall ratings. Hypotheses received partial support.
The results are interpreted in light of the literature on group differences in performance ratings,
and implications for future research and practice are discussed.

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 39

0138. Wischusen, S. M. et al. IMPACT OF A SHORT PRE-FRESHMAN PROGRAM ON


RETENTION. Journal of College Student Retention. 2011, 12(4):429441.
The Biology Intensive Orientation for Students (BIOS) Program at Louisiana State University was designed to increase the success of incoming freshman biology majors in the first
course in their major. The program combined content lectures and examinations for BIOL
1201Introductory Biology for Science Majors, the first course in their major, as well as learning styles assessments and informational sessions intended to provide the students with a
preview of the requirements of biology, and the pace of college. BIOS participants showed
increased success and retention in the biology major, and remained on track to graduate in 4
years at a significantly higher rate than students who did not participate in BIOS.
0139. Wong, A. et al. MANAGING OUTSOURCING TO DEVELOP BUSINESS:
GOAL INTERDEPENDENCE FOR SHARING EFFECTIVE BUSINESS PRACTICES IN
CHINA. Human Relations. 2010, 63(10):15631586.
Outsourcing partners have the potential to learn from each other by discussing effective Practices and to use these discussions to improve their business performance. However, there are
significant barriers to trusting, open, and integrative communication. Results from 95 largely
domestic outsourcing partnerships in China support the hypotheses that cooperative, but not
competitive or independent, goals are a foundation upon which partners share their effective
practices openly and directly with each other and that this kind of discussion promotes improved
business results. Specifically the structural equation analysis supported the reasoning that cooperative goals foster open discussion of effective practices that, in turn, results in business
development. Findings were interpreted as providing support that cooperative interdependence is
a foundation for effective interaction and learning between outsourcing partners in China and
perhaps in other countries as well.
0140. Ybrandt, H. RISKY ALCOHOL USE, PEER AND FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS
AND LEGAL INVOLVEMENT IN ADOLESCENTS WITH ANTISOCIAL PROBLEMS.
Journal of Drug Education. 2010, 40(3):245264.
The aim of the study was to examine risk and vulnerability factors contributing to problems
with alcohol use in adolescence. Data relating to seven life areas (medical status, school status,
social relationships, family background and relationships, psychological functioning, legal
involvement, and alcohol use) was gathered using the ADAD (Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis)
interview. A total of 1163 Swedish adolescents (809 boys and 354 girls) between the ages of
12 and 20 years old were interviewed. All had antisocial problems and were detained at special
youth homes. It was found that for those aged between 12 and 18 years, the general risk factors
for alcohol use were leisure and peer problems, problems associated with family background and
relationships, and criminal behavior. These results suggest that drug abuse treatment planning
should focus on altering the predisposing factors that exist in these domains. It was also found
that the ADAD problem areas seem to be most useful as prognostic indicators of treatment outcome for adolescents with antisocial problems who are under 18 years of age.

ARTS
Dance, folklore, graphic arts, music
0141. Abraham, J. WEDDING VIDEOS IN NORTH KERALA: TECHNOLOGIES, RITUALS, AND IDEAS ABOUT LOVE AND CONJUGALITY. Visual Anthropology Review.
2010, 26(2):116127.
This article focuses on weddings and wedding videos in north Kerala, India, and asks two
interrelated questions: one, how have marriage rituals and the ways in which a wedding is performed changed with the critical presence of the photographer and videographer? Two, how
does the wedding video represent marriage, conjugality, and love, and how have these changed
with changes in technology?

40 / ABSTRACTS IN ANTHROPOLOGY, Vol. 68(1), 2014

0142. Allington, E. MAXWELLS SILVER HAMMER. The Journal of Modern Craft.


2010, 3(3):339348.
It is an often overlooked fact that someone, somewhere, is physically working to produce the
things we use and a good deal of the environment we live in, for good or bad; that virtually
every thing we know is a product of human labor. The essay tries to address this by looking at
tools, and focuses on some varieties of that simple but essential tool, the hammera tool
whose origins are prehistoric. It looks at woodworking hammers, at stone-breaking and cutting
hammers, and finally at some of the hammers used in metalworking. The list is by no means
definitive, but hopefully gives a broad understanding of how versatile this tool is, and also how
it has been carefully adapted to suit different materials. The essay ends by referring to mythical
hammers, most specifically Mj`lnir the murder greedy.
0143. Anderson, W. CRAP ON THE MAP, OR POSTCOLONIAL WASTE. Postcolonial
Studies. 2010, 13(2):169178.
Over the past ten years or more, critical histories of imperial hygiene have established that
human waste could make strong and supple material for building corporeal distinctions
between colonizers and the colonized. In particular, we have learned how the poetics of defecation structured late colonial oppositions of purity and danger, asceticism and promiscuity,
retention and pollution, virility and femininity, white and coloured. Medical typologies of
toilet practice and personal hygiene could be used early in the twentieth century to distinguish
the bodies and behaviour of white males and natives. In the colonial Philippines, for example,
white American health officers frequently cast local inhabitants as promiscuous defecators,
while conveniently erasing any mention of their own bodily functions. The potent contrast
implied that the colonized lacked the self-control characteristic of white men, and therefore
required guidance toward self-government of body and polity. This medical poeticsa contrapuntal bodily notation abstracted from any historical or geographical specificitygave
trenchant form, or pathological depth, to late colonial allegories of self and state, of the
personal and the political.
0144. Becker, G. WARUM ARISTOTELES WISSENSCHAFTLICHE FILME GEDREHT
H?TTE. BERLEGUNGEN ZUR THEORIEF?HIGKEIT DES BILDES ANHAND DER
ERFAHRUNGEN MIT DEM FILM LART DU DISERT. [WHY ARISTOTLE WOULD
HAVE MADE SCIENTIFIC FILMSCAN IMAGES EXPRESS THEORY? REFLECTIONS
ON FILMWORK IN MOROCCO.] Zeitschrift fhr Ethnologie. 2010, l35:122. in German.
How are ideas about the tourist-destination Morocco produced and communicated to the
visitors?, we asked in a research project funded by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).
Based on fieldwork and empirical studies in Morocco, our focus was on contributing to a
theory of this particular form of transcultural communication. We considered applying visual
research methods and presenting findings in cinematographic form essential for studies in the
image-based field of tourism. Besides texts we prepared cinematographic documentaries for
publication. The film LArt du De' sert as discussed in this paper is just a first step on the way
exploring the scientific potenzial of visual media. Can images be used to communicate theoretical insights? To allow for discussion of this question and to further devellop methodological
strategies we decided to present our preliminary results.
0145. Bonanni, L., and Parkes, A. VIRTUAL GUILDS COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE
AND THE FUTURE OF CRAFT. The Journal of Modern Craft. 2010, 3(2):179190.
The apprentice model is making a resurgence through online craft communities or virtual
guilds. These groups are growing through the mainstreaming of computer-controlled manufacturing and the democratic sales channels of the internet. Similar to open-source software
communities, virtual guilds have a pioneering role in championing new technologies, often
with only niche applications. The future success of these virtual guilds will depend on a careful
balance of access to commercial media and focus on socially relevant issues.

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 41

0146. Buckley, B. FORUM: ART AND POLITICS. Postcolonial Studies. 2010, 13(2):
121131.
This special forum of Postcolonial Studies seeks to engage with and develop a number of
critical issues which emerged from a conference held at Goldsmiths, University of London.
Entitled The Afterlives of Postcolonialism, the conference sought to explore whether or not
postcolonial theory had exhausted its critical energies. In so doing, it sought also to investigate some of the ways in which postcolonial theory has been taken up and used by academics
and practitioners from across a wide variety of disciplines, including, amongst others, those of
art and architecture. Delegates were asked to consider if postcolonial theory merely provide[d] another way of reading texts, or if it (still) had the potential to destabilize and
reconfigure practices and disciplines. Here, a supplementary question was appended: What
happens to postcolonial theory when it moves into politics, art, sociology, and area studies;
what mutations does it undergo, or need to undergo?
0147. Buonaiuto, C., and Laforest, M.-H. SPELLING OUT EXCLUSION IN SOUTHERN ITALY. Social Identities. 2011, 17(1):4159.
This article offers a reading of the city of Naples in Southern Italy as a European borderland,
a space where the North/South configuration wavers and mutates in the wake of immigration
flows. Historically a place of contrasts, symbol of the Southern Question, Naples seems to be
adding to its age-long ills a problematic racial question. The article reports and analyzes some
interviews with migrant women living in the city and its surroundings. The life stories of Sri
Lankan, Nigerian, and Ukrainian women provide a vivid picture of how they are building their
lives in an inhospitable environment, in search of a place of their own. Their experiences testify
to forms of social and cultural practices among the local population which are blatantly segregationist. It is an alarming portrayal of the forms of racism against and exclusion of women
immigrants in Naples which weakens the prospect of the peaceful construction of a
multicultural society in the southern Italian context.
0148. Compton, A. PLASTIC PLEASURES: RECONSIDERING THE PRACTICE OF
MODELING THROUGH MANUALS OF SCULPTURE TECHNIQUE, C.18801933. The
Journal of Modern Craft. 2010, 3(3):309324.
Around the turn of the last century, a dozen manuals on sculpture technique were published.
These texts, written by leading sculptors of the day, offer a valuable glimpse into technical processes and the daily routine of the sculptors studio. This article reconsiders How To
publications as a genre and their potential as an art historical source. It then presents a composite guide to modeling technique based on a detailed rereading of manuals published c.1880
1933. In looking again at the sculptors craft in the decades surrounding the emergence of modernism, this article also considers how far modeling was renewed and reinvented or became a
moribund art as argued by hostile critics.
0149. Cooke, S. SEBALDS GHOSTS: TRAVELING AMONG THE DEAD IN THE
RINGS OF SATURN. Journeys. 2010, 11(1):5068.
W.G. Sebalds The Rings of Saturn ([1998] 2002), originally published in German in 1995
as Die Ringe des Saturn: eine englische Wallfahrt [An English Pilgrimage], recounts a walking
tour of the English county of Suffolk. As the narrative weaves through an array of histories,
memories, dreams, and textual and visual forms, it creates an East Anglian arena for a world
tour of death, destruction, and atrocity: the traveler attempts to unearth skulls, examines paintings of autopsies, spends time in graveyards, incorporates photographs of Nazi death camps,
and patterns it into a work of sublime elegy. Is Sebald, then, the ultimate dark tourist? Or, as
this article proposes, is it through an insistence on the omnipresence of death and the interconnections between different sites of trauma and the everyday that Sebalds work, while in one
sense embodying a thanatological impulse, also powerfully resists the commodification of the
thanatouristic attraction?

42 / ABSTRACTS IN ANTHROPOLOGY, Vol. 68(1), 2014

0150. Coppola, M. RENTED SPACES: ITALIAN POSTCOLONIAL LITERATURE.


Social Identities. 2011, 17(1):121135.
Moving from the marginal social space assigned to migrant women and from their condition of objects of enunciation, this essay analyses the literature produced by Italophone
women writers, Italians of African, Eastern European or Indian ancestry as a controversial
site of self-representation. Although they gain increasing visibility through access to publication, these writers still occupy ambiguous spaces of exotic objectification and limiting
definitions. By choosing a postcolonial perspective as a theoretical approach which might
help re-establish connections between a repressed colonial history and contemporary global
migration, the essay suggests that, in their precarious occupation of Italian literary and linguistic spaces, postcolonial women writers inhabit different discursive places like a rented
apartment whose transitory power provides new strategies of literary and linguistic cohabitation, effectively disturbing the construction of supposedly homogeneous national and
cultural spaces.

0151. Crowther, L. ET IN SUBURBIA EGO: A CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY OF CRAFT


IN THE LONDON SUBURBS. The Journal of Modern Craft. 2010, 3(2):143160.
From the 1860s until the outbreak of World War II, suburbs became an increasingly important part of the British landscape, in both physical and social terms. These new suburbs were
key sites for the nascent studio craft movement. In many ways they served as expressions
of the same ideals that underpinned the crafts. Like the Garden City movement, suburbia
offered the city-dweller an accessible piece of an imagined pre-industrial rural idyll. Several of
the most important art schools pioneering teaching in the crafts were located in London suburbs. A typical example is Camberwell, a district of South London which was home to
Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts from 1898, and which is examined here as a case study.
The suburbs offered various advantages to the maker as a site for craft production, combining a
congenial environment with access to urban markets. It can also be argued that even stereotypical country-dwelling craft makers shared some essentially suburban attributes, in their
relationship to urban economic structures.

0152. de Rijk, T. SO-CALLED CRAFT: THE FORMATIVE YEARS OF DROOG


DESIGN, 19921998. The Journal of Modern Craft. 2010, 3(2):161178.
Within just a few years of its inception, the Dutch design group Droog Design rose to worldwide renown. The groups key constants were not its members, but rather the creators behind
the Droog Design label: art historian Renny Ramakers and designer Gijs Bakker. Together they
were responsible for not only the planning and organization of projects and the thematic content of presentations, but also for defining the significance of Droog. From the very outset, that
significance was propounded in books, articles, lectures, and media presentations. This promotional material has generally been accepted at face value by the trade and popular presses and
design industry. In many cases it was not until later that the designers true aims were revealed
in the individual work of participants. And yet the intentions driving Droog Design during its
formative initial years have remained obscure.

0153. DRaz-Zambrana, R. GASTRONOMQA, HUMOR Y NACI[N: ESTRATEGIAS


RET[RICAS EN LAS LETRAS DE CALLE 13. CENTRO Journal. 2010, 22(2):128149. in
Spanish.
This essay examines how the duet Calle 13 uses food, satirical humor, and profane language
in his lyrics as a rhetorical strategy to construct cultural and national imaginaries. It also discusses the role that Calle 13s alternative and urban music genre plays in providing a resistance
tool against oppression, social inequality, and colonialism in the contemporary context of
Puerto Rico.

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 43

0154. Elwood-Farber, L. HARRIET WILSONS OUR NIG: A LOOK AT THE HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF A NOVEL THAT EXPOSES A CENTURYS WORTH OF
HYPOCRITICAL IDEOLOGY. Womens Studies. 2010, 39:470489.
One of the major problems with antebellum America and its fight to end slavery was the
internalized contradiction abolitionists held toward notions of race. Harriet Wilsons Our
Nig critiques Northern racism by unveiling the hypocrisy of the northern abolitionists
agenda to advocate an end to slavery, while internalizing racist notions of negroes. An
example of this contradiction was the Dred Scott Decision of 1858 showing the inconsistency
of Northern patronage: people who wanted to end slavery, yet maintained slaveholders
rights. Ultimately, this decision demonstrated Northern support for slaveholders and their
property rights.
0155. Fiks, Y. SONG OF RUSSIA. Cultural Politics. 2010, 6(2):200206.
Song of Russia is a series of oil paintings based on imagery borrowed from three Hollywood films about Russia that were produced between 1943 and 1944. These films, North Star
and Song of Russia, both produced at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios, and Mission to Moscow,
produced by Warner Brothers, were created at the behest of US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and were intended to garner support for the Soviet Union during World War Two by
influencing the American publics perception of the USSR. The films were essentially proSoviet propaganda, presenting Stalins Russia in a very favorable light. They adroitly appropriated the aesthetics and rhetoric of Stalins Socialist Realism of the 1930s and 1940s, and were
essentially American embodiments of Socialist Realist motion pictures in terms of both form
and content, but produced in Hollywood and sanctioned by F.D.R. himself.
0156. Gardner, A. AESTHETICS OF EMPTINESS AND WITHDRAWAL: CONTEMPORARY EUROPEAN ART AND ACTUALLY EXISTING DEMOCRATIZATION.
Postcolonial Studies. 2010, 13(2):179197.
In Stockholm on 2 February 1996, two Russian artists, Oleg Kulik and Alexander Brener,
created a significant complication for contemporary art. Both had been invited to participate in
Interpol, an ambitious international exhibition designed to bring artists from Eastern and Western Europe together through modes of conviviality that might not have been thinkable, let alone
possible, less than a decade beforehand. Together, practitioners from Sweden and Russia
and, as preparations progressed, from Italy, America and China as wellwere expected to
weave networks between art scenes that, for over 40 years, had been almost entirely isolated by
Cold War geopolitics. Where once there had been hostility, scepticism and even paranoia about
the unknown, there would now be co-operation and friendship. Where political and physical
barriers had stood to keep cultures and peoples apart, a platform for dialogue would emerge to
unite them once again. For one of Interpols curators, Viktor Misiano, the exhibition would
thereby enact a new Europe of physical, intellectual and other forms of exchange between
residents of a continent that he believed was post-ideological after the collapse of Soviet
communism between 1989 and 1991.
0157. Ghlicher, N. CONSTANTIN BRANCUSI AND THE IMAGE OF TRADE:
ASPECTS OF TRADE IN THE REALM OF MODERN FINE ARTS. The Journal of Modern
Craft. 2010, 3(3):325338.
In the 1920s, when the Romanian sculptor Constantin Brancusi started to establish his
international reputation, numerous critics and photographs evoked his image as an
honest and skilled artisan. The connection of fine arts and crafts is recurrently analyzed
from the perspective of the crafts. With regards to Brancusis appearance as artisan, however, the opposite perspective has to be sought by asking why notions of craftsmanship
would serve as critical arguments in the field of modern art. By following this perspective,
the article will thus explore the conceptual meaning of artisanal work in the context of the
European avant-garde.

44 / ABSTRACTS IN ANTHROPOLOGY, Vol. 68(1), 2014

0158. H`fer, R. KULTBILD ODER ART OBJECTZUR BEDEUTUNG INDISCHER ?STHETIK FgR EINE ZEITGEM?8E AUSSTELLUNGSPRAXIS ZWISCHEN
KOLONIALMUSEUM UND WHITE CUBE. [CULT IMAGE OR ART OBJECTIMPLICATIONS OF INDIAN AETHETICS FOR MODERN CURATING AMONG COLONIAL
MUSEUM AND WHITE CUBE.] Zeitschrift fhr Ethnologie. 2010, 135:7998. in German.
The paper examines the nature of traditional Indian aesthetics and possible consequences
and implications of exhibiting Indian art in the West. In this context the distinction between
religious and modern resp. contemporary or present-day Global Art plays an important role.
Against the background of the British colonialisation, the paper furthermore explores the
effects of the influence of Western aethetics and its influence on Indian art and museum practices. The author opts for the equality of Indian and Western aesthetics and point out
peculiarities of, but also similarities in both systems.
0159. Ishida, N. A STAGE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CENTRAL JAVANESE
GAMELAN MUSIC: THE INTRODUCTION OF NOTATION AND SOME OF ITS CONSEQUENCES. Indonesia and the Malay World. 2010, 38(111):273288.
Widyaswara, a staff notation for vocal music of Central Java that was developed in the
second half of the 19th century, gave birth to a somewhat unpopular notation for gamelan compositions called nut rante. But the cipher notation called nut angka, invented towards the end of
the 19th century as an innovation of nut rante, became very popular among both professional
and amateur musicians. It not only caused changes in performance practice and therefore in the
texture of the music itself, but also brought forth new methods of composing. Moreover, it
made amateur players access to gamelan music much easier, though at the same time it impoverished ensemble performance.
0160. Kerlogue, F. MEMORY AND MATERIAL CULTURE: A CASE STUDY FROM
JAMBI, SUMATRA. Indonesia and the Malay World. 2011, 39(113):89101.
What is the relationship between material culture and memory? Do relationships differ in
different societies? This article explores aspects of collective and social memory in relation to
material objects in Jambi province, Sumatra. In collective memory, material objects often
appear as referents in sayings, through which shared perspectives are passed down the generations, as well as in legends relating to founding ancestors. Such stories also contain references
to sites whose roles in legends are remembered in place names. In terms of social memory,
durable and ephemeral items, imported or locally produced, play their part in the transmission
of culture. The role of material objects in this society is less as a stimulus for memories of
ancestral origins and more as a component of social habit memory, performed in ritual practices. The bodily actions and knowledge involved in making locally produced items are often
more key to memory than the objects themselves. Some objects passed on to the next
generation are seen as having intrinsic power, especially if they have a link with Mecca, and
this is the key element remembered; others may function as tools or templates or as props
used in the ritual thus helping to preserve aspects of cultural identity.
0161. Kramer, R. PAINTING WITH PERMISSION: LEGAL GRAFFITI IN NEW YORK
CITY. Ethnography. 2010, 11(2):235253.
Drawing extensively from interviews conducted with 20 New York City graffiti writers and
from unobtrusive observations, this article seeks to further our understanding of graffiti writing
culture in two important respects. On the one hand, previous scholars have tended to explore
graffiti writing as an illegal and/or criminalized (sub)culture. On the other, they have found it to
be a practice that embodies a critical stance towards society. My findings indicate that since
1990 a subset of graffiti writers who paint with permission has emerged. Furthermore, I find
that those who produce legal graffiti tend to lead lives and espouse values that most would not
hesitate to recognize as conventional. I conclude by suggesting that graffiti writing needs to

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 45

be acknowledged as a multifaceted and historically fluid culture, and by intimating some


possible directions for further research.
0162. Macsotay, T. THE TORTOISE AND THE HARE: EXTEMPORE PERFORMANCE AND SCULPTURAL PRACTICE IN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY FRANCE. The
Journal of Modern Craft. 2010, 3(3):293308.
This contribution tracks some of the theoretical parameters that regulated the estimation of
physicality in sculptural practice in eighteenth-century France. It follows the decline of public
demonstrations of improvised skill and their gradual replacement by private sketching.
Although this transition illustrates the positive evaluation granted technical knowledge in the
eighteenth century, it also reveals the survival of a hierarchical understanding of sculptural
activity, articulated in particular in the notion of genius.
0163. Murray, K. EXOGAMY IN WORLD CRAFT: A SOUTHSOUTH PERSPECTIVE. The Journal of Modern Craft. 2010, 3(2):137142.
At a recent UNESCO workshop in Chile, important questions were asked about the relation
between globalization and traditional craft. With the emergence of transnational craft practices, there is increasing outsourcing of craft techniques from consumer societies to the
Global South. This contradicts the widely held perception of craft as a self-contained cultural
expression, where form and content are bonded closely together. It can be argued that such
partnerships promote an exogamy that can strengthen craft traditions. But in order to resist
the commodification that can elide its craft origins, there needs to be a set of standards to ensure
recognition of the producer. These new encounters between traditional and modern worlds
are the subject of a growing conversation across the South.
0164. Nagle, J. BETWEEN TRAUMA AND HEALING: TOURISM AND NEOLIBERAL
PEACE-BUILDING IN DIVIDED SOCIETIES. Journeys. 2010, 11(1):2949.
Deeply divided societies that have undergone extreme civil violence are often framed
as collectively traumatized or in a state of melancholia. Such aetiologies support
peace-building initiatives, which seek either to normalize society by forgetting the legacy
of violence and starting anew or by engendering societal remembering to work through
trauma and bring about societal healing and eventual closure. Examining the case of
Northern Ireland, this article considers how these discrepant processes regarding collective
trauma have become bound with fierce ethnopolitical debates and counter-insurgency
methods regarding how to promote the region to tourists. I argue that both approaches
represent nostrums, which do little to support peace-building and are ultimately complementary with neoliberal designs concerning the relationship among tourism, economic
prosperity and conflict-regulation. Discourses concerning collective trauma must therefore be viewed as political strategies to shape the nation, which are finally embodied in the
tourist journey to traumatized sites.
0165. Ortner, S. B. ACCESS: REFLECTIONS ON STUDYING UP IN HOLLYWOOD.
Ethnography. 2010, 11(2):211233.
This is an article about the difficulties of doing ethnography in relatively enclosed and secretive communities, based on my experience of trying to launch an ethnographic study of
Hollywood. I consider (separately) the problems of doing participant observation in inside
locations, and the problems of gaining access to industry insiders for interviews. In response to
the problem of doing participant observation, I propose the practice of what I call interface
ethnography, attending events in which the closed institution presents itself to the public. In
response to the problem of gaining access to insiders for interviews, I discuss the important role
of the interviewees interest, whether practical or intellectual, in the project.

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0166. Ottosson, C. ABORIGINAL MUSIC AND PASSION: INTERCULTURALITY


AND DIFFERENCE IN AUSTRALIAN DESERT TOWNS. Ethnos. 2010, 75(3):275300.
Aboriginal country, rock and reggae music makers in Central Australian desert communities
often portray performances in regional white towns as desirable and rewarding occasions for
engagements with a non-indigenous mainstream. Aboriginal popular music is also often
understood as a tool for a marginalised minority to talk back to non-Aboriginal powers, or for
sharing culture to achieve greater cross-cultural understanding. This article investigates what
actually takes place at local Aboriginal music events in the town of Alice Springs. It shows how
they, in fact, become powerful occasions for enacting certain blackfella forms of sociability
that reinforce relations of estrangement between non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal people and
domains. Addressing the question how to account for the lived experience of racial and cultural
formations without resorting to notions of bounded or pre-existing categories, the author proposes an approach to difference as relational at the outset that can accommodate multiple
dimensions and inherent contradictions of intercultural lives.
0167. Ponzanesi, S. EUROPE IN MOTION: MIGRANT CINEMA AND THE POLITICS
OF ENCOUNTER. Social Identities. 2011, 17(1):7392.
The article focuses on the contested notion of the (new) Europe from the vantage point of
migrant cinema. The aim is to explore how cinematic language offers alternative modalities
of representation and subjectification in relation to migration, gender and identity. The
emphasis of this analysis is on the politics of encounter: how the presumed strangers to
Europe are figurations of Europes othered self while also embodying the material practices of
exclusion. The politics of encounter is explored in three films made by European filmmakers in
which the main female character struggles to negotiate her identity in between colonial legacies and global terror, as in the British-Pakistani Yasmin (Kenneth Glenaan, UK, 2004),
between transsexual and transnational politics, as in the case of the Iranian refugee in Unveiled
(Angela Maccarone, Germany 2005), or in between trafficked bodies and renewed citizenship
as in the case of the Eastern European immigrant prostitute in The unknown woman (Giuseppe
Tornatore, Italy, 2006). These visual and ideological commentaries participate in the redefinition or abolition of the notion of Europe by proposing the representations of the strangers
within not from original and unexpected positions but by highlighting the transformation of the
European subject through the politics of encounter. The article furthermore raises questions
about the agency of Muslim women who opt for religion in the midst of the self-professed secular Europe, explores debates on homophobia and the refugees state of exceptionalism and
offers a feminist reading of the phenomena of trafficking of women.
0168. Quintero-Herencia, J. C. EXTRANJERQA, COMUNIDAD u ESCUCHA: ESCENAS
CONTEMPOR;NEAS DE AUTORIDAD LITERARIA PUERTORRIQUEYA. CENTRO
Journal. 2010, 22(2):150171. in Spanish.
What are the demands posed by public discourse to contemporary literary writing in
Puerto Rico? Which symbolic or rhetorical bows an author should follow in order to be
showcased by the Islands cultural media? Thru the reading of three narrative texts, rarely
discussed by the cultural establishment on the Island, or its diasporas, this essay will think
on ways of figuring another kind community in the Island. What social and writing experiences are assembled by Eduardo Lalo, JosJ Liboy and Yara Liceagas texts? Listening, as a
reflective activity, is a constitutive feature of the manners these literary aesthetics signify
their historical location.
0169. Ribault, P. TRADITION IN QUESTION: GLASSBLOWING IN MURANO,
TUNISIA, AND AFGHANISTAN. The Journal of Modern Craft. 2010, 3(2):209224.
This statement of practice is both a first-hand account as well as an examination of the work
methods of glassblowers in three emblematic places: Venice, Afghanistan, and Tunisia. The
author compares the different approaches to tradition and creation, art and technique, all the
while evoking her personal experience in these workshops, which at first glance seem so

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 47

different. She compares the modes of production, different mentalities, socio-cultural contexts,
and the particular challenges that each are faced with. She introduces three very different profiles of craftsmen, whether artisan-worker or artist-artisan, and finishes by posing the question:
what is a geste artisanal?
0170. Ricci, R. THE AMBIGUOUS FIGURE OF THE JEW IN JAVANESE LITERATURE. Indonesia and the Malay World. 2010, 38(112):403417.
Despite the almost complete absence of Jews from Java throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, Jewish characters figured consistently, and sometimes prominently, in Javanese
manuscript literature produced and circulated during this period. In this article I discuss the
portrayal of Jewish protagonists in Javanese literature, with special attention paid to their
appearance in two 18th-century manuscripts: Samud (MS. LOr. 4001) and Serat Pandhita Raib
(MS. MN 297). Comparing these two texts allows an appreciation of the complex and ambiguous roles played by Jews and Judaism in the Javanese imagination. It also provides insight into
the ways the Jew was constituted as an Other against whom Javanese Muslims could define
their own identity and history.
0171. Ropero, L. L., and ;lvarez, A. M. MULTICULTURALISM IN A SELECTION
OF ENGLISH AND SPANISH FICTION AND ARTWORKS. Social Identities. 2011,
17(1):93104.
Discourses of cultural pluralism in literature, cinema and art today prove that inter-ethnic
relations in Europe are moving towards, and in some spaces have already achieved, a spontaneous conviviality, in spite of the presence of racism and social injustice. Though the focus will
be on the long-standing British multicultural experience, attention will also be paid to the case
of Spain, a much younger country of migration. The specific histories of migration of these
countries will also be tackled.
0172. Rosario, J. R. ON THE ETHICS AND POETICS OF HOW WE MAKE OUR
LIVES: ESMERALDA SANTIAGO AND THE IMPROVISATION OF IDENTITY.
CENTRO Journal. 2010, 22(2):106127.
This interpretive essay explores the early memoirs of Esmeralda Santiago, When I was
Puerto Rican and Almost a Woman, to show how narrative literature contributes to understanding how lives unfold as improvised ethical and aesthetic projects. Santiagos storied inventions
are cast as relating more to oppositional ethics than to ideological struggle. Santiago pursues
the life she owes to herself, not the life she owes to others. The ethical lapses in Santiagos
life-making process are construed as the necessary improvised tactics individuals are constrained to make when fabricating a life with the culture and history they inherit.
0173. Sabelli, S. DUBBING DI DIASPORA: GENDER AND REGGAE MUSIC INNA
BABYLON. Social Identities. 2011, 17(1):137152.
European countries have always used gendered concepts and stereotypes to legitimize and perpetuate their colonial governance and their exercise of command and subordination. Metaphors
of masculinity and femininity have often been used (by the colonizers and the colonized) to
underscore relations of authority/obedience, or of strength/weakness, on the basis of the equation
between racist supremacy and the loss of black masculinity. This article explores how reggae
performers and audiences responded to this colonial strategy. Whether identifying black liberation with virility, and male control on womens bodies, therefore coming to perpetuate sexist
images and concepts, and homophobic attitudes; or, re-visioning their struggle for freedom in
forms which do not support or perpetuate phallocentrism and patriarchal control. This article analyzes gender representations in reggae music within postcolonial Europe, in the context of the
process of global consumption of reggae music and the international appropriation, by white
musicians, of a musical genre which was usually identified with black identity. The author considers reggae music produced in the UK as a result of the encounter between white youth
subcultures and the massive black immigrant community from Jamaica and compares it with

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reggae music spread through sound systems in Italian social centers by white youth countercultures. In both contexts, the postcolonial encounter between black and white youths has given rise
to complex reactions grounded in the diverse historical, cultural, religious, social and political
backgrounds.
0174. S<nchez-Pardo, E. ADRIFT ON THE BLACK MEDITERRANEAN DIASPORA:
AFRICAN MIGRANT WRITING IN SPAIN. Social Identities. 2011, 17(1):105120.
Focusing on the strategies employed to recreate agency in the black diaspora in postcolonial
Europe and taking at its basis recent narratives produced by African migrant writers in Spain
Cameroonians Inongo-vi-MakomJ and Susan Akono, and Guinean Donato Ndongothis paper
explores the ways in which identity is reconstructed in diasporic situations, to answer questions
such as what images of the self and the other are created and disseminated at a national level and
in the wider context of globalization. Spain, the historically homogeneous out-migration country
is transforming into a site of multicultural interaction as it becomes a destination for members of
several diasporas, many with their own legacies of colonialism and racism. Due to its European
Union status and growing presence in the world economy, the nation is participating in a global
phenomenon in which immigrants, asylum seekers, and refugees are looking towards the new
Europe as an impenetrable fortress. This paper attempts to discuss these issues within the tangled
web of forms of power and subjection exercised upon immigrants through Western imperialism.
0175. Sieber, T. PUBLIC ARCHITECTURE IN A POSTIMPERIAL CAPITAL: THE
PORTUGUESE PAVILION AT THE 1998 LISBONS WORLDS FAIR. Visual Anthropology
Review. 2010, 26(2):105115.
;lvaro Siza Vieiras Portuguese Pavilion was the signature architectural showpiece of Lisbons 1998 world exposition, Expo 98, Designed by the dean of Portuguese architects, and
linked to the Portuguese state, the Pavilion attempted to break with older narratives of the countrys past, representing the nation as both modern and European. It displays design continuities
with older imperial themes, however, and does not escape long-standing entanglements
between Portugal s national and imperial projects. The empty Pavilion has failed to achieve a
new purpose and is descending into obscurity, perhaps from lack of coherence in its historical,
political, and esthetic messages.
0176. Siukonen, J. SILENCE AND TOOLS: (NON)VERBALIZING SCULPTORS PRACTICE. The Journal of Modern Craft. 2010, 3(3):279292.
This paper discusses some aspects of nonverbal creative processes, starting with uses and
defenses of silence by modern sculptors such as Constantin Brancusi and David Smith. It reads
their practices together with certain statements by the artists, as well as those from contemporaries Martin Heidegger and Ludwig Wittgenstein. The methods applied by Brancusi when
teaching his young apprentice Isamu Noguchi in 1927 are compared to Heideggers discussion
of tools in Sein und Zeit, published in the same year. With his technical background and firsthand knowledge of workshop methods, Wittgenstein comes surprisingly close to Smiths
position in describing the nonverbal nature of making.
0177. Soliz, C. J. CLAY, TOOLS AND TOOLING. The Journal of Modern Craft. 2010,
3(3):349354.
In this article, artist Cecile Johnson Soliz writes about the complexities of using clay, both in
her studio and during her experience of working with clay workers at Red Bank Manufacturing
for her project, Skyline. Tools for making art are of special interest to Johnson Soliz, especially when the very tools she needs do not exist . . . or do they?
0178. Totton, M.-L. THE PANGOLIN: A MULTIVALENT MEMENTO IN INDONESIAN ART. Indonesia and the Malay World. 2011, 39(113):728.
Many thousands of intricately ornamented, volcanic stone monuments, candi, dot the landscape of Central Java. These spiritual cosmic mountains, commissioned by Hindu and

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 49

Buddhist patrons between the 8th and 9th centuries, are mostly forgotten memoryscapes,
built environments that represent the past glories of early Java. The 9th-century Candi Loro
jong-grang (of Prambanan village) is a powerful testament to its period and patrons yet presentday visitors know very little about the meaning of this site. Investigation and interpretation of
specific details of this intricately ornamented complex, however, reveal cultural memories
some that still have cogent meaning despite forgotten connections. This article considers
one specific cultural memento: the presence of the pangolin, a scaly anteater, at the Candi Loro
Jonggrang. Animals are particularly effective receptacles of communal memories and this article aims to tease out why the pangolin was given prominence in the temple site and how it
encoded spiritual, political, and economic concepts.
0179. Walker, T. GRAPHIC WOUNDS: THE COMICS JOURNALISM OF JOE SACCO.
Journeys. 2010, 11(1):6988.
This article explores the graphic reportage of Joe Sacco and his comic book travels through
the conflict zones of Bosnia and Palestine. It traces the roots of travel Writing comics to the
politically antagonistic work of underground artists such as Robert Crumb and S. Clay Wilson,
the alternative autobiographical scene that followed and how this informs the work of Sacco.
The article analyzes two of Saccos texts in particular, Palestine (2003) and Safe Area Gorazde
(2000), looking at them as a whole and subjecting individual panels and sequences to close
readings. This analysis teases out the ways in which Sacco engages with trauma and the
wounded. It argues that although explicit violent imagery could be considered exploitative and
voyeuristic, Sacco uses it to restore a sense of humanity to those dehumanized by the pace of
globalized media.
0180. Wilson, S. W. TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE CRAFT PRODUCTION IN JAMAICA.
The Journal of Modern Craft. 2010, 3(2):191208.
This article examines some of the evolving changes in selected traditional and contemporary
Jamaican craft and design practices. These processes and systems have developed in order to
match new global values in sustainable production and to protect our natural resources. The
article explores efforts to link the diversity of craft design in Jamaica, particularly the traditional skills and materials of the country, with more contemporary and sustainable craftmaking
using new design concepts, technologies, materials, and processes. An intimate balance
between the traditional and the contemporary, new processes in design, and sustainability in
local craftmaking is found in two case studies: the Clonmel Potters and the Roktowa (Rock
Tower) Project.

CULTURAL ECOLOGY
0181. Agnew, J. WATERPOWER: POLITICS AND THE GEOGRAPHY OF WATER
PROVISION. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 2011, 101(3):463476.
Access to potable water is frequently said to be the defining world crisis of the twenty-first
century. The argument is usually framed in terms of either direct environmental constraints or
various totalistic views of how the political determines outcomes. There is little or no scope for
the agency of practical politics. Both physical and human geographers tend to be dismissive
of the possibilities of democratic politics ever resolving crises such as those of the geography of
water provision, in part because of views of scientific expertise that devalue popular participation
in decisions about technical matters such as water quality and distribution.
0182. AndrJe, P. et al. COMPETITIVE PRODUCTIVISM AND AUSTRALIAS EMERGING ALTERNATIVE AGRI-FOOD NETWORKS: PRODUCING FOR FARMERS
MARKETS IN VICTORIA AND BEYOND. Australian Geographer. 2010, 41(3):307322.
This paper advances the theoretical argument for moving beyond the conventional/alternative divide in the analysis of emerging alternative agri-food networks (AAFNs). In order to
understand how place, nature and quality-based food networks emerge and develop,

50 / ABSTRACTS IN ANTHROPOLOGY, Vol. 68(1), 2014

we argue that careful attention needs to be paid to the way in which specific political-economic
environments shape the options available to farmers and consumers. Australias competitive
productivism is the outcome of an export-oriented economy and a neoliberal political orientation, and this environment affects the development of AAFNs in various ways. Most notably, a
case study of farmers that sell at farmers markets in the State of Victoria shows that the competitive-productivist policies pursued by Australian governments entice some farmers who
participate in AAFNs to develop their ideas into higher output businesses tailored to compete in
emerging export markets. Other farmers deliberately choose to keep marketing through alternative channels despite competitive-productivist pressures to expand. These findings
demonstrate the centrality to the experience of AAFN participants of negotiating productivist
pressures, adding nuances to the story of the complex relations between AAFNs and
conventional supply chains.
0183. Atalay, A. et al. PHOSPHORUS IMMOBILIZATION AND SOIL AGGREGATION IN CHEMICALLY AMENDED POULTRY LITTER USED IN CORN/SOYBEAN
ROTATION. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 2011, 35:260275.
Excessive use of poultry litter (PL) on agricultural land is known to cause eutrophication of
surface waters. Consequently, both poultry producers and PL users have to meet strict state and
federal guidelines on litter storage and land application. This study examined the environmental benefits of adding lime, alum, ferrous sulfate, fly ash (FA), fluidized bed ash (FBA) and soil
fix (SF) to PL for immobilizing excess phosphorus (P) while providing sufficient nutrients for
proper growth of soybean [Glycine max (L.)]and corn [Zea mays (L.)] on a rotation. Amending
PL with lime, alum, SF, FA and FBA significantly (p > 0.05) increased corn and soybean yield.
0184. Bayliss, P., and Dillon, P. COSMOLOGIES AND LIFESTYLES: A CULTURAL
ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION SYSTEMS.
Anthropological Journal of European Cultures. 2010, 19(2):721.
This essay critiques the majoritarian, post-Enlightenment, scientific worldview, the assumptions it makes about human cosmologies and lifestyles and how, in turn, these assumptions
influence the nature of education systems. The critique focuses on how the experiences of
minority cultures, particularly those cultures that are nomadic or pastoralist, challenge some
of the fundamental premises of majoritarian education. There follows a cultural ecological
framing which compares the ways in which Western (majoritarian) cultures and minoritarian
cultures contextualise education. In Western educational situations, structures, contexts and
schemata are substantially pre-defined, and we talk about things as context-dependent, since
context is something that can be described as the backdrop to behaviour. In minoritarian cultures both meaning and context emerge from peoples interactions with their environments and
may subsequently be described. These are respectively relational and co-constitutional manifestations of situations. We present a cultural ecological framework in an attempt simultaneously to
embrace both interpretations.
0185. Boardman, J. et al. ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS AND LANDSCAPE RECOVERY
IN A SEMI-ARID AREA, THE KAROO, SOUTH AFRICA. Scottish Geographical Journal.
2010, 126(2):6475.
Semi-arid landscapes are vulnerable to cultivation, overgrazing and climate variability,
although it is difficult to identify the relative significance of these three factors. In the South
African Karoo, the desertification debate seeks to explain a change to more shrubby vegetation in heavily grazed areas. We examine these issues in catchments where farm reservoirs
provide sediment stores with 137Cs, 210Pb, geochemical and mineral magnetic signatures.
Rainfall data and stocking numbers are reported and current erosion rates are estimated. Sediment accumulation in the reservoirs increases between 1935 and 1940, probably due to rises in
the frequency of rainfall events of > 25mm day. Significant increases in sedimentation rates
(8) occur during rain-fed wheat cultivation. In an uncultivated catchment, sediment yields
remain relatively high and reflect increases in erosion from hillslopes, colluvial storage,

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 51

and cultivated land sources. Gully systems have acted as transport routes rather than sediment
sources over the last ~70 years. Badland erosion rates average ca. 50t ha-1 yr-1. At Ganora, their
development in the 1920s strongly influences peak sedimentation between 1970 and 1980. Any
delay between badland initiation and increased sediment yield appears to be a function of landscape connectivity. Recovery following disturbance is occurring slowly and is likely to take >
100 years. De-stocking and better management systems are reducing erosion rates but may be
offset by increases in rainfall intensity.
0186. Boonzaaier, C. RURAL PEOPLES PERCEPTIONS OF WILDLIFE CONSERVATIONTHE CASE OF THE MASEBE NATURE RESERVE IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE,
SOUTH AFRICA. Anthropology Southern Africa. 2010, 33(12):5564.
The First World rationale for nature conservation is usually the aesthetic and recreational
experiences and opportunities that nature provides and its scientific importance, but rural populations in Africa tend to focus on the utilisation of natural resources. This paper argues that
management decisions regarding the conservation and utilisation of natural resources are
inseparable from a peoples world view and value system, because values inform peoples
ideas about useful or valuable resources, appropriate behaviour and their priorities regarding
issues such as grazing, hunting versus poaching, job creation, tourism, and access to sacred
sites and natural resources. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the perceptions
of wildlife conservation among the North Ndebele in Limpopo Province to create a climate in
which the community can become involved in issues regarding policy matters and the
management of the Masebe Nature Reserve.
0187. Boulton, A. PROPERTY AND AESTHETICS IN AN ORDINARY AMERICAN
LANDSCAPE. The Geographical Review. 2011, 101(2):224242.
This article encapsulates my thoughts about how to look, through landscape aesthetics, at an
ordinary residential landscape in order to understand the ways in which people make sense of,
draw on, and attempt to secure particular landscape visions and dispositions. More precisely, it
deals with the articulation of a specific bungalow landscape aesthetic and a specific proprietary
sense of property ownership in the Kenwick neighborhood of Lexington, Kentucky. The
framework adopted calls for a broadening of the purview of landscape aesthetics beyond the
domains of high culture, elites, and the visual in order to interrogate the workings of ordinary
landscapes at the interface of landscape epistemology (a way of seeing) and the tangible, visible scene.
0188. Butler, S. S., and Cohen, A. L. THE IMPORTANCE OF NATURE IN THE
WELL-BEING OF RURAL ELDERS. Nature and Culture. 2010, 5(2):150174.
This article presents two independent studies examining the experiences of older adults
aging in rural environments in the United States. In face-to-face interviews, study participants (n = 66 in study 1 and n = 8 in study 2) were asked what they like about aging in a rural
area and what they found challenging. Interview transcripts were analyzed for recurring
themes in each study and striking similarities were found with regard to the importance of
nature or aesthetic capital to the well-being of the study participants. Primary themes
emerging from study 1 data included peace, safety, beauty, space, and interacting with
nature. The themes emerging from the second study included the world outside the window,
traveling around by car, and longing for natural beauty. A negative theme that emerged from
both studies related to the dearth of health and social services in rural areas. Implications of
the studies findings with regard to the value of nature in the lives of elders are discussed in
relation to practice, policy, and planning.
0189. Cleland, E. E., and Harpole, W. S. NITROGEN ENRICHMENT AND PLANT
COMMUNITIES. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1195:4661.
Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) enrichment of many ecosystems throughout the globe has
important ramifications for plant communities. Observational and experimental studies

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frequently find species richness declines with N enrichment, in concert with increasing primary production. Nitrogen enrichment also reorders species composition, including species
turnover through gains and losses of species, changes in dominance and rarity, and shifts in the
relative abundance of particular functional groups. Nitrogen has traditionally been considered
the primary limiting nutrient for plant growth in terrestrial ecosystems, but recent synthetic
work suggests that colimitation by phosphorus (P), water, and other resources is widespread,
consistent with theoretical predictions. At the same time, disproportionate increases in ecosystem N input are expected to exacerbate limitation by P and other resources. Similarly, synthetic
research has pointed out the important role of consumers and pathogens in determining plant
community structure, especially with respect to shifting resource availability. We argue here
that environmental and biotic contexts, including limitation by multiple resources, herbivores
and pathogens, play important roles in our understanding of plant community responses to N
enrichment.
0190. de Krom, M. P. M. M., and Oosterveer, P. CONTESTING RISK AND RESPONSIBILITY: EUROPEAN DEBATES ON FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL GOVERNANCE OF
AVIAN INFLUENZA. Nature and Culture. 2010, 5(2):175195.
In August 2005, avian influenza entered European public arenas as the next food and agricultural risk. As the virus was detected close to Europe, questions arose whether measures were
required to protect human health and secure European food supply. This article analyzes the
public debates on the characteristics of the risk and on the interventions needed. The mass
media in two EU member states, the UK and the Netherlands, were studied for this purpose.
With the help of qualitative analysis the debates were analyzed as they unfolded in selected
national newspapers. Arguing that risks are socially mediated realities, the article discusses
how struggles on risk definitions relate to different policy decisions. Moreover, it analyzes how
these political dynamics are informed by the involvement of state, market, and civil society
actors in European governance, and discerns their wider implications for the functioning of the
EU food governance framework.
0191. Delucchi, M. A. IMPACTS OF BIOFUELS ON CLIMATE CHANGE, WATER
USE, AND LAND USE. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1195:2845.
Governments worldwide are promoting the development of biofuels in order to mitigate the
climate impact of using fuels. In this article, I discuss the impacts of biofuels on climate
change, water use, and land use. I discuss the overall metric by which these impacts have been
measured and then present and discuss estimates of the impacts. In spite of the complexities of
the environmental and technological Systems that affect climate change land use and water
use, and the difficulties of constructing useful metrics, it is possible to make some qualitative
overall assessments. It is likely that biofuels produced from crops using conventional agricultural practices will not mitigate the impacts of climate change and will exacerbate stresses on
water supplies, water quality, and land use, compared with petroleum fuels. Policies should
promote the development of sustainable biofuel programs that have very low inputs of fossil
fuels and chemicals that rely on rainfall or abundant groundwater, and that use land with little
or no economic or ecological value in alternative uses.
0192. Dunn, C. M. COUNCIL APPROACHES TO IMPLEMENTING SUSTAINABILITY:
A CASE OF REARRANGING DECK CHAIRS ON THE TITANIC? Australian Geographer.
2010, 41(3):351366.
Local government has a key role to play in implementing sustainability. Yet even councils
attempting to address the issue of sustainability are often unacceptably slow and ineffective in
their endeavours. This study investigates the approaches that councils currently take in implementing sustainability, as this may shed additional light on the slow progress of councils
towards sustainability. The approaches of three New South Wales councils were examined
and assessed using a model developed for the study that utilised the Ecological Footprint as the
primary assessment tool. The model assessed three key aspects of council approaches to

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 53

implementing sustainability: (1) the issues councils target for change; (2) the methods councils
use to change behaviours; and (3) the clarity and holistic nature of their approaches. All three
council approaches scored poorly against the model mainly as a result of the councils failure to
target the behaviours of their residents that are causing the greatest ecological harm. The major
implication is that councils need to reconsider, and possibly overhaul, their approaches to
implementing sustainability as these approaches are unlikely ever to achieve sustainability.
0193. Evered, K. T. TRADITIONAL ECOLOGIES OF THE OPIUM POPPY AND ORAL
HISTORY IN RURAL TURKEY. The Geographical Review. 2011, 101(2):164182.
Cultivated in the Eastern Mediterranean region for millennia, the opium poppy (Papaver
somniferum) was profoundly significant in the economies, ecologies, cultures, and diets of the
peoples of many towns and villages of rural Anatolia. When the United States compelled
Turkey to eradicate cultivation of the plant in the early 1970s in order to diminish the flow of
heroin into America, farmers were obliged to deal with not only changes in their incomes but
also profound changes in their relationships with the land and the state. Although Turkish officials later allowed production to resume in a highly controlled manner for pharmaceutical
purposes, significant socioeconomic and ecological dimensions of Turkeys poppy-growing
communities were forever changed. Interviewing now-retired poppy farmers, I employ oral
history as my primary source of historical evidence to reconstruct these past ecologies and
associated social relationships and to give voice to the informants.
0194. Foster, J. OFF TRACK, IN NATURE: CONSTRUCTING ECOLOGY ON OLD
RAIL LINES IN PARIS AND NEW YORK. Nature and Culture. 2010, 5(3):316337.
This paper considers the transformation of two decommissioned rail lines, in Paris and New
York City, into ecologically-oriented green space. Situating the restoration of these rail lines
within dominant trajectories of urbanization helps to understand how ecological restoration
projects may function as financial instruments that intensify experiences of social injustice.
This paper considers how the design and aesthetics of New Yorks High Line and Paris Sentier
Nature construct ecologies that also produce environmental subjectivities, and how these
spaces reflect uneven investment in nature across urban landscapes. While the two case studies
are aesthetically distinct, they are both woven into existing global patterns of urban transformation, and their evolution from disused industrial space to public park shares an emotional
attachment to safety that demands removal of threatening inhabitants.
0195. Gagiano, A. FARAHS SARDINES: WOMEN IN A CONTEXT OF DESPOTISM.
Africa Today. 2010, 57(3):320.
Sardines is the middle text of Nuruddin Farahs first trilogy, to which he gave the title Variations on the Theme of an African Dictatorship and the subtitle Truth versus Untruth. Taking
seriously the verbal artistry and the implicit political analysis built into the novel, this article
contests dismissive characterizations of Farahs central character, Medina, by exploring how
Medina becomes an example of female intellectual and moral strength and leadership, opposing not only the variations of dictatorship, but the socially entrenched forms of conduct and
primordialist values that allow tyranny to flourish in numerous African countries.
0196. Ghandnoosh, N. CROSS-CULTURAL PRACTICES: INTERPRETING NONAFRICAN-AMERICAN PARTICIPATION IN HIP-HOP DANCE. Ethnic and Racial Studies.
2010, 33(9):15801599.
This article examines how participants interpret a cultural practice commonly associated
with a race other than their own. Determining if, how and why participants experience such
cross-cultural forms in racialized terms can clarify whether these practices promote tolerance
or essentialism in everyday life, and whether they enable appropriation in the field of cultural
production. Through interviews and participant observation with non-African-American
women learning and teaching hip-hop dance, I capture a spectrum of participant views. Most
dancers see hip-hop as African American in its origins. But while novices often speak of an

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inherent or learned authenticity among blacks, experts rarely express racialized views of the
dances contemporary practice. Experts views are shaped by personal ability, exposure to
dancers whose ability is not racially patterned, and exposure to others who accept their skill.
How dancers act on these interpretations challenges common associations of racialized views
with tolerance, and non-racialized views with appropriation.
0197. Havlick, D. G. DISARMING NATURE: CONVERTING MILITARY LANDS TO
WILDLIFE REFUGES. The Geographical Review. 2011, 101(2):183200.
Since 1988 the United States has closed nearly two dozen major military installations and
reclassified them as national wildlife refuges. By presenting a case study of one site of militaryto-wildlife conversion, this article examines the formation of these places and the implications
of casting military practices and environmental conservation as compatible activities. As lands
where military and environmental attributes can be perceived as inseparable, military-to-wildlife sites exemplify hybrid geographies that challenge dualistic notions of nature and society.
0198. Hilimire, K. INTEGRATED CROP/LIVESTOCK AGRICULTURE IN THE
UNITED STATES: A REVIEW. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 2011, 35:376393.
U.S. agriculture has become increasingly specialized over the last century with attendant
benefits to food production and afford-ability. At the same time, specialized agricultural production has led to concerns for animal welfare, environmental degradation, and loss of
biodiversity. An alternative to specialized agriculture is the integration of crops and livestock
at the farm scale. Integrated crop/livestock agriculture could improve soil quality, increase
yield, produce a diversity of foods, augment pollinator populations, aid pest management, and
improve land use efficiency.
0199. Hulme, M. LEARNING TO LIVE WITH RECREATED CLIMATES. Nature and
Culture. 2010, 5(2):117122.
This article suggests that our current (fearful) preoccupation with climate change emerges
from two paradoxical desires: the desire to recover some mythical benign stable state for the
worlds climate and the desire to assert ourselves over the worlds climate by engineering our
way to achieve this outcome. But by seeing climate either as something to be idealized or as
something to master, we fail to see what is happening to the worlds climate. It is being reinvented as a novel entity, now co-produced between human and nonhuman actors. Rather than
resist and lament the results of this new creative force, we must learn to live with them.
0200. Katongotl, C. B. et al. UTILIZATION OF MARKET CROP WASTES AS ANIMAL
FEED IN URBAN AND PERI-URBAN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN UGANDA. Journal
of Sustainable Agriculture. 2011, 35:329342.
Household-level factors underlying the use of market crop wastes as animal feed in
Kampala, Uganda were assessed. Nearly half of the animal farmers in Kampala have at some
time used these wastes to feed animals. Banana peels were the most commonly used, followed
by cabbage leaves and sweet potato vines. Banana peels and sweet potato vines were chiefly
obtained at a fee, while wastes such as bean pods were entirely free.
0201. Kayode, J. FARM AND VILLAGE FOREST USE PRACTICE IN EKITI STATE:
ANALYSIS OF GOVERNMENT POLICY AND TENURE ISSUES. Journal of Sustainable
Forestry. 2011, 30:321328.
This study analyzed the influence of government policy and tenure issues on farm and village
forest use practices in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Three rural communities that were still far from urban
influence were selected from each of the 16 local government areas of the state. In each community, 20 household heads were selected and interviewed with the aid of a semi-structured matrix.
The interviews aimed at the determination of respondents socioeconomic status, awareness and
belief in the effectiveness or otherwise of the forest laws and regulations, land use, tenure
and property rights. Results obtained revealed that the awareness of forest laws and regulations

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 55

cut across the socio-economic categories. Most of these laws and regulations that were considered to be necessary could also constitute disincentives to sustainable forest-development.
0202. Luetchford, P. et al. STRUGGLING FOR AUTONOMY: FROM ESTATE
LABOURERS TO ORGANIC FARMERS IN ANDALUSIA. Critique of Anthropology. 2010,
30(3):313321.
This article records verbatim interviews with a small group of labourers who became pioneer
organic farmers and formed a cooperative in rural Andalusia. Their voices provide acute
insights into strategies to avoid economic exploitation, and the politics of autonomy which is
characteristic of the left in this part of Spain.
0203. Monaghan, P. CALAMITY MEAT AND COWS OF ABUNDANCE: TRADITIONAL ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE IN IRISH FOLKLORE. Anthropological Journal of
European Cultures. 2010, 19(2):4461.
Opposition between evidence-based science and improvable religious belief is assumed in
Western intellectual tradition. By contrast, Native American theorists argue that religion constitutes part of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK), which this paper argues exists in
European contexts. Irish tales of changeling cattle encoded vital data for survival in a specific
region; such Local Sanctions describe human difficulties that follow ecologically inappropriate
actions. Other narratives are Global Warnings, concerning interconnections whose significance
transcends individual health to include threats to the health of the planetary system. This paper
urges analysis of European folktales and folk rituals as traditional environmental texts.
0204. Okongo, J. B. OHANGLA MUSIC AS A PARODIC GENRE AND
POSTCOLONIAL LUO EXPERIENCE. Africa Today. 2010, 57(3):2336.
This paper explores the nature of ohangla music as a Luo genre that encapsulates other Luo
musical genres and forms from other communities. It seeks to account for this situation by considering postcolonial responses to change. It argues that ohangla has traditional roots as the
quintessential parodic form. This history makes it one of the most appropriate genres that
the Luo community employs to explore past and present musical generic forms.
0205. Peluso, N. L., and Vandergeest, P. POLITICAL ECOLOGIES OF WAR AND FORESTS: COUNTERINSURGENCIES AND THE MAKING OF NATIONAL NATURES.
Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 2011, 101(3):587608.
We examine the significance of a specific type of political violencecounterinsurgency
in the making of political forests, providing a link between literatures on the political ecology
of forests and the geographies of war. During the Cold War, particularly between the 1950s and
the end of the 1970s, natures were remade in relation to nation-states in part through engagements with insurgencies and emergencies staged from forested territories. These
insurgencies represented alternative civilizing projects to those of the nascent nation-states;
they also took place in historical moments and sites where the reach of centrifically focused
nations was still tentative. We argue that war, insurgency, and counterinsurgency helped normalize political forests as components of the modern nation-state during and in the aftermath of
violence.
0206. Pert, P. L. et al. SCENARIOS FOR COMMUNITY-BASED APPROACHES TO
BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION: A CASE STUDY FROM THE WET TROPICS,
QUEENSLAND, AUSTRALIA. Australian Geographer. 2010, 41(3):285306.
Natural resource management approaches that deliver biodiversity conservation remain elusive, with evidence of a persistent implementation gap between biodiversity science and
conservation projects. Scenarios have been identified as potentially useful in addressing the
complex issues underlying this implementation gap, but have been infrequently applied to
biodiversity conservation. Our paper reports on action co-research to develop, apply and assess
the efficacy of scenarios within a community-based natural resource management (CBNRM)

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approach to biodiversity conservation at Mission Beach, a key site within the globally significant
Wet Tropics bioregion. We focused on the capacity of scenarios to address the issues of contested
interests and uncertainty, aiming specifically to engage the community to build a cohesive vision.
The scenarios headline messages included a projected substantial loss of habitat in coastal vegetation communities that are highly valued by all stakeholders. Our assessment identified that the
use of scenarios fulfilled the intended aims, resulting in a vision for biodiversity conservation that
has substantial community support. Three factors contributed to this efficacy of the scenarios:
(1) the focus on threat; (2) biodiversity science integration; and (3) simplicity in presentation.
Further investigation of the potential of scenarios as tools to overcome the implementation gap in
biodiversity conservation is recommended.
0207. Riely, A. THE GRASS-FED CATTLE-RANCHING NICHE IN TEXAS. The
Geographical Review. 2011, 101(2):261268.
Grass-fed cattle ranching has recently reemerged to satisfy public demand for healthy,
sustainably raised beef. Ranchers returning to grass finishing seek to offer an alternative to conventional practices by shifting cattle production from feedlots to open pastures. Grass-fed cattle
around the United States numbered only 50,000100,000 in 2008, reflecting modest growth in
the practice nationally. In Texas, where I based my study, the American Grassfed Association
(AGA) has audited thirty-nine grass-fed cattle ranches since it began certification in 2009. In this
essay I examine the pattern of grass-fed cattle ranches on the landscape and investigate how
ranching methods and lifestyle influence ranching location. Grass-fed cattle ranchers exhibit two
characteristicshigh levels of education and experience in a nonagricultural career prior to
ranchingthat distinguish them from the larger conventional ranching culture. Geographically,
their ranches are distinct as well: Their need for proximity to urban, locavore consumers leads
most of them to occupy a niche near cities in eastern and central Texas.
0208. Rudel, T. K. et al. FROM MIDDLE TO UPPER CLASS SPRAWL? LAND USE
CONTROLS AND CHANGING PATTERNS OF REAL ESTATE DEVELOPMENT IN
NORTHERN NEW JERSEY. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 2011,
101(3):609624.
During the past twenty-five years the land use controls that shape residential real estate
development in the United States have changed in potentially significant ways. From the 1950s
to the 1980s, land use laws promoted middle-class sprawl by reserving extensive tracts of land
for the construction of moderately priced, single-family homes on lots of less than one acre. More
recently, suburbs have adopted land use controls that promote upper class sprawl by reserving
large areas for the construction of small numbers of expensive homes on spacious lots.
0209. Ruf, F. O. THE MYTH OF COMPLEX COCOA AGROFORESTS: THE CASE OF
GHANA. Human Ecology. 2011, 39:373388.
Most researchers defend cocoa agroforests as a model, which guarantees sustainable cocoa
production while protecting biodiversity. However, in most countries, farmers strategies
favour full sun cocoa farms, close to the concept of monoculture. Why this apparent paradox? Field surveys were conducted in 2005 and 2008 with 180 migrant and autochthon farmers
in four districts of Ghana, including some measurements at the farm plot level and satellite
images in a fifth district. An analytical grid shows how factors interact. Adoption of sun-loving
hybrids; farmers negative perception of ecological services in relation to hybrids; legislation
excluding smallholders from the legal timber market; recent expansion of the timber industry;
and the migratory phenomenon.
0210. Ruotsala, H. NATURE HAS ITS OWN SOUL AND SPEAKS ITS OWN LANGUAGE THE MEANING OF LOCAL LANDSCAPE IN THE PALLASTUNTURI FELLS.
Anthropological Journal of European Cultures. 2010, 19(2):6273.
Nature and environment are important for the people earning their living from natural
sources of livelihood. This article concentrates on the local perspective of the landscape in the

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 57

Pallastunturi Fells, which are situated in Pallas-Yll@s National Park in Finnish Lapland. The
Fells are both important pastures for reindeer and an old tourism area. The Pallastunturi Tourist
Hotel is situated inside the national park because the hotel was built before the park was established 1938. Until the 1960s, the relationship between tourism and reindeer herding had been
harmonious because the tourism activities did not disturb the reindeer herding, but offered
instead ways to earn money by transporting the tourists from the main road to the hotel, which
had been previously without any road connections. During recent years, tourism has been
developed as the main source of livelihood in Lapland and huge investments have been made in
several parts of Lapland. One example of this type of investment is the plan to replace the old
Pallas Tourist hotel, which was built in 1948, with a newer and bigger one.
0211. Schmidt, A. H. et al. THE QUESTION OF COMMUNIST LAND DEGRADATION: NEW EVIDENCE FROM LOCAL EROSION AND BASIN-WIDE SEDIMENT
YIELD IN SOUTHWEST CHINA AND SOUTHEAST TIBET. Annals of the Association of
American Geographers. 2011, 101(3):477496.
Chinese Communist Party doctrine promotes the Confucian belief that the environment
should be subjugated to mans will, and modern policies have been identified as compounding
environmental degradation caused by historical agricultural practices. In this context, social
scientists report massive increases in erosion throughout China, an assertion variously supported and questioned by daily sediment yield data in the Yellow and Yangtze River basins. In
this study we used up to twenty-seven-year records of daily sediment yield for stations in
southwest China and southeast Tibet to calculate annual and average annual sediment yields
over the period of record.
0212. Simpson, G., and Clifton, J. FUNDING AND FACILITATION: IMPLICATIONS
OF CHANGING GOVERNMENT POLICY FOR THE FUTURE OF VOLUNTARY
LANDCARE GROUPS IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA. Australian Geographer. 2010, 41(3):
403423.
Landcare groups in Australia work to increase biodiversity, eliminate invasive species and promote sustainable land-use practices. With the implementation of the Rudd governments Caring
for our Country policy during 200809, financial and organisational resources available to these
groups diminished. This paper examines whether the National Landcare Programs initial intentionsthat agency support could be provided to kick-start the community groups into action with
the Landcare groups quickly becoming independent bodiesare ultimately realistic. The results
show that the majority of Landcare groups continue to be reliant on government-sourced funding
and Landcare facilitators, and that those groups which do not have access to support have reduced
their activity levels accordingly. Landcare groups were suffering from a reduced volunteer base,
with static or decreasing numbers of participants, an inability to set regular meetings and a lack of
volunteers to take up leadership positions. The reliance of Landcare groups on government support
suggests that Landcare was an unsuccessful form of state-sponsored community participation,
making Landcare groups similar to other volunteer organisations in terms of their functional
characteristics and reliance on externally sourced funds.
0213. Suriano, M. LETTERS TO THE EDITOR AND POEMS: MAMBO LEO AND
READERS DEBATES ON DANSI, USTAARABU, RESPECTABILITY, AND MODERNITY IN TANGANYIKA, 1940s1950s. Africa Today. 2010, 57(3):3955.
In British Tanganyika, school-educated African correspondents used the Swahili-language
and English press extensively to comment on issues relevant to their lives. With a focus on
post-World War II letters to the editor and rhyming poems (mashairi) on dansi (urban jazz and
ballroom dancing) in the government-controlled Mambo Leo (Current Affairs), this article
shows that debates in print offer insights into culturally specific and sometimes conflicting
ways in which ustaarabu (civilization), heshima (respectability), and modernity were discussed, articulated, and performed by self-consciously modern Africans.

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0214. Temudo, M. P. PLANTING KNOWLEDGE, HARVESTING AGRO-BIODIVERSITY:


A CASE STUDY OF SOUTHERN GUINEA-BISSAU RICE FARMING. Human Ecology. 2011,
39:309321.
In marginal and complex agricultural environments, modem varieties of rice have been
scantily adopted by resource-poor farmers. This is due, on the one hand, to farmers nonexistent or reduced access to agro-chemicals, irrigation facilities, and seeds, and on the other hand,
to the fact that they did not fulfil the farmers socioeconomic and cultural priorities and needs.
An understanding of farmers criteria for variety selection is key to promoting effective plant
breeding and achieving broader aims of food security and food sovereignty. Based on extensive ethnographic field research, this paper discusses rice biodiversity management strategies
and the experimental skills and knowledge of Southern Guinea-Bissau farmers against the
backdrop of failures by development interventions to introduce modern rice varieties.
0215. Terada, T. et al. REFUELING SATOYAMA WOODLAND RESTORATION IN
JAPAN: ENHANCING RESTORATION PRACTICE AND EXPERIENCES THROUGH
WOODFUEL UTILIZATION. Nature and Culture. 2010, 5(3):251276.
Urban and peri-urban satoyama woodlands have become focal points of restoration throughout Japan. Prior to the abrupt shift to fossil fuels in the 195060s, villages coppiced these woods
to produce a sustainable supply of wood fuel, a process that also sustained a dynamic woodland
structure rich in biodiversity. Currently, amidst a satoyama renaissance, thousands of volunteer groups are restoring management to abandoned woods. Yet while volunteers are the main
drivers of the satoyama renaissance, volunteer management tends to be limited in spatial extent
and focused on the parkification of woodlands. Through a case study of four satoyama restoration scenarios we found that reintroduction of coppicing for wood fuelrefuelingcan play a
role in addressing climate change through fossil fuel substitution. We suggest that this literal
refueling of satoyama restoration could, in a more metaphorical sense, help to refuel restoration
efforts by strengthening both restoration practice and the authenticity of restoration experiences.
0216. Toleubayev, K. et al. FROM INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT TO INDISCRIMINATE PESTICIDE USE IN KAZAKHSTAN. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture.
2011, 35:350375.
This paper explores a strange paradox. After the fall of the Soviet system, Kazakhstan
became strongly incorporated in a world that highly values sustainable agriculture and ecologically-friendly pest control. In this incorporation process, however, the country abandoned a
well-established integrated pest management (IPM) system and shifted to an exclusive reliance
on pesticides. This study analyses the development of IPM/ecology-based pest-control
approaches in the 1970s and 1980s in the USSR, providing some detailed case studies in the
Republic of Kazakhstan. It examines how these sustainable approaches to pest control were
replaced by an indiscriminate pesticide use in farming practices after independence in 1991.
0217. Vanderwal, L. et al. EFFECTIVENESS, SAFETY, AND SUSTAINABILITY OF A
HAND WATER PUMP AMONG WOMEN VEGETABLE FARMERS IN THE GAMBIA.
Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 2011, 35:394407.
Women vegetable farmers (n = 48) in West Africa engaged in timed trials with a hand water
pump and traditional water lifting methods. Use of the water pump increased the mean time
required to lift water by 14% (p < 0.0l), compared to traditional lifting. Average and maximum
heart rates increased by 7% and 6%, respectively (each p < 0.01), compared to traditional water
lifting. Discomfort and injury indicators were consistently better for the pump.
0218. Ward, D. M. et al. BIOACCUMULATION SYNDROME: IDENTIFYING FACTORS THAT MAKE SOME STREAM FOOD WEBS PRONE TO ELEVATED MERCURY
BIOACCUMULATION. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1195:6283.
Mercury is a ubiquitous contaminant in aquatic ecosystems, posing a significant health
risk to humans and wildlife that eat fish. Mercury accumulates in aquatic food webs as
methylmercury (MeHg), a particularly toxic and persistent organic mercury compound.

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 59

While mercury in the environment originates largely from anthropogenic activities, MeHg
accumulation in freshwater aquatic food webs is not a simple function of local or regional
mercury pollution inputs. Studies show that even sites with similar mercury inputs can produce fish with mercury concentrations ranging over an order of magnitude. While much of
the foundational work to identify the drivers of variation in mercury accumulation has
focused on freshwater lakes, mercery contamination in stream ecosystems is emerging as an
important research area. Here, we review recent research on mercury accumulation in
stream-dwelling organisms. Taking a hierarchical approach, we identify a suite of characteristics of individual consumers, food webs, streams, watersheds, and regions that are
consistently associated with elevated MeHg concentrations in stream fish. We delineate a
conceptual, mechanistic basis for explaining the ecological processes that underlie this vulnerability to MeHg. Key factors, including suppressed individual growth of consumers, low
rates of primary and secondary production, hydrologic connection to methylation sites
(e.g., wetlands), heavily forested catchments, and acidification are frequently associated
with increased MeHg concentrations in fish across both streams and lakes. Hence, we propose that these interacting factors define a syndrome of characteristics that drive high MeHg
production and bioaccumulation rates across these freshwater aquatic ecosystems. Finally,
based on an understanding of the ecological drivers of MeHg accumulation, we identify situations when anthropogenic effects and management practices could significantly exacerbate
or ameliorate MeHg accumulation in stream fish.
0219. Wright, S. J. THE FUTURE OF TROPICAL FORESTS. Annals of the New York
Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1195:127.
Five anthropogenic drivers-land use change, wood extraction, hunting, atmospheric change,
climate change-will largely determine the future of tropical forests. The geographic scope and
intensity of these five drivers are in flux. Contemporary land use change includes deforestation
(~64,000 km2 yr-1 for the entire tropical forest biome) and natural forests regenerating on abandoned land (~21,500 km2 yr-1 with just 29% of the biome evaluated). Commercial logging is
shifting rapidly from Southeast Asia to Africa and South America, but local fuelwood consumption continues to constitute 71% of all wood production. Pantropical rates of net
deforestation are declining even as secondary and logged forests increasingly replace oldgrowth forests. Hunters reduce frugivore, granivore and browser abundances in most forests.
This alters seed dispersal, seed and seedling survival, and hence the species composition and
spatial template of plant regeneration. Tropical governments have responded to these local
threats by protecting 7% of all land for the strict conservation of naturea commitment that is
only matched poleward of 40S and 70N. Protected status often fails to stop hunters and
is impotent against atmospheric and climate change. There are increasing reports of stark
changes in the structure and dynamics of protected tropical forests. Four broad classes of mechanisms might contribute to these changes. Predictions are developed to distinguish among
these mechanisms.
0220. Yasuda, T. FOOD SAFETY REGULATION IN THE UNITED STATES: AN
EMPIRICAL AND THEORETICAL EXAMINATION. The Independent Review. 2010,
15(2):201226.
Consumers in the United States are frequently exposed to news about food poisoning outbreaks. The year 2009 started with a Salmonella outbreak caused by contaminated peanut
paste. The year 2008 featured a Salmonella outbreak caused by peppers but initially blamed
on tomatoes. The memory of three deaths in 2006 from spinach contaminated with the virulent O157:H7 serotype of the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) is still vivid. Outbreak news
is often accompanied by editorials that advocate larger budgets for food safety regulatory
bodies. It is almost accepted wisdom that food safety regulation is indispensible and that the
food safety authorities should do more to guarantee the safety of food sold on the U.S.
market.

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ECONOMICS
Theory, technology, political economy, colonialism, development
0221. Adly, A. I. A. WHEN CHEAP IS COSTLY: RENT DECLINE, REGIME SURVIVAL AND STATE REFORM IN MUBARAKS EGYPT (19902009). Middle Eastern
Studies. 2011, 47(2):295313.
It has been held that external rents significantly affect the formation of state institutional
capacities as constant flows of rents tend to weaken the state regulative, monitoring and extractive capacities vis-B-vis the economy. However, if more rents were associated with weaker
state capacities, would a steady and consistent decline in rents reverse the trend towards state
capacity building?
0222. Allen, T., and Parker, M. THE OTHER DISEASES OF THE MILLENNIUM
DEVELOPMENT GOALS: RHETORIC AND REALITY OF FREE DRUG DISTRIBUTION
TO CURE THE POORS PARASITES. Third World Quarterly. 2011, 32(1):91117.
The sixth MDG aims to combat HIV/AIDS, TB, malaria and other diseases. The residual category of other diseases has become the focus of intense interest, partly because it has provided
an opportunity to increase resources for the control of the mostly parasitic neglected tropical
diseases (NTDs). Intense lobbying has secured large amounts of funding from donors, as well as
generous donations of medicines from the major drug companies. A massive programme is now
underway to treat the parasites of the poor in Africa via integrated vertical interventions of mass
drug administration in endemic areas. The approach has been hailed as remarkably effective,
with claims that there is now a real prospect of complete control and, for some NTDs, even
elimination. However, a closer look at evaluation and research data reveals that much less is known
about what is being achieved than is suggested. Competition between implementing organisations is leading to potentially counterproductive exaggerations about treatment coverage.
Detailed local-level research in Uganda and Tanzania shows that actual rates of drug take-up
among target populations are often lower than is necessary to effectively control the diseases,
and that methods of drug distribution may even lead to active resistance to treatment. If current
trends are not corrected, declining rates of NTD infection will not be sustained. Much more
rigorous and effective monitoring is essential.
0223. Anyidoho, N. A. COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE: PROSPECTS FOR THEORY
AND ACTION IN PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT. Development in Practice. 2010,
20(3):318328.
The myth of community permeates both the understanding and the practice of participatory
development. Yet the idea that communities exist as coherent units of people who inhabit
bounded geographic spaces and are ready to be mobilised for development restricts the very
agency that participation promises. This article offers an alternative model of community: one
that is more compatible with the ideal of people-centred, participatory development. Using
Etienne Wengers concept of communities of practice, and drawing on narrative theory and
cognitive approaches to policy analysis, the article argues that community should be created
and sustained around shared meanings.
0224. Bagus, P. THE TRAGEDY OF THE EURO. The Independent Review. 2011, 15(4):
563576.
The Eurosystem, the monetary system in the European Monetary Union (EMU), has brought
the euro to the verge of collapse. We can understand how this situation arose in terms of the
theory of negative external effects and the tragedy of the commons. Poorly defined property
rights in money can cause negative external effects to be neglected. In practice, the EMU has
evolved into a tragedy of the commons because several independent national governments
have made use of the European Central Bank (ECB) to finance their deficits indirectly.

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 61

0225. Barnes, A., and Brown, G. W. THE IDEA OF PARTNERSHIP WITHIN THE
MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS: CONTEXT, INSTRUMENTALITY AND
THE NORMATIVE DEMANDS OF PARTNERSHIP. Third World Quarterly. 2011, 32(1):
165180.
The word partnership is pervasive within debates about participatory global governance
and the idea of partnership acts as an underwriting principle within both the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Paris Declaration. However, there remains general ambiguity
about the meaning of the idea of partnership and how its conceptualisation is meant to normatively guide a more co-ordinated move from theory to practice. Indeed, the idea of partnership
remains an impoverished theoretical and practical appeal, which is under-defined, poorly scrutinised and unconvincingly utilised as a normative tool in applied practice. This article will provide a
more theoretical examination of what an appeal to ideas of partnership means and explore what
a normative commitment to a robust conceptualisation of partnership might look like within the
MDGs. To do so, it will examine the underwriting normative language of partnership as it is found
within the MDGs, theoretically explore the principles inherent within this normative language, and
locate present gaps within the MDGs between its normative theory and applied practice. By
doing so, it will be possible to outline some additional principles and commitments that are normatively required to satisfy the underwriting spirit of the MDGs in order to bring them in line
with said spirits own normative values.
0226. Carolini, G. Y. THE TOOLS OF WHOSE TRADE? HOW INTERNATIONAL
ACCOUNTING GUIDELINES ARE FAILING GOVERNMENTS IN THE GLOBAL
SOUTH. Third World Quarterly. 2010, 31(3):469483.
As the adoption and harmonisation of international public sector accounting standards and
guidelines strengthen, decision-making processes and definitions assumed in establishing
accounting best practices become more critical objects of study. Especially for countries in the
global South that are making efforts to converge with such international guidelines, a review is
warranted of the creation of the UNs System of National Accounts (guiding the derivation of
GDP, for example) and the International Federation of Accountants public sector accounting
standards. This paper endeavours to undertake such a review, concluding that, as currently
designed and articulated, public sector accounting guidelines fail to adequately encompass and
address the voices and concerns of governments in the global South.
0227. de Beer, F. ISSUES IN COMMUNITY CONSERVATION: THE CASE OF THE
BARBERTON MEDICINAL PLANTS PROJECT. Development in Practice. 2010, 20(3):
435445.
Over-exploitation of medicinal plants for traditional healing practices endangers pristine
conservation areas. In South Africa, the Mpumalanga Parks Board (MPB) attempted through a
medicinal-plants project to promote nature conservation and benefit traditional healers. The
project was well planned and implemented, infrastructure was created, and a model farm was
established to propagate medicinal plants. Yet, although the project was aimed at community
development, very little materialised. This article outlines the need for medicinal-plant propagation in South Africa and uses the project to illustrate shortcomings in attempts to link nature
conservation with sustainable livelihoods and community development.
0228. Devereux, S., and Vincent, K. USING TECHNOLOGY TO DELIVER SOCIAL PROTECTION: EXPLORING OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS. Development in Practice. 2010,
20(3):367379.
Providing cash transfers to vulnerable groups reduces vulnerability and chronic poverty; but
delivering cash to remote, rural locations can be expensive and insecure. Alternative delivery
systems using technology are thus being piloted. This article uses examples from southern
Africa to highlight the opportunities and risks involved in using technology to deliver social
protection, with particular focus on two schemes in Malawi. It concludes that there is great

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potential for the use of technology in delivering social protection, especially if employed at a
national scale and taking advantage of the full spectrum of uses to ensure cost-efficiency.
0229. Collins, S. D. REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS AND DEMOCRACY PROMOTION: MEASURING THE INFLUENCE OF DEMOCRACY REQUIREMENTS IN
REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS. Politics and Policy. 2010, 38(4):737764.
This article examines the capacity of regional trade agreements (RTAs) to assist and foster
democracy in their respective regions. While the principal raison dtre of RTAs is to stimulate
economic growth among its member states, several regional trade associations have embedded
democratic requirements into their governance documents. These requirements elevate democracy to a fundamental value of the associations, and mandate (in most instances) that both
current and candidate members possess and uphold democratic political systems and practices.
This article examines the regional impact of democracy requirements in trade blocs by exploring four leading RTAs: the European Union, NAFTA Mercosur, and ASEAN. The article finds
that the ability to promote democracy is impacted by three primary RTA characteristics: (1) the
material benefits of membership; (2) the intensity of political and economic integration among
member states; and (3) the level of democratic consolidation exhibited by member states.
0230. Cummins, D. THE PROBLEM OF GENDER QUOTAS: WOMENS REPRESENTATIVES ON TIMOR-LESTES SUKU COUNCILS. Development in Practice. 2011, 21(1):
8595.
This article examines the experiences of women occupying reserved seats on the suku councils of Timor-Leste (each of which represents a number of small villages). The limited political
participation of these women is often ascribed to patriarchal ideas within rural areas, and the
need for capacity development. This article argues, however, that there are further structural
issues at play, whereby the interaction between traditional and modern governance makes it
difficult for women occupying reserved seats to make their mark. While gender quotas can be a
useful tool to encourage womens political participation, these structural issues need to be
recognised and addressed in order to truly empower women.
0231. Dekker, F. SELF-EMPLOYED WITHOUT EMPLOYEES: MANAGING RISKS
IN MODERN CAPITALISM. Politics and Policy. 2010, 38(4):765788.
One characteristic of the postindustrial labor market is the rise of the self-employed worker
without personnel. These workers are usually not (fully) included in the welfare system against
social risks. Most policy makers as well as social scientists are convinced that these workers
want to develop individual risk strategies, for example on the private insurance market. This
dominant assumption regarding their risk behavior has, however, not been subjected to empirical research. Through 40 in-depth interviews with self-employed workers in the Netherlands,
this article examines their risk perception and coping behavior. The main conclusion is that the
self-employed worker does not show the expected individual risk behavior. Exceptional behavior concerns the risk of unemployment. From a policy perspective, the findings suggest that
these new flexible workers may require collective social guarantees in response to risks.
0232. Erdmann, T. K. ECO-REGIONAL CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT IN
MADAGASCAR: A REVIEW OF USAID-FUNDED EFFORTS IN TWO PRIORITY
LANDSCAPES. Development in Practice. 2010, 20(3):380394.
The need for eco-regional or landscape-scale conservation and development has been widely
recognised in Madagascar, yet implementation remains problematic. The approach was initially
driven by biodiversity-conservation concerns, without enough emphasis on sustainable development, especially agriculture. Current challenges include consensus building for eco-regional
visions, strengthening partnerships with government institutions, and negotiating land-use tradeoffs within focal landscapes. Increased attention to revenue generation from agriculture and
forest products, as well as enhanced communication and widespread participation by all stakeholders, should augment the success of broad-scale conservation and development programmes.

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 63

0233. Faye, M. D. et al. CONTRIBUTION OF PARKLAND TREES TO FARMERS


LIVELIHOODS: A CASE STUDY FROM MALI. Development in Practice. 2010, 20(3):
428434.
Native species of trees and shrubs contribute significantly to farmers livelihoods by supplying food, medicinal products, fodder, and wood. In the case study reported in this article, this
contribution to farmers annual revenue varied from 26 per cent to 73 per cent, and was as high
as US$ 650 a year for households for which agroforestry products were the primary source of
revenue. Household consumption was not quantified in the study, but farmers comments confirmed that native trees also played an important role in assuring food security, especially in the
hunger period when grain stores are low and farmers are waiting for the next harvest.
0234. Fernandez, B. POOR PRACTICES: CONTESTATIONS AROUND BELOW
POVERTY LINE STATUS IN INDIA. Third World Quarterly. 2010, 31(3):415430.
This article has two objectives. First, it interrogates the normative understanding of the identification of poor people as a technical process confined to the domain of experts. The paper
analyses the construction of Below Poverty Line (bpl) status in India, and provides evidence
for how this is contested at multiple levels of the policy process, through both formal and informal policy practices. Second, the paper uses a case study of a major anti-poverty policy, the
Suvarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana, to demonstrate how the cumulative outcome of
formal and informal policy practices is the erosion of the redistributive intent of policy. The
paper emphasises the importance of foregrounding within policy discourse the politically contested nature of the processes of identifying poor people, and of determining their eligibility for
anti-poverty policy resources. The typology of policy practices generated calls for deeper recognition of the significant influence of informal policy practices on the policy process in India.
0235. Gaynor, N. BUT YOU CANT COMPARE MALAWI AND IRELAND! SHIFTING BOUNDARIES IN A GLOBALISED WORLD. Development in Practice. 2010, 20(3):
342353.
Although global influencesin the form of international finance coupled with discourses of
partnership, participation, good governance, and democracyexercise an increasing influence
on national and local governance arrangements worldwide, comparative studies across the traditional South/North divide remain extremely rare. Drawing on findings from a comparative study
of Malawis PRSP and Irelands national Social Partnership process, this article demonstrates
that a shifting of conceptual boundaries beyond traditionally delineated geographic borders is not
just valid but essential, in that it helps to reveal new perspectives on the politics underlying
globalised development processes and the transformative potential of those processes.
0236. Gunter, B. G. ACHIEVING THE MDGS AND ENSURING DEBT SUSTAINABILITY. Third World Quarterly. 2011, 32(1):4563.
This article analyses the growth and debt distress prospects of low-income countries (LICs)
based on projections of the 2009 World Economic Outlook (WEO). It then reviews various
debt sustainability concepts, including the appropriateness of the Bretton Woods institutions
current debt sustainability framework, and summarises the recent debt relief initiatives, including the Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) Initiative and the Multilateral Debt Relief
Initiative (MDRI). It also examines the equity issues related to the recent debt relief initiatives
and discusses various solutions suggested in the recent literature on how to ease the tension
between making the necessary investments to achieve the MDGs while maintaining a
sustainable debt.
0237. Hummel, J. R. BEN BERNANKE VERSUS MILTON FRIEDMAN: THE FEDERAL RESERVES EMERGENCE AS THE U.S. ECONOMYS CENTRAL PLANNER.
The Independent Review. 2011, 15(4).
Both Ben S. Bernanke and Milton Friedman are economists who studied the Great Depression closely. Indeed, Bernanke admits that his intense interest in that event was inspired by

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reading Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartzs Monetary History of the United
States, 18671960(1963). Bernanke agrees with Friedman that what made the Great Depression truly great rather than just a garden-variety depression was the series of banking panics
that began nearly a year after the stock-market crash of October 1929. And both agree that the
Federal Reserve (the Fed) was the primary culprit by failing to offset, if not by initiating, that
economic cataclysm within the United States. As Bernanke, while still only a member of
the Feds board of governors, said in an address at a ninetieth-birthday celebration for Friedman:
I would like to say to Milton and Anna: Regarding the Great Depression. Youre right, we did it.
Were very sorry. But thanks to you, we wont do it again.
0238. James, R. HANDLE WITH CARE: ENGAGING WITH FAITH-BASED ORGANISATIONS IN DEVELOPMENT. Development in Practice. 2011, 21(1):109117.
Religious faith has always had an intense but uneasy relationship with development. Donors
are currently seeking greater engagement with faith-based organisations (FBOs). This positive
shift needs careful consideration. Faith can be a powerfulbut flammablefuel for change.
FBOs are highly diverse and complex. Donors therefore need to handle them with understanding and care. This article outlines both the major concerns about faith in development and also
the potential value-added of FBOs. It charts growing interest yet residual ambivalence on the
part of donors towards faith in development. It presents the practical challenges and suggests
ways forward for both donors and FBOs.
0239. Korf, B. et al. THE GEOGRAPHY OF WARSCAPE. Third World Quarterly. 2010,
31(3):385399.
This article elaborates a heuristic approach to understanding the geography of warscape
from a theoretically informed perspective. It argues that agency in protracted civil war
emerges at the ambiguous interface of different, competing systems of power and authority.
In order to account for the multiple trajectories of threat and opportunity that warscapes offer
to different social actors and at different times and places, the article proposes the concept of
governable order, which is derived from a critical review of the literature on social navigation and governable space(s). The usefulness of combining these three concepts is
illustrated by two empirical vignettes. They demonstrate the dynamics of governable spaces
in distinct phases of the Sierra Leone and Sri Lanka civil wars. The two cases highlight the
temporal and territorial fluidity of governable spaces, which both constrain and enable
warscape inhabitants agency.
0240. Li, J. CHOOSING THE RIGHT BATTLES: HOW INDEPENDENT BOOKSHOPS IN SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA COMPETE WITH CHAINS AND ONLINE
RETAILERS. Australian Geographer. 2010, 41(2):247262.
The emergence of multinational retailers has induced shifts in the spatial distribution of
retail capital. Furthermore, the advent of shopping centers has led to a reconfiguration of consumption spaces. These trends have particular consequences for independent retail
businesses. This paper investigates the impacts of rationalisation and consolidation in retailing on independent bookshops in Sydney. There is a view that independent bookshops are in
decline, and this is particularly true when you look at the independent bookshops in the UK
and the USA. However, this research reveals that the perception of the demise of the independent bookshop in Australia is exaggerated. Despite the challenges they face, there are
counterbalances to the trends of shopping centers, chain shops and online retailing that have
carved a niche for the independent bookshop. Independent bookshops differentiate themselves from chains by designing unique shops, carrying a wide range of inventory, and
providing personalised customer service. In this way, they have successfully distinguished
themselves from other types of booksellers and maintained a stable position in Australian
book retailing.

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0241. Matti, S. RESOURCES AND RENT SEEKING IN THE DEMOCRATIC


REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO. Third World Quarterly. 2010, 31(3):401413.
By examining the Congolese political economy through the lens of the resource curse
theory, this article aims to advance our understanding of the chronic underdevelopment of the
Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Proceeding in three distinct phases the article
examines the effect of resource rents, foreignn aid and the likely effect of Chinese investment.
It finds that a political tradition of patrimonialism and corruption based on large inflows of
easily corruptible resource rents was established in the Mobutu period. In the post-conflict
period the source of revenue shifted from resource rents to foreign aid, while the political tradition remained essentially unchanged. The model of the Congolese political economy
established in these first two sections will then be used to make an informed assessment of the
Sicomines deal. The article finds that the structured nature of the deals means that it is unlikely
to perpetuate the resource curse condition.
0242. McMichael, P., and Schneider, M. FOOD SECURITY POLITICS AND THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS. Third World Quarterly. 2011, 32(1):119139.
This article reviews proposals regarding the recent food crisis in the context of a broader,
threshold debate on the future of agriculture and food security. While the MDGs have focused
on eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, the food crisis pushed the hungry over the one billion mark. There is thus a renewed focus on agricultural development, which pivots on the
salience of industrial agriculture (as a supply source) in addressing food security. The World
Banks new agriculture for development initiative seeks to improve small-farmer productivity
with new inputs, and their incorporation into global markets via value-chains originating in
industrial agriculture. An alternative claim, originating in food sovereignty politics,
demanding small-farmer rights to develop bio-regionally specific agro-ecological methods
and provision for local, rather than global, markets, resonates in the IAASTD report, which
implies agribusiness as usual is no longer an option. The basic divide is over whether agriculture is a servant of economic growth, or should be developed as a foundational source of social
and ecological sustainability. We review and compare these different paradigmatic approaches
to food security, and their political and ecological implications.
0243. Nabacwa, M. S. RELATIONS BETWEEN GENDER-FOCUSED NGOS, ADVOCACY WORK, AND GOVERNMENT: A UGANDAN CASE STUDY. Development in
Practice. 2010, 20(3):395406.
Relations between the Ugandan government and NGOs engaged in gender-focused NGO
advocacy tend to keep NGOs visibly engaged but do not necessarily alter the status of poor
women. These relations manifest themselves in government advising NGO advocacy work;
sympathising with the NGOs; co-opting NGOs and individuals; publicising gender issues; and
de-legitimising gender-focused NGO activities. The article links these phenomena to the governments wish to appear receptive to the concerns of civil-society organisations, of which
NGOs are a major component. This is important to its image in the international aid community, where it projects itself as generally democratic and supportive of good governance.
0244. Ntata, P. R. T. BRIDGING THE HUNGER GAP WITH CASH TRANSFERS:
EXPERIENCES FROM MALAWI. Development in Practice. 2010, 20(3):422427.
Food shortages have become a chronic feature of many sub-Saharan countries, not just
because of bad weather but also because of increasing poverty levels. In economies that do not
have government social-security programmes, humanitarian relief and safety-net initiatives
are imperative to prevent mass starvation. This article discusses the implementation of a cashfor-work programme designed to bridge the hunger gap in Malawi, highlighting its value and
drawing lessons for practitioners with regard to the various components of the programme such
as design, targeting, and timing, as well as challenges.

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0245. Ozgur, M. E., and Genc, H. AN OTTOMAN CLASSICAL POLITICAL ECONOMIST: SARANTIS ARCHIGENES AND HIS TASARRUFAT-I MU(LKIYE. Middle Eastern
Studies. 2011, 47(2):329342.
The first half of the nineteenth century witnessed important changes, constituting large-scale
transformations in the Ottoman Empire in terms of its military, economic and political structures. The most important change in the military structure was the abolition of the Janissary
Corps in 1826. The change in the economic structure manifested itself in the Treaty of Balta
Liman signed between the Ottoman Empire and Britain. With the Treaty of Balta Liman traditional Ottoman economic policies demonstrated a significant change. Before the treaty
monopolies on foreign trade were common, and the governing authority could ban the export of
certain goods and raw materials if there was a shortage in their supplies. Extraordinary taxes
could be levied on foreign trade during the war years. With the Treaty of Balta Liman, monopolies were abolished and duties were rearranged such that 3 per cent of custom duties on exports
and imports were replaced by 12 per cent for exports and 5 per cent for imports. As a result
of the Treaty the structure of Ottoman agriculture as largely depending on subsistence
changed, the Ottoman economy was monetized and the power of factors such as indicators and
incentives, which belong to a freely operating market, increased, all of these factors making the
Ottoman economy more open.
0246. Palat, R. A. WORLD TURNED UPSIDE DOWN? RISE OF THE GLOBAL
SOUTH AND THE CONTEMPORARY GLOBAL FINANCIAL TURBULENCE. Third
World Quarterly. 2010, 31(3):365384.
By focusing on the consequences of the dismantling of regulations over the financial sector,
the current debate on the causes of the global economic meltdown obscures the cyclical occurrence of speculation in capitalism, as the accumulation of more capital than can be profitably
invested in the production and sale of commodities results in financial expansion. Historically
financial expansion has signalled the end of one world-scale system of accumulation and the
transition to a new system as capital flows from declining powers to rising powers. However,
the contemporary period is distinguished by capital flows from rising powers to declining ones.
An analysis of the current crisis suggests a reversal of this anomaly as it reduces the ability of
China and other East Asian states to support the US dollar. At the same time emerging market
economies have begun to forge new relationships that could provide the framework for a new
system of partnership between states and enterprises to reconstruct a new cycle of accumulation if two hurdles are overcome: 1) absorption of labour that is being displaced because of the
high organic composition of capital and 2) dampening of the growing inequalities in income
which has not only restricted the growth of markets but is also fuelling increasing social
conflict.
0247. Palmer, V. ANALYSING CULTURAL PROXIMITY: ISLAMIC RELIEF WORLDWIDE AND ROHINGYA REFUGEES IN BANGLADESH. Development in Practice. 2011,
21(1):96108.
Based on fieldwork carried, out on Islamic Reliefs relief programme for Rohingya refugees
in Bangladesh, this article contributes to the debate on whether Muslim aid agencies bring
added value when working with Muslim beneficiaries in Muslim areas. The author explores the
significance of religion in relations between actors in the aid process and argues that a common
religion does not necessarily override political, social, and cultural divisions. The article questions whether it is useful to claim that Muslim solidarity exists in the aid process when in
practice it is difficult to have any meaningful, engagement with religion in the field.
0248. Parkinson, S. THE LEARNING ORGANISATION AS A MODEL FOR RURAL
DEVELOPMENT. Development in Practice. 2010, 20(3):329341.
This article presents evidence from Ugandas National Agricultural Advisory Service to
argue that the concept of the learning organisation is a valuable complement to participatory
development which may facilitate a shift towards more democratic development institutions in

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 67

which target beneficiaries have a stronger voice in planning and managing development. The
concept of the learning organisation as developed within the literature of management studies
cannot, however, be readily translated into anything as specific as a clear set of practical guidelines. Rather it acts as a seed that grows to take on characteristics specific to the rural
development context.
0249. Poku, N., and Whitman, J. THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS: CHALLENGES, PROSPECTS AND OPPORTUNITIES. Third World Quarterly. 2011, 32(1):38.
The prospect for the MDGs cannot be reduced to the sum of the eight goals, divorced from
international dynamics, the hard interests of states and the global dynamics that impact on both,
or from the complexities and intractability of widespread poverty and its consequences. The legacies and controversies of previous international development initiatives also beset perceptions of,
and support for, the MDGs. However, the wholly inclusive nature of the goals give them a unique
normative standing and momentum; and the quantitative measures of progress ensure that there is
more to the goals than lofty ideals. In addition, the thematic linkages between each of the goals is
mutually reinforcing. While not discounting either structural difficulties or the lack of adequate
progress in some specifics, it is important not to overlook the political consensus, abundant goodwill and normative momentum that have already been generated in the ten years to date. The
answer to the question, How promising is the promise of the MDGs? has not yet been answered
definitively: there remains good reason for cautious optimism for progress up to 2015and
through revitalized commitment and persistent engagement, well beyond that date.
0250. Poku, N. K., and Whitman, J. THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS
AND DEVELOPMENT AFTER 2015. Third World Quarterly. 2011, 32(1):181198.
Five years from the end of the 15-year span of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
it is already plain that progress has been patchy and that the larger goals will not be met. The
scale and profile of the MDGs will make them subject to eventual success or failure judgments
and lessons learned analyses, but the evidence of the past decade and current trajectories are
sufficient to reveal our conceptual and operational shortcomings and the kinds of reorientation
needed to ensure that the last five years of the MDGs will exhibit positive momentum rather
than winding-down inertia. Such reorientations would include prioritising actors over systems;
disaggregated targets over global benchmarks; qualitative aspects of complex forms of human
relatedness over technical solutions; and the painstaking work of developing country
enablement over quick outcome indicators, not least for the purpose of sustainability. Thinking
and planning beyond 2015 must be made integral to the last five years of the MDGs, for
normative as well as practical reasons.
0251. Reith, S. MONEY, POWER, AND DONORNGO PARTNERSHIPS. Development
in Practice. 2010, 20(3):446455.
The term partnership can be considered something of a Trojan Horse, disguising the reality
of the complex relationships in imbalances of power and inequality, often expressed through
the control of one partner over the other. With particular reference to the experience of a
small, UK-based NGO working in Uganda (Hives Save LivesAfrica), this article highlights
how power is manifest within donor-NGO partnerships through the control and flow of money;
and illustrates that NGOs pursuing funding from donors face many challenges that reinforce
this imbalance of power.
0252. Renwick, N. MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOAL 1: POVERTY, HUNGER
AND DECENT WORK IN SOUTHEAST ASIA. Third World Quarterly. 2011, 32(1):6589.
This article considers three questions: 1) what progress has been made in achieving MDGl
targets?; 2) what challenges remain?; and 3) what more could and should be done? To examine
these questions, the article assesses the progress of Southeast Asia in seeking to achieve MDGl.
It argues that the region is on track to achieve MDG I targets, although significant challenges
such as inequality remain. Economic growth, significant structural change and incorporation

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into global value chains have contributed to MDG progress. However, this is a double-edged
sword as exposure to global economic turbulence can increase. The longer-term reduction of
poverty, inequality and social exclusion is a question of empowerment of local producers
within value chains-a shift in economic power and control through pro-poor strategies strong
enough to effect substantive structural change. The article outlines key concepts; identifies the
main characteristics of Southeast Asian poverty; outlines what more needs to be done; and concludes by reprising the articles findings and weighing the prospects for 201015 and beyond.
0253. Schimmel, N. FAILED AID: HOW DEVELOPMENT AGENCIES ARE
NEGLECTING AND MARGINALISING RWANDAN GENOCIDE SURVIVORS. Development in Practice. 2010, 20(3):407413.
This Viewpoint argues that international development aid agencies have failed adequately to
address the rights and needs of genocide survivors in Rwanda. It illustrates that genocide survivors
remain impoverished and marginalised, and that development aid agencies only tangentially, if at
all, acknowledge their vulnerability and take steps to empower them to realise their rights. It provides examples of aid programmes that are reaching genocide survivors and urges development aid
agencies in Rwanda to design and implement programmes explicitly for genocide survivors.
0254. Spalek, B. COMMUNITY POLICING, TRUST, AND MUSLIM COMMUNITIES
IN RELATION TO NEW TERRORISM. Politics and Policy. 2010, 38(4):789815.
The following article examines the role of trust between police and communities in the context of
new terrorism, drawing upon data that examined engagement and partnership work between
communities and police within this context. A key finding is that in a low-trust context, as characterized by new terrorism, it is important for police officers to focus initially upon building
contingent trust by trust-building activities that demonstrate trustworthiness. Partnerships between
police and members of Muslim communities carrying out sensitive intervention work with those
deemed at risk from committing acts of terrorism appear to feature implicit trust. These partnerships are less focused upon short-term outcomes, but rather, individuals are committed to these
relationships so that within the partnerships themselves trust is implicit between officers and
Muslim community members. This suggests that police within specialist counter-terrorism units
underpinned specifically by principles of community policing are best placed to provide the kind of
long-term interaction and trust-building that is required for sensitive partnership work to take place,
for contingent trust to be built into implicit trust.
0255. Vandemoortele, J. IF NOT THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS, THEN
WHAT? Third World Quarterly. 2011, 32(1):925.
Even if the MDGs are achieved, the world will still face unacceptably high levels of hunger,
morbidity, mortality and illiteracy beyond 2015. Global targets can be drivers of change. The
debate about the post-2015 framework should not be about the usefulness of global targets but
about their improved architecture and enhanced relevance. After reviewing the good, the bad
and the ugly that have happened since the MDGs were created, this article discusses several
challenges and pitfalls in the process of defining the post-2015 framework, including the need
to formulate the MDGs more clearly as global targets, to maintain their measurability, to focus
on ends, to embed equality of opportunity, to include interim targets, and to conduct global
summitry differently so as to make it better fit for purpose. A Peer & Partner Group is proposed
as the global custodian of the MDGs in order to reduce undue donorship.
0256. Van Mele, P. et al. ENHANCING RURAL LEARNING, LINKAGES, AND INSTITUTIONS: THE RICE VIDEOS IN AFRICA. Development in Practice. 2010, 20(3):414421.
Africa Rice Center (WARDA) facilitated the development and translation of 11 rice videos.
From 2005 to 2009, WARDA partners translated them into more than 30 African languages.
Open-air video presentations enhanced learning, experimentation, confidence, trust, and group
cohesion among rural people. The videos strengthened capacities of more than 500 organisations
and hundreds of thousands of farmers. WARDAs integrated rural learning approach also helped

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 69

women to access new markets and credit. Learning videos allow for unsupervised learning;
unleash local creativity and experimentation; facilitate institutional innovations; and improve
social inclusion of the poor, youth, and women.
0257. Walton, A. WHAT IS FAIR TRADE? Third World Quarterly. 2010, 31(3):431447.
This article categorises the emerging conceptualisations of Fair Trade and explores which of
them offers the best characterisation of the project. It introduces Fair Trade and establishes a
set of desiderata to guide the process of conceptualisation. It is argued that the practices and
rhetoric of the project suggest it is best characterised as an attempt to establish a form of interim
global market justice in a non-ideal world. Three alternative conceptualisations are explored,
some including sub-categories. In each section a description of the view is outlined and it is
argued that each such alternative is either an unpersuasive account of Fair Trade or cannot
better the one already defended. In the final section the normative debate surrounding Fair
Trade conceptualised as an attempt to establish interim global market justice in a non-ideal
world is introduced. The article suggests that there are avenues for the projects ethical defence
but concludes that this can be settled only with further research.
0258. Yankson, P. W. K. GOLD MINING AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE WASSA WEST DISTRICT, GHANA. Development in Practice. 2010, 20(3):
354366.
Despite a boom in gold mining in Ghanas Wassa West district (WWD), unemployment and
poverty have deepened, partly due to loss of farmland to surface mining but more so because of
the limited opportunities for wage employment in the districts revived gold-mining industry.
However, the large-scale mining companies are implementing some alternative livelihood
programmes (ALPs) as part of their corporate social-responsibility (CSR) agenda. While the
ALPs have provided some employment and income-earning opportunities and skills training,
the prospects for their sustainability depend on how the challenges confronting the various
programmes are addressed. This will require a well-coordinated approach involving all the key
stakeholders.
0259. Ziai, A. THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS: BACK TO THE
FUTURE? Third World Quarterly. 2011, 32(1):2743.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) constitute a normative consensus in the development community at the beginning of the 21st century. This article examines that consensus
from the perspective of post-structuralist discourse analysis by situating it in its historical context, comparing the Millennium Declaration with the UN International Development Strategy of
1970. The article illustrates the depoliticising bias of the main MDG documents and interprets the
shift in favour of market-oriented solutions and non-antagonistic conceptions of global community as the principal manifestations of a significant shift in development discourse.
0260. Zhu, Y. TARGET GROUPS VIEWS AND POLICY IMPLEMENTATION: LESSONS FROM GUIYANGS HOUSING MONETARIZATION REFORM. Politics and Policy.
2010, 38(4):817841.
Chinas housing reform process is facing a familiar public policy challenge: the difficulties of
implementation in provinces and cities. This article explores the reasons for these difficulties with
special reference to the housing reform process in the city of Guiyang. The study focuses particularly on a frequently neglected aspect of the implementation process, namely the views and
responses of the target groups. Drawing on the housing reform experiences in the city, this study
identifies target groups as a key factor in the implementation process. The article argues that policy
implementation is not only affected by the possible impacts of a given policy on the target groups
but also by target groups views and their understanding of policy directive. The article also contributes to the broad debate on the policy process by focusing on the neglected role of target groups
in the study of policy implementation.

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ETHNOHISTORY
0261. Axelrod, P. NO LONGER A LAST RESORT THE END OF CORPORAL PUNISHMENT IN THE SCHOOLS OF TORONTO. The Canadian Historical Review. 2010,
91(2):261286.
In 1971, following a protracted and tumultuous debate, the Toronto Board of Education formally abolished the use of corporal punishment in its schoolsthe first Ontario board to do so.
Corporal punishment continued to be employed elsewhere in Ontario and throughout Canada
well into the 1980s, and the use of physical discipline was prohibited in all Canadian schools
only in 2004, following a ruling of the Supreme Court of Canada. Why did educators and
legislators defend corporal punishment for so long, and why did the tide turn in the last part of
the twentieth century? Concentrating on legal and political dynamics, this article explores the
ways in which the Toronto Board of Education grappled with the issue of corporal punishment
in the three decades before its abolition. It seeks to situate the story of Torontos approach to
school discipline on the broader social landscape on which the battle over corporal punishment
was conducted. It concludes that the particular configuration of the Toronto Board of Education following trustee elections in 1969 strongly affected the shape and outcome of the corporal
punishment debate.
0262. Caeque, A. IMAGING THE SPANISH EMPIRE: THE VISUAL CONSTRUCTION OF IMPERIAL AUTHORITY IN HABSBURG NEW SPAIN. Colonial Latin American
Review. 2010, 19(1):2968.
On 15 August 1663, the feast of the Assumption was celebrated in Mexico City with all due
solemnity, including the celebration of a mass in the cathedral that was attended by all the colonial authorities, except the viceroy, who was absent due to illness. At the end of the mass, the
two oidores who had attended the service asked the corregidor and the regidores to escort them
formally on their way back to the audiencia palace. Once they arrived in the justices chambers,
the corregidor could not help declaring that neither he nor the regidores had the obligation to
escort the audiencia if the viceroy was not present, although they had decided to do so to avoid a
public incident with the oidores.
0263. Deans-Smith, S. OF TREASURES AND REVELATIONS: MOBILITY AND THE
MULTIPLE LIVES OF THE EXHIBITION THE ARTS IN LATIN AMERICA, 14921820.
A CONVERSATION WITH THE CURATORS. Colonial Latin American Review. 2010,
19(1):207225.
Between September 2006 and October 2007 the exhibition The Arts in Latin America,
14921820 began its journey at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, traveled to the Antiguo
Colegio de San Ildefonso, Mexico City, and then on to its final venue at the Los Angeles County
Museum of Art. Unprecedented in its pan-American focus and scope and scale, the exhibition
brought together paintings, sculptures, textiles, silverwork, and decorative arts, many never seen
before outside of their original locations.
0264. Farriss, N. INTRODUCTORY ESSAY: THE POWER OF IMAGES. Colonial Latin
American Review. 2010, 19(1):528.
Debates over the legitimacy of images in the long history of Christianity have never questioned their potency. Indeed, there is no need to proscribe or to promote an inconsequential
object. In the Baroque world of colonial Spanish America the Council of Trent (published in
America in 1565) affirmed the Roman Catholic stance on images in the face of Protestant
attacks, not only proclaiming their legitimacy but also underscoring the value and efficacy of
holy images in the life of the church militant. Images, the Council declared, serve to instruct, to
inspire with devotion, and in general to lead the faithful to God and the saints. They had been
termed Biblia Pauperum, a bible for the poor and illiterate, but their range extended to the
learned as well. Although Dominicans and Franciscans in New Spain believed that pictures

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 71

were the best way to convey the gospel message to the prospective converts, it was not only the
Indians who might be said to learn better through their eyes than through their ears.
0265. Figueroa, L. M. THE STAFF OF LIFE: WHEAT AND INDIAN BREAD IN THE
NEW WORLD. Colonial Latin American Review. 2010, 19(2):301322.
Beginning with Columbus, the image of the Americas as a paradise became commonplace in
European narratives. A key feature of this perception was the image of a natural world filled
with countless exotic species of plants and animals. Plants in particular excited the imagination
of European commentators because of their potential as sources of medicine and food. Yet,
amidst this celebration of abundance, Europeans also noticed striking absences in the natural
world of the Americas. A crucial staple of the European diet was missing: wheat. Francisco
L\pez de G\mara, one of the most widely read chroniclers, wrote in 1553: they did not have
wheat in all the Indies, which are another world, a huge lack given what we are used to here.
As much as the nakedness of the natives, the lack of wheat signaled a crucial difference
between cultures. Wheat was not just a plant; it was a defining element of European cultural
identity. In the absence of this key European staple, historians and naturalists paid close
attention to those plants they believed played the role of wheat in native societies. By looking at
Europeans perceptions and discussions of the lack of wheat in the Americas as well as their
observations regarding Indian breads and how they used them, we can learn much about the
challenges of transplanting, preserving, and adapting the early modern European identity in
the New World.
0266. Gocking, R. THE ADJUDICATION OF HOMICIDE IN COLONIAL GHANA:
THE IMPACT OF THE KNOWLES MURDER CASE. Journal of African History. 2011, 52:
85104.
In keeping with the law in place in the Colony of Ashanti in 1928, Dr Benjamin Knowles was
tried and convicted for the murder of his wife without the benefit of a jury trial or the assistance
of legal counsel. His trial and sentencing to death created outrage in both colonial Ghana and
the metropole, and placed a spotlight on the adjudication of capital crimes in the colony. Inevitably, there were calls for reform of a system that could condemn an English government
official to death without the benefit of the right to trial by a jury of his peers and counsel of his
choice.
0267. Jose, J. LIKE PRUSSIC ACID IN A BOTTLE OF MEDICINE: LIBERAL PRINCIPLES AND COLONIAL RULE. Postcolonial Studies. 2010, 13(2):199214.
It has been a commonplace of the imperial mindset to describe imperialism as beneficial for
all concerned, though the material benefits were certainly not enjoyed equally by the imperialists and their subjects. For the imperialist powers the benefits outweighed the costs. As for the
subjects of empire the story was far less benign, as numerous critics of imperialism have demonstrated. Nonetheless, enthusiasts of empire emphasized, and continue to emphasize, not just
the material benefits, but the institutional, cultural and moral benefits arising from contact and
engagement with the imperial power. For the imperial power brought with it and imposed variations on its own form of civilization including its laws, ideas and modes of governing and
administration. This was usually described by imperial administrators as the white mans
burden or the civilizing mission or some such similar phrase.
0268. Marano, C. RISING STRONGLY AND RAPIDLY: THE UNIVERSAL NEGRO
IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION IN CANADA, 19191940. The Canadian Historical
Review. 2010, 91(2):233260.
Led by Jamaican-born Marcus Garvey, the Universal Negro Improvement Association
(UNIA) spanned the globe and enticed its followers with the dream of an independent black
nation in Africa. The UNIA has been portrayed largely as an American and/or Caribbean
phenomenon. Yet from 1919 to 1940, the UNIA played a central role in the lives of many
blacks in Canada, especially West Indian immigrants. West Indian immigrants comprised the

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vast majority of UNIA members in Canada, and they used this organization as an outlet to
create and express a unique ethno-racial identity. Distinctive commonalities among the West
Indians, including high literacy rates, experience in trade unions, and a strong pan-African consciousness made them more likely to join the UNIA than African American immigrants and
native-born Black Canadians. These shared traits became part of the fabric of a distinct West
Indian identity, which they asserted as leaders, organizers, and participants in the UNIA.
0269. Martin, I. W. REDISTRIBUTING TOWARD THE RICH: STRATEGIC
POLICY CRAFTING IN THE CAMPAIGN TO REPEAL THE SIXTEENTH AMENDMENT, 19381958. American Journal of Sociology. 2010, 116(1):152.
Beginning in 1938, some American business groups campaigned to repeal the Sixteenth
Amendment and limit the federal taxation of income and wealth. Although their proposed
upward-redistributive policy would benefit few voters, it won the support of 31 state legislatures. To explain this outcome, this article offers a theory of strategic policy crafting by
advocacy groups. Such groups may succeed even in otherwise unfavorable institutional environments if they craft their proposals to fit the salient policy context. Archival evidence and
event history analysis support this hypothesis. Public opinion also helps explain legislative
support for upward-redistributive policy.
0270. McCullers, M. WE DO IT SO THAT WE WILL BE MEN: MASCULINITY POLITICS IN COLONIAL NAMIBIA, 191549. Journal of African History. 2011, 52:4362.
This article examines struggles for masculinity among Herero elders, South African colonial
administrators, and the Otruppa, a Herero youth society that appropriated a German military
aesthetic, in Namibia between 1915 and 1949. As previous scholars have argued, masculinities are mutually constituted through competitions for authority, though dominance is rarely
achieved. Such contestations were integral to processes of Herero societal reconstruction following German rule and during South African colonial state formation, beginning in 1915.
0271. Mercer, K. NORTHERN EXPOSURE: RESISTANCE TO NAVAL IMPRESSMENT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA, 17751815. The Canadian Historical Review. 2010,
91(2):199232.
Focusing on resistance, this article examines naval impressment in British North America
from 1775 to 1815. Although neglected in Canadian historiography, press gangs sparked urban
unrest and political turmoil in seaports such as Halifax, St Johns, and Quebec City. Impressment reached into most coastal areas of British North America by the early nineteenth century
and its sailors and inhabitants employed a range of strategies to resist it. They also confronted it
directly, sometimes with violent results. Press gang riots in St Johns in 1794 and Halifax in
1805 led to a prohibition on impressment on shore for much of the Napoleonic Wars. Popular
protest served as the catalyst for official resistance to the British Navy and had a lasting impact
on civilnaval relations in the North Atlantic world. While the study of popular disturbances in
Canadian history usually begins in the mid-nineteenth century, this paper shows that they were
important in earlier generations as well. This was often the result of tensions caused by imperial
warfare and quarrels with military personnel.
0272. Rolandsen, q. H. A FALSE START: BETWEEN WAR AND PEACE IN THE
SOUTHERN SUDAN, 195662. Journal of African History. 2011, 52:105123.
Historians usually trace the start of the first civil war in the Southern Sudan to the Torit
mutiny of 1955. However, organized political violence did not reach the level of civil war until
1963. This article argues that 1955-62 was a period of increasing political tension, local lowintensity violence, and social and economic stagnation. It shows how these conditions influenced the attitudes of government officials, informed the policies that they pursued, and made a
Southern insurgency likely.

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 73

0273. Stark, D. M. MAKING THE MOST OF THEIR TIME: SEASONALITY OF


SLAVE MARRIAGE IN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY PUERTO RICO. Colonial Latin American Review. 2010, 19(2):323349.
On the morning of 28 December 1768, Antonio and MarRa, a slave couple belonging to FJlix
Pag<n, were married in the Catholic church of San Germ<n, Puerto Rico. The event was recorded
in the parish marriage register, along with a notation stating no se velaron por ser tiempo
prohibido; that is the couple had not received the velacio'n, or solemn nuptial blessing, because it
was a forbidden season. Although marriage may be contracted at any time of the year, Church
officials frowned upon it during the seasons of Advent and Lent since the velacio'n could not be
conferred at this time. Because these seasons were to be marked by abstinence and penance, couples were discouraged from celebrating and consummating their marriage if they had not
received the nuptial blessing. Once the penitential season was over, couples wishing to receive
the blessing often returned to the church for it to be conferred, which Antonio and MarRa did.
Seventeen days later they appeared before the parish priest JoaquRn Nazario de Figueroa y Matos,
and received the velacio'n. Marriage among slaves was not uncommon in eighteenth-century
Puerto Rico and neither was it unusual for them to be joined in matrimony during the forbidden
seasons, especially Advent.
0274. van Deusen, N. E. DIASPORAS, BONDAGE, AND INTIMACY IN LIMA, 1535
TO 1555. Colonial Latin American Review. 2010,19(2):247277.
We can rely upon the meticulous work of historical demographers and ethnohistorians who
have pored over royal decrees, census records, and ordinances to detail the loss of life of the
hundreds of thousands of indigenous slaves and servants.
0275. Whitt, H. P. THE CIVILIZING PROCESS AND ITS DISCONTENTS: SUICIDE
AND CRIMES AGAINST PERSONS IN FRANCE, 18251830. American Journal of Sociology. 2010,116(1):13086.
A spatial analysis of data for French de' partements assembled in the 1830s by AndrJ-Michel
Guerry and Adolphe dAngeville examines the impacts of modernization and resistance to governmental Frenchification policies on measures of violence and its direction. In the context
of Unnithan et al.s integrated model of suicide and homicide, high suicide rates in the northern
core and a predilection for violence against others in the southern periphery may be consistently
interpreted in terms of theories of the civilizing process and internal colonialism. Alternative
explanations of southern violence in 19th-century France are explored and rejected, and additional theoretical applications are suggested.

KINSHIP
Family organization, marriage
0276. Boni, S. BROTHERS 30,000, SISTERS 20,000; NEPHEWS 15,000, NIECES
10,000: AKAN FUNERAL LEDGERS KINSHIP AND VALUE NEGOTIATIONS, AND
THEIR LIMITS. Ethnography. 2010, 11(3):381408.
This article compares indigenous conceptualizations, as expressed in ledgers recording the
collection of funeral offerings, with academic knowledge on kinship and value negotiation in
the Akan area of West Africa. Donors are inserted in social circuits defining their residential
belonging (in villages and households), parental affiliation (with specific offerings for
matrilineal kin, patrilateral kin and in-laws), as well as gender and seniority. Funeral offerings,
moreover, vary proportionally to value: the amount provided by the donor expresses his/her
value and the total cost of the funeral indicates the value of the deceased and of her/his family.
The intricacies of mortuary offeringsexpressed through elaborate calculationsreveal
shared and structured taxonomies that enable affirming and negotiating the value of the
deceased and that of the donor as well as the relation between donor and deceased. Anthropological theories and definitions are confronted with these locally elaborated representations.

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0277. Ferrarini,T., and Duvander, A. Z. EARNER-CARER MODEL AT THE CROSSROADS: REFORMS AND OUTCOMES OF SWEDENS FAMILY POLICY IN
COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE. International Journal of Health Services. 2010, 40(3):
373398.
Following the 2006 election, the Swedish earner-carer model of family policy seems to have
come to an important crossroads, and questions have been raised about the future course of policies. Will the prototypical earner-carer model in Sweden persist? The separate reforms in cash
transfers, services, and tax systems in several respects seem to point in contradictory directions, simultaneously introducing new principles of social care. In this article, past and present
reforms and potential outcomes of policies are discussed from an institutional and comparative
perspective. Reviewing research on outcomes of earner-carer policies for gendered patterns of
productive and reproductive work, class-based stratification, child well-being, fertility, and
workfamily conflict, the article also contributes to the discussion about future challenges for
family policy institutions in Sweden and other advanced welfare states.
0278. Green, P. GENERATION, FAMILY AND MIGRATION: YOUNG BRAZILIAN
FACTORY WORKERS IN JAPAN. Ethnography. 2010, 11(4):515532.
This article focuses on the significance of generational difference and kinship ties in the
lives of young Brazilian migrants living and working in Japan. On these terms, I transcend an
ongoing tendency in transnational migration studies to highlight the importance of economic
motivation, a myth of return and the primary significance of communal ties in the shaping of
everyday migrant experiences. By treating generational difference as a kin relationship I consider the central influence of family in shaping the experiences and future plans of young
Brazilian migrants in Japan. By considering generational difference as a migrant relationship I
discuss young peoples perceptions of freedom, familial obligation and easy money in the light
of contested understandings of what it means to be a Brazilian migrant in Japan. Through this
analysis, the article offers fresh insights into both migration between Brazil and Japan and
understandings of belonging, difference and attachment in transnational social spaces.
0279. Kushnick, G., and Fessler, D. M. T. KARO BATAK COUSIN MARRIAGE,
COSOCIALIZATION, AND THE WESTERMARCK HYPOTHESIS. Current Anthropology.
2011, 52(3):443448.
Among the Karo Batak of North Sumatra, Indonesia, marriages between matrilateral cross
cousins (impal) are the ideal, yet rarely occur. Further, ethnographic accounts reveal a stated
aversion to impal marriage. These observations are consistent with Westermarcks negative
imprinting hypothesis if impal are cosocialized. We present analyses of postmarital residence
patterns from two studies of the Karo Batak. The analyses reveal that although individuals
are likely to have been raised in close propinquity with some impal, cosocialization rates were
probably not high enough for classical Westermarckian phenomena alone to account for
the rarity of impal marriage. In accord with Westermarcks speculations on the origins of
taboos, we propose a hybrid explanation combining evolved inbreeding avoidance mechanisms and their cultural byproducts and generalize our findings to a model of cosocialization
given cousin type and residence patterns.
0280. Pedersen, M. H. REVISITING IRAQ: CHANGE AND CONTINUITY IN FAMILIAL RELATIONS OF IRAQI REFUGEES IN COPENHAGEN. Anthropology. 2011, 53:
1528.
For refugees, their country of origin often provides a strong source of belonging and identity,
yet many refugees can only maintain infrequent contacts with it. This article investigates how
the sudden increase in relations with Iraq after Saddam Husseins fall affected Iraqi refugee
women and their families in Copenhagen, Denmark. It shows that, while renewed transnational
practice in some ways allowed the women to recreate links to their relatives and their places of
origin, thus affirming their Iraqi identity, it also raised questions about previous notions of
relatedness and belonging and created a stronger sense of belonging in Denmark.

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 75

0281. Sonneveld, N. KHUL DIVORCE IN EGYPT HOW FAMILY COURTS ARE


PROVIDING A DIALOGUE BETWEEN HUSBAND AND WIFE. Anthropology of the
Middle East. 2010, 5(2):100120.
In the year 2000, Egyptian women were given the right to unilateral divorce through a procedure called khul. Khul became the source of much controversy in Egyptian society, and most
judges interviewed by the author expressed a negative viewpoint when asked about it. Nevertheless, the introduction of the Family Court system in 2004, with the explicit aim of solving
marital disputes through mediation and communication, has made possible a dialogue between
husband and wife in a khul procedure. This applies even in situations where mediators and
judges profess an unfavourable opinion of women who file for khul divorce.
0282. Yeh, S. L. THE PROCESS OF KINSHIP IN THE PATERNAL/FRATERNAL
HOUSE OF THE AUSTRONESIAN-SPEAKING AMIS OF TAIWAN. Oceania. 2012, 82:
186204.
In this essay, I will describe the traditional social organisation of the Amis peoples of Taiwan
which previous ethnographers have portrayed as consisting of a matrilineal clan-based system
conjoined with a residential-based male age-set grade system. Following David Schneiders
critique of kinship cross-culturally and the new kinship studies which his work inspired, I
will attempt a reinterpretation of overall Amis social organisation as instead a total kinshipbased system comprised of a paternal/fraternal system which integrates and encompasses the
multiplicity of maternal-focused houses constitutive of village communities. Rather than being
a system composed of kinship and non-kinship parts, I argue that Amis social organisation is
comprehensively kinship-based. Moreover, I shall describe how through paternal/fraternal
relations generated by rites of male initiation and rebirth this overall integration of diverse
matrifocal units is achieved.

MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
0283. Abbey, L. et al. SOCIAL LEARNING: MEDICAL STUDENT PERCEPTIONS OF
GERIATRIC HOUSE CALLS. Gerontology and Geriatrics Education. 2010, 31:149162.
Banduras social learning theory provides a useful conceptual framework to understand medical
students perceptions of a house calls experience at Virginia Commonwealth University School of
Medicine. Social learning and role modeling reflect Liaison Committee on Medical Education
guidelines for Medical schools (to) ensure that the learning environment for medical students promotes the development of explicit and appropriate professional attributes (attitudes, behaviors, and
identity) in their medical students. This qualitative study reports findings from open-ended survey
questions from 123 medical students who observed a preceptor during house calls to elderly homebound patients. Their comments included reflections on the medical treatment as well as
interactions with family and professional care providers. Student insights about the social learning
process they experienced during house calls to geriatric patients characterized physician role
models as dedicated, compassionate, and communicative.
0284. Aronson, R. B. et al. ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACTS ON MARINE ECOSYSTEMS IN ANTARCTICA. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2011, 1223:82
107.
Antarctica is the most isolated continent on Earth, but it has not escaped the negative impacts
of human activity. The unique marine ecosystems of Antarctica and their endemic faunas are
affected on local and regional scales by overharvesting, pollution, and the introduction of alien
species. Global climate change is also having deleterious impacts: rising sea temperatures and
ocean acidification already threaten benthic and pelagic food webs. The Antarctic Treaty
System can address local- to regional-scale impacts, but it does not have purview over the
global problems that impinge on Antarctica, such as emissions of greenhouse gases. Failure to
address human impacts simultaneously at all scales will lead to the degradation of Antarctic

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marine ecosystems and the homogenization of their composition, structure, and processes with
marine ecosystems elsewhere.
0285. Austad, S. N. ANIMAL MODELS OF REPRODUCTIVE AGING: WHAT CAN
THEY TELL US? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1204:123126.
This commentary explores the relationship between what can be learned about reproductive
senescence from studies in the laboratory compared with what can be learned from studies in
the field. Laboratory studies allow researchers to isolate and analyze detailed cellular and
molecular mechanisms of reproductive senescence, however drawing evolutionary inferences
from captive studies can be misleading. The ideal study would combine field and laboratory
observations and experiments. As with most other biological phenomena, understanding the
nature of genetic and environmental interactions is central to understanding of reproductive
aging.
0286. Backhaus, M. ULTRASOUND AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN INFLAMMATORY ARTHRITIS: SYNOVITIS AND TENOSYNOVITIS. Annals of the New York
Academy of Sciences. 2009, 1154:139151.
Accurate assessment of disease activity and joint damage in rheumatological diseases is
important for monitoring treatment efficacy and predicting the disease outcome, and such
assessment requires sensitive imaging tools. Conventional radiography is insensitive to soft
tissue lesions and to early erosive bone lesions. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography has become
an important diagnostic technique in rheumatological diseases, as it can detect both early
inflammatory soft tissue lesions (e.g., synovitis, tenosynovitis, and bursitis) and early erosive
bone lesions in arthritic joint diseases. Studies show good correlation in this regard between
ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Owing to good soft tissue contrast, ultrasound
enables differentiation between exudative and proliferative synovial changes and may also
direct further diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and color and power Doppler ultrasonography help to differentiate active from inactive joint processes. Specifically, the use of
contrast agents increases the sensitivity for the detection of a thickened, hypervascular, and
inflamed joint capsule and enables better quantification of inflammatory disease by estimating
ultrasound signal intensity changes. At present, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography is of particular interest for clinical studies in monitoring the new anti-inflammatory drugs used to treat
rheumatological diseases.
0287. Berhanu, Z. HOLY WATER AS AN INTERVENTION FOR HIV/AIDS IN ETHIOPIA. Journal of HIV/AIDS and Social Services. 2010, 9:240260.
A growing number of people living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia today are relocating to holy
water sites, in search of spiritual care. This article documents the experiences of 17 people
living with HIV/AIDS, based on their in-depth interviews by the author. The use of holy water
is considered by them to be an alternative and complementary treatment for HIV/AIDS. In
addition, there are some other spiritual practices that can be considered spiritual treatment. The
issue of using antiretroviral treatment together with holy water treatment remains controversial
among the research participants. The article shows areas of intervention for social workers
regarding the people living with HIV/AIDS who are heading to holy water sites for relief.
0288. Blaustein, A. R. et al. THE COMPLEXITY OF AMPHIBIAN POPULATION
DECLINES: UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF COFACTORS IN DRIVING AMPHIBIAN LOSSES. Annals of the New York Accademy of Sciences. 2011, 1223:108119.
Population losses and extinctions of species are occurring at unprecedented rates, as exemplified by declines and extinctions of amphibians worldwide. However, studies of amphibian
population declines generally do not address the complexity of the phenomenon or its implications for ecological communities, focusing instead on single factors affecting particular
amphibian species. We argue that the causes for amphibian population declines are complex;
may differ among species, populations, and life stages within a population; and are context

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 77

dependent with multiple stressors interacting to drive declines. Because amphibians are key components of communities, we emphasize the importance of investigating amphibian declines at the
community level. Selection pressures over evolutionary time have molded amphibian life history
characteristics, such that they may remain static even in the face of strong, recent human-induced
selection pressures.
0289. Borders, S. et al. DEVOLUTIONS POLICY IMPACT ON NON-EMERGENCY
MEDICAL TRANSPORTATION IN STATE CHILDRENS HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS. Social Work in Public Health. 2011, 26:137157.
Proponents of devolution often maintain that the transfer of power and authority of programs
enables local officials to craft policy solutions that better align with the needs of their constituents. This article provides one of the first empirical evaluations of this assumption as it relates
to non-emergency medical transportation (NEMT) in the State Childrens Health Insurance
Program (SCHIP). NEMT programs meet a critical need in the areas in which they serve,
directly targeting this single key access barrier to care. Yet states have great latitude in making
such services available.
0290. Brems, C. et al. HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS REPORTS OF PERCEIVED
STIGMA ASSOCIATED WITH HIV AND AIDS IN RURAL AND URBAN COMMUNITIES. Journal of HIV/AIDS and Social Services. 2010, 9:356370.
Over 1,500 rural and urban providers in Alaska and New Mexico responded to our survey
assessing their perceptions of stigma associated with HIV/AIDS. Findings indicated that
providers perceive HIV/AIDS as highly stigmatized and stigmatized more than other physical
and mental illnesses. Perceptions of HIV/AIDS stigma varied across community sizes, with
highest levels in rural communities and lower levels in urban, small urban, and small rural communities. Across communities, behavioral health care providers reported perceptions of
greater stigma associated with HIV, AIDS, and other illnesses than did physical health care
providers. Increased stigma in rural communities exacerbates health care disparities faced by
rural residents and underscores the need for research on reducing stigma associated with
HIV/AIDS.
0291. Bribiescas, R. G. AN EVOLUTIONARY AND LIFE HISTORY PERSPECTIVE
ON HUMAN MALE REPRODUCTIVE SENESCENCE. Annals of the New York Academy
of Sciences. 2010, 1204:5464.
Unlike menopause, male reproductive senescence does not involve an acute drop in fertility.
Men do, however, manifest distinct changes in somatic and gonadal function with age. Moreover, population variation in male reproductive senescence reveals phenotypic plasticity
resulting from environmental, lifestyle, and genetic factors. An evolutionary and life history
perspective is vital for understanding male reproductive senescence because aging involves
biological constraint as well as adjustments to reproductive strategies and the allocation of
somatic resources. An awareness of life history-related tradeoffs between energetic and time
constraints is especially useful because biological aspects of male senescence are products of
environmental challenges and natural selection. This article reviews the adaptive significance
of the evolutionary biology of human male senescence with particular attention to population
variation. An evolutionary perspective cannot only shed light on the origins and biology of
human male senescence but also provide insights into contemporary issues of male aging and
health.
0292. Brodwin, P. THE ASSEMBLAGE OF COMPLIANCE IN PSYCHIATRIC CASE
MANAGEMENT. Anthropology and Medicine. 2010, 17(2):129143.
In the post-asylum era, case managers perform much of the face-to-face work of pharmaceutical compliance for people with severe and persistent mental illness. Their work demands
careful orchestration of the assemblage of compliance, including, the actual medications, the
ideology of biopsychiatry, the division of professional labor, and certain mundane tools.

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Ethnographic vignettes from an Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) team show how case
managers use this assemblage in their everyday routines, but also how it undercuts key elements of the original ACT mission. Reflecting its roots in the deinstitutionalization movement,
the ACT model gives case managers limitless responsibilities for clients lives, but then narrowly defines their role as the prosthetic extension of psychiatric authority. To produce
compliance, case managers depend on the medication cassette, analyzed here as a human/nonhuman hybrid woven into their ordinary work. The medication cassette has pre-scripted uses
that enlist clinicians in biopsychiatric thinking and also silently impose compliant behavior on
clients. The elements in the assemblage of compliance depend on each other, but they do not
form a seamless whole, as evidenced by the dilemmas and micropolitics of the clinical
frontline. Theoretical notions of assemblages and technologies of compliance, drawn from science and technology studies, illuminate a core conundrum of practice in psychiatric case
management.
0293. Bruni,V. et al. POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME IN ADOLESCENCE. Annals
of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1205:175184.
The definition of polycystic ovary syndrome in very young girls is complicated by the fact
that many features typical of the syndrome can also be seen as physiological stages in the maturation of the hypothalamuspituitaryovarian axis. The role of reduced insulin sensitivity in
the pathogenesis and evolution of the disorder has gained more importance over recent years:
both elevated androgen levels and being overweight may influence the impairment of glucose
metabolism. Our study focused on 250 girls in the first 8 years of gynecological age. We analyzed the prevalence of different phenotypes according to the Rotterdam criteria and the impact
of higher BMI on androgen levels and on fasting screening markers of glucose metabolism. In a
smaller sample, we performed a more detailed evaluation of the glucose metabolism parameters; our findings indicated that in this age group, being overweight plays a major role in the
deterioration of the clinical picture.
0294. Chung, S. ADRENAL PERIPHERAL OSCILLATOR IN GENERATING THE
CIRCADIAN GLUCOCORTICOID RHYTHM. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2011, 1220:7181.
The mammalian circadian timing system is organized into hierarchical structures with a central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and subsidiary peripheral oscillators. After the
discovery of the local clockwork in peripheral organs and tissues, which have a molecular
makeup similar to the central pacemaker SCN, uncovering the roles of the peripheral clock in
the rhythmic physiology has been an emerging goal in chronobiology. Glucocorticoid (GC) is a
multifunctional adrenal steroid hormone that shows a robust circadian rhythm. The daily GC
rhythm has long been thought to be governed by the SCN via the hypothalamuspituitary
adrenal neuroendocrine axis. Recent findings, however, indicate that multiple regulatory
mechanisms, including the adrenal intrinsic mechanism by the peripheral clock, are also
involved. GC regulates diverse physiological processes and acts as a signal for resetting
peripheral clocks, which suggests the importance of the GC rhythm in harmonizing overall circadian physiology and behavior. Therefore, in this review, we will discuss the important role of
the adrenal peripheral clockwork in the circadian regulation of GC and its physiological
relevance in the circadian timing system.
0295. Church, K. et al. INTEGRATING SEXUAL HEALTH SERVICES INTO PRIMARY CARE: AN OVERVIEW OF HEALTH SYSTEMS ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. International Journal of Sexual Health. 2010, 22:131143.
Current attempts to address the high burden of sexual health morbidity and mortality in
developing countries remain limited in scale due to a range of health system constraints. We
conducted a literature review of the policy and programmatic issues that influence the integration of sexual health into primary care services in developing countries. Forty-seven reports
were identified from a search of both peer-reviewed and gray literature. Key issues identified

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were intersectoral and intergovernmental coordination; management and organizational issues


including decentralization, health sector reform, logistics, and referral systems.
0296. Cox, S. et al. A TEST OF THE JOB DEMANDS-RESOURCES MODEL WITH
HIV/AIDS VOLUNTEERS. Journal of HIV/AID and Social Services. 2010, 9:332355.
Burnout has been identified as a significant factor in HIV/AIDS volunteering. It has been
associated with depression, anxiety, and the loss of volunteers from the health care delivery
system. The aim of this study was to test the independence of the health and motivational processes hypothesized within the Job Demands-Resources model of burnout in HIV/AIDS
volunteers. Participants were 307 HIV/AIDS volunteers from state AIDS Councils throughout
Australia who completed self-report measures pertaining to role ambiguity and role conflict,
social support, burnout, intrinsic and organizational satisfaction, and depression. Findings suggested that the independence of the dual processes hypothesized by the model was only
partially supported. These findings provide a model for burnout that gives a framework for
interventions at both the individual and organizational levels, which would contribute to the
prevention of burnout, depression, and job dissatisfaction in HIV/AIDS volunteers.
0297. Craig, M. C., and Murphy, D. G. M. ESTROGEN THERAPY AND ALZHEIMERS
DEMENTIA. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010,1205:245253.
Previous studies in postmenopausal women have reported that estrogen treatment (ET) modulates the risk for developing Alzheimers disease (AD). It has recently been hypothesized that
there may be a critical period around the time of menopause during which the prescription of
ET may reduce the risk of developing AD in later life. This effect may be most significant in
women under 49 years old. Furthermore, prescription of ET after this point may have a neutral or
negative effect, particularly when initiated in women over 6065 years old. In this paper, we
review recent studies that use in vivo techniques to analyze the neurobiological mechanisms that
might underpin estrogens effects on the brain postmenopause. Consistent with the critical
period hypothesis, these studies suggest that the positive effects of estrogen are most robust in
young women and in older women who had initiated ET around the time of menopause.
0298. Cuny, T. et al. PHYSIOPATHOLOGY OF SOMATOLACTOTROPH CELLS:
FROM TRANSDUCTION MECHANISMS TO COTARGETING THERAPY. Annals of the
New York Academy of Sciences. 2011, 1220:6070.
In pituitary somatolactotroph cells, G protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases
binding their specific ligands trigger an enzymatic cascade that converges to MAP kinase activation in the subcellular compartment. Different signaling pathways, such as AC/cAMP/PKA and
PI3K/Akt pathways, interact with MAP kinase to regulate key physiological functions, such as
hormonal secretion and cell proliferation. Abnormalities affecting these signaling pathways have
been identified as preponderant factors of pituitary tumorigenesis. In addition to trans-sphenoidal
surgery, somatostatin analogs are used to control hormonal hypersecretion in GH-secreting
adenomas. However, a subset of these tumors remains uncontrolled with these treatments,
calling for new therapeutic approaches. In these cases, novel multivalent somatostatin analogs or
new somatostatindopamine chimeric molecules could be of interest. Another attractive therapeutic approach may be to use one or several inhibitors acting downstream in the signaling
pathway, such as mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor. Cotargeting therapy and gene
therapy are promising tools for these problematic pituitary tumors.
0299. Curiel, R. V. et al. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF THE IDIOPATHIC
INFLAMMATORY MYOPATHIES: STRUCTURAL AND CLINICAL ASPECTS. Annals
of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2009, 1154:101114.
Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are chronic diseases clinically characterized by symmetrical proximal muscle weakness. MRI has assumed a major role in the evaluation and
management of these conditions. It is sensitive to the presence of inflammation and edema,
especially with incorporation of fat suppression sequences, so it is a useful tool for establishing

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an early diagnosis, for evaluating the extent and number of lesions, and for determining the
right site for biopsy. The noninvasive nature of the procedure makes it ideal for serial studies to
evaluate response to treatment. Whole-body MRI can scan a large volume of muscles without
prolonged acquisition time and has the potential to identify previously unsuspected sites of
involvement. MRI is also an excellent technique for identifying areas of fatty infiltration
within the muscles, which usually occurs in the late stages of inflammatory myopathies. In
summary, MRI has revolutionized the way muscular diseases are diagnosed and treated.
0300. Dahlke, S., and Fehr, C. IMPLEMENTING A GERONTOLOGICAL CLINICAL
NURSING PRACTICE WITH AN INTERDISCIPLINARY FOCUS: LESSONS LEARNED.
Gerontology and Geriatrics Education. 2010, 31:133148.
A gerontological clinical nursing practice with an interdisciplinary focus was developed to
provide opportunities for student nurses to expand their knowledge about aging, hone assessment skills, and critically examine beliefs about older adults. The practice included theory
about older adults and a rotation through a variety of clinical settings where students had practice opportunities with older adults. Based on the written and verbal feedback the authors
gathered from students and clinical staff, the authors not only learned that was there improvement in students knowledge, skills, and interactions with older adults, but they also gained
greater understanding of the working of an interdisciplinary team, and were able to provide a
leadership role to the team through their geriatric assessments and knowledge of older adults.
0301. Dunn, M. S. et al. EVALUATION OF A COMMUNITY APPROACH TO
ADDRESS SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN APPALACHIA. Quarterly of Community Health Education. 2010, 30(2):171183.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a conference based program designed to enable 26
Appalachian teams to create intervention plans to address substance abuse in their communities. In March 2006, 26 Appalachian teams attended a conference to address substance abuse in
their region. Teams of four to seven stakeholders generated community plans. The teams were
evaluated 8 months later using a framework based on an adaptation of the Health Belief Model.
Team leaders participated in structured telephone interviews. Results of this study found that
the most common benefit to promulgating plans was community support.
0302. Escobar-Morreale, H. F. DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF HIRSUTISM.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1205:166174.
Hirsutism is a frequent medical complaint that usually results from relatively benign functional disorders including the polycystic ovary syndrome, which is the most frequent etiology.
The essential tool for the diagnosis of hirsutism is a complete clinical history and physical
examination, because functional causes begin peripubertally and progress slowly, whereas the
very rare androgen-secreting neoplasms have a sudden onset and a rapid progression of
hirsutism, and usually associate clinical signs of virilization and defeminization. In all cases,
diagnosis requires quantification of hirsutism using the modified Ferriman-Gallwey score,
measurement of circulating androgen concentrations, a detailed study of ovaulatory function,
and possibly an ovarian ultrasound. Treatment must consider not only amelioration of
hirsutism but also treatment of the underlying etiology and of any metabolic associations.
When caused by a functional disorder, treatment of hirsutism should be chronic and should
include cosmetic as well as pharmacological interventions such as oral contraceptives and
antiandrogens. For nonfunctional disorders, treatment should focus on solving the underlying
etiology as hirsutism is usually responsive to the elimination of the source of androgen excess.
0303. Finch, C. E., and Holmes, D. J. OVARIAN AGING IN DEVELOPMENTAL AND
EVOLUTIONARY CONTEXTS. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1204:
8294.
Evolutionary theory predicts that aging-related fertility declines result from tradeoffs
between reproduction and somatic maintenance. Developmental programs for oogenesis also

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 81

contribute to variation in aging-related reproductive declines among female vertebrates. Documented reproductive aging patterns in female vertebrates, including humans, are consistent
with canonical aging patterns determined developmentally and require no special adaptive
explanation. Here we discuss patterns of aging-related ovarian decline in diverse female vertebrates, and place human ovarian aging in comparative context. Depletion of finite oocyte stores
accompanied by fertility loss occurs in a variety of nonhuman mammals and vertebrates,
including short -lived rodents, birds, and some fishes; moreover, postreproductive lifespans of
considerable length clearly are not limited to long-lived, social species with well-developed
kin networks. We argue for a more rigorous comparative approach for understanding the evolutionary and developmental bases of ovarian aging in vertebrates with a wider range of aging
patterns and social structures
0304. Glass, D., and Roubenoff, R. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE BIOLOGY AND
THERAPY OF MUSCLE WASTING. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010,
1211:2536.
The recent advances in our understanding of the biology of muscle, and how anabolic and
catabolic stimuli interact to control muscle mass and function, have led to new interest in pharmacological treatment of muscle wasting. Loss of muscle occurs as a consequence of many
chronic diseases (cachexia), as well as normal aging (sarcopenia). Although anabolic effects of
exercise on muscle have been know for many years, the development of pharmacological treatment for muscle loss is in its infancy. However, there is growing excitement among researchers
in this field that developments may yield new treatments for muscle wasting in the future.
0305. Green, K. E. BARRIERS AND TREATMENT PREFERENCES REPORTED BY
WORRIED DRINKERS OF VARIOUS SEXUAL ORIENTATIONS. Alcoholism Treatment
Quarterly. 2011, 29:4563.
This web-based study evaluated treatment preferences and perceived barriers to seeking
treatment reported by heterosexual and lesbian/gay/bisexual worried drinkers. The sample
(N = 218: 71% female, 72% heterosexual) was ethnically diverse. Potential barriers to treatment seeking that were endorsed included problem minimization, lack of motivation, stigma,
and having negative thoughts about treatment. Treatment preferences included professional
outpatient treatment, self-help group, computer-assisted treatment, and self-help book. The
majority did not have a preference for therapist by gender or sexual orientation. Clinical implications of findings are discussed in terms minimizing the impact of barriers to improve service
utilization.
0306. Griffith, L. MOTHERHOOD, ETHNICITY AND EXPERIENCE: A NARRATIVE
ANALYSIS OF THE DEBATES CONCERNING CULTURE IN THE PROVISION OF
HEALTH SERVICES FOR BANGLADESHI MOTHERS IN EAST LONDON. Anthropology and Medicine. 2010, 17(3):289299.
The Bangladeshi diaspora in East London exists in a rapidly changing social geography.
Drawing on fieldwork conducted with Bangladeshi mothers in East London over a period of
18 months (20032004), this paper explores the different ways in which becoming a mother is
conceptualised, and examines the cultural claims that mothers make through their narratives of
motherhood. The research focuses on health and motherhood because they are important points
where personal experience, social institutions and notions of culture all intersect. Through
examination of the different sources of information these women used to build their narratives,
debates around ethnicity and class are brought into sharper focus, as are the potential challenges in providing services to mothers that successfully deal with both with diversity and
social inequality. In investigating the complexity and possible contradictions within personal
narrative, this paper also highlights some of the practical challenges involved in providing services for diverse populations in a manner that recognises difference at both a community and an
individual level. Finally, by utilising biographical research more fully, this paper argues that it

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is possible to investigate critically the role of ethnicity in the provision of services more
generally.
0307. Guillemin, R. NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY: A SHORT HISTORICAL REVIEW.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2011, 1220:15.
A short historical review from the early days of neuroendocrinology is presented recognizing hormones secreted by the pituitary gland; control of its functions by nuclei of the
hypothalamus through the release of unknown substances in special capillary vessels; characterization of these releasing factors as peptides; studies of their mode of action; their use in
clinical medicine; new and still ongoing demonstration of their ubiquity though not random in
the brain and peripheral organs; and recent implications in control of behavior in animals and
humans.
0308. Hargreaves, R. et al. DEVELOPMENT OF APREPITANT, THE FIRST
NEUROKININ-1 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST FOR THE PREVENTION OF CHEMOTHERAPY-INDUCED NAUSEA AND VOMITING. Annals of the New York Academy of
Sciences. 2011, 1222:4048.
Chemotherapy can be a life-prolonging treatment for many cancer patients, but it is often
associated with profound nausea and vomiting that is so distressing that patients may delay or
decline treatment to avoid these side effects. EMEND (aprepitant) is the first and only
neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist available on the market for theprevention of acute and
delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Aprepitant acts centrally at
NK-1 receptors in vomiting centers within the central nervous system to block their activation
by substance P released as an unwanted consequence of chemotherapy. By controlling nausea
and vomiting, EMEND helps improve patients daily living and their ability to complete multiple cycles of chemotherapy. The development of aprepitant included a novel nanoparticle
formulation to optimize oral absorption and innovative chemistry to discover a prodrug form
suitable for intravenous administration to improve compliance and convenience for healthcare
professionals and cancer patients.
0309. Harkki, P. et al. ENDOMETRIOSIS AND ASSISTED REPRODUCTION TECHNIQUES. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1205:207213.
Endometriosis-associated infertility is poorly treatable with various forms of surgery.
Therefore, assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs), such as controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, intrauterine insemination, or in vitro fertilization, are commonly used for
endometriosis-associated infertility. Endometriosis impairs the efficacy of in vitro fertilization. There is no evidence that ovulation suppression before ART would enhance the efficacy
of ART. Resection of minimal/mild endometriosis and/or restoration of the normality of
pelvic anatomy may enhance the efficacy of ART, but aggressive ovarian surgery should be
avoided, because it reduces the ovarian reserves and the likelihood of pregnancy after ART.
The outcome of ART pregnancy is not affected by the history of endometriosis, but the presence of endometrioma may predispose to preterm birth or fetal growth retardation in ARTinduced pregnancies. As a whole, infertility due to endometriosis is best treated with various
forms of ART, and the earlier clinicians apply these techniques, the more likely pregnancy
may ensue.
0310. Harper, I. EXTREME CONDITION, EXTREME MEASURES? COMPLIANCE,
DRUG RESISTANCE, AND THE CONTROL OF TUBERCULOSIS. Anthropology and
Medicine. 2010, 17(2):201214.
This paper explores the issue of compliance by focusing on the control of tuberculosis. In
the last ten years, patient compliance in tuberculosis control has discursively shifted from
direct observation of therapy to more patient-centred focus and support drawing on rightsbased approaches in dealing with health care provision. At the same time, there has been an
increased international concern with the rise of drug resistant forms of tuberculosis, and how to

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 83

manage this. This paper loocks at these issues and the tensions between them, by discussing the
shift in discourses around the two and how they relate. Drawing on experience from work in
Nepal, andits successful tuberculosis control programme, it looks at debates around this and
how these two arenas have been addressed. The rise of increasingly drug resistant forms of
tuberculosis has stimulated the development of new WHO and other guidelines addressing how
to deal with this problem. The links between public health, ethics and legal mandate are
presented, and the implications of this for controlling transmission of drug resistant disease, on
the one hand, and the drive for greater patient support mechanisms on the other. Looking forwards to uncertain ethical and public health futures, these issues will be mediated by emergent
WHO and international frameworks.
0311. Hashefi, M. ULTRASOUND IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF NONINFLAMMATORY
MUSCULOSKELETAL CONDITIONS. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.
2009, 1154:171203.
Sonography is an attractive tool for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal conditions. The clinician can evaluate the anatomic segment during active and/or passive flexion and extension
maneuvers, and its real-time capability allows imaging in positions that trigger symptoms.
Scanning the contralateral asymptomatic extremity can be used as a reference for normal anatomy in a given patient. A common application of ultrasound is for the assessment of rotator
cuff tendons. It can also be used to assess soft tissue infections, nerve pathology, and various
sports-related injuries.
0312. Hawkes, K., and Smith, K. R. DO WOMEN STOP EARLY? SIMILARITIES IN
FERTILITY DECLINE IN HUMANS AND CHIMPANZEES. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1204:4353.
Two kinds of evidence suggest that female fertility may end at an earlier age in modern
people than in ancestral populations or in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees. We investigate both to see whether fertility schedules or ovarian follicle counts falsify the alternative
hypothesis that the age of terminal fertility changed little in the human lineage while greater
longevity evolved due to grandmother effects. We use 19th century Utah women to represent
non-contracepting humans, and compare their fertility by age with published records for wild
chimpanzees. Then we revisit published counts of ovarian follicular stocks in both species.
Results show wide individual variation in age at last birth and oocyte stocks in both humans and
chimpanzees. This heterogeneity, combined with interspecific differences in adult mortality,
has large and opposing effects on fertility schedules. Neither realized fertility nor rates of
follicular atresia stand as evidence against the hypothesis that ages at last birth changed little
while greater longevity evolved in our lineage.
0313. Horton, A. HEROIN USERS: THE NEED FOR IMPROVED TREATMENT FOR
INCARCERATED WOMEN. Social Work in Public Health. 2011, 26:176188.
This paper addresses the use of drugs, specifically heroin, by women. While womens rate of
incarceration in the nation have dramatically increased, tripling in the last decade, prisons have
not kept pace with the growth of the number of women in prison and the need for drug treatment
and recovery for this population. This paper examines one programmatic effort to provide services to this most vulnerable population in the state of illinois. The continuum of care model is
considered in light of the challenges of high recidivism rates, particularly in the state of Illinois.
It identifies a need for more effective evidence-based services at the state level for prison
inmates before and after discharge. Effective program evaluation has not been a priority in
some states, and perhaps Illinois correction is prototypical. More effective intervention may
require more community involvement post-release for ex-offenders. Barriers to healthcare,
employment and housing, are just as evident with female drug offenders as in the male
population.

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0314. Hugon-Rodin, J. et al. THE FUTURE OF WOMENS CONTRACEPTION:


STAKES AND MODALITIES. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1205:
230239.
The two main contraceptive methods are the combined pill and the intrauterine device. In several countries, sterilization is a commonly used alternative. The current goals of contraception
remain to achieve effective, accessible, reversible, and well-tolerated birth control for everyone.
Despite progress, these goals have not been reached. To achieve these goals, it is mandatory to
create new hormonal combinations and to discover new contraceptive targets. Recent innovations associate the development of new progestogens, selective progesterone receptor
modulators, and the creation of new contraceptive combinations. Other innovations involve the
use of natural estrogens but also optimizing existing treatment regimens and doses, as well as
the development of new methods of emergency contraception. Finally, a major step will be to
invent an efficient contraceptive that carries the lowest possible risk associated with methods
protecting against sexually transmitted diseases. In the future, in relation to progress in the fields
of genomics, proteomics, and immunology, new methods of contraception will be developed.
These methods will be more targeted and will eventually be nonhormonal and independent of
sexual activity.
0315. Iqbal, J. et al. CELL SIGNALING. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.
2010, 1211:38.
This review explores advances in our understanding of dynamicism in cellular signaling.
Areas highlighted include the role of stochastkity in producing diversity in analogous signaling
circumstances; population desynchronizations effect in masking newly appreciated repetitive
bursts in protein phosphorylation and messenger RNA production; double-positive feedback
interactions and their ability to synchronic multiple signal transduction pathways; scaffolding
proteins control over signaling feedback; and frequency-responshive transcriptional regulation
as an example of dynamicism in signaling.
0316. James, W. H. CHARACTERISTICS OF TREATMENT COMPLETERS VERSUS
TREATMENT NONCOMPLETERS IN A TARGETED CAPACITY EXPANSION AND
HIV/AIDS EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR ADOLESCENTS WITH SUBSTANCE USE
DISORDERS. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly. 2011, 29:6474.
This study examines and presents outcome analyses of characteristics of treatment completers versus treatment noncompleters in a Targeted Capacity Expansion (TCE) and HIV/AIDS
Education Program for adolescents with substance use disorders, using a two-group
nonrandomized design. The treatment completion rate was 47%, exceeding the national average of 40% for outpatient clients. These results suggest the importance of utilizing
comprehensive assessments, providing linkages to assertive continuing care, and developing
curricula to meet cultural, developmental, and gender-specific needs of adolescent clients. The
TCE and HIV/AIDS Education Program appears to be an effective program for reducing and
eliminating substance abuse among adolescents.
0317. Kaijage, T., and Wexter, S. THE INFLUENCES OF STRESS AND SOCIAL SUPPORT ON ADHERENCE TO HEALTH PROMOTION STRATEGIES BY PEOPLE
LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN DAR ES SALAAM, TANZANIA. Journal of HIV/AIDS and
Social Services. 2010, 9:220239.
In Tanzania, about 7% of the adult population is HIV-infected. Given limited pharmaceutical options, adherence to strategies that foster health and well-being is vital to reducing both
new and repeated HIV exposure. We investigated the influences of HIV/AIDS-related stress
and social support on adherence to health promotion strategies by people living with HIV/
AIDS in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In-person interviews were conducted with 212 individuals
who were clients of local AIDS service organizations. Regression analyses indicated that HIVassociated stress had a direct, negative effect on adherence, decreasing the practice of healthmaintaining behaviors and increasing engagement in sexual risk behaviors. Informal social

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 85

support moderated the relationship between stress and sexual risk but did not buffer the impact
of stress on health-enhancing behaviors.
0318. Kennedy, K. E. P. et al. ECSTASY AND SEX AMONG YOUNG HETEROSEXUAL WOMEN: A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SENSUALITY, SEXUAL EFFECTS,
AND SEXUAL RISK TAKING. International Journal of Sexual Health. 2010, 22:155166.
MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) Ecstasy has been shown to heighten
senses, feelings of intimacy, and communication. This study addresses sensual and sexual
responses to Ecstasy and the potential for risky sexual behavior. Qualitative data from 41 heterosexual female Ecstasy users in New York City (ages 1829) were analyzed. Women
reported both heightened sexual (e.g., desire, arousal, orgasmic intensity) and sensual (e.g.,
deep emotions, emotional closeness, feeling love, affectionate) experiences; however, experiences were more often classified as sensual. A majority of women who had engaged in sex
while high on Ecstasy felt that the drug did not result in risky sexual behavior. Nevertheless,
some reported engaging in behavior they would not have otherwise (e.g., anal sex) with partners they would not have had sex with while not under the influence. Findings support that
Ecstasy alters heterosexual womens experience of sexual behavior. Programs seeking to
address Ecstasy use among this population should also include the intersecting, and possibly
motivating, roles that sexuality and sensuality play in using this drug.
0319. Khanna, S., and Crues, III. J. V. COMPLEXITIES OF MRI AND FALSE POSITIVE FINDINGS. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2009,1154:239258.
MRI is a robust technology that allows for superior contrast of muscles, tissues, and bones
within the body, which enables visualization of soft tissue pathology that cannot be seen with CT
or plain film radiography. In order to appreciate the subtle (and sometimes not so subtle) intricacies of MRI, one must have a basic knowledge of the MRI physics involved to acquire an image,
which leads to better recognition and a clearer understanding of some of the more important artifacts seen with MRI, including incomplete fat suppression, chemical shift, magnetic susceptibility,
magic angle, partial volume, wraparound, and motion artifact. There are, however, many complexities and pitfalls in imaging the rheumatoid wrist. Normal anatomy such as capsular insertion sites
and nutrient vessels can mimic erosion sites. The magic angle phenomenon can mimic tendon tears.
Alignment abnormalities can be simulated based on wrist positioning. By having a solid understanding of the physics of magnetic resonance, anatomy, and the disease processes involved, many
of these pitfalls can be avoided.
0320. Kim, I. et al. THE AIDS AND MDGS APPROACH: WHAT IS IT, WHY DOES IT
MATTER, AND HOW DO WE TAKE IT FORWARD? Third World Quarterly. 2011, 32(1):
141163.
Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has been mixed, and many
observers have noted the tendency for development actors to address individual MDGs largely
in isolation from one another. This in turn has resulted in missed opportunities to catalyse
greater interdisciplinary collaboration and innovation towards MDG achievement. The term
AIDS and MDGS is gaining currency as an approach that aims to explore, strengthen and
leverage the links between AIDS and other health and development issues. Drawing from academic literature and from MDG country reports, this article sets out three important pillars to
an AIDS and MDGs approach: 1) understanding how AIDS and the other MDGs affect one
another; 2) documenting and exchanging lessons learned across MDGs; and 3) creating cross
MDG synergy. We propose broader policy level implications for this approach and how UNDP
and other partners can take this agenda forward. Because the MDGs explicitly locate HIV
within a broader international commitment to human development targets, they provide a critical platform for development partners to galvanise resources, political will and momentum
behind a broader, systematic and structural approach to HIV, health and development.

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0321. Kreft, M. et al. REGULATED EXOCYTOSIS AND VESICLE TRAFFICKING IN


ASTROCYTES. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2009, 1152:3042.
Astrocytes are increasingly viewed as crucial cells supporting and integrating brain functions. It is thought that the release of gliotransmitters into the extracellular space by regulated
exocytosis supports a significant part of communication between astrocytes and neurons.
Prior to exocytosis, the membrane-bound vesicles are transported through the astrocyte cytoplasm. Our recent studies have revealed new insights into vesicle trafficking in the cytoplasm
of astrocytes and are reviewed in this article. The prefusion mobility of fluorescently labeled
peptidergic vesicles was studied in cultured rat and mouse astrocytes. Vesicle delivery to the
plasma membrane involved an interaction with the cytoskeleton, in particular with
microtubules and actin filaments. Interestingly, vesicle mobility in mouse astrocytes deficient in intermediate filaments show impaired directionality of peptidergic vesicle mobility.
To explore whether stimuli that increase the concentration of free calcium ions in the cytoplasm triggered vesicular ATP release from astrocytes, human embryonic kidney-293T cells
transfected with a P2X3 receptor were used as sniffers to detect ATP release. Glutamate stimulation of astrocytes was followed by an increase in the incidence of small, transient, inward
currents in sniffet cells, reminiscent of postsynaptic quantal events observed at synapses.
Some of the membrane-bound vesicles are retrieved from the plasma membrane to be recycled back into the cytosol. Trafficking velocity of postfusion (recycling) atrial natriuretic
peptide vesicles was one order of magnitude slower in comparison to the mobility of
prefusion vesicles. However, transport of all vesicle types studied required an intact
cytoskeleton.

0322. Erdani Kreft, M. et al. APICAL PLASMA MEMBRANE TRAFFIC IN SUPERFICIAL CELLS OF BLADDER UROTHELIUM. Annals of the New York Academy of
Sciences. 2009,1152:1829.
Superficial urothelial cells that line the urinary bladder accommodate cyclical changes in
organ volume while maintaining a permeability barrier between urine and tissue fluids. The
specific apical plasma membrane traffic is necessary for their proper function. The composition of the apical plasma membrane is dramatically modified during differentiation of bladder
urothelial cells, most notably by assembly of urothelial plaques containing uroplakins. However, the assembly of uroplakins into plaques, their insertion and removal from the apical
surface, and the regulation of these processes are still poorly understood. This review examines
the traffic (exocytosis/endocytosis) of the apical plasma membrane during differentiation of
urothelial cells and focuses on the physiological and clinical significance of the apical plasma
membrane traffic in bladder superficial urothelial cells.

0323. Krunic, N. et al. ADVANCES IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF RESPIRATORY TRACT


INFECTIONS: ROLE OF THE LUMINEX XTAG RESPIRATORY VIRAL PANEL. Annals
of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2011, 1222:613.
Clinical laboratories providing an etiological diagnosis of respiratory tract infections (RTI)
have increasingly relied on nucleic acid amplification tests. Polymerase chain reaction-based
methods are becoming more standardized, and several have undergone the scrutiny of regulatory agencies mandated to assess the risks and benefits of implementing pathogen-detection
assays into diagnostic algorithms. Respiratory viruses lead to both upper and lower RTI and are
implicated in exacerbations of chronic pulmonary conditions. Viruses from different taxonomic families present with overlapping clinical signs and symptoms, necessitating an
accurate laboratory diagnosis. The clinical utility of diagnostic algorithms incorporating tests
for respiratory viruses will depend on the breadth of pathogen coverage and the time to reliable
and actionable results. This review covers strategies for detecting a panel of respiratory viruses
employed over the fast decade that have enabled an etiological diagnosis of RTI in a costeffective manner.

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0324. Kubassova, O. et al. QUANTIFYING DISEASE ACTIVITY AND DAMAGE BY


IMAGING IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND OSTEOARTHRITIS. Annals of the New
York Academy of Sciences. 2009, 1154:207238.
Traditional imaging, represented by radiographs, provides a very concise description of anatomical pathology of bony structures. Both degenerative and inflammatory joint diseases are
characterized by progressive joint destruction, and valid, reproducible measures of disease
impact are available. Much effort has been expended to develop scoring systems for joint
destruction in both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, and the most common internationally accepted semiobjective scores are presented. The anatomical pathology mirrors the past
activity of the disease, and advanced imaging gives an impression of the actual disease processes, which subsequently lead to the damage. Such information is required to facilitate the
development of efficient therapy against arthritis. Newer technology, exemplified by MRI and
ultrasound Doppler, supplements images of structural change with functional data of ongoing
disease activity. This chapter focuses on the possibilities for quantification of images in MRI
and ultrasound, in which postcontrast enhancement and Doppler information, respectively, are
of special interest for the evaluation of the inflammatory changes of arthritis. To save time and
eliminate human bias, automation is mandatory. In ultrasound, semiautomatic evaluations are
coming that allow for a real-time, reproducible estimate of disease activity. With MRI fully
automated algorithms have been developed for processing of data of bony structures, cartilage,
and soft tissue, and are currently being implemented into everyday clinical practice.
0325. Kumar, K. K. BONE LOSS IN ANOREXIA NERVOSA: LEPTIN. SEROTONIN,
AND THE SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. Annals of the New York Academy of
Sciences. 2010, 1211:5165.
Anorexia nervosa (AN), a disorder characterized by the refusal to sustain a healthy weight,
has the highest mortality of any psychiatric disorder. This review presents a model of AN that
ties together advances in our understanding of how leptin, serotonin, and hypogonadism are
brought about in AN and how they influence bone mass. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is a
key regulator of satiety and mood. The primary disturbance in AN results from alterations in
serotonin signaling. AN patients suffer from serotonergic hyperactivity of Htrla-dependent
pathways that causes dysphoric mood and promotes restrictive behavior. By limiting carbohydrate ingestion, anorexics decrease their serotonin levels. Reduced serotonergic signaling in
turn suppresses appetite through Htr1a/2b, decreases dysphoric mood through Htr1a/2a, and
activates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) through Htr2c receptors in the ventromedial
hypothalamus. Activation of the SNS decreases bone mass through b2-adrenergic signaling in
osteoblasts. Additional topics reviewed here include osteoblastic feedback of metabolism in
anorexia, mechanisms whereby dietary changes exacerbate bone loss, the role of caloric
restriction and Sirt1 in bone metabolism, hypothalamic hypogonadisms effects on bone mass,
and potential treatments.
0326. Leach, K. L. et al. LINEZOLID, THE FIRST OXAZOLIDINONE ANTIBACTERIAL
AGENT. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2011, 1222:4954.
Linezolid (Zyvox) is the first member of an entirely new class of antibiotics to reach the
market in over 35 years; it was approved for use in 2000. A member of the oxazolidinone class
of antibiotics, linezolid is highly effective for the treatment of serious Gram-positive infections
and has activity that compares favorably with vancomycin for most clinically relevant pathogens. Zyvox is approved for use against serious Gram-positive infections, including those
caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, and the very challenging methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium organisms. Zyvox inhibits
bacterial protein synthesis by binding to 23S rRNA in the catalytic site of the 50S ribosome. It
can be administered both orally and intravenously and has good tissue distribution. Recent
results have demonstrated that oxazolidinone analogs related to linezolid are effective in treating pulmonary tuberculosis caused by resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in animal
infection models and suggest additional new therapeutic applications for these antibiotics.

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0327. LefPvre, G. et al. NOVARTIS MALARIA INITIATIVE: BEST PRACTICE


EXAMPLE OF PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRYS ENGAGEMENT IN THE FIGHT
AGAINST MALARIA. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2011, 1222:1929.
Despite considerable advances in the treatment and prevention of malaria, Plasmodium
falciparum is still a threat to millions of people across the world, particularly in sub-Saharan
Africa, with infants and young children bearing the greatest burden in terms of morbidity and
mortality. Since 1999, the artemisinin-based combination therapy artemether-lumefantrine
(AL; Coartem) has been made available. A wealth of evidence supports consistently high
efficacy of AL, and a favorable safety and tolerability profile has been demonstrated. The
child-friendly dispersible formulation of AL has proven to be as effective and well tolerated as
the standard tablets, and will encourage ease of administration and improved adherence to the
drug regimen. This article reviews the significant impact made by AL on the progress in
malaria control and describes the way forward for the Novartis Malaria Initiative in leading the
fight against malaria.
0328. Leibing, A. INVERTING COMPLIANCE, INCREASING CONCERNS: AGING,
MENTAL HEALTH, AND CARING FOR A TRUSTFUL PATIENT. Anthropology and Medicine. 2010, 17(2):145158.
Why, after 40 years of intensive research, is adherence to treatment still an issue? This paper
suggests a possible solution to an apparently unsolvable problem: reconceptualizing adherence. To understand how adherence can affect key personnel in any western health system, this
study focuses on community nurses working with older mental health patients in QuJbec.
When they spoke about adherence, nurses presented an idealized image of the nursepatient
relationship, namely, the caring nurse and the trustful patient. However, this idealization
cannot be reduced only to questions of power and paternalism. By reconceptualizing adherence
as a matter of concern, health professionals and researchers alike might come to understand
individual care situations within a broader notion of conflicts in patient care.
0329. Lois, K. et al. THE IMPACT OF INSULIN RESISTANCE ON WOMANS
HEALTH AND POTENTIAL TREATMENT OPTIONS. Annals of the New York Academy
of Sciences. 2010, 1205:156165.
Insulin resistance (IR) is causatively related to metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes,
both, of which increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events; in women in particular,
severe IR affects the reproductive system causing subfertility and health problems to the
mother and the fetus. To date lifestyle modification is the mainstay of treatment, whereas
antiobesity drugs and bariatric surgery have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and
many surrogate metabolic defects, real reduction in cardiovascular endpoints has yet to be
proved. Increasing attention is being directed to the role of the central nervous system in the
modulation of IR, as well as to the use of recombinant adipocytokines for IR management.
The scope of this article is to cast light on the detrimental effects of IR on metabolism and the
body systems in women as well as to highlight the current therapeutic approach, drugs in
progress, and future therapeutic perspectives.
0330. Longhofer, J., and Floersch, J. DESIRE AND DISAPPOINTMENT: ADOLESCENT PSYCHOTROPIC TREATMENT AND ADHERENCE. Anthropology and Medicine.
2010, 17(2):159172.
This paper situates medication adherence among adolescents in current cultural and politicaleconomic debates about compliance/adherence and the formation of biomedical subjectivities.
Building on prior work of the authors, this paper explores the role of desire in adherence to show
how subjectivities are shaped by concordant, instrumental, or conditional forms of desire. Data is
used to show how parents and adolescents compare the medicated self before and after, resulting
in the formation of desire. It is argued that adherence is an outcome of desire: no desire, no adherence, or varying types of desire. Moreover, adherence is not a steady state. It is produced moment
to moment as adolescents confront the desires of others. The study uses interview data to

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construct a case study of concordant desire, which is a form most likely to produce adherence.
With concordant desire the medicated come to expect a future life on medication and a life where
symptoms are stripped of their social and psychological meaning and significance.
0331. Lubart, F. et al. COMMUNITY PHYSICIANS KNOWLEDGE ON BASIC
HEALTH CARE FOR ELDERLY PERSONS IN ISRAEL: COMPARING FINDINGS FROM
2006 TO 1996. Gerontology and Geriatrics Education. 2010, 31:174180.
Community physicians should be knowledgeable of basic geriatrics to cope with the challenges posed by the growing number of older patients and their complex needs. A survey of
knowledge in basic health care for elderly persons, carried out by our team in 1996, revealed
that it was insufficient. The authors repeated this survey in 2006, by using the same methodology, namely, a mailed questionnaire sent to 500 randomly sampled community physicians. No
significant changes were found after this 10-year period. Likewise, no difference was evidenced between physicians that participated in geriatric training of any kind and those who did
not. This lack of change requires health system leaders to coordinate their efforts and develop
efficient teaching programs to prevent similar findings 10 years from now.
0332. Luque, R. M. DOES THE PITUITARY SOMATOTROPE PLAY A PRIMARY
ROLE IN REGULATING GH OUTPUT IN METABOLIC EXTREMES? Annals of the New
York Academy of Sciences. 2011, 1220:8292.
Circulating growth hormone (GH) levels rise in response to nutrient deprivation and fall in
states of nutrient excess. Because GH regulates carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism,
defining the mechanisms by which changes in metabolism alter GH secretion will aid in our
understanding of the cause, progression, and treatment of metabolic diseases. This review will
summarize what is currently known regarding the impact of systemic metabolic signals on
GH-axis function. In addition, ongoing studies using the Cre/loxP system to generate mouse
models with selective somatotrope resistance to metabolic signals will be discussed, where
these models will serve to enhance our understanding of the specific role the somatotrope plays
in sensing the metabolic environment and adjusting GH output in metabolic extremes.
0333. Machluf, Y. et al. DEVELOPMENT OF THE ZEBRAFISH HYPOTHALAMUS.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2011, 1220:93105.
Hypothalamic neurons regulate fundamental body functions including sleep, blood pressure,
temperature, hunger and metabolism, thirst and satiety, stress, and social behavior. This is achieved
by means of the secretion of various hypothalamic neuropeptides and neurotransmitters that affect
endocrine, metabolic, and behavioral activities. Developmental impairments of hypothalamic
neuronal circuits are associated with neurological disorders that disrupt both physiological and psychological homeostasis. Hypothalamic cell specification and morphogenesis can be uniquely
studied in zebrafish, a vertebrate organism readily amenable to genetic manipulations. As embryos
are optically transparent and develop externally, they provide a powerful tool for in vivo analyses of
neurons and their circuits. Here, we discuss the current knowledge regarding the neuroanatomy
of the zebrafish hypothalamus and recent studies identifying critical determinants of hypothalamic
differentiation. Taken together, these reports demonstrate that the molecular pathways underlying
development of the hypothalamus are largely conserved between zebrafish and mammals. We conclude that the zebrafish has proved itself a valuable vertebrate model for understanding the
patterning, specification, morphogenesis, and subsequent function of the hypothalamus.
0334. Mahat, G., and Scoloveno, M. A. HIV PEER EDUCATION: RELATIONSHIPS
BETWEEN ADOLESCENTS HIV/AIDS KNOWLEDGE AND SELF-EFFICACY. Journal
of HIV/AIDS and Social Services. 2010, 9:371384.
School-based programs have been found to be effective in limiting sexual risk behaviors among
adolescents. A peer-led educational program is one of the school-based approaches used to educate
and empower adolescents toward healthy behaviors. The purposes of this study were to determine the effectiveness of a peer education program on improving adolescents HIV/AIDS

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knowledge and self-efficacy for limiting sexual risk behaviors and also to determine the influence
of self-efficacy on adolescents HIV knowledge. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the peer education program. The results of the study demonstrated that HIV knowledge and
self-efficacy improved significantly post-intervention. Since children spend a considerable time in
school, more school-based programs need to be developed to promote information on risk behaviors and prevention.
0335. Marchi, P. THE RIGHT TO HEALTH OF NOMADIC GROUPS. Nomadic Peoples.
2010, 14(1):3150.
Nomadic groups have often being discriminated against in many different fields. Often
states do not meet their obligation to respect, protect and fulfil nomads human rights. This article applies a human rights perspective to nomads difficulties in accessing health care services.
The article highlights how to use international human rights instruments and standards, and
even regional and national case law, in order to remind states of their obligations towards
nomads. The final section is a case study focussing on the nomadic population of Turkana,
Kenya.
0336. McKinney, K. A., and Greenfield, B. G. SELF-COMPLIANCE AT PROZAC
CAMPUS. Anthropology and Medicine. 2010, 17(2):173185.
This paper focuses on psychiatric medication experiences among a sample of North
American university students to explore a new cultural and social landscape of medication
compliance. In this landscape, patients assume significant personal decision-making power
in terms of dosages, when to discontinue use and even what medications to take. Patients carefully monitor and regulate their moods, and actively gather and circulate newly legitimated
blends of expert and experiential knowledge about psychiatric medications among peers,
family members and their physicians. The medications too, take a vital role in shaping this
landscape, and help to create the spaces for meaning-making and interpretation described and
explored in this article. In concluding the article, the authors claim that two popular academic
discourses in medical anthropology, one of patient empowerment and shared decision-making
and the other of technologies of self and governmentality, may fail to account for other orders
of reality that this paper describesorders shaped and influenced by unconscious, unexpressed and symbolic motivations.
0337. Michael, D. J. et al. FLUORESCENT CARGO PROTEINS IN PEPTIDERGIC
ENDOCRINE CELLS: CELL TYPE DETERMINES SECRETION KINETICS AT
EXOCYTOSIS. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2009, 1152:717.
Fluorescent fusion proteins are an important tool for the study of vesicle trafficking and
exocytosis, especially when combined with newer types of microscopy. We previously
reported that the design of a vesicle-targeted fluorescent fusion construct strongly influences
the kinetics of fluorescence change at exocytosis. In the present study we demonstrate that the
cell in which a construct is expressed also affects the kinetics of fluorescence change at
exocytosis. We fused enhanced green fluorescent protein to the carboxy terminus of the vesicular cargo protein rodent islet amyloid polypeptide. The two proteins were separated by a
linkersequence of 18 amino acids. We then compared kinetics of fluorescence change at
exocytosis for this fluorescent cargo protein expressed in three different types of peptidergic
endocrine call: pancreatic alpha cell, pancreatic beta cell, and adrenal chromaffin cell. In resting cells of all three types, fluorescent spots of similar size and membrane-proximal density
appeared near the plasma membrane as expected if the probe is stored in large dense-core
secretory vesicles. Upon stimulation, the fluorescent spots displayed sudden changes in fluorescence intensity that were consistent with exocytosis. In beta and alpha cells the fluorescent
spots consistently brightened and persisted, where as in chromaffin cells the fluorescent spots
always dispersed rapidly. Thus, for fluorescent cargo proteins in peptidergic endocrine cells,
cell type influences the kinetics of fluorescence change at exocytosis. Together with our previous findings, this observation strongly highlights the fact that the behavior of vesicle-targeted

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fluorescent cargo may be unrelated to that of native cargo, and it emphasizes the need for
caution in interpreting fluorescence kinetics in terms of an exocytosis mechanism.
0338. Misselwitz, F. THE DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT OF RIVAROXABAN.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2011, 1222:6475.
Thromboembolic conditions present a considerable challenge to healthcare services because
they are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The mainstays of prevention and
treatment are anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents. Established anticoagulants have drawbacks that make their use difficult to manage and sustain. This has stimulated the search for
new oral anticoagulants that are more convenient and yet still effective. This paper describes
the development and future potential of rivaroxaban (Xarelto; Bayer Schering Pharma AG,
Berlin, Germany)the first oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor to be approved for clinical use in
the prevention of venous thromboembolism in adult patients undergoing elective hip or knee
replacement surgery.
0339. Montgomery-Andersen, R. A. et al. THERE WAS NO OTHER WAY THINGS
COULD HAVE BEEN. GREENLANDIC WOMENS EXPERIENCES OF REFERRAL AND
TRANSFER DURING PREGNANCY. Anthropology and Medicine. 2010, 17(3):301313.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has started that referral practices along with midwifery care are a means of heightening the quality of perinatal care and lessening perinatal
mortality and morbidity. In 2002, in response to high perinatal mortality and morbidity, a referral system was instituted nationally in Greenland, transferring all at-risk pregnancies to its
national referral hospital. Little or no current research has focused on evaluation of the
perinatal referral system or on the thoughts, beliefs,opinions and challenges faced by women
and Greenlandic families themselves. The aim of this paper is to document how women
referred to Nuuk because of at-risk pregnancies narratively constructed self-understanding and
defined meaning during their period of separation from family and community; and how they
dealt with the challenges they were presented with. Interviews were conducted with women
upon their arrival at the national referral hospital and during fieldwork over a one-year period.
Narrative framework was used for analysis. Coping theory and narrative theories were the theoretical base for structuring the narratives.Through their narratives, women presented their
identities as mothers, community members and caretakers. Acceptance of referral was described
as a means of protecting their unborn child and was where women found an inner source of
strength to deal with their own anger, joy, anxiety and loneliness. The ability to accept referral
was directly connected to their family and community and the support they found therein.
0340. Moore, C. D. THE IMPACT OF FAMILY FUNCTIONING ON CAREGIVER
BURDEN AMONG CAREGIVERS OF VETERANS WITH CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE. Journal of Family Social Work. 2010, 13:451462.
A cross-sectional study of 76 family caregivers of older veterans with congestive heart failure utilized the McMaster model of family functioning to examine the impact of family
functioning variables (problem solving, communication, roles, affective responsiveness, and
affective involvement) on caregiver burden dimensions (relationship burden, objective burden,
stress burden, and uplifts). Regression analyses indicated that the five dimensions of family
functioning were significantly related (p < 0.01) to relationship burden (R2 = .27) and uplifts
(R2 = .29). More specifically, increased relationship burden was associated with problems in
family roles, and increased uplifts was related to higher levels of affective responsiveness.
0341. Murphy, D. A. et al. PREDICTORS OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AMONG EARLY
AND MIDDLE ADOLESCENTS AFFECTED BY MATERNAL HIV. International Journal
of Sexual Health. 2010, 22:195204.
The impact of maternal HTV and family variables on sexual behaviors of early and middle
adolescents was investigated. Data were collected from 118 pairs of HIV-positive mothers and
their uninfected early/middle adolescents across four time points. Descriptive analyses show

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the prevalence of sexual behaviors in this sample was significantly lower than rates in a comparable sample of adolescents who participated in the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System.
Multivariate longitudinal analysis using generalized estimating equation logistic regression
showed adolescent sexual behavior was more likely to occur with adolescent alcohol use, lack
of parental monitoring, and poorer physical functioning of HIV-positive mothers.
0342. Neff, J. A., and Paulson, J. F. CONFIRMATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS OF CONCEPT MAPPING-BASED DIMENSIONS OF FAITH-BASED SUBSTANCE ABUSE
TREATMENT. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly. 2011, 29:322.
Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) techniques are used to evaluate the fit of a sevendimensional concept mapping-based model of key dimensions of faith-based substance abuse
treatment, using data from 310 staff and clients of 12 faith-based Teen Challenge programs.
The initial seven-dimensional model fit poorly (fit indices of .62.64), though, after trimming
items with low loadings or redundant item content, model fit was increased substantially (fit
indices of .87-.89). Overall, the current analyses provide preliminary support for the
meaningfulness of the seven-dimensional model of faith-based treatment programs, despite
different statistical approaches.
0343. Newton, A. W., and Vandeven, A. M. THE ROLE OF THE MEDICAL PROVIDER
IN THE EVALUATION OF SEXUALLY ABUSED CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS.
Journal of Child Sexual Abuse. 2010, 19:669686.
It was only 30 years ago that the medical community began to develop an increased awareness of child sexual abuse, and the role of the medical provider in the evaluation of sexually
abused children has evolved significantly. As clinicians worldwide develop a greater understanding of the impact of the sexual abuse evaluation on the child, the roles of the physician and
nurse have changed. In the United States, curreitt practice often uses a multidisciplinary assessment involving skilled forensic interviewing of the child and a medical examination done by a
medical provider with specialized training in sexual abuse. In order to minimize child interviews, these assessments are frequently held in settings such as child advocacy centers, where
forensic interviewers and medical clinicians, child protective service workers, and police and
district attorneys can work jointly to address the legal and protective issues in a coordinated
fashion.
0344. Ottinger, M. A. MECHANISMS OF REPRODUCTIVE AGING: CONSERVED
MECHANISMS AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS. Annals of the New York Academy of
Sciences. 2010, 1204:7381.
The interplay of neuroendocrine processes and gonadal function is exquisitely expressed during
aging. In females, loss of ovarian function results in decreased circulating estradiol. As a result,
estrogen-dependent endocrine and behavioral responses decline, including impaired cognitive
function reflecting the impact of declining estrogen on the hippocampus circuits, and decreased
metabolic endocrine function. Concurrently, age-related changes in neuroendocrine response also
contribute to the declining reproductive function. Our session considered key mechanisms in reproductive aging including the roles of ovarian function and the hypothalamic median eminence with
an associated age-related cognitive decline that accompanies estrogen loss. Effects of smoking,
obesity, and insulin resistance impact the timing of the perimenopause transition in women. Animal
models provide excellent insights into conserved mechanisms and key overarching events that
bring about endocrine and behavioral aging. Environmental factors are key triggers in timing endocrine aging with implications for eventual disease. Session presentations will be considered in the
context of the broader topic of indices and predictors of aging-related change.
0345. Pagano, M. E. et al. ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS-RELATED HELPING AND
THE HELPER THERAPY PRINCIPLE. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly. 2011, 29:2334.
The helper therapy principle (HTP) observes the helpers health benefits derived from helping another with a shared malady. The HTP is embodied by the program of Alcoholics

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 93

Anonymous as a method to diminish egocentrism as a root cause of addiction. This article


reviews recent evidence of the HTP in alcohol populations, extends to populations with chronic
conditions beyond addiction, and concludes with new directions of empirical inquiry.
0346. Patel, K. THE POLITICS OF STEM CELL POLICY: BALLOT INITIATIVE IN
MISSOURI. Social Work in Public Health. 2011, 26:158175.
In of November 2006, Missouri became the first state in the United States to pass a constitutional amendment designed to protect stem cell research in the state when voters approved a
citizen-initiated ballot proposal known as Amendment 2. This article examines the juxtaposition of science, religion, politics, and economics surrounding the campaign by the supporters
and the opponents of the ballot initiative. The outcome of Amendment 2 was also closely intertwined with the U.S Senate race in Missouri. The article also provides an analysis of the
outcome of the ballot initiative through the use of county-level data.
0347. Punzi, L., and Oliviero, F. ARTHROCENTESIS AND SYNOVIAL FLUID ANALYSIS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE: VALUE OF SONOGRAPHY IN DIFFICULT CASES.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2009, 1154:152158.
Joint aspiration, or arthrocentesis, is one of the most useful and commonly performed procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of joint diseases. The synovial fluid aspirated may be
examined to evaluate the degree of inflammation and, mainly, to detect the presence of some relevant pathogenic agents, such as crystals or microorganisms. In these cases, synovial fluid
analysis still represents the best diagnostic procedure. Arthrocentesis is thus particularly required
for the diagnosis and management of the acute hot red joint, which may be considered a true
medical emergency because of the morbidity and mortality related to septic arthritis. The most
recent recommendations on arthrocentesis confirm the need for the procedure in the presence of
synovial effusion of unknown origin, especially if septic or crystal arthritis is suspected. Owing
to the importance of this analysis, it is clearly recommended that ultrasonography should be used
to facilitate arthrocentesis in difficult cases. Furthermore, ultrasonography may be useful in
revealing the presence of synovial fluid before the joint aspiration and, subsequently, distinguishing some aspects characteristic of crystal-induced arthropathies.
0348. Qin, W. et al. BONE AND MUSCLE LOSS AFTER SPINAL CORD INJURY:
ORGAN INTERACTIONS. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1211:6684.
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in paralysis and marked loss of skeletal muscle and bone
below the level of injury. Modest muscle activity prevents atrophy, whereas much largerand
as yet poorly definedbone loading seems necessary to prevent bone loss. Once established,
bone loss may be irreversible. SCI is associated with reductions in growth hormone, IGF-1, and
testosterone, deficiencies likely to exacerbate further loss of muscle and bone. Reduced muscle
mass and inactivity are assumed to be contributors to the high prevalence of insulin resistance
and diabetes in this population. Alterations in muscle gene expression after SCI share common
features with other muscle loss states, but even so, show distinct profiles, possibly reflecting
influences of neuromuscular activity due to spasticity. Changes in bone cells and markers after
SCI have similarities with other conditions of unloading, although after SCI these changes are
much more dramatic, perhaps reflecting the much greater magnitude of unloading. Adiposity
and marrow fat are increased after SCI with intriguing, though poorly understood, implications
for the function of skeletal muscle and bone cells.
0349. Qureshi, K. SICKNESS, DREAMS AND MORAL SELFHOOD AMONG
MIGRANT PAKISTANI MUSLIMS. Anthropology and Medicine. 2010, 17(3):277288.
This paper draws from two years of fieldwork investigating the social course of illness among
Pakistani Muslims in East London, exploring how chronic illness is communicated and negotiated in local worlds disrupted by migrancy. It examines episodic short stories about dreams,
premonitions and uncanny coincidences that were prominent within the illness narratives of
migrant Pakistani Muslims, recalling and throwing light on complex questions concerning

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subjective constructions of misfortune, the personal and social meanings of illness and the relationships between narrative and selfhood. The ethnography identifies a strong normative context
of communication about ill health and bad news, within which revelation through the mode of the
supernatural takes on added significance. Recurrent motifs in the dreams emphasize the
connectedness between family members scattered across migratory contexts, and the reawakening of moral obligations in families. Whilst medical anthropology has understood descriptions of
dreams and other uncanny experiences as subjunctivising tactics serving to maintain alternative
plots about the source and outcome of illness, in the Islamic context the narrating of supernatural
encounters can have transformative effects, re-organising praxis and conferring legitimacy to
certain forms of moral selfhood. The paper therefore argues that the notion of the subjunctive
mode imposes the analysts own system of logic and that there is a need to understand the
interpretive frameworks present in the illness narratives in their own terms.
0350. Renzenbrink, I. THE INHOSPITABLE HOSPITAL. Illness, Crisis and Loss. 2011,
19(1):2739.
Personal illness narratives are used here to highlight deficiencies in hospital care and to challenge hospitals to become more hospitable and less like factories for treating illnesses. An
alienating hospital environment where staff focus on technical tasks and functions can drive
patients and family members into a state of deep isolation and disconnectedness just when they
need compassion and understanding. It is also suggested that hospital staff may actually benefit
from learning to relate to patients at an emotional level and that compassion fatigue and burn
out are more likely to develop when staff maintain their distance. Acute health care still has
much to learn from models of hospice and palliative care that recognize the personhood of both
patients and staff.
0351. Rouse, C. PATIENT AND PRACTITIONER NONCOMPLIANCE: RATIONING,
THERAPEUTIC UNCERTAINTY, AND THE MISSING CONVERSATION. Anthropology
and Medicine. 2010, 17(2):187200.
Currently, the life expectancy of black Americans is about five years shorter than that of
white Americans when factoring for gender. Poor patient compliance is often used as an explanation for why black people have worse health outcomes. The proof, however, is anecdotal and
relies primarily on discourses about black peoples general dysfunction. Black patients often
respond in kind to problems they experience with health care access. They often conclude that
the medical professionals they work with are racist. In most cases, neither of these explanations
is correct. This paper argues that behavioral explanations for health care disparities shift attention away from structural issues, namely health care rationing and the limits of therapeutic
medicine. The lack of an open discussion about the structural issues is part of the reason the
goal initiated by the Clinton administration to end racial disparities by 2010, Healthy People
2010, largely failed.
0352. Sagli, G. THE ESTABLISHING OF CHINESE MEDICAL CONCEPTS IN NORWEGIAN ACUPUNCTURE SCHOOLS: THE CULTURAL TRANSLATION OF JINGLUO
(CIRCULATION TRACTS). Anthropology and Medicine. 2010, 17(3):315326.
Acupuncture and other forms of so-called alternative treatments, originating outside the West,
have increasingly become an integrated part of the repertoire of medical practices widely used in
health care remote from their places of origin. The main aim of this paper is to elucidate the cultural translation of Chinese medical concepts in a Western, acupuncture setting located far from
China. Drawing on material from ethnographic fieldwork in acupuncture schools in Norway, this
study discusses how concepts used in Chinese acupuncture are taught and interpreted for
biomedically oriented students. The paper concentrates on the concept of jingluo (circulation
tracts, meridians) which the schools considered to be vital in order to conduct acupuncture.
Similar to several other Chinese medical concepts, jingluo presents claims about the body that
significantly differ from biomedical assumptions. The paper adds novel resources and insights to
the research concerning medical conceptions, in that it applies the perspective of Finitism

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as developed in the field of sociology of knowledge by Barnes, Bloor and Henry in its analysis. It
presents an analysis of five empirical examples demonstrating how a variety of interpretations of
jingluomany of them from different fields and some of them contradictorywere involved in
establishing jingluo. Finally, by examining examples of Chinese concepts of the body, the paper
seeks to contribute to the wider field of the anthropology of the body as well as to add to our
understanding of the ways in which medical pluralism and globalisation of acupuncture unfolds.
0353. Santo, D. E. WHO ELSE IS IN THE DRAWER? TRAUMA, PERSONHOOD
AND PROPHYLAXIS AMONG CUBAN SCIENTIFIC SPIRITISTS. Anthropology and
Medicine. 2010, 17(3):249259.
In this paper the author explores notions of illness and health among a particular group of
spirit mediums in Havana: the Sociedad de Estudios Psicologicos Amor y Caridad Universal.
For its members and leaders, the development of mediumship is not just therapeutic but prophylactic. And traumas (of spirits and persons) must not simply be acknowledged but
metabolised through the execution of good mediumship. More importantly, peoples
existences are chemically and psychologically entangled with those of their protective spirits,
making of their selves systems, rather than bounded essences. The author argues that such
concepts of personhood offer alternative modes of understanding the self in relation to forms of
otherness, including dysfunction and pathology.
0354. Schrimshaw, E. W. et al. SEXUAL RISK BEHAVIORS WITH FEMALE AND MALE
PARTNERS MET IN DIFFERENT SEXUAL VENUES AMONG NON-GAY-IDENTIFIED,
NONDISCLOSING MSMW. International Journal of Sexual Health. 2010, 22:167179.
Despite considerable interest in the sexual behavior of nondisclosing men who have sex with
men and women (MSMW), little is known about where they meet their male and female partners and whether their sexual risk behavior differs with partners met in different sexual venues
(e.g., bars, Internet, parks). These issues were examined among 46 non-gay-identified MSMW
who had not disclosed their same-sex behavior to female partners (i.e., men on the down
low). The prevalence of unprotected vaginal sex was nearly identical with women met in bars/
clubs as with women met through friends, work, or the neighborhood. In contrast, the prevalence of unprotected anal sex was higher with male partners met on the Internet, in bars/clubs,
and through friends/work/neighborhood compared with partners met in parks/restrooms or
gyms. This is largely due to MSMW avoiding anal sex in parks, restrooms, and gyms in favor of
oral sex. These findings provide important insights into the role of venues on sexual risk and
the locations where risk reduction interventions for MSMW may be provided.
0355. Sengupta, M. et al. A NATIONAL OVERVIEW OF THE TRAINING
RECEIVED BY CERTIFIED NURSING ASSISTANTS WORKING IN U.S. NURSING
HOMES. Gerontology and Geriatrics Education. 2010, 31:201219.
A few geographically limited studies have indicated that training of direct care workers may
be insufficient. Using the first-ever nationally representative sample of certified nursing assistants (CNAs) from the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey (NNAS), this descriptive
article provides an overview of the type of initial training and continuing education received by
CNAs working in nursing homes, reports CNAs assessments of the adequacy of their training,
and identifies perceived training needs from the points of view of CNAs. Findings could be
used to inform changes to the initial training and continuing education curriculum for this
essential labor workforce.
0356. Shufaro, Y., and Schenker, J. G. CRYOPRESERVATION OF HUMAN GENETIC
MATERIAL. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1205:220224.
Up-to-date cryopreservation is a central component of contemporary human-assisted reproduction and fertility preservation technologies. Presently, the preservation of seminal and
testicular spermatozoa, embryos, and oocytes can be readily achieved with a high functional
survival rate. Preservation of the ovarian cortex containing a greater number of female germ

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cells is an experimental procedure under extensive investigation in many centers. All these
techniques are used for various purposes like optimization of assisted reproduction, provision
of donor gametes, fertility preservation for cancer patients and aging women, and posthumous
reproduction. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the various applications of gamete,
embryo, and ovarian tissue cryopreservation and discuss their basic biological principles,
practical applicability, and limitations.
0357. Skouby, S. O. HORMONAL CONTRACEPTION IN OBESITY, THE METABOLIC SYNDROME, AND DIABETES. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.
2010, 1205:240244.
The rate of obesity worldwide is currently at epidemic proportions. As part of obesity, the
metabolic syndrome describes a clustering of metabolic abnormalities that increase the cardiovascular and diabetes risk. In particular, women from developing countries have diabetes in the
reproductive age resulting in more pregnancies where both the mother and the fetus are at high
risk. Consequently, use of safe and effective contraceptive methods is of paramount importance. Paradoxically, both obese and diabetic women are less likely to use contraception as
compared to women of normal weight. Modern types of hormonal contraceptives are safe and
provide important noncontraceptive benefits. The impact of obesity on drug pharmacokinetics
may result in lower blood levels of steroid contraceptives that reduce their ability to prevent
pregnancy, but the actual change is probably minimal. In women with uncomplicated diabetes,
hormonal contraception should therefore be part of the highly needed preconception care and
metabolic control.
0358. Smock, S. A. et al. THE ROLE OF SOCIAL SUPPORT IN COLLEGIATE RECOVERY COMMUNITIES: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. Alcoholism Treatment
Quarterly. 2011, 29:3544.
In the past decades one response to the increase of college drinking is the growing
prevalence of Collegiate Recovery Communities (CRC). Numerous publications on these
programs exist, yet a review does not. With a growing need for evidence-based model programs to address the concerns of alcohol abuse and dependence on college campuses, the
importance of a collection on the effectiveness of CRCs exists. The goal of this article is to
compile a thorough overview of data on CRCs in the United States, focusing specifically on
the role of social support in recovery maintenance. Recommendations for future directions
are discussed.
0359. Sowers, M. R. et al. RELATING SMOKING, OBESITY, INSULIN RESISTANCE,
AND OVARIAN BIOMARKER CHANGES TO THE FINAL MENSTRUAL PERIOD.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1204:951031.
To determine if smoking, obesity, and insulin resistance mediated age at final menstrual
period (FMP), we examined anti-Mhllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin B, and folliclestimulating hormone (FSH) as biomarkers of changing follicle status and ovarian aging.
We performed a longitudinal data analysis from a cohort of premenopausal women followed to their FMP. Our results found that smokers had an earlier age at FMP (P < 0.003)
and a more rapid decline in their AMH slope relative to age at FMP (P < 0.002). Smokers
had a lower baseline inhibin B level relative to age at the FMP than nonsmokers (P = 0.002).
Increasing insulin resistance was associated with a shorter time to FMP (P < 0.003) and
associations of obesity and time to FMP were observed (P = 0.004, in model with FSH).
Change in ovarian biomarkers did not mediate the time to FMP. We found that smoking was
associated with age at FMP and modified associations of AMH and inhibin B with age at
FMP. Insulin resistance was associated with shorter time to FMP independent of the
biomarkers. Interventions targeting smoking and insulin resistance could curtail the undue
advancement of reproductive aging.

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0360. Stempel, M. S. A REGIONAL APPROACH TO FOOT AND ANKLE MRI. Annals


of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2009, 1154:84100.
This chapter presents a regional anatomic approach to MRI applications in the foot and
ankle. From a clinical perspective, patients often describe their symptoms in terms of the part
of the foot that hurts and when and how it hurts. Clinical questioning and physical diagnosis
pursue this line as well, trying to narrow down the diagnostic possibilities. There are conditions
mat may blur the anatomic distinctions for forefoot, midfoot, rearfoot, and ankle; involve more
than one region of the foot simultaneously; or occur in any area of the foot. The chapter also
includes a separate section on the presentations of inflammatory arthritides in foot and ankle
joints.
0361. Strevens, H. MANAGEMENT OF PREMATURE PRELABOR RUPTURE OF
THE MEMBRANES. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1205:123129.
Premature prelabor rupture of the fetal membranes affects about 3% of pregnancies. The
cause is usually infection, especially at earlier gestations. The prognosis and the risks of delivery are both much worse at earlier gestations. Before viable pregnancy, termination may be
offered. Once the fetus is viable, steroids to mature the fetal lungs and antibiotics to reduce
infection are the mainstays of treatment. Delivery is recommended in the presence of signs of
clear-cut infection at early gestational ages. At later ones, balancing the risks of infection from
conservative treatment against the risk of prematurity from delivery is difficult. Published
trials to date have not given clear guidance, but a number are ongoing.
0362. Stroth, N. et al. PACAP: A MASTER REGULATOR OF NEUROENDOCRINE
STRESS CIRCUITS AND THE CELLULAR STRESS RESPONSE. Annals of the New York
Academy of Sciences. 2011, 1220:4955.
The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is released
from stress-transducing neurons. It exerts postsynaptic effects required to complete the
hypothalamopituitaryadrenocortical (HPA) and hypothalamosympathoadrenal (HSA)
circuits activated by psychogenic and metabolic stressors. Upon activation of these circuits,
PACAP-responsive (in cell culture models) and PACAP-dependent (in vivo) transcriptomic
responses in the adrenal gland, hypothalamus, and pituitary have been identified. Gene products produced in response circuits during stress include additional neuropeptides,
neurotransmitter biosynthetic enzymes, and neuroprotective factors. Major portions of HPA
and HSA stress responses are abolished in PACAP-deficient mice. This deficit occurs at the
level of both the hypothalamus (HPA axis) and the adrenal medulla (HSA axis). PACAPdependent transcriptional stress responses are conveyed through noncanonical cyclic AMPand calcium-initiated signaling pathways within the HSA circuit. PACAP transcriptional regulation of the HPA axis, in the hypothalamus, is likely to be mediated via canonical cyclic AMP
signaling through protein kinase A.
0363. Sun, H. B. MECHANICAL LOADING, CARTILAGE DEGRADATION, AND
ARTHRITIS. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1211:3750.
Joint tissues are exquisitely sensitive to their mechanical environment, and mechanical loading
may be the most important external factor regulating the development and long-term maintenance
of joint tissues. Moderate mechanical loading maintains the integrity of articular cartilage; however, both disuse and overuse can result in cartilage degradation. The irreversible destruction of
cartilage is the hallmark of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. In these instances of cartilage
breakdown, inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha
stimulate the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and aggrecanases (ADAMTSs),
enzymes that can degrade components of the cartilage extracellular matrix. In order to prevent cartilage destruction, tremendous effort has been expended to design inhibitors of MMP/ADAMTS
activity and/or synthesis. To date, however, no effective clinical inhibitors exist. Accumulating
evidence suggests that physiologic joint loading helps maintain cartilage integrity; however,

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the mechanisms by which these mechanical stimuli regulate joint homeostasis are still being elucidated. Identifying mechanosensitive chondroprotective pathways may reveal novel targets or
therapeutic strategies in preventing cartilage destruction in joint disease.
0364. Tan, Z. S. et al. VIRTUAL PATIENTS IN GERIATRIC EDUCATION. Gerontology
and Geriatrics Education. 2010, 31:163173.
The virtual patient is a case-based computer program that combines textual information with
multimedia elements such as audio, graphics, and animation. It is increasingly being utilized as
a teaching modality by medical educators in various fields of instruction. The inherent complexity of older patients and the shortage of geriatrics educators have spurred the development
of virtual patient programs to teach geriatrics at the medical under-graduate, graduate, and
postgraduate levels. As an instructional tool, the Virtual Patient must be placed in the correct
educational context to help educators identify opportunities for its proper use in the curriculum.
0365. Taylor, O. D. PREDICTORS AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS IN THE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF ADOLESCENT SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS. Journal of
Human Behavior in the Social Environment. 2010, 20:601637.
Contemporary adolescents are at a higher risk for developing a substance use disorder. Risk
factors serve as predictors for identifying youths at the greatest risk for developing these disorders. Protective factors serve to protect adolescents from developing the substance use
disorders. First-time drug use can be prevented through the model program modalities implemented through prevention research. However, when youths fall through the cracks and
develop a substance dependency on alcohol or other substances, treatment strategies promise
hope for adolescents who are experiencing the onset of substance dependency.
0366. TrFen, B., and Schaller, S. SUBJECTIVE SEXUAL WEIL-BEING IN A WEB
SAMPLE OF HETEROSEXUAL NORWEGIANS. International Journal of Sexual Health.
2010, 22:180194.
The aim of this study was to describe and analyze subjective sexual well-being in terms of
emotional and cognitive evaluation of the individuals sexual function in adult Norwegians.
The results from this study are based on 1,671 Web interviews among 18- to 67-year-olds randomly selected from Synovates eBase. A total of 4,285 persons in the Web panel were asked to
participate, yielding a response-rate of 39%. The results showed that sexual well-being
decreased with increasing age and the number of years married or cohabiting. Young women
were more satisfied than young men, and older men were more satisfied than older women. The
presence of sexual problems heavily inflicted sexual well-being, as well as living with a partner
or not. Subjective sexual well-being was also related to the persons habitualized negative or
positive thinking about oneself. In a therapeutic context, restoring sexual function and increasing the clients self-esteem may be the way to increased sexual well-being.
0367. Tuljapurkar, S., and Steiner, U. K. DYNAMIC HETEROGENEITY AND LIFE
HISTORIES. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1204:65721.
Biodemography is increasingly focused on the large and persistent differences between individuals within populations in fitness components (age at death, reproductive success) and fitness
related components (health, biomarkers) in humans and other species. To study such variation we
propose the use of dynamic models of observable phenotypes of individuals. Phenotypic change
in turn determines variation among individuals in their fitness components over the life course.
We refer to this dynamic accumulation of fitness differences as dynamic heterogeneity and
illustrate it for an animal population in which longitudinal data are studied using rnultistate
capture-mark-recapture models. Although our approach can be applied to any characteristic, for
our empirical example we use reproduction as the phenotypic character to define stages. We indicate how our stage-structured model describes the nature of the variation among individual

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 99

characteristics that is generated by dynamic heterogeneity. We conclude by discussing our ongoing and planned work on animals and humans. We also discuss the connections between our work
and recent work on human mortality, disability and health, and life course theory.
0368. Venetis, C. A. et al. EVIDENCE-BASED MANAGEMENT OF POOR OVARIAN
RESPONSE. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1205:199206.
Poor ovarian response is not infrequent and represents one of the major therapeutic challenges
in in vitro fertilization. Although several tests have been proposed, which aim at predicting poor
response to ovarian stimulation, available data are conflicting regarding their accuracy and clinical usefulness. Even though several therapeutic approaches have been explored, a single
effective strategy has not yet been established. One of the major limitations of interpreting the
relevant literature is the wide variability in the definitions used for poor ovarian response.
Regarding the interventions that have been proposed to improve the probability of pregnancy in
poor responders, limited evidence from relevant randomized controlled trials suggests that addition of growth hormone during ovarian stimulation, as well as performing embryo transfer on day
2 instead of days 3, might be beneficial. Further randomized control trials are warranted to reliably determine which would be the best approach for treating poor ovarian response.
0369. Via, M. A. et al. BONE PHYSIOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS IN CHRONIC
CRITICAL ILLNESS. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1211:8594.
Modern medical practices allow patients to survive acute insults and be sustained by
machinery and medicines for extended periods of time. We define chronic critical illness as a
later stage of prolonged critical illness that requires tracheotomy. These patients have persistent elevations of inflammatory cytokines, diminished hypothalamicpituitary function,
hypercatabolism, immobilization, and malnutrition. The measurement of bone turnover markers reveals markedly enhanced osteoclastic bone resorption that is uncoupled from osteoblastic
bone formation. We review the mechanisms by which these factors contribute to the metabolic
bone disease of chronic critical illness and suggest potential therapeutics.
0370. Vlahos, N. F. et al. FERTILITY DRUGS AND OVARIAN CANCER RISK: A
CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1205:214219.
There is evidence that medications used for ovarian stimulation and in vitro fertilization may
be associated with ovarian cancer. In this review, we attempt to describe this relationship
according to the most recent epidemiologic data and to present the possible mechanisms on the
molecular level that could potentially explain this correlation. Currently there is no proven
relationship between any type of ovarian cancer and drugs used for infertility treatment. Overall, infertile women have increased risk for ovarian malignancies. Nulligravidas that received
treatment are at increased risk for ovarian malignancy as compared to women that conceived
after treatment. More studies with the appropriate statistical power and follow-up time, as well
as with better adjustment for confounding factors, which coexist in infertile patients, are
required to evaluate accurately the long-term effects of these drugs and procedures.
0371. Vitoratos, N. et al. PERINATAL MORTALITY IN DIABETIC PREGNANCY.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1205:9498.
Perinatal mortality rate (PMR) is one of the most important perinatal health indicators. PMR
in diabetic pregnancies varies throughout the world and is higher than the background PMR.
The prevalence of pregestational diabetes is increasing and is associated with an elevated risk
of congenital malformations, macrosomia, preeclampsia, and preterm delivery. The incidence
of PMR in preexisting diabetes mellitus ranges considerably, with congenital abnormalities
and preterm labor the main factors contributing to the higher PMR. Women with gestational
diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance are a mixed group that may have low to a high
PMR, especially if they require insulin in their pregnancy. All the known diabetic women

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should plan their pregnancies and optimize glycemic control periconceptually and throughout
pregnancy, as this reduces the frequency of congenital abnormalities, obstetric complications,
and perinatal mortality.
0372. Weber, M.-A. ULTRASOUND IN THE INFLAMMATORY MYOPATHIES.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2009, 1154:159170.
Dermato- or polymyositis must be diagnosed or ruled out early because early immunosuppressive therapy prevents irreversible muscle degeneration. Acute poly- and dermatomyositis are
accompanied by normal or increased size, low echogenicity, and elevated perfusion of affected
muscles, whereas in chronic poly- and dermatomyositis, the size and perfusion of affected muscles are reduced and echogenicity is increased. Although magnetic resonance imaging is more
sensitive in detecting edema-like muscular changes and thereby acute myositis, contrastenhanced ultrasound with its capability of measuring perfusion has become a useful diagnostic
tool in diagnosing acute inflammation in poly- and dermatomyositis.
0373. Weiss, A. J. et al. A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO BONE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1211:924.
With evolving interest in multiscalar biological systems one could assume that reductionist
approaches may not fully describe biological complexity. Instead, tools such as mathematical
modeling, network analysis, and other multiplexed clinical- and research-oriented tests enable
rapid analyses of high-throughput data parsed at the genomic, proteomic, metabolomic, and
physiomic levels. A physiomic-level approach allows for recursive horizontal and vertical
integration of subsystem coupling across and within spatiotemporal scales. Additionally, this
methodology recognizes previously ignored subsystems and the strong, nonintuitively obvious
and indirect connections among physiological events that potentially account for the uncertainties in medicine. In this review, we flip the reductionist research paradigm and review the
concept of systems biology and its applications to bone pathophysiology. Specifically, a bonecentric physiome model is presented that incorporates systemic-level processes with their
respective therapeutic implications.
0374. Williams, K. et al. EXAMINING A DRUG COURT TREATMENT PROGRAM IN
NEW JERSEY: A PERSPECTIVE FROM THE FIELD. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly.
2011, 29:8590.
This article examines the effectiveness of a drug treatment program. Research suggests that
drug courts can promote positive outcomes. This perspective piece examines the effectiveness
of drug courts in promoting a reduction in recidivism and promoting positive outcomes. The
need to match court resources with the needs of the offenders is discussed. The employment
needs of the offenders is an important consideration.
0375. Wilson, C. EATING, EATING IS ALWAYS THERE: FOOD, CONSUMERISM
AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE. SOME EVIDENCE FROM KERALA, SOUTH
INDIA. Anthropology and Medicine. 2010, 17(3):261275.
The state of Kerala, south India, has particularly high prevalence rates for cardiovascular
disease (20%) and Type II diabetes (16.3%). Although so-called lifestyle diseases can be prevented and symptoms controlled by diet, exercise, and medicines, heart disease and diabetes
have become the most common causes of suffering, disability and death. This article explores
the social dynamics transforming consumer lifestyles as increased food consumption, reduced
physical activity and social stress contribute to the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It
examines the centrality of food to ideas of the good life, to nurture social relationships and
strengthen weak modern bodies, as the principle source of embodied pleasure and health. It
explores the micro and macro politics of eating and feasting, limiting the extent to which
individuals (can) control food habits. Thus, despite widespread recognition of the relationship between diet, exercise and heart disease, the flow of food, the immediacy of pleasure, and

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associations between appetite and health override latent concerns about the negative impacts of
dietary excesses on long-term health and chronic illness. Findings are discussed to highlight
the inherent limitations of public health interventions focusing on education and individual
choice.
0376. Woo, J. S. T. et al. SEX GUILT AND CULTURE-LINKED BARRIERS TO
TESTICULAR EXAMINATIONS. International Journal of Sexual Health. 2010, 22:
144154.
This study explored the role of sex guilt in the relationship between culture and testicular
self-examination (TSE) and physician testicular examination (PTE) in Euro-Canadian and
Chinese men. Euro-Canadian (n = 42) and Chinese (n = 77) male university students completed
online questionnaires. Euro-Canadian men were more likely to have had TSE and PTE than
Chinese men. Sex guilt was higher in Chinese men. Sex guilt mediated the relationship
between ethnicity and PTE but not the relationship between ethnicity and TSE. Among the
Chinese men, sex guilt mediated the relationship between Westernization and PTE but not
between Westernization and TSE.
0377. Xita, N., and Tsatsoulis, A. FETAL ORIGINS OF THE METABOLIC SYNDROME.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1205:148155.
The natural history of metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which
shares many components of metabolic syndrome, may originate in intrauterine life. Evidence
from epidemiological observations, clinical, and experimental animal studies suggest that the
nutritional, hormonal, and metabolic environment afforded by the mother may permanently
program differentiating target tissues of the offspring toward the development of metabolic
syndrome/PCOS phenotype in adult life. The mechanisms of fetal programming are not well
understood. Thus, the altered tissue differentiation may be the result of fetal adaptive responses
representing homeostatic adaptations due to alterations in fetal nutrition. Also, tissues under
the influence of androgen excess may be directed toward a more masculine phenotype with
regard to reproductive, neuroendocrine, and metabolic traits, while the importance of
epigenetics in fetal origin of metabolic syndrome/PCOS cannot be overlooked.
0378. Yeatts, D. E. et al. THE PERCEPTION OF TRAINING AVAILABILITY
AMONG CERTIFIED NURSE AIDES: RELATIONSHIP TO CNA PERFORMANCE,
TURNOVER, ATTITUDES, BURNOUT, AND EMPOWERMENT. Gerontology and Geriatrics
Education. 2010, 31:115132.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the certified nurse
aides(CNAs) perception that training is always available when needed and the CNAs performance, turnover, attitudes, burnout, and empowerment. The data came from a larger study
where a self-administered survey instrument was completed by 359 CNAs working in 11
nursing homes in the North Texas region. The data analyses largely support previous
research. Perceived training availability was most highly associated with participation in
decision making, information exchange, the procedures used, and satisfaction/commitment.
The data suggest that the CNAs surveyed may not have received substantial training related
to the depersonalization of residents, self-esteem, and direct decision making. Further, the
findings suggest an opportunity to improve training by including a component to help CNAs
transfer the skills and knowledge learned during the training to the actual provision of
resident care.
0379. Yeilding, N. et al. DEVELOPMENT OF THE IL-12/23 ANTAGONIST
USTEKINUMAB IN PSORIASIS: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2011, 1222:3039.
The development of ustekinumab as a first-in-class anti-interleukin (IL) 12/23p40 therapeutic
agent for psoriasis represents an important example of modern and rational drug design and

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development. Psoriasis is a chronic, systemic, immune-mediated skin disorder with considerable


clinical, psychosocial, and economic burden. Ustekinumab is a human monoclonal antibody
(mAb) that binds the p40 subunit common to IL-12 and IL-23, key cytokines in psoriasis
pathogenesis. The therapeutic mAb was developed using human gamma-1 immunoglobulin
(IgG)-expressing transgenic mice, which created a molecule with endogenous IgG biologic properties and low immunogenicity. Ustekinumab was well tolerated in clinical studies and yielded
rapid, significant, and sustained efficacy plus improved quality of life/work performance and
reduced depression/anxiety. Its pharmacologic properties afford the most convenient dosing regimen among approved biologics, representing a significant advancement in the treatment of
moderate to severe psoriasis. Ustekinumab also holds promise for other immune-mediated
disorders with significant unmet need.
0380. Yuan, Y. et al. EXTRAGASTROINTESTINAL FUNCTIONS AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF SECRETIN AND SECRETIN RECEPTORS. Annals of
the New York Academy of Sciences. 2011, 1220:2333.
The functional role of secretin outside the gastrointestinal system has been a mystery to endocrinologists for many years. With the availability of secretin- and secretin receptor-knockout
models and the advances of electrophysiological and immunohistochemical techniques, we are
now in a good position to explore the functions of secretin outside the gastrointestinal system.
There is growing evidence to support that secretin works pleiotropically at multiple levels in our
body. In this paper, we review the recent findings regarding the physiological effects of secretin on
extragastrointestinal sites including the cerebellum, the hippocampus, and the hypothalamus
pituitarykidney axis. To understand the mechanisms underlying the site-specific expression of
secretin and secretin receptors in the central nervous system, we also discuss the transcriptional regulation of secretin and secretin receptor genes in neuronal cell lines.
0381. Zeldis, J. B. et al. A REVIEW OF THE HISTORY, PROPERTIES, AND USE OF
THE IMMUNOMODULATORY COMPOUND LENALIDOMIDE. Annals of the New York
Academy Sciences. 2011, 1222:7682.
Lenalidomide (REVLIMID), an immunomodulatory compound targeting both cancer
cells and their microenvironment, has substantial activity in several difficult-to-manage hematological malignancies. In previously treated multiple myeloma, lenalidomide produces highquality responses combined with sustained disease control. Recently, several randomized studies have demonstrated a clinical benefit of continuous lenalidomide treatment in newly
diagnosed multiple myeloma. In many patients with refractory anemia associated with lower
risk myelodysplastic syndromes and a 5q chromosome deletion, lenalidomide leads to transfusion independence, considerably improving quality of life. It has a manageable safety profile,
and its oral formulation reduces the burden on patients. Several phase III trials are ongoing in
other indications currently underserved by conventional therapy, such as chronic lymphocytic
leukemia, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, and prostate cancer. Several early-stage studies are
exploring lenalidomide alone and in combination across different hematological malignancies,
solid tumors, and immune-related disorders.
0382. Zhao, J., and Link, T. M. MRI IN DEGENERATIVE ARTHRITIDES: STRUCTURAL AND CLINICAL ASPECTS. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2009,
1154:115135.
Owing to the potential to image not only bone but also cartilage, bone marrow, and the surrounding internal soft tissue structures, MRI is particularly useful for the assessment of
degenerative arthritides. Cartilage-sensitive MRI techniques have been shown to have a significant correlation with arthroscopic grading scores. MRI is also helpful in differentiating
osteoarthritis from avascular necrosis, labral pathology, and pigmented villonodular synovitis.
This chapter describes advanced imaging techniques, including driven equilibrium Fourier
transform (DEFT) and steady-state free precision (SSFP) imaging, direct MRI arthrography,
and 3D-T1rho-relaxation mapping.

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MINORITIES
Ethnicity, class differentials, sex roles
0383. Abdullah, R. et al. ISLAM AND ADAT CONSIDERING THE WIFES MORAL
CONTRIBUTION IN THE DIVISION OF HARTA SEPENCHARIAN IN MALAYSIA. Indonesia and the Malay World. 2010, 38(111):161180.
The concept of harta sepencharian, a derivative of the Malay cultural custom (literally,
adat) in Malaysia is now considered an integral element of sharia secondary sources of Urf
(customary laws). This conceptharta (Malay: property), sepencharian (Malay: jointly
acquired) is the recognition of a married partners share (both husband and wife) in property
acquired during the material time of the marriage, regardless of whether the party in question
(usually the wife) appears not to have contributed financially to its purchase or development, or
even if the marriage ends through the death of either party. The article explores the evlutation of
the legal process that validates and promotes harta sepencharian to the level of Urf through the
analysis of locally decided cases in both civil and sharia court systems This development
signifies that the substantive and procedural dynamism of sharia itself and the uniqueness and
applicability of Malay customary laws, transcend temporal and spatial differences. They particularly challenge the assumption that the local laws, including Islamic law, are passive.
0384. Abes, E. S. EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND RELIGIOUS IDENTITIES FOR JEWISH LESBIAN COLLEGE
STUDENTS. Journal of Lesbian Studies. 2011, 15:205225.
This exploratory study examined how two Jewish lesbian college students perceived the
relationship between their religious and sexual orientation identities over a five-year time span.
Based on data from a constructivist, longitudinal qualitative study, these womens stories
reveal possibilities and challenges associated with making sense of these two identities individually and in relationship to each other during a time of rapid identity development and
changing contexts. Suggestions for educational practice are offered.
0385. Adolfsen, A. et al. MULTIPLE DIMENSIONS OF ATTITUDES ABOUT
HOMOSEXUALITY: DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTIFACETED SCALE MEASURING
ATTITUDES TOWARD HOMOSEXUALITY. Journal of Homosexuality. 2010, 57:
12371257.
Attitudes toward homosexuality are complex. To get a comprehensive view on the attitudes of
people, different dimensions need to be included in research. Based on a review of the literature,
we distinguish five dimensions: acceptance of homosexuality in a general sense; attitude toward
equal rights; reactions to homosexuality at close quarters; reactions to homosexuality in public;
and so-called modern homonegativity. In a study on a representative sample of Dutch Defence
personnel (N = 1,607) we tested this model. Structural equation modeling of several items measuring the attitude toward homosexuality offers a six factor solution. These six factors are more
or less comparable to the five dimensions we distinguished. The dimension reactions to homosexuality at close quarters is, however, empirically split in a dimension on affective reactions to
homosexuality and homosexual persons in general and a dimension on affective reaction
to homosexual friends or acquaintances.
0386. Anderson, E., and McCormack, M. INTERSECTIONALITY, CRITICAL RACE
THEORY, AND AMERICAN SPORTING OPPRESSION: EXAMINING BLACK AND
GAY MALE ATHLETES. Journal of Homosexuality. 2010, 57:949967.
This article examines the influence of the racial categories of White and Black and the sexual
categories of gay and straight on sporting American men. The effect of the intersection of these
cultural categories is discussed by investigating the exclusion of athletes who are both Black
and gay, as well as highlighting the culturally perceived differences of (straight) Black and
(White) gay men. However, the analysis accounts for more than just difference, examining the

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commonalities of oppression between these discrete identity groups. We use the research on
Black athletes to call for further empirical study on gay athletes. It is argued that critical race
theory and intersectionality offer complex and nuanced understandings of these oppressions,
which, when theorizing is left solely to the realm of poststructuralism, can otherwise be missed.
0387. Arndt, M. MEASUREMENT OF ATTITUDES TOWARD BISEXUAL MEN AND
WOMEN AMONG SOUTH AFRICAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: THE VALIDATION
OF AN INSTRUMENT. Journal of Homosexuality. 2011, 58:497520.
Research was conducted investigating university students prejudicial attitudes toward bisexual men and women in South Africa. The combined male and female Attitudes Regarding
Bisexuality Scale (ARBS) showed unacceptable internal consistency reliabilities, especially for
the Black-African participants. An expert focus group was convened in order to elaborate on and
clarify the low reliability coefficients. The ARBS was then adapted for the South African population and resulted in two separate instruments designed to measure attitudes regarding bisexual
men and bisexual women separately. Five hundred eighty seven university students completed
these scales. The results indicated that the attitudes of heterosexual, homosexual, and asexual students toward bisexual men and women are more negative than the attitudes of bisexual students.
0388. Asian, S. EVERYDAY FORMS OF STATE POWER AND THE KURDS IN THE
EARLY TURKISH REPUBLIC. International Journal of Middle East Studies. 2011, 43:7593.
This article analyzes the exercise of state authority in Kurdish areas in the early Turkish
Republic and discusses the states ineffectiveness in dominating these areas. It argues that the
mere existence of a highly ambitious social-engineering project, increased state presence in the
region, and military power does not mean high levels of state capacity. Based on primary documents, this article discusses the problems of autonomy, coherence, and implementation that the
Turkish state encountered in its nation-building project. It shows how the states ideological
rigidities and its shortage of resources and dedicated personnel undermined its capacity to control and shape the Kurdish areas. While the state attempted to regulate citizens private lives in
Kurdish areas, the local society also tried to mold state employees in accordance with its own
interests. A blurred boundary between the state and society was one of the unintended
consequences of increased state presence in everyday life.
0389. Aspinall, P. J., and Chinouya, M. DETERMINING THE IDENTITY OF BLACK
AFRICANS IN UK POPULATION AND HEALTH POLICY CONTEXTS: ETHICAL
ISSUES AND CHALLENGES. Social Identities. 2011, 17(2):255270.
In everyday settings in the UK the self-determination of identity has been taken for granted. In
the decennial census and the bureaucratic practices of modern governance, the ascription of ethnicity is in the hands of the subject who is the final arbiter, even if this sometimes breaks down by
default. However, for some minority ethnic groups, notably black Africans, a group created by
the decennial census, observer-led approaches to determining identity have insinuated themselves
into some policy contexts in the UK. The targeting by HIV/AIDS workers of black Africans in
mundane public settings based on such signalling devices as appearance and language or accent has
been endorsed as a modus operandi in preventative care. For around a decade the UK Border
Agency has made use of linguistic analysis and other forensic methods to establish the nationality
of Somali-origin asylum seekers as against claims from other East Africans. Its latest Human Provenance Pilot Projectthe use of isotope analysis and DNA ancestry testing to establish
nationality again places black Africans on the front line. These external processes of identification raise important ethical challenges, given the potential for harm when assignment is incorrect.
0390. Baldwin, D. R. et al. RESILIENCY AND OPTIMISM: AN AFRICAN AMERICAN
SENIOR CITIZENS PERSPECTIVE. Journal of Black Psychology.2011,37(1):2441.
A total of 52 African American senior citizens (aged 5999 years) were asked to participate in
a study examining psychological resources (ego resilience and dispositional optimism) and the
experience of racial stress as a function of geographical location (north vs. south). This is an

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understudied population, and African American seniors who remain relatively active within their
respected communities may provide useful information regarding these psychological constructs
in particular and successful aging in general. Participants completed the ego resilience, optimism,
stress, and distress surveys. When collapsed across geographical location, resilience was
negatively correlated with distress and positively correlated with optimism. Dispositional
optimism was negatively correlated with levels of psychological distress. African American
seniors who resided in the north reported significantly less distress than those in the south.
Findings support resiliency and optimism as stress buffers for older African Americans.
0391. Belfield, C. R. THE ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF INADEQUATE EDUCATION FOR THE PUERTO RICAN POPULATION IN THE UNITED STATES. CENTRO
Journal. 2010, 22(2):234259.
This paper calculates the economic consequences of failing to graduate from high school for
Puerto Ricans living in the U.S. Based on a range of social science evidence, we calculate the
full economic consequences of high school graduation expressed in present values at age 20.
In total, each new Puerto Rican high school graduate benefits the taxpayer by $111,000. The
impacts are even larger from a social perspective. In total, each new Puerto Rican high school
graduate generates a present value social benefit of $598,000. We also calculate the impacts for
selected states where Puerto Ricans are residentially concentrated. Finally, in light of these
consequences, we consider possible reforms to raise the graduation rate for Puerto Ricans in
the U.S.
0392. Belge, C. STATE BUILDING AND THE LIMITS OF LEGIBILITY: KINSHIP
NETWORKS AND KURDISH RESISTANCE IN TURKEY. International Journal of Middle
East Studies. 2011, 43:95114.
Following the establishment of the Turkish Republic in 1923, the twin goals of centralizing
state power and inscribing a uniform national identity on all citizens resulted in the proliferation of disciplinary practices that required changes in habits and everyday life as well as in the
locus of faith, allegiance, and obedience. Nowhere were the repercussions felt as deeply as in
the kurdish regions, where the urge to create a new citizen sparked considerable resistance.
This article suggests that alongside Kurdish nationalist movements, kinship networks and
morality constituted an alternative reservoir of resistance to the new disciplinary practices that
followed state building. By subverting state practices to make citizens legible kinship networks, I argue, undermined the states attempts to establish bureaucratic authority and create
an exclusive identity.
0393. Benjamin, O. et al. EMOTIONAL POLITICS IN CLEANING WORK: THE CASE
OF ISRAEL. Human Relations. 2010, 64(3):337357.
Emotional politics instil insecurity and doubt in working-class individuals. Researchers
examining social degradation through (bad) employment or other stigma have demonstrated
the exclusionary impact of this process. Some suggest that individuals respond to such
emotional politics and other types of exclusion by identity-management strategies aiming at
a sense of worth, whereas others have found self-isolation to dominate. Here we analyse the
emotional politics emerging from womens responses to exclusion in the socially degraded
field of cleaning in three ethno-national contexts in Israel.The sample was composed of
Mizrahi women in the southern periphery, immigrants from the Former Soviet Union and
Israeli-Palestinian women from Arab settlements in the north. By analysing cleaning
employees talk, we characterize these womens struggle to derive a sense of worth from
their breadwinning experience within a specific ethno-national context in terms of family,
community and workplace. We discuss the similarities and differences among these three
groups with regard to the relative weight of each of these circles for negotiation of belonging
and inclusion.

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0394. Bernal, R. L. THE DRAGON IN THE CARIBBEAN: CHINACARICOM


ECONOMIC RELATIONS. The Round Table. 2010, 99(408):281302.
In recent years the Peoples Republic of China (China) has expanded its economic relations
with CARICOM (the member states of CARICOM are Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St
Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago). This is evident in the increase
in trade and development assistance. The objective of this article is to explain the expanded
and intensified economic presence of China in the CARICOM region. In order to accomplish this
it is necessary to identify the motives for Chinas conduct in the region and the factors that
account for the receptivity of CARICOM to economic relations with China. Although the focus is
primarily on the economic relationship between China and the CARICOM countries, this aspect
of Chinas involvement in the region cannot be separated from the political dimension. Chinas
motives for a growing presence in the region are both economic and political and have to be
examined in the wider context of Chinas overall foreign policy, its shifting world view, its superpower status and the geo-politics of the current global conjuncture. Similarly, CARICOMs
conduct has to be located in the wider context of its overall foreign policy. The first section outlines the history and current status of ChinaCARICOM relations. This is followed by an
exposition of the extent and increase in economic interaction between China and CARICOM.
The third section provides an examination of Chinas motives for the conduct of its foreign policy
in the CARICOM countries. These motives are partly influenced by economics and partly by politics and hence have to be understood in the global geo-political context. A fourth section is devoted
to explaining CARICOMs receptivity to increased economic relations with China. The final
section provides a brief outlook for ChinaCARICOM economic relations.
0395. Blackwell, C. W. THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG POPULATION SIZE,
REQUESTS FOR BAREBACK SEX, AND HIV SEROSTATUS IN MEN WHO HAVE SEX
WITH MEN USING THE INTERNET TO MEET SEXUAL PARTNERS. Journal of Human
Behavior in the Social Environment. 2010, 20:349360.
Recent research has indicated the use of the Internet to meet sexual partners among men who
have sex with men (MSM) is increasing. This medium also serves as a major source for social
and sexual networking among MSM who live in more rural areas. In addition, data suggest the
use of the Internet to initiate sexual relationships among this population may increase the risk
of transmission of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. The purpose of this study
was to examine differences between self-reported HIV serostatus and requests for condomless
bareback (BB) sex among a sample of Florida MSM (n = 483) using a popular Internet sexual
networking site to meet sexual partners. Specifically, these variables were assessed in relation
to population size among the sites seven geographic regions within the state. Findings indicated an overall statistically significant relationship among requests for BB sex and selfreported HIV serostatus. However, there was not a significant relationship among these
variables and geographic region.
0396. Blue, E. L., and Berkel, L. A. FEMINIST IDENTITY ATTITUDES, NEGATIVE
AFFECT, AND EATING PATHOLOGY IN AFRICAN AMERICAN COLLEGE WOMEN.
Journal of Black Psychology. 2010, 36(4):426445.
African American women are believed to have unique experiences related to eating pathology partially because of the intersection of gender and race in Western society. Investigations
of negative affect and identity development as predictors of eating pathology in African American women have yielded mixed results; however, feminist identity development is yet to be
examined as a predictor of eating problems in this group.Therefore, the current study investigated feminist identity attitudes, anxiety, and depression as predictors of eating pathology in 98
African American college women. Interestingly, most of the participants endorsed a Synthesis feminist identity style. However, negative affect emerged as the only significant predictor
of eating pathology. These findings are congruent with previous research that supports significant relations between anxiety, depression, and eating disturbance in women.

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 107

0397. Boyas, J., and Sharpe, T. L. RACIAL AND ETHNIC DETERMINANTS OF


INTERRACIAL AND ETHNIC TRUST. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment.
2010, 20:618636.
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to discern which individual factors are associated with interracial/ethnic trust among a national probability sample of African Americans,
Latinos, and non-Hispanic wbites. Using national data from the 2000 Community Benchmark
Survey, the multiple regression results indicate that, even after controlling for education and
income, African Americans and Latinos reported significantly lower levels of interracial/ethnic
trust than did non-Hispanic whites. Additionally, separate regression equations indicate that
predictors associated with interracial/ethnic trust varied by racial and ethnic group. Implications
and future research are discussed.
0398. Brayton, S., and Millington, B. RENOVATING ETHNIC IDENTITY ON RESTAURANT MAKEOVER. Social Identities. 2011, 17(2):185200.
Food can be a novel way of understanding and explaining some of the pointed paradoxes of
multiculturalism and the management of ethnicity. Many studies of culinary culture are attentive to the exoticization of ethnicity in and through food media, which now includes a
vertiginous array of cookbooks, travel literature, magazines and, most important for our purposes here, television series. Among various programs is Restaurant Makeover, a popular
Canadian reality series broadcast on Home and Garden Television (HGTV) as well as the Food
Network Canada. In each episode, dining experts are hired by struggling restaurateurs (often
ethnic) to spice up the existing menu, modernize the dJcor and, by extension, ensure the
welfare of the (immigrants) family. While the series is not explicitly directed at ethnic restaurants, it seems to be increasingly interested in non-white establishments (i.e., Mexican,
Chinese, Thai, etc.). This participation in culinary multiculturalism may be symptomatic of
wider political changes in immigration and diversity in Canada. Based on the authors analyses of specific episodes this paper argues, firstly, the growing interest in ethnic cuisine on
Restaurant Makeover can be read as a (neo)liberal response to an emerging conservative
multicultural agenda that recognizes migrants predominantly as laborers (as opposed to citizens) and, secondly, that behind its rehearsal of liberal benevolence is a skewed set of power
relations that authorize the experts (re)construction, cultivation and containment of ethnicity.
0399. Brown, J. R. NO HOMO. Journal of Homosexuality. 2011, 58:299314.
The phrase no homo arose in hip-hop lyrics of the 1990s as a discourse interjection to negate
supposed sexual and gender transgressions. Today the phrase has gained currency beyond hiphop culture and pervades racial and gender continua. As a result, its increasing prevalence in
mainstream speech has caused critics to deplore no homo as outright homophobia. This article
describes the origins and scope of no homo. Instead of easily identifying the phrase as homophobic, the article invites readers to examine the phrase as a way of understanding the complexities
in gender identification processes along with the linguistic dexterity necessary for survival in certain sociocultural groups. By exploring the macrosociological issues which created and
perpetuate the need for no homo, we arrive at a deeper understanding of sexuality, marginalized
sexuality, and the (often unspoken) uneasiness with sexual and gendered nonconformity.
0400. Brown, M. J., and Henriquez, E. SUPPORT FOR GAY AND LESBIAN CIVIL
RIGHT: DEVELOPMENT AND EXAMINATION OF A NEW SCALE. Journal of Homosexuality. 2011, 58:462475.
This research outlines the development of a psychometrically sound, uni-dimensional scale
to assess support for gay and lesbian civil rights. Initial scale development involved examining
item-pool responses from 224 undergraduate students. The resulting Support for Gay and Lesbian Civil Rights (SGLCR) scale consisted of 20 items. In a series of studies, the SGLCR
demonstrated a stable factor structure, strong internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and
construct validity. The relationships between SGLCR scores and participants sex, religiosity,

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political ideology, gender role beliefs, and attitudes toward lesbians and gays were significant
and in the predicted directions.
0401. Bulanda, J. R. GENDER, MARITAL POWER, AND MARITAL QUALITY IN
LATER LIFE. Journal of Women and Aging. 2011, 23:322.
This study uses data from the 1992 Health and Retirement Study to examine gender differences in marital power and marital quality among older adults and to assess whether there are
gender differences in the correlates of marital quality and marital power in later life. Results
show that women report lower marital happiness, marital interaction, and marital power than do
men, on average. These differences persist even after controlling for a number of life-course
events and transitions. Further, results showthat gender differences are also evident in the relationship of employment, childrearing, caregiving, and health factors with marital quality and power.
0402. Chandler, D. R. PROACTIVELY ADDRESSING THE SHORTAGE OF BLACKS
IN PSYCHOLOGY: HIGHLIGHTING THE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY SUBFIELD. Journal
of Black Psychology. 2011, 37(1):99127.
To circumvent the disproportionately low number of persons of African descent in psychology, this study offers strategies for recruiting and retaining Black students and professionals.
Data for this study were collected from 44 Black students and 3 Black faculty. Participants
responded to questions that inquired about their perspectives regarding (a) effective recruitment and retention strategies, (b) being the vast minority in school/work settings, and (c)
counselor race-ethnicity. Data were analyzed using the grounded theory constant comparative
analysis approach.This study contributes to all psychology fields in at least two ways: first in
its presentation of innovative strategies that have the potential to enhance racial-ethnic diversity in psychology and second in its presentation of insights that may improve the mental and
behavioral health services provided to diverse people.While the need for greater diversity is
highlighted for the school psychology subfield, it is noted that psychology in general is in need.
Additionally, though the study pays greater attention to student concerns, all the findings also
factor into postgraduate life. Recommendations for future research are offered.
0403. Cleaveland, C. THE MEXICANS AND US GRINGOS: A CASE STUDY OF
ACTIVIST WORK WITH UNAUTHORIZED MIGRANTS. Journal of Human Behavior in
the Social Environment. 2010, 20:637657.
Lacking access to social services, unauthorized Mexican day laborers constitute a vulnerable population. This case study uses a critical theory perspective to examine activist efforts to
support migrants when professional social workers were unavailable. Using qualitative methods, this study sought to answer three questions: (1) What strategies did unauthorized day
laborers and activists deploy to contest anti-immigrant sentiments in a suburban community;
(2) how were these strategies shaped by the workers subterranean status as undocumented and
poor; and (3) what are the implications for social work practice? This study seeks to delineate
interventions and to identify how migrants themselves perceive such efforts.
0404. Coram, S. OFFICIAL DISCOURSES OF RACE AND RACISM: INCLUSION,
INTENT AND INVERSION MEDIATED WITHIN JOURNALISTIC COMMUNIQUS
VIS-A!-VIS THE AUSTRALIAN INDIGENOUS ATHLETE. Social Identities. 2011, 17(2):
169184.
In May 2008, I wrote to the editor of a Melbourne newspaper pointing out that an article discussing differences between two superstars of the Australian Football League (AFL), one
white (team oriented) and the other black (self-oriented), conformed to racial dualism of intellect and instinct. My inquiry regarding the rejection of my letter began a process of
correspondence which was instructive for unearthing a philosophy of racism defined by intent to be racist. This article presents a case study of editorial correspondence to argue the
inverting of race and racism. Racial difference now marks equality not inequality. The author
draws on critical race theory to claim that racial hierarchies embedded within celebratory

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discourses of inclusion, in response to journalistic deference of objectivity, mark the changing


significance of race and racism.
0405. Cox, N. et al. STRESS-RELATED GROWTH, COMING OUT, AND INTERNALIZED HOMONEGATIVITY IN LESBIAN, GAY, AND BISEXUAL YOUTH. AN
EXAMINATION OF STRESS-RELATED GROWTH WITHIN THE MINORITY STRESS
MODEL. Journal of Homosexuality. 2011, 58:117137.
This study investigates how young lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals deal with
coming out and how perceived personal growth may result from that experience. We considered stress-related growth as a mediator between coming-out experiences and internalized
homonegativity (IH). Our sample was taken from an online survey and is comprised of 502
LGBs aged 1430. The social environments acceptance of an individuals sexual orientation
and the individuals social identification influence stress-related growth.
0406. Das, R. COLONIAL LEGACIES, POST-COLONIAL (IN)SECURITIES, AND
GENDER(ED) REPRESENTATIONS IN SOUTH ASIAS NUCLEAR POLICIES. Social
Identities. 2010, 16(6):717740.
Through a comparative study of India and Pakistans national security discourses, this article explores the linkages between post-colonial India and Pakistans nationalist/communalist
identities, configurations of masculinities, and gendered representations underpinning their
nuclear (in)securities. This paper contends that the colonial politics of place-making in the
sub-continent has not only inscribed a process of othering between these states but has also
facilitated the rise of divergent visions of post-colonial nationalisms, which, at each of their
phases and with particular configurations of masculinities, have used womens bodies to remap India-Pakistans borders and national (in)securities. This article particularly draws attention to a new form of gendered manipulation in South Asian politics in the late 1990s, whereby
both states, embedded in colonial notions of religious/cultural masculinities, have relied on discourses of Hindu/Indian and Muslim/Pakistani womens violence and protection from the
other to pursue aggressive policies of nuclearization. It is at this conjectural moment of a
Hinduicized and Islamicized nationalism (flamed by the contestations of a Hindu versus an
Islamic masculinity) that one needs to provide a feminist re-interpretation of India-Pakistans
nationalist identities, gendered imaginaries, and their rearticulation of national (in)securities
that represents a religious/gendered otherness in South Asias nuclear policies.
0407. Downe, P. J. FEMINIST ANTHROPOLOGY ANEW: MOTHERHOOD AND HIV/
AIDS AS SITES OF ACTION. Anthropology in Action. 2011, 18(1):515.
Ongoing discussions about feminist anthropology as an active and relevant sub-discipline
largely rely on historical comparisons that pit the political fervour of the past against what is
deemed to be the less defined and increasingly disengaged feminist anthropology of today. In
this paper, I argue that the prevailing tone of pessimism surrounding feminist anthropology
should be met with a critical response that: (1) situates the current characterization of the subdiscipline within broader debates between second- and third-wave feminism; and (2) considers
the ways in which the supposed incongruity between theories of deconstruction and political
engagement undermines the sub-disciplines strengths. Throughout this discussion, I consider
what an ethnographic study of motherhood in the context of HIV/AIDS can offer as we take
stock of feminist anthropologys current potential and future possibility.
0408. Drezgi, R. RELIGION, POLITICS AND GENDER IN THE CONTEXT OF
NATION-STATE FORMATION: THE CASE OF SERBIA. Third World Quarterly. 2010,
31(6):955970.
This article argues that nationalism has connected religion with secular politics in Serbia
but that their rapprochement has been a gradual process. In order to demonstrate the transition from a limited influence of religion on politics to a much tighter relationship between the
two, this article discusses the abortion legislation reform and the introduction of religious

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education in public schools, respectively. It argues that, while illustrative of different types
of connection between religion and politics, these two issues had similar implications for
gender equalitythey produced discourses that recreated and justified patriarchal social
norms. After religion gained access to public institutions, its (patriarchal) discourses on
gender were considerably empowered. The article points to some tangible evidence of a
re-traditionalisation and re-patriarchalisation of gender roles within the domestic realm in
Serbia.
0409. Drucker, D. J. MALE SEXUALITY AND ALFRED KINSEYS 06 SCALE:
TOWARD A SOUND UNDERSTANDING OF THE REALITIES OF SEX. Journal of
Homosexuality. 2010, 57:11051123.
Using a 06 scale, Alfred Kinsey demonstrated that the complexity of human sexuality could
best he represented on a continuum rather than as a binary. Kinsey developed the scale from
models created by his predecessors in human sex research. A primary intention of the scale was
to eradicate sexual identity categories altogether in order to eliminate sexual identity-based
persecutions and to promote equal rights. As proponents and opponents of homosexual rights
both depended on constructions of sexual identity to advance their agendas, Kinseys ideal was
never realized. The scale nonetheless continues to challenge postmodern associations of
identity and sexuality.
0410. Eldridge, J. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OLD-FASHIONED AND
MODERN HETEROSEXISM TO SOCIAL DOMINANCE ORIENTATION AND STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE. Journal of Homosexuality. 2011, 58:382401.
This study proposes that broader social systemic factors could have a role in the perpetuation
of two types of heterosexism. Old-fashioned and modern heterosexism are discussed and differentiated. The roles of social dominance orientation and the acceptance of structural violence in
the maintenance of heterosexism are explored. Results indicated that social dominance orientation and the acceptance of structural violence predicted the level of old-fashioned and modern
heterosexism in a sample of 129 people. Acceptance of structural violence better predicted both
modern and old-fashioned heterosexism than did social dominance orientation. Such relationships highlight the possibility that social systemic beliefs may create and support heterosexism.
0411. Ely, G. E., and Dulmus, C. N. ABORTION POLICY AND VULNERABLE
WOMEN IN THE UNITED STATES: A CALL FOR SOCIAL WORK POLICY PRACTICE.
Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment. 2010, 20:658671.
Repressive abortion policy in the United States creates undue burdens for groups of vulnerable
women, including adolescents, women of color, women living in rural areas, and women with
economic disadvantages. Repressive abortion policy creates a two-tiered system of access to
reproductive health care that is a particular disadvantage to vulnerable women. In this study, current policy is discussed with examples of such policies outlined in three areas: insurance
coverage and Medicaid restrictions, mandatory waiting periods, and mandated state counseling.
Social workers role in policy practice is emphasized in regard to advocacy and abortion policy.
0412. Ephrem, B., and White, A. M. AGENCY AND EXPRESSION DESPITE REPRESSION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FIVE ETHIOPIAN LESBIANS. Journal of Lesbian
Studies. 2011, 15:226246.
Same-sex sexual practices are illegal in Ethiopia; consequently, little is known about
Ethiopian lesbians. We explored the lives of five Ethiopian lesbians in order to understand
their sexuality from their perspectives. We were particularly interested in how they perceived their sexual identities and practices, the obstacles they faced, and how they coped
with such obstacles. Three major themes emerged from their responses to a semi-structured
questionnaire, which we analyze from radical, African feminist perspectives. First, these
women consistently described the negative impact of Ethiopian laws on their lives. Second,
all testified to experiences of sexual agency, despite repression. Finally, their responses

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revealed considerable diversity and fluidity regarding sexual desire, attraction, and sexual
behavior, demonstrating the complexities of lesbian sexuality. We conclude with recommendations for future research and lesbian activism.
0413. Esmail, A. NEGOTIATING FAIRNESS: A STUDY ON HOW LESBIAN
FAMILY MEMBERS EVALUATE, CONSTRUCT, AND MAINTAIN FAIRNESS WITH
THE DIVISION OF HOUSEHOLD LABOR. Journal of Homosexuality. 2010, 57:591609.
In this article, I examine how dual-earner lesbian families construct and evaluate an equal
division of household labor through their perceptions of fairness. Through 22 interviews
of dual-earner lesbian families (a total of 44 subjects), I identify that lesbian partners use social
comparisons with heterosexual families with whom they have contact, as well as their former
heterosexual and homosexual families as an important link to justify what they believe to be a
fair division of household labor. Childhood socialization and parental models, however, were
not shown to adequately explain how members of a lesbian family construct a perception of
equality concerning household division of labor.
0414. Espinosa, L. S. et al. RISK-TAKING BEHAVIORS OF GAY AND BISEXUAL
MEN IN NEW YORK CITY POST 9/11. Journal of Homosexuality. 2010, 57:862877.
Until now, the reactions of gay and bisexual populations have been largely overlooked in
response to terror and disaster. This study assesses risk-taking behaviors in gay and bisexual
men two weeks before and after the 9/11 attacks in Manhattan. For the purposes of this study,
risk-taking behaviors include drug use and unprotected anal sex. These behaviors and associated desires were examined in relation to race/ethnicity, age, geographic location, and HIV
status, within and across time. The results of this study demonstrate that HIV status may be a
pivotal demographic feature in understanding risk-taking behaviors post disaster. No changes
in drug use were reported pre and post 9/11. However, there was an increase in risky sexual
behaviors in relation to serostatus, with HIV-positive men reporting a higher number of sexual
partners post 9/11. In contrast, the number of sexual partners remained constant in HIV-negative
men. There was also an interaction effect, demonstrating that HIV-positive men were more likely
than HW-negative men to act on their desire for sex. Thus, as a population already faced with the
prospect of death, HIV-positive men may be a population more vulnerable in the face of terror
and disaster.
0415. Evans, L. K. BECAUSE WE DONT TAKE BETTER CARE OF OURSELVES:
RURAL BLACK WOMENS EXPLANATORY MODELS OF HEART DISEASE. Journal of
Women and Aging. 2010, 22:94108.
Among women aged 4554, Black women are 2.5 to 3 times more likely than White women
to die from coronary heart disease (CHD) and less likely to exercise. This study explored Black
womens beliefs about the causes and risks of heart disease. Convenience sampling was used to
recruit 20 Black women aged 4058 years with at least one risk factor for CHD. Participants
identified 11 causes of heart disease within three factors: Lifestyle, Physiologic Causes, and
Going to Get It.The findings provide a focus for educational interventions to decrease risk for
CHD in this population.
0416. Ewing, K. P. NAMING OUR SEXUALITIES: SECULAR CONSTRAINTS,
MUSLIM FREEDOMS. FocaalJournal of Global and Historical Anthropology. 2011, 59:
8998.
Terms of a Western discourse of homosexuality shape conflicts surrounding sexual identity
that are faced by many Muslims, especially those who live in diasporic communities. Many use
essentialized categories to articulate their sexual orientations and express incommensurabilities
between their sexuality and their identities as Muslims. This article argues that discursive constructions of the Muslim as traditional other to the secular sexual subject of a modern democracy
generate an uninhabitable subject position that sharply dichotomizes sexual orientations and
Muslim family/religious orientations, a dichotomization that is reinforced by well-publicized

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backlashes against open homosexuality in several Muslim countries. Yet observations made
during ethnographic field research in Pakistan, as well as scholarly evidence from other Muslim
countries, suggest that many Muslims are less troubled by sex and desire in all their possible
forms than they are by the peculiar modern practice of naming our sexualities as the basis for
secular public identities.
0417. Ferguson, M. WAS ABRAHAM LINCOLN GAY? Journal of Homosexuality.
2010, 57:11241157.
Scholars and historians are blind to Lincolns same-sex inclinations in part because of a personal
aversion to male homosexuality, but more importantly because they fail to perceive the vast differences between the sexual culture of antebellum America and that of our own time, especially in
regard to male-male physical and emotional intimacy. This article brings those differences to light
and sets Lincolns life in the context of the sexual culture of his own time. This enables one to see
that Lincoln s same-sex sexuality was not only unproblematic, but commonplace, if not typical, in
his day. Revising the Myth of Lincoln in regard to his same-sex inclinations will have a positive
effect on contemporary culture, especially on the education and socialization of young boys.
0418. Fetherman, D. L. et al. A PILOT STUDY OF THE APPLICATION OF THE
TRANSTHEORETICAL MODEL DURING STRENGTH TRAINING IN OLDER WOMEN.
Journal of Women and Aging. 2011, 23:5876.
A Transtheoretical Model (TTM) goal-setting tool was used during strength training in
women. Volunteers (mean age = 69, N = 27) were assigned to a strength training only or
strength training/behavior change 12-week intervention. A pre/posttest, quasiexperimental
design assessed TTM constructs, Health-Related Quality of Life, and functional fitness measurements. Multiple ANCOVAs revealed significant differences between groups on lower
body strength (p = .001), upper body flexibility (p = .002), Decisional Balance (p = .024,) and
Stage of Change for Exercise (p = .010). Stage of change progression may be enhanced using a
goal-setting tool during strength training in older women.
0419. Fine, L. E. MINIMIZING HETEROSEXISM AND HOMOPHOBIA: CONSTRUCTING MEANING OF OUT CAMPUS LGB LIFE. Journal of Homosexuality. 2011,
58:521546.
This work investigates how American college students make meaning of the heterosexism and
homophobia they encounter in their daily lives. Through interviews and a focus group with 23 out
lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students, analysis yielded four themes: the overwhelming
majority of students minimized incidences of heterosexism and homophobia; there was a desire on
the part of many respondents to develop an identity apart from, rather than integrated with, sexual
identity; the campus climate was generally portrayed as positive; and some participants expressed
resistance, suggesting that heterosexism and homophobia can be countered.
0420. Frieze, I. H. et al. WORKING BEYOND 65: PREDICTORS OF LATE RETIREMENT FOR WOMEN AND MEN MBAS. Journal of Women and Aaging. 2011, 23:4057.
Comparisons of those who planned to continue working after the age of 65 with those who
did not were made for 145 women and 414 men working in managerial fields. All received
MBA degrees between the years of 1973 and 1982. About 20% definitely wanted to work after
age 65. More positive views of work were predictive of wanting to continue working as was
having nontraditional gender-role attitudes. Men who planned to continue working were particularly likely to have a spouse wanting to work past the age of 65. Several other factors
appeared to operate differently for women and men.
0421. Furner, S. E. et al. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SELF-REPORTED
HEALTH: A TWIN STUDY OF OLDER AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN. Journal of
Women and Aging. 2010, 22:8393.
This study examined risk factors associated with self-reported health (SRH) in a genetically
informative sample of older African American female twins. An interview was conducted with

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 113

a national sample of 180 African American female twin pairs. Questions included: SRH, demographics, health behaviors, chronic diseases, and functional status. SRH was dichotomized into
negative (fair/poor) and positive (good/very good/excellent). Logistic regression for clustered
data was used to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. In multivariate analyses, IADL limitations (OR = 15, 95% CI = 1.72.0) and a chronic disease index (OR = 1.9, 95%
CI = 1.42.5) were associated with negative SRH. In multivariate within-twin pair analysis,
controlling for genetics/shared familial environment, LADLs (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.12.7),
and increasing numbers of chronic diseases (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.33.2) remained
significantly associated with negative SRH.
0422. George, G. ENGAGING WITH AN INVISIBLE POLITICS: GENDER
MAINSTREAMING AS A PRACTICE IN NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR.
Anthropology in Action, 2011, 18(1):4255.
This article examines the way feminists engage with gender mainstreaming in their attempt
to transform gender inequalities in Newfoundland and Labrador, a province on Canadas east
coast. It employs an anthropological perspective to explore one aspect of gender mainstreaming, namely the way gender analysis models are deployed in specific encounters, to
consider how such equality templates can both reproduce and challenge pre-existing social
relations. I argue that a feminist practice approach in anthropology, in particular its reflexive
and practice orientation, can fore-ground the way gender models are actually implemented and
interpreted. Through this analysis I argue that gender mainstreaming at this point reproduces
wider relations of powergovernmental and normativeand cannot yet accommodate
preexisting social cleavages in the province.
0423. Gilford, T. T., and Reynolds, A. MY MOTHERS KEEPER: THE EFFECTS OF
PARENTIFICATION ON BLACK FEMALE COLLEGE STUDENTS. Journal of Black Psychology. 2011, 37(1):5577.
This qualitative study examined the parentification of eight Black American college females
and its impact on their college experiences. Two 90-minute focus groups were conducted in
order to gain insight about how these women overcame personal and family challenges while
being away from their families of origin. Results highlight the push-pull factors experienced by
the participants from both school and their family of origin and how they dealt with barriers to
successful college completion.
0424. Gill, D. L. et al. PERCEIVED CLIMATE IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY SETTINGS.
Journal of Homosexuality. 2010, 57:895913.
This study focused on the perceived climate for LGBT youth and other minority groups in
physical activity settings. A large sample of undergraduates and a selected sample including
student teachers/interns and a campus Pride group completed a school climate survey and rated
the climate in three physical activity settings physical education, organized sport, exercise).
Overall, school climate survey results paralleled the results with national samples revealing
high levels of homophobic remarks and low levels of intervention. Physical activity climate
ratings were mid-range, but Multivariate analysis of variation test (MANOVA) revealed clear
differences with all settings rated more inclusive for racial/ethnic minorities and most exclusive for gays/lesbians and people with disabilities.
0425. Gomillion, S. C., and Giuliano, T. A. THE INFLUENCE OF MEDIA ROLE
MODELS ON GAY, LESBIAN, AND BISEXUAL IDENTITY. Journal of Homosexuality.
2011, 58:330354.
The current investigation examined the influence of the media on gay, lesbian, and bisexual
(GIB) identity using both survey and in-depth interview approaches. In Study 1, 126 GIB
survey respondents (11 unreported) in Texas indicated that the media influenced their selfrealization, coming out, and current identities by providing role models and inspiration. In
Study 2, 15 interviewees (6 women and 9 men) revealed that media role models serve as

114 / ABSTRACTS IN ANTHROPOLOGY, Vol. 68(1), 2014

sources of pride, inspiration, and comfort. Our findings suggest that increasing the availability
of GIB role models in the media may positively influence GIB identity.
0426. Gonsoulin, M. E. LIBERATED AND INCLUSIVE? AN ANALYSIS OF SELFREPRESENTATION IN A POPULAR LESBIAN MAGAZINE. Journal of Homosexuality. 2010, 57:11581173.
Comparisons of a popular lesbian lifestyle magazine to a popular heterosexual womens
magazine show that lesbian-controlled media do indeed expand representation when it comes
to weight, age, and degree of femininity/masculinity, but not in terms of racial representation.
An examination of the textual material and visual images also shows that the lesbian publication gives women a more active role, while the heterosexual magazine depicts females as
more passive. However, the evidence also shows that the lesbian and heterosexual magazines
have similar rates of objectification, but substantively, the lesbian magazine is less severe in
degree of objectification.
0427. Gonzales, E. et al. CHANGING MEDICAL STUDENTS ATTITUDES TOWARD
OLDER ADULTS. Gerontology and Geriatrics Education. 2010, 31:220234.
Given the growth in the number of older adults and the ageist attitudes many in the health
care profession hold, interventions aimed at improving health professionals attitudes toward
older adults are imperative. Vital Visionaries is an intergenerational art program designed to
improve medical students attitudes toward older adults. Participants met for four 2-hour sessions at local art museums to create and discuss art. Three hundred and twenty-eight
individuals (112 treatment group, 96 comparison, 120 older adults) in eight cities participated
in the program and evaluation. Participants completed pre-and postsurveys that captured their
attitude toward older adults, perception of commonality with older adults, and career plans.
Findings suggest that medical students attitudes toward old adults were positive at pretest.
0428. Green, M. S. et al. MARRIAGE AND FAMILY THERAPISTS COMFORT
WORKING WITH LESBIAN AND GAY MALE CLIENTS: THE INFLUENCE OF RELIGIOUS PRACTICES AND SUPPORT FOR LESBIAN AND GAY MALE HUMAN
RIGHTS. Journal of Homosexuality. 2010, 57:12581273.
The purpose of this study was to explore potential influences on marriage and family therapists comfort level when working with lesbian and gay male clients, including sex, age, race,
sexual orientation, political orientation, religious practices of the therapist, as well as the level
of support for lesbian and gay male human rights. Participants in this study were 199 experienced therapists. Results indicated that higher levels of religious practices were related to
lower levels of support for lesbian and gay male human rights and to lower levels of comfort
working with lesbian and gay male clients. When support for lesbian and gay male human
rights was considered, the level of religious practices was no longer predictive of comfort
working with lesbian and gay male clients.
0429. Greer, T. M. COPING STRATEGIES AS MODERATORS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RACE-AND GENDER-BASED DISCRIMINATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN. Journal of Black Psychology. 2011, 37(1):4254.
The present study tested the moderating effect of culture-specific coping strategies to understand the relationships between race- and gender-based discrimination and psychological
symptoms for African American women. Previous literature suggests that African American
women experience adverse psychological outcomes related to race and gender discrimination.
Therefore, it was hypothesized that coping strategies would influence the severity of discrimination-related psychological consequences, such that frequent use of coping efforts would be
related to less severe psychological symptoms. Moderated structural equation modeling was
used to test the study hypothesis. Results revealed that race and gender discrimination were
associated with increased psychological symptoms.

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0430. Grigoriadis, I. N. REDEFINING THE NATION: SHIFTING BOUNDARIES OF


THE OTHER IN GREECE AND TURKEY. Middle Eastern Studies. 2011, 47(1):167182.
The emergence of Greek and Turkish nationalisms, key events in the decline of the
Ottoman Empire, was conditioned by a set of divergent historical and political circumstances. Greek nationalism wasin its early stagesa primarily diaspora movement and an
effect of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution. It aimed at spreading the ideals which
had gained so much appeal among Europes progressive circles, liberate and simultaneously
define the Greek nation. Turkish nationalism was born during the nineteenth century, as
the consecutive territorial losses of the Ottoman Empire and a creeping zeitgeist change
made clear to a part of Ottoman Turkish elite that the survival of the Empire as a multiethnic
state was highly questionable and a Turkish nation-state had to be carved out of it. Membership of both nations varied over time as criteria for defining who is a Greek and who is a Turk
changed.
0431. Halperin-Kaddari, R., and Yadgar, Y. BETWEEN UNIVERSAL FEMINISM AND
PARTICULAR NATIONALISM: POLITICS, RELIGION AND GENDER (IN)EQUALITY
IN ISRAEL. Third World Quarterly. 2010, 31(6):905920.
This article argues that one of the many idiosyncrasies of the Israeli case, namely Israels
continuing, violent conflict with its Arab neighbours, is of highly influential relevance to the
issue of gender relations. Viewed by many Israeli Jews as a struggle for the very existence of
the Jewish state, the ArabIsraeli conflict has overshadowed most other civil and social issues,
rendering them secondary to the primary concern of securing the safe existence of the state.
This has pushed such pressing issues as gender equality and womens rights aside, thus allowing for the perpetuation of discriminatory, sometimes rather repressive treatment of women in
Israel. The most blatant expression of this is the turning of the struggle for civil marriage and
divorce into a non-issue. Following a short introduction of the relevant political context,
we discuss womens positivist and legal status, then conclude with an analysis of the womens
movement, highlighting the emergence of religious feminism.
0432. Hansen, J. E., and Lambert, S. M. et al. GRIEF AND LOSS OF RELIGION: THE
EXPERIENCES OF FOUR RURAL LESBIANS. Journal of Lesbian Studies. 2011, 15:
187196.
The purpose of this four-person study was to discover the grief and loss experiences of rural
lesbians using a phenomenological approach. A prominent theme that emerged from the interview data was grief and loss related to religion and a lesbian identity. Participants identified the
need to modify their beliefs, the experience of rejection by church members or the church itself
and seeking acceptance.
0433. Hanssen, J. MALHAMI-MALFAMI: LEVANTINE ELITES AND TRANSIMPERIAL NETWORKS ON THE EVE OF THE YOUNG TURK REVOLUTION. 2011, 43:
2548.
This article examines the rise and fall of the MalhamJ family at the court of Abdhlhamit II.
The point of departure is the flight and arrest of six MalhamJ brothers and the accompanying
outbursts of popular anger at them during the Young Turk Revolution of 1908. The analysis
locates the historical conditions that made the MalhamJ phenomenon possible in the interstices
between Levantine society, late Ottoman bureaucracy, and European diplomacy and capitalist
expansion. In order to bring into conversation the hitherto unconnected literatures on the
Levant and the Ottoman state, the MalhamJ story is framed in the analytical concept of
transimperialism. This concept shares affinities with wider transnational studies. But it is also
grounded in the specific political, economic, and social processes of the Levantboth within
the Ottoman Empire and among it and its British, French, German, and Italian imperial rivals at
the height of the Eastern Question.

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0434. Hastings, S. L., and Hoover-Thompson, A. EFFECTIVE SUPPORT FOR LESBIANS IN RURAL COMMUNITIES: THE ROLE OF PSYCHOTHERAPY. Journal of Lesbian
Studies. 2011, 15:197204.
Most research involving lesbians has been conducted using urban or suburban samples.
However, the challenges lesbians face in their rural communities differ from those encountered
by lesbians in urban areas. Lesbians in rural areas face potential isolation due to the lack of a
visible gay community, an overall lack of services and resources, and an often heightened
experience of stigma. Rural areas tend to have a more conservative political climate with an
emphasis on fundamentalist religious beliefs. Due to such strong heteronormist pressures, lesbians who decide to come out to their rural communities often face justifiable fears surrounding
possible discrimination from employers, religious organizations, schools, and even their
friends and family members. Therapists who work with lesbians in rural areas should be prepared to help their clients face and successfully deal with many unique challenges.
0435. Herrick, R. LEGISLATORS POSITIONS ON GAY AND LESBIAN RIGHTS: THE
PERSONAL AND POLITICAL. Journal of Homosexuality. 2010, 57:928943.
This article examines state legislatorspublic position on gay and lesbian rights by using
responses to survey data on their positions toward civil unions and inclusion of sexual orientation in anti-jobdiscrimination laws. The research finds that although state legislators are mixed
on their positions, they are less supportive of gay and lesbian rights than is the general public. It
also finds that their Public positions are a product of both their personal beliefs and values as
well as their political calculations. The implications of these findings are explored.
0436. Hilton-Morrow, W., and Battles, K. BETWEEN A ROCK AND A SLIPPERY
SLOPE: NEGOTIATING THE INTERSECTIONS OF RELIGION AND SEXUALITY ON
NETWORK TELEVISIONS THE BOOK OF DANIEL. Journal of Homosexuality. 2011, 58:
355381.
This article analyzes the television series The Book of Daniel, a program that shows in full
relief the ways that current discourses of religion and sexuality converge to produce a particular type of gay subject. This subject, primarily male, might be understood as bound through
an innate identity and commitment to the sanctity and reproduction of heteronormative
institutions such as the church and state, which renders him assimilable into the social
order. As homosexuality, per se, is no longer outside the normative order, the program
constructs an unstable, nonbinary, and nonheteronormative other who is best understood as
queer.
0437. Holtslander, L., and Duggleby, W. THE PSYCHOSOCIAL CONTEXT OF
BEREAVEMENT FOR OLDER WOMEN WHO WERE CAREGIVERS FOR A SPOUSE
WITH ADVANCED CANCER. Journal of Women and Aging. 2010, 22:109124.
The psychosocial context of bereavement for older women who were caregivers for a spouse
with advanced cancer was explored qualitatively with 13 older women. Interviews and diaries
were analyzed using constant comparison. The psychosocial context emerged as the
intrapersonal: exhaustion, loneliness, pain, and recovering physical health; the interpersonal:
finding a new way through both supportive and difficult relationships; and the community/societal: a loss of identity, pressure to move on, financial concerns, and relying on formal supports.
The psychosocial context of bereavement for older women who were caregivers is uniquely
challenging and must be considered when providing care and programs of support.
0438. Hoodfar, H., and Sadr, S. ISLAMIC POLITICS AND WOMENS QUEST FOR
GENDER EQUALITY IN IRAN. Third World Quarterly. 2010, 31(6):885903.
The unification of a strong and authoritarian state with religious laws and institutions
after the 1979 revolution in Iran has resulted in the creation of a dualistic state structure in
which non-elected and non-accountable state authorities and institutionsthe majority of
whom have not accepted either the primacy of democracy nor the premise of equality

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 117

between men and women (or Muslims and non-Muslims)are able to oversee the elected
authorities and institutions. The central question posed by this paper is whether a religious
state would be capable of democratising society and delivering gender equality. By analysing the regimes gender policies and political development, the paper suggests that, at least
in the case of Iran and Shiism, the larger obstacle to gender (and minorities) equality has
more to do with the undemocratic state-society relations that persist in Iran and less to do
with the actual or potential compatibility (or lack thereof) of religious traditions or practices with democratic principles.
0439. Hudepohl, A. D. et al. HETEROSEXUAL MENS ANGER RESPONSE TO MALE
HOMOSEXUALITY: EFFECTS OF EROTIC AND NON-EROTIC DEPICTIONS OF
MALE-MALE INTIMACY AND SEXUAL PREJUDICE. Journal of Homosexuality. 2010,
57:10221038.
The present study compared effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy on the experience of anger in heterosexual men. Data came from three independent
laboratory studies designed to elicit anger in response to erotic or non-erotic depictions of
male-male and male-female intimacy. All participants completed a measure of sexual prejudice and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic or non-erotic video. Among
high-prejudiced men, viewing erotic and non-erotic intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a malefemale dyad. In contrast, among low-prejudiced men, viewing erotic, but not non-erotic, intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing
comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. Implications for understanding heterosexual mens anger, and aggression, toward gay men were discussed.
0440. Hunter, C. D., and Joseph, N. RACIAL GROUP IDENTIFICATION AND ITS RELATIONS TO INDIVIDUALISM/INTERDEPENDENCE AND RACE-RELATED STRESS IN
AFRICAN AMERICANS. Journal of Black Psychology. 2010, 36(4):483511.
This study examined individualistic and interdependent notions of self and race-related
stress across racial group identification profiles extracted from cluster analyses. African
American college students were recruited from an introductory psychology course and were
asked to complete several self-report measures. Using k-means cluster analysis, four group
identification profiles emerged.The results suggest that cluster profiles marked by an ingroup focus on race (Internalization profile) were more likely to endorse individualistic and
interdependent values than cluster profiles that emphasize commonality among in-group and
out-group members (Universalist profile) or an Undifferentiated profile. The fourth cluster
(Multicultural profile), marked by strong endorsement of oppressed ideologies as an essential feature of group identification, endorsed collectivistic values, but no individualistic
values.
0441. Jacobs, R. J., and Kane, M. N. PSYCHOSOCIAL PREDICTORS OF SELFESTEEM IN A MULTIETHNIC SAMPLE OF WOMEN OVER 50 AT RISK FOR HIV.
Journal of Women and Aging. 2011, 23:2339.
Self-esteem is linked to high-risk behaviors in other populations but has not been examined
in women aged 50 and older. This study explored how self-esteem is related to variables that
can influence high-risk sexual behaviors in women over 50. A multiethnic community-based
sample of 572 women aged 50 and older completed an anonymous questionnaire on sexual
behaviors, sociodemographic characteristics, and psychosocial measures relevant to midlife
and older women. Regression analysis showed sensation-seeking, HIV stigma, sexual assertiveness, and self-silencing predicted self-esteem in women over 50 (F= 43.632, p < .001).
Factors such as relational context, interpersonal power, and silencing can affect self-esteem
and may be contributing to HIV risk in this group.

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0442. Jaspal, R., and Yampolsky, M. A. SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS OF THE HOLOCAUST AND JEWISH ISRAELI IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION: INSIGHTS FROM
IDENTITY PROCESS THEORY. Social Identities. 2011, 17(2):201224.
This study explores how a group of young Israeli Jews understood and defined their ethnonational identities, focusing upon the role of social representations of the Holocaust in the construction of Jewish Israeli identity. Eleven individuals were interviewed using a semistructured interview schedule. Transcripts were subjected to interpretative phenomenological
analysis. The analysis was informed by identity process theory and social representations
theory. Three superordinate themes are reported, entitled: (i) perceptions of the Holocaust as a
personal and shared loss; (ii) re-conceptualising the Holocaust and its impact upon intra-/
intergroup relations; and (iii) the Holocaust as a heuristic lens for understanding the IsraeliArab conflict. The data suggest that awareness of social representations of the Holocaust may
enhance the belonging and continuity principles of identity, in particular. It is argued that the
maintenance of national ingroup security constitutes a source of (group) continuity.
Implications for psychological well-being are discussed.
0443. Johnson, R. W. et al. JOB DEMANDS AND WORK ABILITY AT OLDER AGES.
Journal of Aging and Social Policy. 2011, 23:101118.
Workers ability to delay retirement depends partly on the demands of their jobs. Matching
occupational characteristics from the Occupational Information Network to Current Population Survey respondents, this study finds that 7% of American workers held highly
physically demanding jobs in 2006 and 35% held highly cognitively demanding jobs. The
share of the workforce in physically demanding jobs fell by about one-sixth between 1971
and 2006, while the share in cognitively demanding jobs increased by more than one-third.
The decline in physically demanding occupations will likely improve employment prospects
for older adults, but the growth in cognitive demands may limit options for some older
workers.
0444. Karafantis, D. M. et al. A COMPARISON OF THE MULTICULTURAL AND
COLORBLIND PERSPECTIVES ON THE INTERGROUP ATTITUDES OF COLLEGE
STUDENTS. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environmenl. 2010, 20:688710.
This investigation examined whether exposure to a multicultural or colorblind orientation
influenced social tolerance in racially diverse students. Students were randomly assigned to a
colorblind, multicultural, or control ideology. They completed group-specific measures and
general measures of diversity. Results indicate that successful anti-bias interventions require
focus on the particular level from which intergroup attitudes are being formed. Second, the
effectiveness of these opposing theories is a factor of the history of within group socialization
practices. Finally, widespread use of these prominent ideologies in different sectors of society
poses a threat to social tolerance in more diverse group settings.
0445. Keiller, S. W. ABSTRACT REASONING AS A PREDICTOR OF ATTITUDES
TOWARD GAY MEN. Journal of Homosexuality. 2010, 57:914927.
This study examined the hypothesis that participants scoring lowest on a measure of abstract
reasoning skills would have the highest levels of anti-gay prejudice. It was further hypothesized that abstract reasoning scores would account for variance in prejudice beyond that
accounted for by previously established correlates of attitudes toward gay men: sex of the
respondent (men being more prejudiced than women), contact with gay people (less contact
being associated with higher prejudice), and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA; positively
correlating with prejudice). It was also expected that abstract reasoning skills would be negatively correlated with RWA. The results supported each hypothesis. The predictor most
strongly related to anti-gay prejudice was RWA, followed by contact with gay people, abstract
reasoning skills, and sex of the respondent.

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0446. Kennedy, M. RURAL MEN, SEXUAL IDENTITY AND COMMUNITY. Journal


of Homosexuality. 2010, 57:10511091.
The relationship between rurality and mens sexuality remain relatively unexplored. This
study addresses the knowledge gap in the research literature by focusing on men who have sex
with men in rural areas across Ontario, Canada. Employing a constructivist grounded theory
methodology, interviews were conducted with 32 men across 28 geographic locales consisting
of populations of less than 10,000 people. Men identified as gay, bisexual, queer/bisexual, or
refused labels. These self-slected identifiers were then explored to determine how participants
conceptualized and organized their sexual identities in relation to context. Participants held
divergent management strategies that resulted in two general identity grouping: natives and
transplanters.
0447. Kozloski, M. J. HOMOSEXUAL MORAL ACCEPTANCE AND SOCIAL TOLERANCE: ARE THE EFFECTS OF EDUCATION CHANGING? Journal of Homosexuality.
2010, 57:13701383.
Using data from the General Social Survey, this research evaluates the effect of education on
both the moral acceptance and social tolerance of homosexuality in America and how that
effect has been changing. In terms of moral acceptance, it is shown through multivariate logistic regression that while education is associated with more liberal attitudes, it has not
significantly influenced trends. In the second part of the analysis, these results are compared to
a similar investigation of social tolerance. From this, it is seen that education has a stronger
connection with tolerance, but its effect has been decreasing over time.
0448. Ku, J. ETHNIC ACTIVISM AND MULTICULTURAL POLITICS IN IMMIGRANT SETTLEMENT IN TORONTO, CANADA. Social Identities. 2011, 17(2):271289.
Immigrant activists work within but challenge the discursive limits in the settlement sector
in Toronto, Canada. The establishment and institutionalization of settlement service results
from community based ethnic activists working with changing multicultural circumstances and
state policies that regulate immigrants. Consequently, immigrants have been able to obtain
resources from the state but must work within ethnicized politics where ethno-specificity, cultural sensitivity and the language of service delivery to visible minority immigrants are
important modes of dealing with differences, racial or otherwise. Manager-activists respond to
the changing discourse of ethno-specificity as the sector was restructured; they also have to
meet the discursive imperatives of the flexible and transcendental immigrant. This paper draws
from information gathered as a researcher and as a worker in this sector, from community
reports and documents, and from interviews with managers of settlement organizations who
also see themselves as activists.
0449. Kwate, N. O. A. et al. INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP RACISM AND PROBLEM
DRINKING AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN. Journal of Black Psychology. 2010,
36(4):446457.
This study investigated whether perceived individual and group racism were associated with
problematic drinking patterns among urban African American women. In this cross-sectional
survey, 139 African American women aged 21 to 49 years who consumed alcohol at least once
per month were recruited from and interviewed at varied community sites in Central Harlem,
New York City. Drinking patterns were assessed with the CAGE, a commonly used four-item
screening measure. Frequent heavy drinking was measured with a single item used in the Centers for Disease Control Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The results showed that,
controlling for household income and education level, individual racism was associated with
drinking patterns suggestive of alcohol dependence but not frequent heavy drinking. Group
racism was not associated with either outcome. The results replicate and extend findings in previous studies and contribute to building literature on the effects of racism on health-damaging
behaviors.

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0450. Lalich, J., and McLaren, K. INSIDE AND OUTCAST: MULTIFACETED


STIGMA AND REDEMPTION IN THE LIVES OF GAY AND LESBIAN JEHOVAHS
WITNESSES. Journal of Homosexuality. 2010, 57:13031333.
Homosexuality has become a divisive issue in many religions and congregations. Like many
other fundamentalist denominations, Jehovahs Witnesses condemns homosexual acts, thoughts,
and feelings. Consequently, gay and lesbian Witnesses experience not just stigmatization and
conflict between their sexual and religious identities in the social world, but also a nearly impossible task in their inner world. This inner task adds a new facet to our understanding of stigma.
This study explores the written narratives of a subset of gay and lesbian former Jehovahs Witnesses who were able to comprehend, negotiate, and, in most cases, resolve their multifaceted
stigmas and conflicts through struggle, self-determination, and eventually connecting with networks of peers who faced or are facing similar stigmas. This research contributes to other work
on the intersection of religion, family, and homosexuality; in particular, the findings have implications for the study of other strict fundamentalist religions.
0451. Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J. et al. SEXUAL ATTRACTION STATUS AND ADOLESCENT SUICIDE PRONENESS: THE ROLES OF HOPELESSNESS, DEPRESSION,
AND SOCIAL SUPPORT. Journal of Homosexuality. 2011, 58:5282.
This study explored the relationship between sexual attraction status (same-sex, both-sex, and
opposite-sex) and suicidal behavior in a diverse sample of adolescents (N = 1,533 youth). Adolescents with attractions to both sexes reported greater suicide proneness, recent and lifetime
suicidal ideation, and past suicide attempts than those with exclusively opposite-sex attractions;
individuals reporting same-sex attractions generally demonstrated moderate elevations on these
variables. As hypothesized, both hopelessness and depression mediated the relationship between
sexual attraction status and suicide proneness. Social support moderated the mediating effect of
depression but not hopelessness in the sexual attraction statussuicide proneness link. Targeting
the distress that can be associated with experiencing same-sex or both-sex attractions may
enhance suicide prevention efforts, particularly in U.S. youth with reduced social support.
0452. Lapinski, M. K. et al. THE DOWN LOW, SOCIAL STIGMA, AND RISKY
SEXUAL BEHAVIORS: INSIGHTS FROM AFRICAN-AMERICAN MEN WHO HAVE
SEX WITH MEN. Journal of Homosexuality. 2010, 57:610633.
The down low is purported to contribute to social stigma associated with being homosexual and may influence risk behaviors. This article examines communication patterns
among stigmatized groups and reports the findings from 32 structured interviews and five
focus groups with African-American men who have sex with men. Results indicate negative
emotions associated with labels based on sexual practices, the influential role of organized
religion in social stigma, and barriers to reaching stigmatized groups. These findings can be
used to build culturally appropriate sexual risk interventions for this population.
0453. Lasala, M. C., and Revere, E. J. IT WOULD HAVE BEEN IMPOSSIBLE
BEFORE: REFLECTIONS ON CURRENT GAY LIFE IN ESTONIA. Journal of Homosexuality. 2011, 58:427439.
Estonian gays and lesbians currently enjoy more freedom than ever before. However, they
still lack many basic legal protections as well an ongoing, organized political movement. The
findings of this small, exploratory study along with the personal experiences of the first author,
suggests how cultural factors like individualism, a strong preference for privacy, and distrust of
the government not only impede political action and community organization but also obstruct
empirical investigation.
0454. Levine-Rasky, C. INTERSECTIONALITY THEORY APPLIED TO WHITENESS
AND MIDDLE-CLASSNESS. Social Identities. 2011, 17(2):239253.
Despite the ubiquity of intersectionality in feminism, and allied methodologies, it is typically associated with the elaboration of oppression. A consideration of intersectionality theory

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 121

as applied to the other side of power relationsthat is to the intersections of whiteness and
middle-classness (and the complications arising from ethnicity)enables the exploration of
power in relation to the enduring inequities between groups. Dominant positionality is embedded in intersectionality theory in two ways: (1) as part of a complex, postmodern identity
formation in whicheven at the individual leveloppression co-exists alongside domination;
(2) in the emphasis on relationality in which oppression and domination are co-conditional.
Building on an essay by Floya Anthias, the intersections of whiteness and middle-classness are
further elaborated by showing that, along with ethnicity and gender, these positions (and
positionings) reinforce each other in some circumstances and contradict each other in different
circumstances. This inquiry introduces a complexity into intersectionality theory that enables a
truly relational approach to the analysis of power often neglected in writing on the topic.
0455. Lindsey, M. A. et al. FAMILY MATTERS: THE ROLE OF MENTAL HEALTH
STIGMA AND SOCIAL SUPPORT ON DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AND SUBSEQUENT
HELP SEEKING AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN BOYS. Journal of Black Psychology.
2010, 36(4):458482.
African American adolescent boys underutilize mental health service due to stigma associated
with depression. Gaining an increased understanding of how depressed, African American adolescent boys perceive their mental health needs and engage in help-seeking behaviors might play an
essential role in efforts to improve their symptoms and access to care. Using a mixed-methods
design, this study examined the influence of mental health stigma and social support on depressive
symptoms among African American adolescent boys. Findings indicated the protective effects of
social support in decreasing depressive symptoms, especially when participants experienced
mental health stigma. Results also revealed the pivotal role of family social support over both professional and peer support for participants who struggled with depressive symptoms.
0456. Manning, L. K. GENDER AND RELIGIOUS DIFFERENCES ASSOCIATED
WITH VOLUNTEERING IN LATER LIFE. Journal of Women and Aging. 2010, 22:125135.
The purpose of this study is to use a nationally representative sample of older adults in the
United States to investigate the effect gender and religiosity has on volunteer behavior in later
life. This study looks specifically at the gender and religious differences associated with volunteering in later life. Accounting for gender and religious differences, more specifically, this
study examines the assumption that older women are more likely to volunteer in later life as
opposed to men, and that gender is a better predictor than being religious for the likelihood of
occupying a volunteer role in later life. This study poses questions about the differences in
gender and religiosity associated with volunteering in later life; the results indicate there is
more work to be done as we conduct research that is clearer about how volunteerism and religiosity are measured in relation to gender, and the overall impact these differences have for older
women and their respective communities.
0457. Mayes, R., and Pini, B. THE FEMININE REVOLUTION IN MINING: A
CRITIQUE. Australian Geographer. 2010, 41(2):233245.
This paper presents an analysis of media reports of Australian women in mine management.
It argues that a dominant storyline in the texts is one of gender change; in fact, a feminine revolution is said to have occurred in the mining industry and corporate Australia more generally.
Despite this celebratory and transformative discourse the female mine managers interviewed in
the media texts seek to distance themselves from women/female identity/femininity and take
up a script of gender neutrality. It is demonstrated, however, that this script is saturated with the
assumptions and definitions of managerial masculinitv.
0458. McCallum, C., and McLaren, S. SENSE OF BELONGING AND DEPRESSIVE
SYMPTOMS AMONG GLB ADOLESCENTS. Journal of Homosexuality. 2011, 58:8396.
Research has indicated that gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) adolescents are at an increased
risk of mental health problems. Research has also indicated that experiencing a sense of

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belonging is important for ones mental health. This study investigated sense of belonging to the
general community and sense of belonging to a GLB specific youth group (Minus18) as predictors of depressive symptoms among self-identified GLB adolescents (N = 99). Participants
completed the Sense of Belonging Instrument and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression
Scale. Results showed that although sense of belonging to the general community and sense of
belonging to the Minus18 community were both directly related to depression, only sense of
belonging to the general community contributed significantly to the prediction of depression
when they were entered simultaneously in a regression analysis. Results also showed that sense
of belonging to the general community mediated the relation between sense of belonging to the
Minusl8 community and depression. These findings suggest that interventions aimed at increasing sense of belonging to a GLB-specific community are likely to be of indirect benefit to the
mental health of GLB adolescents, whereas interventions aimed at increasing sense of belonging
to the general community are likely to be of direct benefit to the mental health of GLB
adolescents.
0459. McMillian, M. M. et al. DO GENDER DIFFERENCES EXIST IN THE ACADEMIC IDENTIFICATION OF AFRICAN AMERICAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL-AGED
CHILDREN? Journal of Black Psychology. 2011, 37(1):7898.
The disidentification hypothesis predicts that African American boys achieve less in school
than African American girls do because boys have less personal investment in doing well academically (i.e., they are disidentified). When do such gender differences emerge? Using selfperception and achievement data from longitudinal studies of children (N = 113) at high risk for
academic problems because they come from low-income families, the authors examined
whether elementary schoolaged and early adolescent African American boys are more prone
to low achievement and disidentification than African American girls. Multiple regression
analyses indicated no gender differences in reading or mathematics achievement between
boys and girls at age 8 or at age 12. At age 12, African American boys self-esteem was predicted
by academic performance in ways similar to that of African American girls.
0460. Meaney, G. J., and Rye, B. J. GENDERED EGOS: ATTITUDE FUNCTIONS AND
GENDER AS PREDICTORS OF HOMONEGATIVITY. Journal of Homosexuality. 2010, 57:
12741302.
This study used a correlational design with a sample of university students to clarify the relationships between attitude functions and homonegativity with respect to gender. Classic work on
attitude functions posits that attitudes serve psychological needs forthe attitude holder. Herek
adapted this theory to explain attitudes toward homosexuality. Herek identified four functions:
ego-defensive (defense of threats to the self), value-expressive (expression of key values), socialexpressive (expression of important social norms), and experiential (based on past experiences).
Results suggested that men were more likely to attribute their attitudes to the ego-defensive function. Men and women were equally likely to attribute their attitudes to the experiential function.
The ego-defensive function was the best predictor of homonegativity for men and women, whether
they held generally positive or generally negative attitudes toward homosexuality. The experiential
function did not predict homonegativity. Participants tended to be neither very homonegative nor
very ego-defensive.
0461. MelJndez, E. et al VITO MARCANTONIO, PUERTO RICAN MIGRATION,
AND THE 1949 MAYORAL ELECTION IN NEW YORK CITY. CENTRO Journal. 2010,
22(2):198233.
This article examines the 1949 mayoral election in New York City, a crucial event in the
political incorporation of Puerto Ricans in the postwar period. In this election, Congressman
Vito Marcantonio ran for mayor under the American Labor Party. Marcantonio was the representative for East Harlem, the area known as El Barrio, the political center of the Puerto Rican
community in New York City at the time. In an unprecedented political move, the government
of Puerto Rico, headed by Governor Luis Muoz Marn of the Popular Democratic Party

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 123

(PPD), got involved in this election by campaigning against Marcantonio. This was the first
time that a governmental official of the island engaged in a political contest in the United
States. Given the amicable relationship between Marcantonio and the PPD until a few years
before, this maneuver may seem surprising. Although Puerto Rican independence was afactor
in explaining this rift, I argue here that the issues of Puerto Rican migration to New York City
and Marcantonios role in the Puerto Rican community were the principal causes for the PPDs
attack on Marcantonio.
0462. Miller, S. J. AFRICAN-AMERICAN LESBIAN IDENTITY MANAGEMENT AND
IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF FAMILY AND COMMUNITY. Journal
of Homosexuality. 2011, 58:547563.
Dont Ask, Dont Tell is gaining attention in family studies literature as a cultural specific context to understand lesbian, gay, and bisexual visibility in African-American
families and communities. This policy suggests that sexual minorities are accepted within
African-American families and communities as long as they do not label themselves or
acknowledge publicly that they engage in same-sex relationships. The narratives of two
African-American lesbians (aged 26 and 27 years) are chronicled in the present study to
reveal their lesbian identity development, lesbian identity management, and how they
defined and navigated Dont Ask, Dont Tell. They encountered challenges and successes
in a quest to find communities that would embrace and affirm their multiple marginalized
identities. Their stories are offered as a point of entry to further inquiry concerning AfricanAmerican lesbian visibility and identity proclamation within African-American families and
communities.
0463. Mitchell, J. ENGAGING FEMINIST ANTHROPOLOGY IN VANUATU: LOCAL
KNOWLEDGE AND UNIVERSAL CLAIMS. Anthropology in Action. 2011, 18(1):2941.
In Vanuatu, where the revival of kastom (custom) has been pivotal in defining postcolonial
identity, articulations of feminism(s) are often met with ambivalence. The tension between discourses of individual rights and collective obligations and the tension between universal ideas
of womens rights and local cultural practices such as kastom must be confronted. An engaged
feminist anthropology, I argue, resists singular accounts of modernity by locating local knowledge and kastomary practices within a larger context that unsettles the boundaries of local and
universal. Disentangling the ways in which contemporary critiques of kastom resonate with
missionary and colonial representations of Melanesian violence and drawing attention to the
structural violence of everyday life are also important tasks. Invoking the concepts of modest
witness and situated knowledge, I discuss what Strathern has called the awkward relationship between anthropology and feminism and consider the possibilities of an engaged feminist
anthropology.
0464. Motasim, H., and Heynen, H. AT HOME WITH DISPLACEMENT? MATERIAL
CULTURE AS A SITE OF RESISTANCE IN SUDAN. Home Cultures. 2011, 8(1):4370.
This article displays the complexity and ambivalences that emerge as a result of a longlasting condition of displacement. It discusses the experiences of war-displaced persons, more
specifically within the borders of their own countries, taking Sudan as a case study. Sudan is
the country that has witnessed the largest number of internally displaced persons (IDPs)
worldwide. The article focuses on both the physical displacement of the southern Sudanese
IDPs who have arrived at the borders of a capital city (Khartoum).
0465. Murphy, J. E. FEMINISM AND THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF DEVELOPMENT:
DILEMMAS IN RURAL MEXICO. Anthropology in Action. 2011, 18(1):1628.
Feminist promotion of gender equity in development began in the 1970s, challenging development policy and practice and producing a rich body of debate and scholarship. Feminist
anthropologists, through scholarship and activism, made important contributions to the project

124 / ABSTRACTS IN ANTHROPOLOGY, Vol. 68(1), 2014

of reforming development. A recent anthropological critique of development, however,


referred to as the anthropology of development, has raised important questions about anthropologys relationship to development, presenting new challenges to feminist anthropologists
who would engage with development. This new approach, despite its attention to power, has
not had questions about gender at its centre. Drawing on fieldwork in southeastern Campeche,
Mexico, this paper explores challenges of a feminist anthropology of development, including
pressures for engagement and disengagement, and the apparent contradiction between
reflexive critiques of, and feminist engagements with, development.
0466. Murphy-Erby, Y. et al. MULTI-SYSTEMS LIFE COURSE: A NEW PRACTICE
PERSPECTIVE AND ITS APPLICATION IN ADVANCED PRACTICE WITH RACIAL
AND ETHNIC POPULATIONS. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment.
2010, 20:672687.
To better respond to social works directive of increased sensitivity to cultural and ethnic
diversity, it is imperative that theory development includes explicit consideration of the complex experiences of racial and ethnic minorities. For a more advanced and culturally relative
practice, the authors posit the development of an encompassing perspective referred to as
multi-systems life course (MSLC). Using a case example, this article applies a MSLC
perspective to practice with women of color experiencing intimate partner violence. Implications for social work practice and an overview on incorporating a MSLC perspective into a
graduate social work curriculum are included.
0467. Musa, M. THE WOMAN QUESTION IN MALAYAN PERIODICALS, 1920
1945. Indonesia and the Malay World. 2010, 38(111):247271.
This article focuses on the debates on Malay womens role in the modern Malayan nation
that appeared in Malay newspapers and magazines edited by men and women from the 1920s to
1945. It examines the dominant ideas emerging during this transitional period to determine
whether the issues raised by Malay female writers represented a continuous thread from those
raised earlier by male writers (the so-called male reformists), and assesses the extent of
womens contributions to the ongoing polemics.
0468. Netzley, S. B. VISIBILITY THAT DEMYSTIFIES: GAYS, GENDER, AND SEX
ON TELEVISION. Journal of Homosexuality. 2010, 57:968986.
A content analysis of 98 episodes of primetime entertainment programs on commercial
broadcast and cable television stations from the 20052006 season showed that gay characters
on television were more likely to be shown in sexual situations than straight characters, and
women were more likely to be shown in same-sex sexual situations than men. In addition, gay
characters were more likely to be depicted as sexually active on cable television than they were
on commercial broadcast television, and they were more likely to be relegated to guest star
status on commercial broadcast television than on cable television. The study also showed that
gay characters made up 7.5% of all the characters studied. This study discusses the implications of these findings for gay and straight audiences.
0469. Oberle, C. D. et al. IMPLICIT PREJUDICIAL BIASES IN STUDENT LEARNING: THE EFFECTS OF SEXUAL ORIENTATION. Journal of Homosexuality. 2011, 58:
447461.
In an investigation of students potential biases toward gay and lesbian instructors, 93 female
and 59 male undergraduates viewed a lecture, rated the instructor and perceived learning, and
completed a lecture-retention test. Lectures were given by a man or woman, identified as
straight or gay or lesbian. Sexual orientation did not affect the instructor evaluation or perceived learning ratings for any of the groups. Although sexual orientation did not affect the
lecture-retention scores for the female students, learning by the male students was significantly
lower with the gay male instructor than with the straight male instructor ( p = .03), suggesting
an implicit bias.

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 125

0470. Oelschlgel, A. C. PLURALE WELTINTERPRETATIONEN UND TRANSDIFFERENZ: DOMINANZ- UND INTERAKTIONSMODELL IN DER ALLT?GLICHEN
PRAXIS DER WEST-TYVA IN SgD-SIBIRIEN. [PLURAL WORLD INTERPRETATIONS
AND TRANSDIFFERENCE: MODELS OF DOMINANCE AND INTERACTION IN
EVERYDAY PRACTICE OF THE WEST TYVANS IN SOUTH SIBERIA.] Zeitschrift fhr
Ethnologie. 2010, 135:305336.
This article analyses the flexible way of handling plural models of world interpretation in
West Tyvan daily practice. Based on fieldwork in the Republic of Tyva (Russian Federation) in
20042005, it is part of a research project that led to a dissertation submitted to Leipzig University in 2010. At least two models of world interpretation could be identified. Both exist as
realities of equal value but can structurally be differentiated as model of dominance and
model of interaction. The first stresses the human dominance over the environment, seen as
a series of more or less passive objects of human agency, the second emphasizes the interaction in a world enclosing humans and consisting of both human and non-human subjects. Both
models are coherent systems and belong in equal degree to the repertoire of knowledge, behaviour and acting of West Tyvan agents. To them, these models count as equal and mutually
contradictory. The models compete and oppose each other, but form a continuum within a
single person to the effect that the human agent is constantly positioning itself, depending on
situation and context. The empirical material demonstrates that West Tyvans use these models
in various waysreplacing, complementing and mixing them according to their needs in
specific contexts.
0471. Ogden, C. NORMS, INDIAN FOREIGN POLICY AND THE 19982004
NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC ALLIANCE. The Round Table. 2010, 99(408):303315.
How do national and political identities impact on a states foreign policy? In turn, now does
the analysis of different normative beliefs advance our understanding of Indias foreign policy
during the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) period? This article utilises a norm-based
approach to investigate the composite entrenched beliefs underpinning Indian foreign policy.
Such an approach generates historically contingent understandings of foreign policy beliefs
across different political generations and ideologies. By focusing on pre-1998 Indian government and Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) foreign policy norms, and comparing them with the
actions of the BJP-led NDA in government, the paper assesses whether differing ideological
beliefs either constrain or influence (Indian) foreign policy. In particular, two elements of
Indian foreign policy are analyseddealing with Pakistan and going nuclearin order to evaluate continuity and change in the formation and development of foreign policy in India. It is
found that although the BJP-led NDA were frequently constrained by underlying norms present in Indian foreign policy, their own established policy beliefs often challenged these norms
and influenced new foreign policy directions.
0472. Pereira, C., and Ibrahim, J. I. ON THE BODIES OF WOMEN: THE COMMON
GROUND BETWEEN ISLAM AND CHRISTIANITY IN NIGERIA. Third World Quarterly.
2010, 31(6):921937.
This article explores the common ideological ground between Islam and Christianity in
Nigeria, in the ways in which gender and sexuality are configured in relation to womens
bodies. The latter constitute key sites for the inscription of social norms and practices inherent
in particular interpretations of religion. We proceed by examining the interplay between religion and politics in historical context and in specific concrete instances. While the religious
right among Muslims and Christians share the view that womens bodies are sexually corrupting and therefore in need of control, this perspective is also found in secular institutions. At the
same time Christians and Muslims are strongly opposed to controls on womens bodies that
may lead to either religious group being identified as the other. The linkage made between
womens bodies and public morality produces diverse forms of gender inequality. The moralising of political economy that these processes entail complicates the terrain on which
challenges to the politicisation of religion and its gender politics need to be sustained.

126 / ABSTRACTS IN ANTHROPOLOGY, Vol. 68(1), 2014

0473. Pl`derl, M. et al. THE CONTRIBUTION OF SCHOOL TO THE FEELING OF


ACCEPTANCE AND THE RISK OF SUICIDE ATTEMPTS AMONG AUSTRIAN GAY
AND BISEXUAL MALES. Journal of Homosexuality. 2010, 57:819841.
School-related factors contributing to the suicidality of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals are understudied, especially in German-speaking Europe. Among our Web-based sample of
468 Austrian gay or bisexual adults, 18% attempted suicide and about one half of them reported
that hard times at school related to ones homosexuality partly or mainly caused the attempt.
Such suicide attempts were associated with a lack of acceptance at school and harassment
experiences. In contrast to suicide attempts, acceptance at school was significantly associated
with protective factors such as teachers intervening against homophobia or presence of openly
homosexual teachers or peers. These findings may be important for consideration in schoolbased suicide prevention programs.
0474. Pomerleau, C. A. EMPOWERING MEMBERS, NOT OVERPOWERING THEM:
THE NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR WOMEN, CALLS FOR LESBIAN INCLUSION, AND CALIFORNIA INFLUENCE, 1960s1980s. Journal of Homosexuality. 2010,
57:842861.
Standard accounts of the National Organization for Women (NOW) seriously underplay
the duration of tensions between heterosexual and lesbian NOW members and the ways those
tensions included both racialized analogies and tactical concerns. Based on personal papers,
archival sources, interviews, and a re-evaluation of printed sources, I argue that by considering the perspective of national, state, and local lesbian feminist NOW members, we see
tensions from the 1960s through the 1980s that have been missed by studies that focus either
on NOW or on the growth of lesbian feminism or on second-wave feminist development generally. To legitimize their position, White lesbian feminists analogized their oppression with
that of racial minorities while claiming to be better feminists than heterosexual women. Their
approach is significant to conceptualizing the scope of feminist issues and tactics, the ways
White womens discussion of race exacerbated racial divisions, and the fate of the Equal
Rights Amendment.
0475. Price, C. A., and Nesteruk, O. CREATING RETIREMENT PATHS: EXAMPLES
FROM THE LIVES OF WOMEN. Journal of Women and Aging. 2010, 22:136149.
Through in-depth interviews with 40 retired women diverse in age, marital status, ethnicity,
income, and occupational background, we explored how women experience retirement. Following our analysis, we identified five retirement pathways: family-focused, service-focused,
recreation-focused, employment-focused, and disenchanted retirements. These pathways represent dominant activities and interests at the time the women were interviewed and challenge the
cultural portrayal of retirement as an unvarying life stage. The participants narratives provide a
glimpse into the pathways retired women create by revealing the complexity of later life and the
changing nature of retirement.
0476. Puckett, J. A. et al. OUT IN THE COUNTRY: RURAL SEXUAL MINORITY
MOTHERS. Journal of Lesbian Studies. 2011, 15:176186.
Rural and urban sexual minority mothers parenting experiences related to sexual orientation were compared. Participants were 414 mothers in same-sex relationships with at least one
child under the age of 18 years living in their home who was planned with their current partner.
Rural mothers were more likely to be biological parents and not adoptive parents. Rural mothers reported higher rates of discrimination from strangers and people in service or helping
professions. Although outness for rural and urban mothers did not differ, for children, classmates parents and neighbors were less likely to know the familys status in rural areas. Rural
and urban mothers did not differ on internalized homophobia, social support, or stigma consciousness. Clinical and policy implications are discussed.

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 127

0477. Reisen, C. A. et al. LATINO GAY AND BISEXUAL MENS RELATIONSHIPS


WITH NON-GAY-IDENTIFIED MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN. Journal of Homosexuality. 2010, 57:10041021.
This study investigated relationships between Latino gay-identified men in metropolitan
New York City and their non-gay-identified male partners. Phase 1 consisted of in-depth interviews (N = 33), and Phase 2 consisted of quantitative surveys (N = 120) with Brazilian.
Colombian, and Dominican men who have sex with men (MSM). A majority of participants
reported having had sex with heterosexually identified men, and in many cases, the relationship was sustained over time. We found mixed results concerning an attitude sometimes
attributed to Latinos that sexual orientation is defined by sexual role, with receptive MSM seen
as gay and insertive MSM seen as straight. Although there were no significant associations
between partner sexual orientation and unprotected anal intercourse, gay men were less likely
to take the insertive role in oral or anal sex with straight-identified male partners than with gay
partners.
0478. Rossi, N. E. COMING OUT STORIES OF GAY AND LESBIAN YOUNG
ADULTS. Journal of Homosexuality. 2010, 57:11741291.
Gay and lesbian young adults (N = 53) were interviewed about coming out to their parents.
Analyses of memory content were conducted. Hypotheses related to disclosure were largely
supported. Participants typically first disclosed their sexual orientation to a friend. More participants came out to their mother than their father. When disclosure was made to both parents,
mothers were told prior to fathers. Mothers were often told using direct methods, whereas
fathers were typically informed using indirect methods. Mothers tended to inquire about their
sons sexuality; mothers inquired less with daughters. Findings are discussed in relation to
autobiographical memory, sexuality, and clinical literatures.
0479. Rostosky, S. S. et al. RELIGIOSITY AS A PROTECTIVE FACTOR AGAINST
HEAVY EPISODIC DRINKING (HED) IN HETEROSEXUAL, BISEXUAL, GAY, AND
LESBIAN YOUNG ADULTS. Journal of Homosexuality. 2010, 57:10391050.
Although religiosity has been shown to be associated with positive outcomes in studies of
general population samples, few studies have considered the potential differential effect of religiosity on those who are consolidating gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) identities. Logistic
regression analyses using a sample of 13,038 emerging adults from the National Longitudinal
Survey of Adolescent Health (Add Health) revealed main effects for religiosity and a significant religiosity sexual identity interaction in women. Specifically, religiosity was protective
against alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking (HED) in heterosexual women, but not lesbian
women. In bisexual women, higher religiosity increased the odds of alcohol use and HED.
0480. Sakai, N. et al. THEORY AND ASIAN HUMANITY: ON THE QUESTION OF
HUMANITAS AND ANTHROPOS. Postcolonial Studies. 2010, 13(4):441464.
If not completely oxymoronic.the pairing of theory and Asia may strike many readers as a
sort of quirk or defamiliarizing trick. At best, it can have the effect of exposing the presumption
often taken for granted in fields dealing with certain aspects of what we understand as Asia:
namely, that theory is something we do not normally expect of Asia. Precisely because this
sense of oddity invoked when theory is associated with Asia is no more than a certain presumptive or conditional reflex, neither theory nor Asia receives rigorous scrutiny, and both are by
and large left rather vague in conceptual articulations. Rarely have we asked ourselves why we
do not feel unsettled about this feeling of incongruity, where this discomfort comes from, or
how we might possibly explicate the reasons why we take this underlying presumption for
granted. As long as this reflex remains presumptive and refuses to be further objectified conceptually, I suspect that it will become something which one might well call a civilizational
spell, and it will continue to cast a curse on us. In other words, we will remain haunted by this
presumption about theory and Asia. In the following you will find a brief meditation on how we
might disentangle ourselves from this spell.

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0481. Scheitle, C. P. et al. ON THE VARYING MEANING OF OPEN AND AFFIRMING. Journal of Homosexuality. 2010, 57:12231236.
Some religious denominations offer programs where member con-gregations can signal
their acceptance of all gender identities and sexual orientations. The United Church of Christ
(UCC) created one of the earliest of such programs in the mid-1980s by which con
gregations can adopt an Open and Affirming identity. However, there has been little
research examining this program and how it has evolved over time. Research suggests that
organizational innovations like the Open and Affirming program often become institutionalized over time, leading to changes in how the program is expressed or conducted. We
examine Open and Affirming (ONA) congregations in the UCC to see if the manner in which
they express their ONA identity depends on when they adopted the identity. We find that
early adopters of such programs are more likely than later adopters to focus on sexual orientation. While this could be seen as a troubling pattern, we argue that it could represent greater
awareness of the Open and Affirming programs meaning, which has allowed for greater
flexibility in its expression.
0482. Schneider, M. S. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE CAREER AND ACADEMIC
CHOICES OF LESBIAN, GAY, BISEXUAL, AND TRANSGENDER PEOPLE. Journal of
Homosexuality. 2010, 57:13551369.
This is an empirical study of academic and career choices for 119 lesbian, gay, bisexual,
and transgender (LGBT) students using a questionnaire. Respondents who reported that their
sexual orientation influenced their choices a great deal indicated that the influences were
both positive and negative. This group was most likely to have experienced anti-LGBT discrimination in the past. In comparing lesbian, bisexual people, and gay males, gay males and
respondents from visible minorities were the most likely to feel a negative impact, while
bisexual respondents were the least likely. There were too few transgender respondents to
include in these statistical comparisons; however, frequencies suggest that transgender
people may be the most vulnerable of all. Results suggest that counselors need to take sexual
orientation issues, particularly past experiences of discrimination, when working with LGBT
clients.
0483. Shenkman, G., and Shmotkin, D. MENTAL HEALTH AMONG ISRAELI HOMOSEXUAL ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS. Journal of Homosexuality. 2011, 58:
97116.
This study examines the mental health status of Israeli homosexuals in adolescence and early
adulthood in comparison to heterosexual controls. We compared 219 homosexuals (136 gay
men and 83 lesbian women) with 219 individually matched heterosexuals on indices of depression and subjective well being. In line with the study hypothesis, the results indicated that the
homosexual participants reported more depressive symptoms and more negative affect than
matched heterosexuals. However, the homosexuals were also found to report a higher level of
positive affect. This study suggests that co-activated systems of negative and positive emotions
facilitate adaptation among young homosexuals.
0484. Shieh, W.-Y. GAY AND LESBIAN COUPLE RELATIONSHIP COMMITMENT IN TAIWAN: A PRELIMINARY STUDY. Journal of Homosexuality. 2010, 57:
13341354.
Due to the traditional values on marriage and heterosexual relationships, gay and lesbian
couple relationships were long ignored in Taiwan. This study attempted to look at gay and lesbian couple relationship commitment. Questionnaires were used in this study. Due to the
difficulties of getting gays and lesbians to participate in research, snowballing method was
used. The sample included 218 participants in a stable couple relationship for at least six
months. Through multiple regression analyses, the result showed that the influencing factors of
gay and lesbian couples commitment fit Rusbults Investment Model closely.

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0485. Stotzer, I. L. SEEKING SOLACE IN WEST HOLLYWOOD: SEXUAL ORIENTATION-BASED HATE CRIMES IN LOS ANGELES COUNTY. Journal of Homosexuality. 2010,
57:9871003.
Many thriving gay communities across the United States report high levels of sexual orientation-based hate crimes every year, raising questions about the level of safety in these gay
communities and neighborhoods. This study examines hate crime data from 20022006 in Los
Angeles County and the relationship those hate crimes have to West Hollywood, the best
known gay community of Los Angeles County. Results suggest that although West Hollywood
does consistently report high numbers of hate crimes, this does not reflect a greatly increased
risk to any one lesbian, gay, or bisexual person. Results suggest that we need to consider other
variables as predictors (such as poverty, business density, and population density) in determining safe versus unsafe space, rather than just the percentage of lesbians, gay, and bisexuals in a
population.
0486. Szinovacz, M. E. INTRODUCTION: THE AGING WORKFORCE: CHALLENGES FOR SOCIETIES, EMPLOYERS, AND OLDER WORKERS. Journal of Aging and
Social Policy. 2011, 23:95100.
The aging of the baby boom cohorts poses challenges for societies, employers, and the baby
boomers themselves: Will societies be able to sustain an exponentially increasing number of
retirees and older workers? Will employers be prepared to accommodate an aging workforce,
especially in times of economic recession? Will aging baby boomers desire and be able to postpone retirement and remain in their career jobs or seek bridge employment or be forced to do so
out of financial necessity?
0487. Taylor, O. D. BARRIERS TO TREATMENT FOR WOMEN WITH SUBSTANCE
USE DISORDERS. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment. 2010, 20:393409.
Substance-dependent women are facing tremendous barriers that impede them from entering
into treatment programs. Such barriers include the lack of childcare, fear of stigma, lack of
family or financial support, denial, and the co-occurring disorders. Strategies are paramount to
the removal of these barriers, whereas treatment and relapse prevention aid in the rehabilitation
process.
0488. Taylor, R. KIN SUPPORT AND PARENTING PRACTICES AMONG LOWINCOME AFRICAN AMERICAN MOTHERS: MODERATING EFFECTS OF MOTHERS
PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENT. Journal of Black Psychology. 2011, 37(1):323.
Moderating effects of psychological adjustment on the relationship of kinship support
with parenting practices were assessed among 204 low-income African American mothers
of adolescents. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that kinship support, optimism,
and self-esteem were positively associated with mothers emotional support of their adolescents. Moderating effects of mothers adjustment revealed that the positive association of
kinship support with emotional support was less apparent when mothers were more
depressed. Additional evidence of moderation was found, in that the Positive association of
kinship support with emotional support was more apparent when mothers had higher levels
of self-esteem. Kinship support and optimism were positively associated with mothers
maintenance of organization in the family.
0489. Thomas, S. L. THE RISE AND FALL OF CIVIL UNIONS: LESSONS FROM THE
CONNECTICUT LEGISLATURES ABANDONMENT OF GAY AND LESBIAN CITIZENS. Journal of Homosexuality. 2011, 58:315329.
On April 20, 2005, Connecticut Governor M. Jodi Rell signed into law An Act Concerning
Civil Unions (Public Act No. 0510, 2005). That Act did two things: First, it afforded to qualifying same-sex couples many of the rights and benefits that the state makes available to
married heterosexual couples. Second, it defended heterosexual marriage by defining marriage as involving one man and one woman. Although it might seem that the legislature was

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moving in an obviously correct direction, its decision to establish a statutory scheme consigning same-sex couples to civil unions was integral to the ideological exclusion of gays and
lesbians from marriage and, thereby, implied that they are unfit for family life.
0490. Tyler, K. et al. LINKING HOME-SCHOOL DISSONANCE TO SCHOOL-BASED
OUTCOMES FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS. Journal of Black
Psychology. 2010, 36(4):410425.
The current study examined associations between home-school dissonance and several academic and psychological variables among 239 African American high school students.
Regression analyses revealed that home-school dissonance significantly predicted multiple
academic and psychological variables, including academic cheating, disruptive classroom
behavior, performance avoidant and performance approach goal orientations, and poor selfreported English and math grades. Implications of this research include a more systematic
incorporation of African American high school students out-of-school experiences into their
classroom learning experiences.
0491. Vera-Rojas, M. T. POLIMICAS, FEMINISTAS, PUERTORRIQUEYAS Y
DESCONOCIDAS: CLOTILDE BETANCES JAEGER, MARQA MAS POZO Y SUS
CHARLAS FEMENINAS EN EL GRA'FICO DE NUEVA YORK, 19291930. CENTRO
Journal. 2010, 22(2):433. in Spanish.
In addition to recording immigration experiences, many writings of the interwar period published in New York by men and women of Hispanic origin emphasized the importance of the
economic autonomy and independence of Hispanic women in the city and in Latin America.
Within this context, particularly between 1929 and 1930, Puerto Rican authors Clotilde Betances
Jaeger and MarRa Mas Pozo used the pages of Gra'fico to address the Hispanic woman of New
York City. Their discourse exposed social conventions and the arbitrary nature of the institutions
and practices upon which the sex/gender system is based, with its restricted, idealized representations of femininity.
0492. Wallenberg, J. et al. STUDENT DEGREE PROGRAM AND ATTITUDES
TOWARD GAYS AND LESBIANS IN THE MILITARY: IS THERE A CONNECTION?
Journal of Homosexuality. 2011, 58:476496.
Individuals routinely experience discrimination based on sexual orientation. Since the implementation of Dont Ask, Dont Tell in 1994, over 13,000 military personnel have been
discharged from the U.S. military on the basis of sexual orientation. As helping professionals,
social workers will often provide services to returning gay and lesbian veterans. Therefore, social
work programs must ensure that students develop positive attitudes toward and understanding of
the needs presented by this population. Little is known about whether a specific degree program
can be a predictor of student attitude toward gay and lesbian individuals in the military. Eightynine graduate students completed the Attitudes Toward Homosexuals in the Military (ATHM)
scale, and scores were compared between two graduate degree programs: Social Work and
Business Administration. A statistically significant relationship was found between degree program and ATHM scores. Implications for policy, practice and research related to gay and lesbian
veterans are discussed.
0493. Wang, Y.-W. VOICES FROM THE MARGIN: A CASE STUDY OF A RURAL
LESBIANS EXPERIENCE WITH WOMAN-TO-WOMAN SEXUAL VIOLENCE. Journal
of Lesbian Studies. 2011, 15:166175.
The purpose of this case study is to understand how a lesbian survivor coped with traumatic
stress resulting from woman-to-woman sexual violence in a rural context. This research was
grounded on the feminist paradigm, and the case study approach was used for data collection
and analysis. The results indicate that the lesbian survivor encountered numerous obstacles to
admitting the rape and seeking help. A number of these perceived challenges were associated
with the rural sociocultural context (e.g., conservative culture, religious fundamentalism,

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law levels of anonymity, small gay/lesbian communities, and geographical isolation), myths of
lesbian utopia, a heterosexist legal system, and a lack of lesbian-friendly helping resources.
Despite being confronted with numerous challenges, the survivor demonstrated her resilience
through the use of a variety of strategies to cope with the rape aftermath and detrimental social
reactions. Positive social support from her gay and lesbian friends also facilitated her recovery.
The findings highlight the importance of considering the intersection of trauma and cultural
oppression in understanding lesbian survivors experiences with same-sex sexual assault.
0494. Webster, R. J., and Saucier, D. A. THE EFFECTS OF DEATH REMINDERS ON
SEX DIFFERENCES IN PREJUDICE TOWARD GAY MEN AND LESBIANS. Journal of
Homosexuality. 2011, 58:402426.
Terror management research shows that death reminders (mortality salience) increase prejudice
toward worldview violators. Two studies investigated whether death reminders exacerbated differences in heterosexual mens and women s reports of sexual prejudice (negative attitudes based on
sexual orientation). Results showed that following death reminders, sex differences in anti-gay
discrimination and affective prejudice toward gay men (but not toward lesbians) were larger, and
that these increased sex differences were mediated by gender role beliefs. The current studies suggest that researchers may attenuate the effects of death reminders by lessening the perceived
worldview violation in addition to alleviating the existential terror of death.
0495. Whittaker, V. A., and Neville, H. A. EXAMINING THE RELATION BETWEEN
RACIAL IDENTITY ATTITUDE CLUSTERS AND PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH OUTCOMES IN AFRICAN AMERICAN COLLEGE STUDENTS. Journal of Black Psychology.
2010, 36(4):383409.
Using Crosss expanded Nigrescence theory, this study examined the relation between patterns of racial identity attitudes and mental health outcomes among a sample of 317 Black
American college students. Racial identity attitudes were operationalized using the Cross
Racial Identity Scale, and the mental health outcomes assessed included subjective well-being,
hardiness, and general psychological health. Results from a cluster analysis indicated a
five-cluster solution (Low Race Salience, Multiculturalist, Self-Hatred, Immersion, and
Afrocentric), which for the most part is consistent with previous research. In addition, differential associations were found between cluster groups and psychological health outcomes, where
participants in the Multiculturalist cluster reported greater levels of psychological well-being
and those in the Immersion cluster group reported the lowest levels.The implications for these
findings with respect to future research are discussed.
0496. Wilkinson, W. W., and Sagarin, B. J. PSYCHOLOGICAL ANTECEDENTS OF
HETEROSEXUALS PRO-GAY ACTIVISM BEHAVIOR. Journal of Homosexuality. 2010,
57:878894.
Previous research on heterosexuals attitudes toward gays is characterized by a focus on negative attitudes and minimal use of behavioral dependent variables. In an attempt to rectify this
situation, the present study explored the psychological antecedents of heterosexuals pro-gay
activism behavior in an undergraduate sample using the theory of planned behavior. Findings
suggest that intentions predict activism behavior (in the form of signing an online petition supporting the construction of a new lesbian, gay, and bisexual resource center on their campus).
In addition, attitudes toward the possible outcomes of the behavior, attitudes toward the behavior itself, and self-identity were found to predict intentions. Directions for future research on
pro-gay activism are discussed.
0497. Williams, L. R., and Hickle, K. E. I KNOW WHAT LOVE MEANS: QUALITATIVE DESCRIPTIONS FROM MEXICAN AMERICAN AND WHITE ADOLESCENTS.
Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment. 2010, 20:581600.
A qualitative approach was used to explore the meaning of being in love for Mexican American and White adolescents. Adolescents written descriptions were coded using inductive content

132 / ABSTRACTS IN ANTHROPOLOGY, Vol. 68(1), 2014

analysis. Five broader love themes encompassing five additional subthemes emerged: commitment (sacrifice and time); intimacy (friendship, trust, and caring); reciprocity; unconditional
acceptance; and unsure/unknown. Mexican American adolescents mentioned intimacy components, White adolescent boys mentioned commitment components, and White adolescents and
girls mentioned unconditional acceptance components in their self-definitions of love more than
their counterparts. Understanding the meaning of love has implications for prevention efforts targeted at reducing the health risks associated with romantic relationships in adolescence.
0498. Wilson, S. C., and Supiano, K. P. EXPERIENCES OF VETERANS WIDOWS
FOLLOWING CONJUGAL BEREAVEMENT: A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS. Journal of
Women and Aging. 2011, 23:7793.
This qualitative study analyzed the conjugal grief experience of veterans widows. The narratives yielded several themes, including the decreased self-reported symptoms of distress when
widows reported having positive social support without negative social support, the development
of an ongoing relationship with their deceased spouses with a mechanism for creating meaning
from their loss, and the assumption of a new identity and new roles and responsibilities. Widows
who ascribed a belief that external forces control their life events and those who have children
with psychosocial issues reported increased symptoms of distress related to their spouses death.
0499. Wright, P. J., and Mckinley, C. J. MENTAL HEALTH RESOURCES FOR LGBT
COLLEGIANS: A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF COLLEGE COUNSELING CENTER WEB
SITES. Journal of Homosexuality. 2011, 58:138147.
This study content analyzed a randomly selected stratified national sample of 203 four-year
United States colleges counseling center Web sites to assess the degree to which such sites feature information and reference services for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)
collegians. Results revealed that LGBT-targeted communications were infrequent. For instance,
fewer than one third of counseling center Web sites described individual counseling opportunities for LGBT students, fewer than 11% mentioned group counseling opportunities, and fewer
than 6% offered a university crafted pamphlet with information about LGBT issues and
resources. Findings are interpreted within the context of prior LGBT student health research.
0500. Yost, M. R., and Chmielewski, J. F. NARRATING RURAL LESBIAN LIVES:
BODY IMAGE AND LESBIAN COMMUNITY IN CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA. Journal
of Lesbian Studies. 2011, 15:148165.
Research on womens body image has focused on the sexual objectification that women
experience in society. The present study explored bow rural lesbian women experience their
bodies and how lesbian communities, as safe havens from the dominant heterosexual culture,
contribute to their body image. Ten lesbians living in central Pennsylvania were interviewed
for this study. Interviews were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis,
which aims to explore individuals experiences and examine how they make sense of their
world. The resulting themes focus on participants descriptions of their feelings about their
bodies, the role that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities played in
their sense of body image, and the difficulties of finding these communities in the central
Pennsylvania area.
0501. Yu, Y. et al. APPLICATION AND TESTING THE RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF A MODIFIED VERSION OF HEREKS ATTITUDES TOWARD LESBIANS AND
GAY MEN SCALE IN CHINA. Journal of Homosexuality. 2011, 58:263274.
The present study was the first attempt to test the reliability and Validity of Hereks Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (ATLG; Herek, 1988) in the Chinese population.
Participants (n = 2,391 for the field trials and n = 200 for testretest reliability) were asked to
complete the translated, slightly modified version of the ATLG. The resulting ATLG has a
two-dimensional factor structure as well as good validity and reliability in the Chinese culture.
ATLG scores followed distinct patterns according sex and level of education that were

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consistent with previous studies in other populations. The significance of these findings in
Chinese culture is discussed.
0502. Zuckerhut, P. VON DER GEWALTDEBATTE IN ANTHROPOLOGIE UND
SOZIALWISSENSCHAFTEN HIN ZU EINER FEMINISTISCHEN ANALYSE GESCHLECHTLICH KONNOTIERTER GEWALT. [FROM THE DISCUSSION ON VIOLENCE IN
ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOCIAL SCIENCES TO A FEMINIST ANALYSIS OF
GENDERED VIOLENCE.] Zeitschrift fhr Ethnologie. 2010, 135:275304. in German.
The article starts with a brief summary of some of the debates on gendered violence in social
sciences, focusing on the definition of the concept, its significance in human society and its
social meanings. This is supplemented by considerations in the field of social and cultural
anthropology about the question of legitimity as a criterion of violence. The importance of
dealing with questions like, who is legitimated to exercise violence and in what context, will be
stressed. Besides this also the function of violence is shown as to be an important aspect of
analysis. The central findings of these discussions will be looked at with regard to their relevance for a feminist (intersecional) exploration of gendered violence. In the end five points will
be extracted as starting point of analysis.

POLITICAL STRUCTURE AND PROCESS, LAW


0503. Al-Atawneh, M. WAHHABI SELF-EXAMINATION POST-9/11: RETHINKING
THE OTHER, OTHERNESS AND TOLERANCE. Middle Eastern Studies. 2011, 47(2):
255271.
Saudi Arabia found itself under an unflattering spotlight in the wake of the events of 9/11,
perhaps more than any other country in the Middle East. The fact that 15 of the 19 suicide skyjackers were Saudi citizens provoked an avalanche of criticism against Saudi religious beliefs,
rulers, social customs and education in the West, as well as in some parts of the Islamic and
Arab world. After 2003, the Kingdom faced another sort of attack by al-Qaeda or al-Qaedainspired groups, committed mainly by Saudi youngsters, most of whom were graduates of local
religious and educational systems. This brought about further criticism of Wahhabism, even by
the Saudis themselves, as indicated in the increasingly vigorous internal debate.
0504. Al Attar, M., and Miller, R. TOWARDS AN EMANCIPATORY INTERNATIONAL LAW: THE BOLIVARIAN RECONSTRUCTION. Third World Quarterly. 2010,
31(3):347363.
In this article, we argue that a unique South American treaty known as ALBAthe
Bolivarian Alliance for the Americasputs forward a cohesive counter-vision of international
law rooted in notions of complementarity and human solidarity. We further argue that Third
World Approaches to International Law (TWAIL) scholars might use this initiative as a springboard to push forward a long-overdue reform of the international legal regime. While, on its
own, ALBA is unlikely to pose much of a challenge to the structural imbalances that permeate
global society, when juxtaposed alongside the many initiatives of the Bolivarian Revolution, it
appears to possess significant democratic potential. With both scholarly and popular support,
ALBA may even have the capability of sparking a renewal of a united Third World movement.
0505. Alexander, J., and Chitofiri, K. THE CONSEQUENCES OF VIOLENT POLITICS
IN NORTON, ZIMBABWE. The Round Table. 2010, 99(411):673686.
The lasting consequences of violent politics in Zimbabwe cannot be fully grasped without
exploring both their institutional and material contexts and local interpretations of the meaning of
particular acts of violence. Drawing on narratives of political violence from the town of Norton,
three points are made. First, the extreme electoral violence of 2008 was interpreted by opposition
members as an almost inexplicable moment of rupture. As a result, it damaged social relations in
lasting ways. Second, the powerful link between the ruling partys coercive politics and peoples

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livelihoods in a context of economic collapse meant that violence had deeply damaging effects
on every aspect of peoples lives from which many have not yet recovered. Third, regardless of
their party affiliation, peoples political relations with Zimbabwes Inclusive Government, established in 2009, have been powerfully shaped by their understandings of the material and other
obligations constituted through violence and suffering in previous years.
0506. Ampiah, K. JAPAN AND COMMONWEALTH AFRICA. The Round Table. 2010,
99(409):413428.
This article examines Japans relations with the African countries from a post-World War II
perspective and identifies an Anglo-Japanese initiative in the early 1960s to collaborate about
matters relating to Africas socio-economic development. The analysis pertains essentially to the
Commonwealth African countries and further shows that apart from attempts to expand its
exports to these countries, Japans initiatives towards Africa until the 1990 left no landmarks that
call for celebration, not least because Tokyos foreign policy towards Africa was saddled with
immobilist tendencies. The advent of the Tokyo International Conference on African Development since 1993 has, however, brought some dynamism to how Japan attends to issues relating to
Africas economic development. The article outlines recent events that demonstrate the dramatic
transformation in Japanese foreign policy towards the Commonwealth African countries.
0507. Anonymous. EDITORIAL: JAPAN AND THE COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS:
PRESENT AND FUTURE PROSPECTS. The Round Table. 2010, 99(409):363370.
The reinvention and reformulation of the modern Commonwealth following the end of
World War II was an inevitable response to the transformations in international society that
were brought about by the war and its outcomes. The swift emergence of the newly independent states of Asia after the war, followed by the explosion of liberation movements in Africa
and the subsequent decolonisation of the sub-Saharan African countries, hastened the end of
the British Empire.
0508. Banerji, A. RWANDA AND THE COMMONWEALTH. The Round Table. 2010,
99(410):485490.
The author gives an account of his first visit to Rwanda, the Commonwealths newest
member, and describes the process leading up to Rwandas admission. Commitment to and
expectations of the Commonwealth are high in Rwanda and the Commonwealth has a position
there of considerable leverage and influence.
0509. Bankston III, C. L. SOCIAL JUSTICE: CULTURAL ORIGINS OF A PERSPECTIVE AND A THEORY. The Independent Review. 2010, 15(2):165178.
The term social justice comes up frequently in circles concerned with political and economic
policy. Although it is often ill defined, it generally rests on two overriding principles. First, social
justice is viewed primarily as a matter of redistributing goods and resources to improve the situations of the disadvantaged. Second, this redistribution is not presented as a matter of compassion or
national interest, but as a matter of the rights of the relatively disadvantaged to make claims on the
rest of the society. In common usage, the term is rarely taken as expressing a debatable position, but
as a statement of a fundamental axiom of value in political and economic life.
0510. B@uml, Y. MAPAI COMMITTEE FOR ARAB AFFAIRSTHE STEERING
COMMITTEE FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ESTABLISHMENT POLICY TOWARDS
ISRAELI ARABS, 195868. Middle Eastern Studies. 2011, 47(2):413433.
The central policy of the Israeli establishment which dealt, until 1958, with the Arab minority in Israel (both citizens and residents) was hope for their transfer out of the state. The
establishments comprehension that this hope must be abandoned and policy towards the Arabs
re-examined marks the years 195758 as a turning point. On the basis of this turning point the
MAPAI (the largest political party at the time) Committee for Arab Affairs was constructed at
the end of 1957.

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 135

0511. Bayraktar, H., and Galik, R. ONE STEP FORWARD AND TWO STEPS BACK:
THE SLOW PROCESS OF RE-ESTABLISHING DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS BETWEEN
GERMANY AND TURKEY AFTER THE FIRST WORLD WAR. Middle Eastern Studies.
2011, 47(2):315327.
In this article, emphasis will be put on the re-establishment of official diplomatic relations
between Turkey and Germany after the First World War, spanning the years from 1918 to 1924. So
far, the topic of GermanTurkish relations in that period and even that of the whole interwar period
has been examined only marginally. Exceptions include work by Cemil Kocak, who put special
emphasis on Ankaras attitude vis-B-vis Berlin, and an article by Yhcel GhHlh in which he studies economic aspects. The present study, however, focuses on relations between the two states as
regards foreign policy mainly in the very first years and, making extensive use of German archival
sources, stresses not Ankaras but rather Berlins perception of their mutual relations.
0512. Bennett, J., and Sriskandarajah, D. THE COMMONWEALTH EFFECT
REVISITED. The Round Table. 2011, 100(412):5153.
This article argues that, even as the Commonwealth has been seen by some commentators to
have lost some of its political salience, its attractiveness as a trading bloc remains as strong as
ever. It draws on recent research that indicates very healthy growth rates in intra-Commonwealth
trade, and that reaffirms the continuing relevance of the Commonwealth effect identified by
Ludan and Jones in 2001.
0513. Beswick, D. PEACEKEEPING, REGIME SECURITY AND AFRICAN SOLUTIONS TO AFRICAN PROBLEMS: EXPLORING MOTIVATIONS FOR RWANDAS
INVOLVEMENT IN DARFUR. Third World Quarterly. 2010, 31(5):739754.
Rwanda is not a traditional provider of troops for peacekeeping missions, yet since 2004 it
has been the second largest contributor to both the African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS)
and its successor the hybrid African UnionUN Assistance Mission in Darfur (UNAMID).
This paper analyses some of the key motives for Rwandas contribution to these missions, situating its actions within a wider framework in which African states benefit in specific ways from
being seen to contribute to African solutions to African problems. Highlighting changing narratives on Africas role in international security, I argue that Rwandas ruling party has been
able use its involvement in peacekeeping to secure its position domestically and to attract or
retain the support of key bilateral donors. I briefly explore the implications of these dynamics
for Rwandas political development, suggesting in conclusion that the focus on building military capacity for peacekeeping purposes may contribute to future African, and Rwandan,
security problems as much as to potential solutions.
0514. Bishop, M. L. COALESCING FOR CHANGE? NOVEL COALITIONS IN THE
UK AND TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO. The Round Table. 2011, 100(412):5563.
In May 2010 two elections took place in traditional Westminster politiesthe United
Kingdom and Trinidad and Tobagoin which coalition governments took power. In both
countries, a significant part of the discourse in the run-up to election focused on the inequities
of the Westminster model, and, in particular, first-past-the-post. Yet, interestingly, the end result
in many ways mirrors the kind of outcome often championed by supporters of more proportional
electoral systems. This article compares and contrasts the two different elections, and asks
whether such coalitions are set to become a regular feature of a more mature Westminster model.
0515. Braddick, C. W. BRITAIN, THE COMMONWEALTH, AND THE POST-WAR
JAPANESE REVIVAL, 194570. The Round Table. 2010, 99(409):371389.
During the early post-war era, a Japanese revival was a source of profound concern to members
of the Commonwealth, especially Australia and New Zealand. Britain, having abdicated the leading role in the Western Pacific to the United States, attempted to retain some influence in the region,
but economic frailties and lack of Commonwealth unity undermined these efforts. Under American
guidance, diplomatic, commercial and (to a lesser extent) security ties with Japan were later promoted, but elements of cooperation and competition persisted in Commonwealth relations with

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their former enemy. Ultimately, Britain, Australia and New Zealand placed their respective
regional identities ahead of their Commonwealth loyalties. Japan took advantage of this situation to
promote its own national interests. Hence, the wider aperture of the Commonwealth lens throws
into sharp relief the contours of a number of members bilateral relationships with Japan.
0516. Bridges, K. M. BETWEEN AID AND POLITICS: DIAGNOSING THE CHALLENGE
OF HUMANITARIAN ADVOCACY IN POLITICALLY COMPLEX ENVIRONMENTS
THE CASE OF DARFUR, SUDAN. Third World Quarterly. 2010, 31(8):12511269.
Humanitarian advocacy is emblematic of the relief communitys desire to move beyond simply
treating the symptoms of suffering, and towards tackling the causes. As such, advocacy is at the
front line of debates over where the boundaries between aid and politics should now be drawn and
the point where dissension on the subject is most evident. In this paper the challenge that advocacy
poses for traditional humanitarian operations in Darfur and the effect of such political engagement
on humanitarian identity more generally is assessed. Disagreement among humanitarian organisations is exacerbated by the continued tendency of aid agencies to privilege reaction over reflection.
Floundering between unachievable traditional humanitarian principles and the failure of human
rights to provide an adequate alternative, humanitarianism is swiftly losing both its identity and its
legitimacy. To emerge from the fog of confusion humanitarianism must now take on the professionalism of military science and endeavour to better know both itself and its enemies.
0517. Bunce, M. THIS PLACE USED TO BE A WHITE BRITISH BOYS CLUB:
REPORTING DYNAMICS AND CULTURAL CLASH AT AN INTERNATIONAL NEWS
BUREAU IN NAIROBI. The Round Table. 2010, 99(410):515528.
Africa has long been portrayed by Western media as a dark and conflict-ridden continent.
Such reports have traditionally been produced by white journalists in the field, writing for a
distant audience back home. In recent years, significant structural changes in the foreign
news industry have seen the near-demise of foreign correspondents and the increasing use of
locally hired journalists. This research explores the important role of local correspondents in
the production of international news reports, and asks whether their presence may start to
change how Africa is depicted in the West. This investigation is framed by a cultural analysis of
the Reuters newsroom in Nairobi during the post-election crisis of 200708. This newsroom
provides a microcosm of the media industry, in which Western and local journalists disagreed
and debated the role of the media in a crisis. This clash of values offers a springboard for
exploring the potential ability of local national journalists to shape the news: do they have the
power to challenge Western reporting modes, or are they simply reproducing the values of this
system? This article concludes that the current situation is somewhere between the two: Westerners continue to dominate international reporting, but there are indications that a slow and
sometimes uncomfortable synthesis is beginning to emerge.
0518. Calhoun, L. POLITICAL PHILOSOPHERS ON WAR: ARGUMENTS INSIDE
THE JUST WAR BOX. The Independent Review. 2011, 15(3):447461.
For hundreds of years, intellectuals have been arguing about just war theory, attempting to
determine how best to use it in thinking about contemporary war. But war is not what it used
to be, and it is entirely unclear that scholars who wrote about the topic before the advent even of
machine guns, much less airplanes, missiles, and nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons can
offer us much guidance or enlightenment. Yet many scholars interested in war continue to frame
their arguments in the terms of just war theory, nearly always paying what they regard as the customary deference to its early expositors, or fathers, as many writers fondly refer to them.
0519. Chung, F. EMERGENCE OF A NEW POLITICAL MOVEMENT. The Round
Table. 2010, 99(411):655671.
Zimbabwes turbulent electoral history is seldom recounted by a political insider. The
author, a former Minister in a Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF)
government, and a Senatorial candidate for Simba Makoni in the contentious 2008 elections,
charts the electoral volatility of Zimbabwe, probes the advent and subsequent split in the

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Movement for Democratic Change, and champions the alternative provided by Simba Makoni,
also once a Minister under Mugabe, who deserted ZANU-PF.
0520. Ciotti, M. REMAKING TRADITIONAL SOCIALITY, EPHEMERAL FRIENDSHIPS AND ENDURING POLITICAL ALLIANCES: STATE-MADE DALIT YOUTH IN
RURAL NORTH INDIA. FocaalJournal of Global and Historical Anthropology. 2011, 59:
1932.
This article explores histories of social separation, impermanent encounters, and lasting
political alliances between Dalit (untouchable) Chamar male youth and members of the
upper-caste Brahman community in a village in eastern Uttar Pradesh, North India. The entry
of young Chamar people into educational institutions followed by political mobilization and,
for some, the transition into employment, has led them to appropriate spaces often beyond the
purview of previous generations. Against the backdrop of Chamar histories as agricultural
laborers, powerless political subjects, and actors of religious marginality, new forms of masculinity, sociality, and class formation have come into being. The article focuses on young
Chamar mens involvement in village politics, particularly during the 2005 local elections. It is
argued that village politicsrather than inter-caste friendships, which remain short-lived as a
result of caste discriminationhas engendered an arena of sociality where caste-driven
interest produce more durable social links between young low-caste men and members of the
upper-caste community. As Indias political history illustrates, the episode of electoral politics
analyzed in this article brings together differently situated communities within the nation,
highlighting how the unresolved question of caste discrimination conflates with the
compulsion to political power. If young Chamar men are the new protagonists in this history,
their role is the outcome of broader changes in the consciousness around political participation
and the opening up of democratic possibilities for minority populations in a postcolonial setting.
0521. Dollery, B. et al. A TYPOLOGY OF SHARED SERVICE PROVISION IN AUSTRALIAN LOCAL GOVERNMENT. Australian Geographer. 2010, 41(2):217231.
Disappointment with the results of forced amalgamation programs across almost all Australian local government jurisdictions has created great interest in shared service models as an
alternative method of improving the operational efficiency of local councils, while at the same
time preserving local democracy and local autonomy. While an embryonic literature on shared
service provision in the Australian municipal milieu does exist, much remains to be done. This
paper seeks to contribute to this nascent literature in two main ways: (a) to locate shared services in local government within broader global trends and theoretical disputations on
devolution and local economic development, highlighting the importance of political geography in these debates; and (b) in the light of this complexity and ambiguity, develop a new
typology of local government shared service provision to inform public policy making on realworld problems in Australian local government.
0522. El Husseini, R. HEZBOLLAH AND THE AXIS OF REFUSAL: HAMAS, IRAN
AND SYRIA. Third World Quarterly. 2010, 31(5):803815.
Hezbollah has acquired a dual and contradictory reputation: as a legitimate political actor in
Lebanon and as a terrorist organisation in the USA and Israel. This duality can be explained if
we understand that Hezbollah is a nationalist entity that defines itself primarily within the Lebanese polity, as well as an anti-imperialist party intent on countering the regional hegemony of
Israel and the USA. Forming alliances with Hamas, Iran and Syria, Hezbollah has become part
of a rejectionist axis that seeks to oppose perceived imperialism in the Middle East; this
stance has become increasingly entrenched in the wake of the 2003 US-led invasion of Iraq.
Characterisations that focus on Hezbollah as a military opponent confirm the organisations
perceived need for a rejectionist stance. International acceptance of Hezbollah as a legitimate
political actor within the Lebanese polity, on the other hand, would help to bring the basis of the
rejectionist axis into question.

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0523. Ervine, K. PARTICIPATION DENIED: THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT FACILITY, ITS UNIVERSAL BLUEPRINT, AND THE MEXICO-MESOAMERICAN BIOLOGICAL CORRIDOR IN CHIAPAS. Third World Quarterly. 2010, 31(5):773790.
This article examines the implementation of the Global Environment Facilitys (GEF)
MexicoMesoamerican Biological Corridor in Chiapas, Mexico, in order to explore how stakeholder participation is increasingly employed as a tool of conservations neoliberalisation. This
requires an understanding of participation via the corridor as productive, in that it facilitates the
production of new, albeit fictitious, kinds of biodiversity in the commodity form, and of new
modes of social reproduction increasingly mediated by market relations, as access to common
property resources and the necessities of life are progressively restricted to ones ability to pay.
In this way the corridor produces the conditions under which a market citizenship can flourish, with participation re-imagined as a means through which this end is achieved.
0524. Fiskesj`, M. SLAVERY AS THE COMMODIFICATION OF PEOPLE: WA
SLAVES AND THEIR CHINESE SISTERS. FocaalJournal of Global and Historical
Anthropology. 2011, 59:318.
In the 1950s, teams of Chinese government ethnologists helped liberate slaves whom they
identified among the Wa people in the course of Chinas military annexation and pacification
of the formerly autonomous Wa lands, between China and Burma. For the Chinese, the discovery of these slaves proved the Engels-Morganian evolutionist theory that the supposedly
primitive and therefore predominantly egalitarian Wa society was teetering on the threshold
between Ur-Communism and ancient slavery. A closer examination of the historical and cultural context of slavery in China and in the Wa lands reveals a different dynamics of
commodification, which also sheds light on slavery more generally. In this article I discuss
the rejection of slavery under Wa kinship ideology, the adoption of child war captives, and the
anomalous Chinese mine slaves in the Wa lands. I also discuss the trade in people emerging
with the opium export economy of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century which helped
sustain, yet also threatened, autonomous Wa society. I suggest that past Waslave trade was
spurred by the same processes of commodification that historically drove the Chinese trade in
people, and in recent decades have produced the large-scale human trafficking across Asia,
which UN officials have labeled the largest slave trade in history and which often hides
slavery under the cover of kinship.
0525. Gruenbaum, O. COMMONWEALTH UPDATE. The Round Table. 2010, 99(409):
347362.
An opposition party leader and a journalist were murdered in Rwanda in the latest attack on
government critics. Thousands of people in Lesotho asked South Africa to annex their country.
A judicial inquiry into fake degrees held by Pakistani parliamentarians threatens to trigger
fresh elections. Australia and Trinidad and Tobago both elected their first female prime
ministers.
0526. Gruenbaum, O. COMMONWEALTH NEWS UPDATE. The Round Table. 2011,
100(412):1532.
Pakistan fell further into the grip of religious extremists when SalmaanTaseer was shot by
his bodyguard in the most high-profile political assassination since the murder of former prime
minister Benazir Bhutto in 2007. The Punjab governor was killed for condemning a blasphemy
law used to persecute minorities and settle scores. Revelations in 250,000 classified US
embassy cables released by WikiLeaks spawned diplomatic crises and shocking revelations
across the world, including allegations of dirty tricks by the US drug firm Pfizer and espionage
by Shell in Nigeria; Rahul Gandhi in India saying Hindu fundamentalists were a bigger threat
than militant Islamists, and fears about the security of Pakistans nuclear weapons. The International Criminal Court indicted some of Kenyas most powerful men over the post-election
violence that saw 1,500 people killed. An area the size of France and Germany in Queensland
was inundated in Australias worst floods in half a century.

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0527. Gruenbaum, O. COMMONWEALTH UPDATE. The Round Table. 2010, 99(408):


233248.
British politics was transformed by a hung parliament producing the first coalition government in 70 years. Nigerias President UmaruYarAdua died after months of incapacitation. In
Jamaica, a growing diplomatic rift with the US forced Prime Minister Bruce Golding to allow
the extradition of an alleged drug kingpin, sparking fierce street battles in downtown Kingston
that left at least 50 dead, and Sri Lankas President Mahinda Rajapaksa won a landslide victory
amid persistent calls for investigations into alleged war crimes against Tamil civilians. A tribe
in Vanuatu that worships the Duke of Edinburgh was awaiting his imminent return to their
island to live in a hut with them.
0528. Gruenbaum, O. COMMONWEALTH UPDATE. The Round Table. 2010, 99(410):
467483.
Pakistan was hit by the worst natural disaster in its historyfive million people lost their
homes in the floods. Paul Kagame was re-elected with 93% of the vote in Rwandas presidential election but there were concerns about his increasingly authoritarian government.
Australias close elections led to Julia Gillard remaining prime minister at the head of a minority government. Kenyans celebrated the introduction of their new constitution. New Zealand
was rocked by an earthquake.
0529. Gruenbaum, O. COMMONWEALTH NEWS UPDATE. The Round Table. 2010,
99(411):585600.
Indias former telecoms minister Andimuthu Raja was accused of losing $35bn in the award
of mobile phone network licences. At least 12 people were killed by two car bombs at celebrations of Nigerias 50th anniversary of independence. The International Criminal Court
censured the Commonwealth secretary-general, Kamalesh Sharma, over apparently questioning the duty of states to hand over war crimes suspects. The New Zealand government was
derided for reducing the country to client status of an American film studio after Warner Bros
secured changes in its employment law and tax breaks to prevent it relocating a film production
elsewhere.
0530. Harnish, B. ALASDAIR MACINTYRE AND F. A. HAYEK ON THE ABUSE OF
REASON. The Independent Review. 2010, 15(2):179199.
In After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory (2007), Alasdair Maclntyre offers a disquieting
suggestion. He asks the reader to imagine that a catastrophe has beset the natural sciences. All
scientists, all science books, and all laboratories have been destroyed. Whatever bits of knowledge are left must be pieced together in fragments. Scientific discourse continues, but only as a
shell of its previous state. There is no context or coherence to any of it, and no one quite recognizes the disorder because the philosophies of the day cannot spot it. What purpose does this
parable serve? To Maclntyre, the chaotic state of science in this imaginary world is analogous
to the state of moral discourse in the actual world. He sees the history of moral discourse in the
same way that the history of science appears in the analogy: first, a state of order; second, a
catastrophe; and third, a continuing state of disorder.
0531. Hilhorst, D. et al. RECONSTRUCTION FROM BELOW: A NEW MAGIC
BULLET OR SHOOTING FROM THE HIP? Third World Quarterly. 2010, 31(7):11071124.
This article examines an emerging approach, called reconstruction from below, and its
growing body of practice. The article argues that interventions for post-war reconstruction
increasingly espouse a commitment to be bottom-up and contextually relevant, to look beyond
state institutions, and to provide space for local ownership. The article traces the emergence of
this approach to six factors present in international policy. It then examines the growing body
of practice in the domains of livelihoods, institution building and basic service provision. It
concludes that this approach is not the magic bullet that agencies seem to expect. Reconstruction from below rests on many untested assumptions.Programmes formed pursuant to these

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notions are often poorly adapted to the challenges encountered and hampered by mistrust of the
local institutions to which this approach rhetorically entrusts reconstruction. The large and
growing body of evolving experience suggests that it is time to take stock and learn lessons
about how reconstruction from below functions in practice.
0532. Hill, J. N. C. CORRUPTION IN THE COURTS: THE ACHILLES HEEL OF NIGERIAS REGULATORY FRAMEWORK? Third World Quarterly. 2010, 31(7):11611179.
The exponential growth in the size of the private security sector (PSS) in Africa has helped
give the issue of its regulation new importance. Yet the ongoing debates over what laws should
be passed and by whom tend to ignore the more basic and arguably urgent question of whether
African states justice systems are sufficiently robust to give this legislation meaning. The aim
of this paper is to cast some much needed light on this topic by drawing lessons from Nigerias
current experiences. By tracing the development of its PSS code and examining instances of
malpractice in its justice system, the article argues that its regulatory framework is fundamentally compromised by corruption.
0533. Hofmann, K. CANAANISM. Middle Eastern Studies. 2011, 47(2):273294.
With the two-state solution for Palestine having been on the political agenda since the UN
resolution of 1947, in fact since the Peel Commission Report of 1937, without being implemented, the alternative idea of a binational state or a state which will eventually transcend
binationalism by creating a nation of citizens of whatever ethnic, cultural, or religious background, is gaining increased attention, as evidenced by recent publications. Meron Benvenisti
stated in 2009 that under the given circumstances, it appears that the continued preoccupation
with establishing a Palestinian state is not just hopeless, but also injurious, since the delusions
that it fosters enable the continuation of the status quo. Supporters of a one-state solution may
want to trace their lineage to respected Zionists such as Martin Buber and Judah Magnes and
their circle, the Ihud. Few, however, will recall the most radical proponents of a single state to
supersede JewishArab antagonism, the Canaanites. Outdated as one of the various twentiethcentury schemes of endowing a modern nation with an ancient foundation, suspect as an offshoot of right-wing Zionism, notorious for its anti-Judaism, Canaanism is bound to be shunned
as a connection.
0534. Hosgor, E. ISLAMIC CAPITAL/ANATOLIAN TIGERS: PAST AND PRESENT.
Middle Eastern Studies. 2011, 47(2):343360.
The emergence of a specific business group in Turkey, Islamic capital (aka Green capital or
Anatolian Tigers), has been an interesting topic for many researchers. Some scholars explain
their rise in terms of individual efforts or entrepreneurial spirit. Others either rely strongly on
the religious/conservative discourse of such businessmen, or concentrate on their specific consumption patterns and lifestyles as the main indicator of class formation. Besides, since
contradictions among different business groups (capital fractions) are generally reduced to distributional conflicts, the rivalry between Istanbul-based business circles and Anatolian Tigers
are equated to size and region related conflicts. This also leads to a general misconception
that Islamic capital was mostly composed of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)
and that its economic domain is reducible to an enclave or sub-economy. However, there has
been a significant change in its size, scope and regional orientation; hence it is not fair to label
all SMEs as Islamic. Despite the growing literature, researchers still have difficulties in
distinguishing between the two.
0535. Hughes, L. DISSIDENT SCRIBES: SOME LESSER-KNOWN ACTIVISM IN
AND AROUND AFRICA IN THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. The Round Table. 2010,
99(408):249265.
Despite a growing body of work on anti-colonialist movements and the activities of individual activists, there remain large gaps in our knowledge of early agitation in and around Africa,
and the links between people. A scholarly focus on transnational networking in the 1930s to

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1950s tends to overshadow earlier agitation, by people whose achievements are too often forgotten now, but who laid the foundations for later struggle, decolonisation, and modern-day
humanitarian activity. This article discusses some lesser-known agitators, both European and
African, active in Africa in the 1900s (though Colenso began earlier), who used copious correspondence, the press and humanitarian networks to highlight colonial abuses and challenge
imperial policy. It focuses largely on, and draws parallels between, Dr Norman Leys (working
in East Africa), Henry Nevinson (West Africa), F. Z. S. Peregrino (West and South Africa) and
Harriette Colenso (South Africa).
0536. Hussey, K., and Lightfoot, S. A NEW ERA FOR EUAUSTRALIA RELATIONS?
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND THE CHALLENGE OF CLIMATE CHANGE AS
LITMUS TEST. The Round Table. 2010, 99(410):503513.
The election of the Labor government in 2007 appeared to usher in a new era of EUAustralian
relations with a greater focus on those areas of agreement between Australia and the EU. This
paper therefore explores the potential for closer cooperation between the EU and Australia in the
area of sustainable development. It takes climate change as a litmus test for the EUAustralia
relationship due to the prominence given to the issue by both the EU and Australia and the contentious nature of the issue in relations between the EU and Australia under the previous
government. After outlining the major tenets of the new era under the Rudd government, those
areas of policy divergence and convergence and thus opportunities for closer cooperation are
highlighted and the residual issues that could offer opportunities for closer cooperation. It is concluded that these residual issues hinder developments in the relationship, but more signs of a new
relationship are seen than previously.
0537. Jain, P. JAPANINDIA RELATIONS: PEAKS AND TROUGHS. The Round
Table. 2010, 99(409):403412.
Despite the absence of ill-will between Japan and India for most of the period since the end
of World War II, bilateral relations have not reached their full potential in any field political,
economic or socio-cultural. This article identifies peaks and troughs across the six decades of
post-war relations, first in the early post-war period and again in the mid-1980s. More recently,
the nadir following Indias nuclear testing in 1998 was followed by significantly improved
relations in the early 2000s, with the relationship reaching its post-war best in most areas when
Abe Shinzo (200607) was Japans prime minister. This article considers both domestic and
external factors that have caused these peaks and troughs. The final section considers the near
future of the bilateral relationship as a new government led by the Democratic Party of Japan
came to power in September 2009, replacing the long-term political monopoly of the Liberal
Democratic Party.
0538. Jin, K. K. THE 2008 FEDERAL ELECTIONS IN SARAWAK: A NOTE. The
Round Table. 2010, 99(408):267279.
In the aftermath of the 8 March elections, Sarawak was cast as an outlier, recalcitrant even, to the
perceived revolt against the incumbent Barisan Nasional. This short note attempts to show
that Sarawak actually fell within the overall voting pattern viewed in its total range, rather than in
summary outcomes. In that context, the note then attempts to argue that the voting patterns can be
accounted for by local reasons, hopes and fears, particularly in the case of the minority indigenous
groups collectively categorised as Other bumiputera. However, Chinese and Malay constituencies exhibited a pattern clearly correlated to ethnicity.
0539. Kakizaki, M. ANTI-IRAQ WAR PROTESTS IN TURKEY: GLOBAL NETWORKS, COALITIONS, AND CONTEXT. Middle Eastern Studies. 2011, 47(1):8199.
On the eve of the Iraq War, thousands of Turkish citizens joined anti-war protests against US
foreign policy in the Middle East and Turkeys cooperation with Washington. The protest
wave peaked in early 2003, when the Turkish Parliament nullified the parliamentary motion to
allow the US to launch its troops to Iraq through Turkey on 1 March 2003. Although recent

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investigations have focused on why Turkish parliamentarians voted against the motion, little is
known about how ordinary citizens participated in street protests against the war. On this basis,
I would like to consider the patterns and characteristics of popular participation in anti-war protests in Turkey using a content analysis of newspaper articles on protest episodes. I am
especially concerned about who played an important role in protests, when people protested,
and how they raised their voices. Considering that the Turkish peace movement was institutionally fragile and numerically marginal, it is interesting to ask why anti-war protesters were
able to organize large public meetings and mobilize thousands of participants in 2002 and
2003.
0540. Korf, B. THE GEOGRAPHY OF PARTICIPATION. Third World Quarterly. 2010,
31(5):709720.
Revisiting the critique of participatory development and one of its core political technologies, Participatory rural Appraisal (PRA), this paper suggests that participation in the form of
PRA creates provided spaces that dislocate development from politics and from political
institutions of the postcolonial state. PRA thereby becomes what Chantal Mouffe calls a
post-political aspiration through its celebration of deliberative democracy (although this is
largely implicit rather than explicit in the PRA literature). What makes this post-political
aspiration dangerous is that its provided spaces create a time-space container of a state of
exception (the workshop) wherein a new sovereign is created. In combination with other
developmental techniques, PRA has become a place where a new order is being constituted
the state of exception becomes permanent and nurtures the will to improve that undergirds
development.
0541. Kothari, U., and Wilkinson, R. COLONIAL IMAGINARIES AND POSTCOLONIAL
TRANSFORMATIONS: EXILES, BASES, BEACHES. Third World Quarterly. 2010, 31(8):
13951412.
This article draws on Edward Saids notion of imaginarygeographies to explore how representations of small island states enabled particular colonial interventions to take place in the
Indian Ocean region and to show how these representations are currently being reworked to
support development strategies. It examines how particular colonial imaginaries justified and
legitimised spatially and temporally extended transactions before focusing on two examples of
forced population movements: British colonial policy of forcibly exiling anti-colonial nationalists and political undesirablesfrom other parts of the empire to Seychelles; and the use of
islands, in the regionas strategic military bases, requiring the compulsory relocation of populations.While a colonising legacy pervades contemporary representations of these societies, such
depictions are not immutable but can be,and are being,appropriated and reworked through various forms of situated agency. Thus anisland imaginary has become an important cultural and
economic resource for small island states, most notably in the development of a tourist industry. The key challenge for vulnerable peripheral states is to create new forms of representations
that contest and replace tenacious colonialist depictions to provide greater opportunities for
sustained development.
0542. Lee, D., and Smith, N. J. SMALL STATE DISCOURSES IN THE INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY. Third World Quarterly. 2010, 31(7):10911105.
This article supports growing calls to take small states seriously in the international political economy but questions prevailing interpretations that smallness entails inherent qualities
that create unique constraints on, and opportunities for, small states. Instead, we argue that
discourses surrounding the inherent vulnerability of small states, especially developing and
less-developed states, may produce the very outcomes that are attributed to state size itself.
By presenting small states as a problem to be solved, vulnerability discourses divert attention
away from the existence of unequal power structures that, far from being the natural result of
smallness, are in fact contingent and politically contested. The article then explores these
themes empirically through discussion of small developing and less-developed states in the

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Commonwealth and the World Trade Organization (WTO), considering in particular how smallness has variously been articulated in terms of what small states either cannot or will not do.
0543. Mahdavi, S. HAJ MUHAMMAD HASSAN AMIN AL-ZARB: HIS WORLD AND
HIS PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE. Middle Eastern Studies. 2011, 47(2):379393.
Haj Muhammad Hassan Amin al-Zarb (183498) was a self-made man who went on to
become Irans first major entrepreneur. He started life in poverty and obscurity and ended his
days in wealth and prominence. His rise to social and economic importance was so meteoric
that it became the stuff of legends blending the myth and the reality of his life. He was a visionary with progressive ideas beyond his time. His world view was formed partly by his
experiences in childhood and early life but beyond that by his own perspicacity. His cosmos
was governed by his devotion to and responsibility for his family, both nuclear and extended,
by his deep religious belief, by patriotism and by the ambition to succeed in business.
0544. Maloberti, N. GOVERNMENT BY CHOICE: CLASSICAL LIBERALISM AND
THE MORAL STATUS OF IMMIGRATION BARRIERS. The Independent Review. 2011,
15(4):541562.
My object in this article is to answer the following question: Can we accept the fundamental
tenets of classical liberalism and at the same time support the states raising of immigration barriers? I argue that if we accept these tenets as essentially correct, we should regard immigration
barriers as essentially illegitimate.
0545. Martin, M. L. CHILD PARTICIPATION IN DISASTER RISK REDUCTION: THE
CASE OF FLOOD-AFFECTED CHILDREN IN BANGLADESH. Third World Quarterly.
2010, 31(8):13571375.
Children are particularly vulnerable to the effects of natural disasters. This article aims to
gain a deeper understanding of the specific effects of natural disasters on children and how
they could better be involved in the disaster risk reduction (DRR) process. The article begins
with a review of the literature published on the Child-led Disaster Risk Reduction (CLDRR)
approach and describes the key issues. Then it identifies the effects of floods on children in
Bangladesh and analyses the traditional coping mechanisms developed by communities, highlighting where they could be improved. Finally, it analyses how DRR stakeholders involve
children in the DRR process and identifies the opportunities and gaps for the mainstreaming of
a CLDRR approach in Bangladesh. This should contribute to a better understanding of how key
DRR stakeholders can protect children during natural disasters. Encouraging the building of
long-term, child-sensitive DRR strategies is an essential part of this process.
0546. Mcgregor, J., and Pasura, D. DIASPORIC REPOSITIONING AND THE POLITICS
OF RE-ENGAGEMENT: DEVELOPMENTALISING ZIMBABWES DIASPORA? The
Round Table. 2010, 99(411):687703.
The power-sharing agreement in Zimbabwe has ushered in a period of engagement between
the diaspora and homeland government, marking a distinct change from the hostility that characterised relations over previous years. This article discusses the politics of this repositioning
and the character of the new diasporic organisations formed in the wake of the Global Political
Agreement to take forward agendas of development and reconstruction at home. It argues that
these new diasporic organisations have tried to create non-partisan platforms for engagement,
have an elite social base, and connect responsibilities for development at home with the desire
for formal political rights. Despite an apparent convergence of interest around development
and reconstruction on the part of an array of diaspora groups, as well as the Zimbabwean and
British governments, there are, nonetheless, tensions among these actors that this article seeks
to reveal. It argues that a key issue shaping conversations over engagement is the divergence of
interest within the diaspora between those with and without security in their states of residence.
This divide is likely to become more salient in the context of a large-scale return programme,
especially if there is ongoing uncertainty in Zimbabwe and if repatriation is conceived as a final

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one-way movement rather than as part of an ongoing circulation in which people may choose to
maintain transnational lives. This discussion of the Zimbabwean case thus contributes to
broader debates over the tensions that characterise policies of diaspora engagement.
0547. Montanye, J. A. MERDECRACY. The Independent Review. 2010, 15(2):295299.
The strategy and tactics that propelled healthcare legislation through the United States
Senate unashamedly exposed the worst aspects of Congresss inner workings. The legislative
process long has been likened to sausage making but, until recently, concerted cries of fraud
and corruption rarely arose from within the beast. Then again, never before have the power of
lobbies and the self-interest of individual politicians been on such ostentatious display. Ordinary Americans who can still believe that their government is about them simply arent
paying attention.
0548. Mufamadi, S. LESSONS FROM AFRICAN DIPLOMATIC INITIATIVES IN THE
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, SUDAN AND ZIMBABWE. The Round Table.
2010, 99(411):621630.
Be robust, be tough on self-serving tyrants whose hands are dripping with the blood of their
own people. This has been the mantra chanted with quasi-religious conviction, directed at
leaders of South Africa, the Southern African Community and the African Union. Proponents
of this doctrine of coercive diplomacy are moved by a spirit that connects humanitarian intervention to regime change and the rights of democratic states to replace illiberal tyrants in the
name of both the victims and the wider call of security for the ethically superior liberal parts of
the world. This article examines the comparative utility of the approach outlined above vis-Bvis an approach that privileges suasion and engagement over confrontation. Serving as a representative case study for this comparison are three African countries, which have been mired in
conflicts that led to untold human suffering: the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan and
Zimbabwe. The article argues that not only do proponents of coercive diplomacy fundamentally misconceive the political dynamics of the countries, region and continent in which they
are seeking to intervene, but also that rather than providing an answer to the problem at
hand, their tough posture is at best ineffective and at worst counter-productive. Indeed, experience in these countries, and in others such as Angola, Namibia, Mozambique and South Africa
before them, challenges the universality of diplomatic approaches and assumptions that deify
coercive diplomacy as a means of solving conflicts. The article concludes by elaborating on the
nuances of the competing diplomatic approaches. These nuances, as well as the evidence culled
from the three experiences, buttress the authors view that the people and governments of
Africa share with the rest of the world a desire for a conflict-free continent and a peaceful
world. As they increase their agency for bringing this result about, they require and deserve to
be supported by the rest of the world.
0549. Mhfthler-BaH, M., and Bakan, D. THE FUTURE OF ENERGY SECURITY FOR
EUROPE: TURKEYS ROLE AS AN ENERGY CORRIDOR. Middle Eastern Studies. 2011,
47(2):361378.
A historic turning point for the future of European energy security and Turkeys role as a
transit country was reached with the signing of the Nabucco agreement on 13 July 2009. This
was a breakthrough agreement signed in Ankara between Turkey, Austria, Bulgaria, Hungary
and Romania for the transport of natural gas to the European Union territories. The agreement
officially inaugurated the Nabucco pipeline which according to the European Commission
president Jose Manuel Barrosowill provide energy security to Turkey, to southeast Europe
and to Central Europe. Nabucco is thus a truly European project, and Turkey and the EU have
tackled together a common challenge: the security and diversification of their energy supplies.
This article asserts that Turkey will play an increasingly critical role for the future of energy
security in Europe as most of the pipelines from the energy producing countries in the East to
the energy consumer countries in the West will pass through Turkish territory.

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0550. Munslow, B., and ODempsey, T. FROM WAR ON TERROR TO WAR ON


WEATHER? RETHINKING HUMANITARIANISM IN A NEW ERA OF CHRONIC
EMERGENCIES. Third World Quarterly. 2010, 31(8):12231235.
This special issue of Third World Quarterly makes a case for redirecting attention and
resources away from the war on terror and focussing as a matter of urgency on the causes
and consequences of global climate change. Global climate change must be recognised as an
issue of national and international security. Increased competition for scarce resources and
migration are key factors in the propagation of many of todays chronic complex humanitarian
emergencies. The relentless growth of megacities in natural disaster hotspots places unprecedented numbers of vulnerable people at risk of disease and death. The Earths fragile
ecosystem has reached a critical tipping point. Todays most urgent need is for a collective
endeavour on the part of the international community to redirect resources, enterprise and creativity away from the war on terror and to earnestly redeploy these in seeking solutions to the
far greater and increasingly imminent threats that confront us as a consequence of global
climate change.
0551. Mutlu, S. THE ECONOMIC COST OF CIVIL CONFLICT IN TURKEY. Middle
Eastern Studies. 2011, 47(1):6380.
A low-level war has been going on in south-eastern Turkey since August 1984 between the
government forces and the Kurdish separatists organized by the PKK (Partiya Karkeran
Kurdistan or Kurdistan Workers Party). Formally established in 1978, the PKKs activities
have been different from the other Kurdish armed movements in history. Whereas the latter had
targeted only the government forces, the PKK has indiscriminately targeted the civilian population as well. It has used terrorist tactics both as a means of armed propaganda and as a way of
coercing people through instilling fear to provide hide-outs and logistical support. Operating
from hide-outs in an especially suitable geography in the south-east and from safe havens in
Syria until 2001, and in northern Iraq, it inflicted heavy human and material damage, not only
in the conflict region but in other areas as well. During the 21-year period concluding at the end
of 2004 for which data are available, 4,552 civilians and 4,137 soldiers were killed, the injured
were 5,994 and 9,116 respectively. There were 1,952 deaths on the PKK side and 762 injuries
according to the official count. However these may represent an undercount in as much as the
PKK, whenever possible, hides its death and carries its injured across the border.
0552. Ndlovu-Gatsheni, S. J. ANGOLAZIMBABWE RELATIONS: A STUDY IN THE
SEARCH FOR REGIONAL ALLIANCES. The Round Table. 2010, 99(411):631653.
The common approach to the study of foreign policies of Southern African Development
Community (SADC) states is to locate them within the context of brother presidents and sister
liberation movements. There is emphasis on liberation war camaraderie as a key variable. However, Angola-Zimbabwe (read as MPLAZANU-PF and MPLAMDC) relations have no
noticeable strong liberation war-time ties. The relations are traceable to the post-1980 period
when the Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) pursued a deliberate
policy of integrating itself within the SADC region and this coincided with the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angolas (MPLA) long-time desire to isolate its internal enemies of
the National Front for the Liberation of Angola and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola. What is also noticeable is the opacity and ambiguities in AngolaZimbabwe
relations, which have provoked growth of speculation and suspicion. The only time Angola and
Zimbabwe openly collaborated was in their intervention in the Democratic Republic of Congo
war in 1998 under the auspices of the SADC in general and the SADC Organ on Politics, Defence
and Security in particular. However, two recent developmentsthe state visit to Luanda by the
Prime Minister of Zimbabwe and the leader of the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC-T)
Morgan Tsvangirai in October 2009, and the announcement by ZANU-PF of the China-Sonangol
$8bn investment deal in November 2009have provoked fresh interest in understanding
Angola-Zimbabwe relations in the context of a regional initiative to resolve the Zimbabwe crisis.
Although Angola is visible as a member of the SADC in the search for a solution to the

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Zimbabwe crisis, it has not openly expressed its foreign policy towards Zimbabwe. Unlike Botswana under Ian Khama and Zambia under the late Levy Mwanawasa, which openly criticised
President Robert Mugabe and ZANU-PF over governance and its human rights record, Angola
has remained quiet, making it hard to know its exact position vis-B-vis initiatives towards resolution of the Zimbabwe crisis. Interest in Angolan foreign policy is further motivated by the fact of
its ascendancy as one of the regional powers; building on its rich mineral resources, it has the
potential leverage to help in the resolution of the Zimbabwe crisis if it openly expressed its position. At the moment, it is not clear whether Angola has also adopted quiet diplomacy, just like
South Africa under President Thabo Mbeki in its dealings with Zimbabwe.
0553. Price, N. INTEGRATING RETURN WITH RECOVERY: UTILISING THE
RETURN PROCESS IN THE TRANSITION TO POSITIVE PEACE: A CASE STUDY OF
SRI LANKA. The Round Table. 2010, 99(410):529545.
Following the defeat of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) on 18 May 2009, Sri
Lanka has recently entered a new era of negative peace. For the huge number of displaced persons, predominately of Tamil origin, who are currently trapped in camps in the North, the
beneficial effects of peace remain unseen. This paper explores the links between resolving
internal displacement and the transition to a positive peace. Under the 2002 Ceasefire Agreement, both the government and the LTTE failed to integrate return with recovery, undermining
the wider peacebuilding process and contributing to further violence. In the context of military
victory, the paper argues for an integrated approach to return and recovery, which will foster a
new social contract between the government and internally displaced persons, utilising the
return process in the transition to positive peace.
0554. Provence, M. OTTOMAN MODERNITY, COLONIALISM, AND INSURGENCY
IN THE INTERWAR ARAB EAST. International Journal of Middle East Studies. 2011, 43:
205225.
The foundations of both Arab and Turkish nationalism lay in the late Ottoman mass education
and conscription project and in the region-wide struggle against colonial rule in the 1920s and
1930s. The anticolonial insurgencies of the 1920s and 1930s have passed into history as the formative expressions of new nations: the Turkish War of Independence, the Iraqi revolt of 1920,
the Syrian Battle of Maysalun, the Great Syrian Revolt, and the Palestinian uprisings of 1920,
1929, and 1936. But all insurgents of the 1920s had been Ottoman subjects, and many and probably most had been among the nearly three million men mobilized into the Ottoman army between
1914 and 1918. The Ottoman State, like all 19th-century European powers, had made mass education and conscription a centerpiece of policy in the decades before the Great War.
0555. Raftopoulos, B. THE GLOBAL POLITICAL AGREEMENT AS A PASSIVE
REVOLUTION: NOTES ON CONTEMPORARY POLITICS IN ZIMBABWE. The Round
Table. 2010, 99(411):705718.
The Global Political Agreement (GPA) signed between the two Movements for Democratic
Change and the Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) set the change
fora new set of political dynamics in Zimbabwe. Although it has not transformed the coercive
base of ZANU-PFs support, it has led to new battles for state power and changes in the strategies of the major political parties. The discussion below uses the great Italian Marxist Antonio
Gramscis conception of the passive revolution to understand the changes in the political
economy that have marked recent Zimbabwean politics, looking in particular at the different
approaches of the three parties to the GPA during this period.
0556. Rahman, M. M. BANGLADESHI MIGRANT WORKERS IN THE UAE:
GENDER-DIFFERENTIATED PATTERNS OF MIGRATION EXPERIENCES. Middle
Eastern Studies. 2011, 47(2):395411.
Since the 1970s, one of the largest labour markets for the Maghreb (Morocco, Tunisia, Libya
and Algeria), the Mashreq (Egypt, Jordan, Occupied Palestinian Territories, Lebanon, Syria

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 147

and Yemen) and Asian (South Asia and Southeast Asia) migrant workers has been that of the
Gulf States. In the 1980s, the number of foreign workers reached 5.2 million, and in all the Gulf
Cooperation Council (GCC) countries foreign workers constituted the majority of the
workforce. During the period from1990 to 2005, the number of migrant workers in the GCC
increased from 9 million in 1990 to an estimated 13 million in 2005. The volume of migrant
labour is so huge that national populations of nearly all the Gulf countries have become minorities in their own countries. The proportion of migrant stock to total population in the GCC is
one of the highest in the world (70.27 per cent); the proportion of female migrants is only about
29 per cent of total migrants in the region. The GCC countries are considered within the context
of the South-Southlabour migration because of predominance of labour migration flows from
comparatively poor Arab and Asian countries.
0557. Ramesh, S. CONSTITUTIONALISM AND GOVERNANCE IN FIJI. The Round
Table. 2010, 99(410):491502.
The President of Fiji abrogated the 1997 Constitution in April 2009 and the country was suspended from the Pacific Islands Forum and the Commonwealth, despite Fiji disclosing a
potential time line for general elections by 2014 under a new open-list proportional voting
system. The European Union subsidy for Fijis sugar industry was also frozen following accusations that Fiji had breached the 2007 revised Cotonou Agreement, where it promised to hold
elections by 2009. This article charts the tensions between the post-2006 coup Fiji government
and the 1997 Constitution caused by the legal action from the deposed government, and differences with the Fiji Military Forces Commander Commodore Frank Bainimarama over a quick
return to democracy push from the Pacific Islands Forum, the Commonwealth and the European Union. Continued diplomatic pressure from Forum members, Australia and New Zealand
increased tensions as Fiji deported the High Commissioners of these two countries in November 2009 and imposed Public Emergency Regulations that curbed freedom of expression of
local critics. In what could be seen as a deepening of military rule, Bainimarama clarified in
early 2010 that the military would continue to monitor the elected government after the proposed 2014 election and barred mainstream political parties from participating in any future
political forum or general elections.
0558. Ramphal, S. IRELAND: TIME TO COME HOME. The Round Table. 2010,
99(408):317320.
This article argues that, as the modern Commonwealth celebrates its 60th anniversary, the
time has come for Irelandwhich left the organisation in April 1949 baulking at the prospect
of allegiance to the British Crownto return to the fold, now that Republican constitutions
are common among Commonwealth members and new entrants, without historic links with
Britain and the Crown, have been welcomed in.
0559. Repekait, D. AUSTERITY AGAINST THE HOMO SOVIETICUS: POLITICAL
CONTROL, CLASS IMAGININGS, AND ETHNIC CATEGORIZATION IN THE VILNIUS
RIOTS OF 2009. FocaalJournal of Global and Historical Anthropology. 2011, 59:5165.
This article analyzes the public discourse on the riots of 16 January 2009, in Vilnius, when
protest against economic shock therapy ended in violent clashes with the police. Politicians
and the media were quick to ethnicize the riots, claiming an involvement of foreign
influences and noting that the rioters had been predominantly Russian-speaking.
Analyzing electronic and print media, the article identifies a wider tendency, particularly
among middle-class Lithuanian youth, of portraying the social class consisting of losers of
the post-soviet transition as aggressive and primitive Others. A pseudo-ethnicity that combines Russian language and culture with lower-class background into a notion of homo
sovieticus comes to stand for what is hindering the clean up of Lithuania and middle-class
aspirations to form a new European identity. As such, the riots serve as a lens that illuminates
the way ethnicity is flexibly utilized to shift political loyalties.

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0560. Robinson, S. E., and Eller, W. S. PARTICIPATION IN POLICY STREAMS:


TESTING THE SEPARATION OF PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS IN SUBNATIONAL
POLICY SYSTEMS. The Policy Studies Journal. 2010, 38(2):199216.
The multiple streams theory of national policymaking has been influential in the study of
public administration and public policyif not without a fair bit of controversy. While some laud
the model for its openness to the important role of policy entrepreneurs and the irrationalities of
the decisionmaking processes, others criticize the model for its lack of readily testable propositions. This article identifies a series of testable propositions in the multiple streams model
(particularly that discussed by Kingdon). We assess whether participation in local policymaking
(focusing on school district policymaking related to violence prevention) is characterized by
separate streams of participants or is dominated by organized participants like interest groups
or policy specialists. We found evidence of unity (rather than separation) in the policymaking
process and scant evidence of elite, organized interests dominating the policymaking process.
The results call into question a key assumption of the multiple streams model.
0561. Salameh, F. TOWARDS A NEW ECOLOGY OF MIDDLE EASTERN IDENTITIES. Middle Eastern Studies. 2011, 47(2):237253.
For nearly a century of Western academic interest in the modern Middle East, the region has
been viewed and dealt with almost exclusively through cultural, political, and geographic
semantics and by way of mental clichJs beholden to the biases of Arabs, Arab nationalists, and
Muslims. Some four decades ago British historian Elie Kedourie lamented the fact that scholarship in his field, that is, Middle East Studies as a Western academic endeavour, had in the
second half of the twentieth century become a tedious and soporific preoccupation besotted
with Arab disaffections, Arab fears, Arab hopes, and Arab concerns, to the neglect of other renditions of Middle Eastern histories and stories. Kedourie claimed that, often evincing lack of
imagination and ideological bias, Middle East experts routinely reduced an area of history and
geography that is otherwise a potpourri of cultures, languages, and identities, to a monolithic
universe of Arabs, Arabic-speakers, and Muslims alone; an Arab World, as it were, denuded
of its pre-Arab patrimony and its post-Arab accretions.
0562. Samatar, A. et al. THE DIALECTICS OF PIRACY IN SOMALIA: THE RICH
VERSUS THE POOR. Third World Quarterly. 2010, 31(8):13771394.
Somali piracy has been poorly understood and consequently the international strategy
designed to curtail it has not worked. Because of this mismatch some of the pirates have
extended their exploits deep into the Indian Ocean. This article provides an analysis which
shows that several pirate types driven by different logics have operated along the Somali coast
and all but one of these pirates emerged as a result of the Somali states disintegration. In contrast, pirates in other Third World regions operate under established states. Therefore, we argue
that piracy is not only a matter of robbery on the high seas, but that political economy and conflict over resources have been fundamental to the rise of piracy in the region. The article offers
a more refined assessment of the piracy in the region, as well as a critical appraisal of the moral
economy of Somali pirates which yields an alternative method of understanding and curbing
the problem.
0563. Schorkowitz, D. GESCHICHTE, IDENTIT?T UND GEWALT IM KONTEXT
POSTSOZIALISTISCHER NATIONSBILDUNG. [HISTORY, IDENTITY, AND VIOLENCE IN POSTSOCIALIST NATION-BUILDING.] Zeitschrift fhr Ethnologie. 2010,
135:99160. in German.
With the breakdown of socialism in Eastern Europe in the late 80s and its earlier decline
in the wake of Deng Xiaopings ambitious reforms preparing the Peoples Republic of China
for the global market, images of the past are utilized for power accumulation by various national
elites. The comeback of national ideas in postsocialism went along with the replacement of communist dogmas, a radical shift in ideological paradigms and a concurrent re-emergence of
ethnicity leading to an increasing ethnicization and confessionalization of the social sphere.

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These processes not only reinforce existing tendencies of regionalism in multinational states
paving the way for administrative-territorial reshuffles and nationalistic-based segregations in
peripheral regions. They often also veil the extent to which nativist and post-colonial movements
are frequently intertwined in their strife for cultural and political sovereignty.
0564. Scorgie, L. PERIPHERAL PARIAH OR REGIONAL REBEL? THE ALLIED
DEMOCRATIC FORCES AND THE UGANDA/CONGO BORDERLAND. The Round
Table. 2011, 100(412):7993.
The Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) have inflicted damage and insecurity on the Rwenzori
region of Uganda for over a decade and, although their strength has diminished, still constitute
a threat. This article argues that it is inadequate to see the ADF primarily as an internal Ugandan rebel group. Rather, the groups cross-border dimension with the Democratic Republic of
the Congo should be conceptualised as a transnational phenomenon. A borderland analytic
framework offers the best means of understanding the movement.
0565. Sharma, K. DEMOCRACY AND THE COMMONWEALTH. The Round Table.
2011, 100(412):3949.
In this article, the author takes a wide-ranging look at the ways in which the Commonwealth
has been working towards the realisation of its core values and examines the areas where further work needs to be done.
0566. Sharp, J. et al. THE VIOLENCE OF AID? GIVING, POWER AND ACTIVE
SUBJECTS IN ONE WORLD CONSERVATISM. Third World Quarterly. 2010, 31(7):
11251143.
Using ieks theorisation of power, we analyse the UK Conservative Partys Green Paper
on international development, One World Conservatism (OWC). We argue that by placing
the Wests giving of development aid as something beyond politics, on the moral high-ground
of self-evident certainty, it acts to deflect attention from critical engagement with the nature of
globalisation, power and aid itself, hiding both economic and epistemological violences behind
the apparently benevolent act of giving. An analysis of the nature of the green paper demonstrates the ways in which it draws in UK citizens as active subjects complicit with this vision of
the world.
0567. Shughart II, W. F. DISASTER RELIEF AS BAD PUBLIC POLICY. The Independent
Review. 2011, 15(4):519539.
At first blush, disaster relief belongs to a class of problems ill suited for private-market solution. It seems obvious that coordinated emergency responses on a scale and scope far beyond
the capacities of individual actors, charitable organizations, and even local and state governments are indispensable when Mother Nature strikes with the wrath of a Hurricane Camille,
Andrew, or Katrina, when levee breeches cause massive flooding of towns and farmland along
the upper Mississippi Valley, or when tornadoes and earthquakes shatter lives and wreck property in the blink of an eye. Disaster relief arguably is, in short, something of a public good that
would be undersupplied if responsibility for providing it were left in the hands of the private
sector. If this line of reasoning is sound, the activity of the Federal Emergency Management
Agency (FEMA) or something like it is a proper function of the national government.
0568. Simmons, R. T. et al. BOOTLEGGERS, BANTISTS, AND POLITICAL ENTREPRENEURS: KEY PLAYERS IN THE RATIONAL GAME AND MORALITY PLAY OF
REGULATORY POLITICS. The Independent Review. 2011, 15(3):367381.
Much of the academic discussion about rent seeking and interest-group politics focuses
on available rents and the groups seeking them. We can enrich those discussions by attending
to the political entrepreneurs who assist in identifying, seeking, and allocating the rents.
In this article, therefore, we focus on political entrepreneurship in the rent-seeking society.
One of the best models of the rent-seeking society pertains to bootleggers and Baptists,

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whose story provides a framework for considering how political entrepreneurs operate in the
rent-seeking society. Political entrepreneurship as a class of action obviously plays a role in
all political contexts, not only in the bootlegger-and-Baptist frame-work. To limit the scope
of the present inquiry, however, we focus on this framework only.
0569. Singh, B. THE EVOLUTION OF JAPANS SECURITY ROLE IN SOUTHEAST
ASIA. The Round Table. 2010, 99(409):391402.
This paper traces the evolution of Japan-Southeast Asia security relations over the Cold War
and the post-Cold War periods. It makes two main points. First, Japans relationship with
Southeast Asia is slowly overcoming its traditional aversion of security affairs in defining its
relations with Southeast Asia in the post-Cold War period. Japan has moved beyond economics
to gradually carve out a more proactive role in the security affairs of Southeast Asia in the
areas of multilateral security dialogues, peacekeeping missions, disaster relief provision, combating piracy, and others. Second, Southeast Asian states have become more amenable to Japan
assuming a security role in the region. Not only have the new security roles contributed to
enhanced trust and confidence between Japan and Southeast Asia, but Japan has also achieved
the status of being a core security actor in Southeast Asian affairs. This role will continue to
flourish in the post-Cold War period.
0570. Singh, J. T. N. RECONSTITUTING THE NEOSTRUCTURALIST STATE: THE
POLITICAL ECONOMY OF CONTINUITY AND CHANGE IN CHILEAN MINING
POLICY. Third World Quarterly. 2010, 31(8):14131433.
The Chilean governance model of resource extraction challenges the view that postneoliberalism is an opposing development model rejecting the Washington Consensus, which is
constitutive of neoliberal governance. Instead, post-neoliberalism is continuity with change,
where marketised governance in mining is maintained by the Chilean state yet certain policy
agendas are introduced in response to the failures of staunchly private sector-driven development. Neostructuralism follows the logic of productivism, which emphasise the depoliticisation
of copper management and the political exclusion of voices critical of the model. However, it
breaks away from the typical mode of neoliberalism because there exist political spaces for
contestation of copper policy, particularly through the re-regulation of labour practices and the
passage of royalty law to address Chiles vulnerabilities to external factors affecting copper production. The article contributes to the understanding of continuities and changes in postneoliberal Latin America by unpacking the elements of natural resource governance in one of the
most widely cited successful cases of a mining-based development model in the developing
world.
0571. Stiegler, B. TELECRACY AGAINST DEMOCRACY. Cultural Politics. 2010, 6(2):
171180.
The text we publish here is the first chapter of Bernard Stieglers La Te'le'cratie contre la
De'mocratie. The broad argument of Stieglers book (and of this introductory chapter) is that
what he terms telecracy is ruining democracy by short-circuiting the normal mechanisms of
politics and destroying the foundations of citizenship, as understood since the Greeks. As a
result, television and the wider televisual program industries have become the central political issue within our societies.
0572. Talhamy, Y. AMERICAN PROTESTANT MISSIONARY ACTIVITY AMONG
THE NUSAYRIS (ALAWIS) IN SYRIA IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. Middle Eastern
Studies. 2011, 47(2):215236.
The first steps to formalize the relations between the West and the Ottoman Empire were
taken in 1535 when Sultan Sulayman the Magnificent (152066) granted France capitulations
according to which the French obtained considerable trading privileges in the Ottoman Empire.
In 1580 England was also granted formal capitulations and appointed its first ambassador to the
Sublime Porte. These capitulations facilitated the stay of foreigners throughout the Ottoman

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Empire territory, and even encouraged others to travel through these lands for pilgrimage or for
trade.
0573. Tuastad, D. THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL CLIENTELISM IN THE NATIONAL
FACTIONALISM OF PALESTINE. Third World Quarterly. 2010, 31(5):791802.
In this article I investigate the role of the international communitys Policy in the national
factionalism in Palestine. I attempt to illuminate how international policy has contributed to the
sustaining of internecine Palestinian violence as Fatah, which lost the elections in 2005 and
2006, has been motivated not to hand over power. In the process of selecting allies in the fight
against Islamist terrorism, the epitomic undemocratic feature of Arab political culture,
clientelism has been promoted over democracy. Hamas seizing power in Gaza in 2007 probably resulted from the need to tame unruly militant groups which were sponsored by leaders of
the Palestinian Fatah party, which again were supported by Western powers. To understand the
national splitting in Palestine there is a need to analyse the interconnection between warlords,
local clientelism and international clientelism.
0574. Walton, D. THE ROLE OF PRIME MINISTERS IN AUSTRALIAJAPAN
RELATIONS: HOWARD AND RUDD. The Round Table. 2010, 99(409):429437.
In the post-war period Australian Prime Ministers have played a proactive role in formulating foreign policy towards Japan. This paper explores the role of executive leadership towards
Japan and its impact on the bilateral relationship. The Howard period and current Ruddled initiatives on whaling, nuclear disarmament, climate change and regional architecture are
discussed.
0575. Watts, T., and Barton, J. I CANT DRIVE 55: THE ECONOMICS OF THE CB
RADIO PHENOMENON. The Independent Review. 2011, 15(3):383397.
In response to the 1973 oil crisis, the U.S. Congress passed and President Richard M. Nixon
signed into law the Emergency Highway Energy Conservation Act in January 1974. This law
compelled each state government to set a maximum highway speed of 55 miles per hour (mph)
in order to continue to receive federal highway funds. According to Nixons official statement
upon signing the bill, the law aimed principally at helping to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel
consumption during the energy crisis.
0576. Weitz, Y. GOLDA MEIR, ISRAELS FOURTH PRIME MINISTER (196974).
Middle Eastern Studies. 2011, 47(1):4361.
Golda Meir (Myerson) served as Prime Minister of Israel for more than five years, from
March 1969 to June 1974. She was 71 years old when she came into office, after a lengthy
public career in the Israeli Government the Jewish Agency and the Histad\rut (General Federation of Labour). She was born in Kiev, the capital of the Ukraine, on 3 May 1898 to Moshe and
Bluma Mabovitch. Her first memory was of the pogrom in that citya traumatic event for her.
0577. Welz, M. ZIMBABWES INCLUSIVE GOVERNMENT: SOME OBSERVATIONS ON ITS FIRST 100 DAYS. The Round Table. 2010, 99(411):605619.
Zimbabwe seemed to be in a political transitionbut only on the surface. In actual fact, the
new government established under the power-sharing agreement between President Mugabe
and newly elected Prime Minister Morgan Tsvangirai proved unsuccessful in its first 100 days
owing to continued rivalry and a lack of commitment on behalf of Mugabe and his party.
Mugabe managed to secure key positions in the new government for his cronies. They continued to control the relevant security organs as well as the Reserve Bank, which held a key
position because its Governor guarded the budget available for the new ministers. Consequently, sabotage was an imminent threat for the new government. Mugabe benefited from the
weakness of the opposition, which was split and had an indecisive and uncharismatic leader
who failed to secure financial support from the West. To complicate the situation even further
there were more players involved in the political arena of Zimbabwe, including the two

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major farmers groupings, an emerging third party under Simba Makoni, the trade unions and
white businessmen. They all had their own agenda. Mugabe and his ruling clique relied on each
other as they had both committed gross human rights violations over the last 25 years. They
either fall together or their mutual dependency keeps them going. Change was unlikely to
occur; even the new Movement for Democratic Change ministers were aware of this.
0578. Whitfield, L. THE STATE ELITE, PRSPS AND POLICY IMPLEMENTATION IN
AID-DEPENDENT GHANA. Third World Quarterly. 2010, 31(5):721737.
This article describes and explains the impact of the donor-driven Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) and the aid modalities surrounding it in Ghana. It focuses on the period in
which the New Patriotic Party (NPP) government was in power from 2001 until 2008, but
places this within the broader context of aid dependence in Ghana since the 1980s. It is argued
that the PRSP documents produced by the government had little impact on implementing
policy actions, but rather their function was to secure debt relief and the continuation of foreign
aid from official donors. The article examines what was actually implemented during the NPP
government and the factors that influenced those actions. More generally it highlights the constraints Ghanaian governments have faced in pursuing economic transformation within
contemporary domestic and international contexts.
0579. Whittall, J. HUMANITARIAN EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS: MYTH AND
REALITY. Third World Quarterly. 2010, 31(8):12371250.
The field of humanitarian early warning has emerged as a way to alert governments about
countries facing imminent humanitarian crises, based on indicators of potential conflict, food
shortages and other related issues. Early warning as a technical field has often failed because
intervention in another state is based on national self-interests and the constraints of sovereignty. Governments continue to be unresponsive to areas outside of these considerations.
Because this reality is overlooked, all the literature reviewed focuses on the technical fixes
required to address the well known failures in early warning. As such, humanitarian early
warning is frequently inconsequential at best, and at worst it has become instrumentalised by
states to justify their interventions in countries based on their national self-interest, which is
increasingly linked to national security in the era of the so-called global war on terror.
0580. Wight, J. B. PUBLIC POLICY, HUMAN INSTINCTS, AND ECONOMIC
GROWTH. The Independent Review. 2011, 15(3):351365.
The world does not appear to make sense. If it did Botswana would be as miserable and poor
as its neighbor Zambia. Instead, Botswanas standard of living of more than $13,000 per person
is more than eight times higher, its literacy rate is 12 percentage points greater, and its infant
mortality rate is 68 percent lower. According to many conventional theories of development,
Botswana would never be a candidate for success: it is a sparsely populated country that does
not enjoy economies of scale or scope in manufacturing. It is landlocked, with high transactions
costs for interacting with global markets.
0581. Wyrtzen, J. COLONIAL STATE-BUILDING AND THE NEGOTIATION OF
ARAB AND BERBER IDENTITY IN PROTECTORATE MOROCCO. International Journal
of Middle East Studies. 2011, 43:227249.
Colonial state-building in Protectorate Morocco, particularly the total pacification of territory and infrastructural development carried out between 1907 and 1934, dramatically
transformed the social and political context in which collective identity was imagined in
Moroccan society. Prior scholarship has highlighted the struggle between colonial administrators and urban Arabophone nationalist elites over Arab and Berber ethnic classifications used
by French officials to make Moroccan society legible in the wake of conquest. This study turns
to the understudied question of how rural, tribal communities responded to state- and nationbuilding processes, drawing on a unique collection of Tamazight (Berber) poetry gathered in
the Atlas Mountains to illuminate the multiple levels on which their sense of group identity was

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 153

negotiated. While studies of identity in the interwar Arab world have concentrated on how PanIslamism, Pan-Arabism, and local nationalisms functioned in the Arab East, this article
changes the angle of analysis, beginning instead at the margins of the Arab West to explore
interactions between the consolidation of nation-sized political units and multivocal efforts to
reframe the religious and ethnic parameters of communal solidarity during the colonial period.
0582. Zanotti, L. CACOPHONIES OF AID, FAILED STATE BUILDING AND NGOS
IN HAITI: SETTING THE STAGE FOR DISASTER, ENVISIONING THE FUTURE. Third
World Quarterly. 2010, 31(5):755771.
The January 2010 earthquake in Haiti was a catastrophe not only for the loss of life it caused,
but also because it destroyed the very thin layer of state administrative capacity that was in
place in the country. This article argues that the fragility of the Haitian state institutions was
exacerbated by international strategies that promoted NGOs as substitutes for the state. These
strategies have generated a vicious circle that, while solving immediate logistical problems,
ended up weakening Haitis institutions. However, the article does not call for an overarching
condemnation of NGOs. Instead, it explores two cases of community-based NGOs, Partners In
Health and Fonkoze, that have contributed to creating durable social capital, generated
employment and provided functioning services to the communities where they operated. The
article shows that organisations that are financially independent and internationally connected,
embrace a needs-based approach to their activities and share a long-term commitment to the
communities within which they operate can contribute to bringing about substantial improvement for people living in situations of extreme poverty. It concludes that in the aftermath of a
crisis of the dimension of the January earthquake it is crucial to channel support towards
organisations that show this type of commitment.

PSYCHOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
0583. Andreasen, N. C. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: A HISTORY AND A
CRITIQUE. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1208:6771.
Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is sometimes considered to be a relatively
new diagnosis, as the name first appeared in 1980, the concept of the disorder has a very long
history. That history has often been linked to the history of war, but the disorder has also been
frequently described in civilian settings involving natural disasters, mass catastrophes, and
serious accidental injuries. The diagnosis first appeared in the official nomenclature when
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-I was published in 1952 under
the name gross stress reaction. It was omitted however, in the next edition in 1968, after a long
period of relative peace. When DSM-III was developed in the mid-1980s the recent occurrence
of the Vietnam War provoked a more thorough examination of the disorder. PTSD was defined
as a stress disorder that is a final common pathway occurring as a consequence of many different types of stressors including both combat and civilian stress. The definition of PTSD has
filled an important niche in clinical psychiatry. Its definition continues to raise important
questions about the relationship between a stressar the individual experiencing it, and the
characteristics symptoms.
0584. Aragno, A. LISTENING WITH A THIRD EAR, A SECOND HEART, AND A
SIXTH SENSE: STANDING ON THE SHOULDERS OF THEODOR REIK. Psychoanalytic
Review. 2011, 98(2):183204.
The year of the publication of Listening with the Third Ear, 1948, coincided with the formal
founding of the National Psychological Association for Psychoanalysis (NPAP). What a formidable time this must have been for a man who had certainly had his share of adversity. It
appears at the apex of a life and career characterized by controversy, steadfastness, and
reconstitution, again and again. Despite many displacements and tribulations Reik acquired what
few analysts achieve anywhere, anytime: a popular readership and a name. I feel a strong kinship

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with the fervent stance of this early analyst in his defense of his ideas, and I have become cognizant to what degree I, in particular, am a beneficiary of his legacies.
0585. Armstrong, D., and Shakespeare-Finch, J. RELATIONSHIP TO THE BEREAVED
AND PERCEPTIONS OF SEVERITY OF TRAUMA DIFFERENTIATE ELEMENTS OF
POSTTRAUMATIC GROWTH. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying. 2011, 63(2):125140.
The field of bereavement and grief has been expanding to recognise the potential for growth
following the loss of a loved one. This study sought to examine the effect of the relationship to
the deceased and perceptions of the severity of the trauma on dimensions of posttraumatic
growth. Participants were 146 people who had lost either: a) a first degree relative b) a second
degree relative, or c) a non-related friend. Results demonstrated that both severity and the
relationship to the bereaved differentiate posttraumatic growth outcomes. For example, participants who had lost a first degree relative reported higher levels of growth than those who had
lost a second degree relative. Consistent with previous research in general trauma populations,
the more severe the loss was rated, the higher the levels of growth. Implications for practice are
discussed.
0586. Arnd-Caddigan, M. et al. TEACHING HUMAN BEHAVIOR AND THE SOCIAL
ENVIRONMENT TO ENHANCE STUDENTS PERSONAL EPISTEMOLOGY. Journal of
Human Behavior in the Social Environment. 2010, 20:974988.
Current trends in education practices focus on students personal epistemologies and their
development. Two social work educators took specific steps to attempt to enhance the personal
epistemologies of the social work students in their courses in human behavior in the social
environment. One instructor repeated the trajectory of the reflective judgment model in her lectures, and the other gave a series of assignments that presented students with ill-structured
problems to solve. Preliminary qualitative and quantitative data provided support for their subjective judgments that the teaching methods assisted students in moving toward more
sophisticated personal epistemology. This article outlines the teaching methods and the data
used and the current literature on personal epistemology.
0587. Auvinen-Lintunen, L. et al. MENTAL IMAGERY AMONG YOUNG VIOLENT
OFFENDERS: VIVIDNESS AND CONTROLLABILITY. Imagination, Cognition and Personality. 2011, 30(4):389406.
Severely aggressive persons with antisocial and psychopathic tendencies are suggested to
have deficits in their imagery processes, Based on empirical evidence, our aim is to analyze the
relationship between criminal violent behavior and mental imagery. We compared characteristics of mental imagery, such as mental vividness and controllability, between groups of young
violent male offenders (n = 28, average age = 19 years) and non-violent young men (n = 29,
average age = 18 years). We hypothesized that young offenders with a history of severe violent
crime would show a lower level of vividness and controllability than non-offenders.
0588. Aymer, S. R. BEYOND INVISIBILITY: PSYCHOSOCIAL REFLECTIONS ON
HOW PRESIDENT OBAMAS IMAGE CAN AFFECT YOUNG AFRICAN AMERICAN
MALES. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment. 2010, 20:827837.
A new chapter in U. S. history has been written, an African American man accomplished that
which seemed impossible: Barrack Obama became the forty-fourth president of the United
States. Arguably this inspired positive feelings in many Americans irrespective of racial, cultural and status. For young African American men, however, I believe this victory may
symbolize a new beginning filled with infinite possibilities, which can minimize feelings of
invisibility. Thus, this article focuses on how President Obamas image can emerge as a role
model for young African American men who are confronted with stereotypic representations
of themselves. My scholarship, my therapeutic work with young African American men, and
the reality of having an African American president have inspired me to write this article.

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 155

0589. Bach, S. CHIMERAS: IMMUNITY, INTERPENETRATION, AND THE TRUE


SELF. Psychoanalytic Review. 2011, 98(1):3956.
In Greek mythology, the Chimera was an awesome fire-breathing monster with the head of a
lion the body of a goat, and the tail of a serpent, but in medicine, a chimera is a person composed of two genetically distinct types of cells. I learned from a fascinating article on immunity
that human chimeras were first discovered when it was found that some people had more than
one blood type. Most of them proved to be blood chimeras, that is, nonidentical twins who
shared a blood supply in the uterus. But many more people are microchimeras and carry
smaller numbers of foreign blood cells that may have passed across the placenta from their
mother, or persist from a blood transfusion or in vitro fertilization.
0590. Baker, L. R. et al. SOCIAL WORK PRACTITIONERS AND PRACTICE EVALUATION: HOW ARE WE DOING? Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment.
2010, 20:963973.
Practice evaluation is an important component of evidence-based social work practice. Previous research in this area has concluded that even though social workers receive evaluation
training, it remains under-utilized in practice. This study discusses the results of a survey of
134 social workers across different social work settings, positions, and level of preparation,
examining incidence and type of evaluation activity, training received, and barriers related to
implementing practice evaluation in the practice setting. Results report that the majority of
social workers are not involved in evaluation activities beyond collecting basic statistics.
0591. Balsis, S. et al. THE PRESENTATION OF NARCISSISTIC PERSONALITY DISORDER IN AN OCTOGENARIAN: CONVERGING EVIDENCE FROM MULTIPLE
SOURCES. Clinical Gerontologist. 2011, 34:7187.
Little is known about personality disorders (PDs) in later life. One reason for this dearth of
knowledge is that many investigators believe that PDs soften with age. Recent anecdotal and
empirical evidence, however, suggests that PDs are still very relevant in later life and may actually have unique presentations and consequences. The DSM-IV PD criteria seem to overlook
these possibilities, perhaps because the personalities of older adults were not sufficiently
understood when these criteria were written. But without age-appropriate criteria, clinicians
and investigators who work with older adults may be unable to measure PDs adequately in their
clients and research participants. A starting point for better understanding these disorders in
older adults is the presentation of rich, empirical, clinical descriptions of symptoms and related
behaviors using data from multiple instruments and sources. To this end, we describe in depth a
case of narcissistic PD (NPD) in a woman in her mid 80s. This case study reveals that NPD is
indeed relevant in the context of later life and impairs functioning in significant ways.
0592. Benge, J. F. et al. BEYOND A&OX3: WHAT TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL ORIENTATION QUESTIONS TELL CLINICIANS ABOUT COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION IN
ALZHEIMERS DISEASE. Clinical Gerontologist. 2011, 34:4556.
Orientation to time and place is frequently assessed in conditions such as Alzheimers disease (AD). Despite the ubiquitous nature of orientation screening in mental status
examinations, relatively little is known about the psychometric properties of orientation
subscales. This article seeks to provide detailed psychometric information about the orientation items on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) in individuals with AD. Orientation
responses from 1,238 patients with AD (mean age = 75.5 years, SD = 8.4 range = 39 to 94) were
examined within an item response theory (IRT) framework. Responses revealed that orientation items on the MMSE functioned differently across the spectrum of cognitive ability, with
spatial orientation items tapping the breadth of cognitive impairment better than temporal
items, which tended to have overlapping properties. Key clinical implications such as choosing
appropriate items for different clinical purposes are highlighted.

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0593. Bergmann, M. A. REIKS CONFESSION: CONSTRUCTION OR INTERPRETATION. Psychoanalytic Review. 2011, 98(2):247252.
When I think about Theodor Reik, and I knew him as a member of his seminar, one item
remains in my memory with gratitude, and that is the term the surprised psychoanalyst. We
never find Freud saying This surprised me very much. When Reik introduced the concept of
surprise, he opened a new door for me. I differentiate between interpretation and construction.
An interpretation takes place when the patient is saying something and we grasp that there is
something implicit in what our patient said that he or she does not realize. What he or she is
saying goes through us, and we realize that we can add something the patient has not
understood.
0594. Blum, H. P. MASOCHISM: PASSIONATE PAIN AND EROTIZED TRIUMPH.
Psychoanalytic Review. 2011, 98(2):155170.
Stimulated by Theodor Reiks (1941) book Masochism and Modern Man, I discuss some
theoretical views of the ever-elusive concept of masochism without attempting a review of the
now-vast literature on the subject. Many perplexing and profound questions about masochism
persist, and from Freud onward a variety of theories and definitions have appeared. Masochism
is universal and ubiquitous in humans, doubtless with phylogenetic and neurobiological determinants. Though I focus primarily on masochism, masochism and sadism are always paired.
Sadomasochism may be split in bisexual expression, with one gender representing sadism and
the other, masochism.
0595. Brock, K. et al. WORRY IN OLDER COMMUNITY-RESIDING ADULTS.
International Journal of Aging and Human Development. 2011, 72(4):289301.
With rising longevity, increasing numbers of older people are experiencing changes in their
everyday family and social life, changes in their financial status, and a greater number of chronic
conditions affecting their health. We took the opportunity to explore these relationships with
worry in a group of volunteer community-living elderly (n = 310). Findings showed that that
those people under 75 years of age had a higher risk of worrying (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.03.1)
compared to the older age groups. Women worried more than men and an important finding was
that those with chronic health conditions such as arthritis of the hip and knee were more prone to
worry than those who were healthy or had acute conditions (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.48.9). This
latter finding suggests the importance placed on the role of the hip and knee in maintaining functional capacity to perform life skills.
0596. Brown, A., and Burton, D. L. EXPLORING THE OVERLAP IN MALE JUVENILE
SEXUAL OFFENDING AND GENERAL DELINQUENCY: TRAUMA, ALCOHOL USE,
AND MASCULINE BELIEFS. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse. 2010, 19:450468.
Despite Burton and Meezan s finding that sexually aggressive youth are three to four times
more likely to recidivate nonsexually than sexually, there is little to no research to date that
explores this overlap in criminality. With a sample of 290 male sexually violent adjudicated
and incarcerated youth, this study was able to successfully predict those who are exclusively
sexually violent from those who are both nonsexually and sexually violent with each of the following factors: childhood trauma, masculine beliefs, and alcohol use. While alcohol use
accounted for the greatest variance between the groups, masculine beliefs offered the greatest
basis for the discussion and future projects for the authors of the study. Treatment and research
implications are offered.
0597. Bruce, M. L. SUICIDE RISK AND PREVENTION IN VETERAN POPULATIONS. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1208:98103.
Rates of suicide among veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi
Freedom (OIF) rose significantly from 2005 to 2007, adding to existing concerns about veteran
suicide risk by the Department of Veterans Affairs. This paper summarizes the available data
about risk and rates of suicide in veterans, including the choice of appropriate comparison

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 157

groups and the identification of risk factors. The data suggest that taking into account the selection bias of who enters the military (known as the healthy soldier effect), rates of suicide in,
veterans are higher than expected, especially among activity duty OEF/OIF veterans and even
more so among those who experienced injuries and trauma. Thus, the experiences of war and
the downstream sequelae, in particular the individuals psychological reactions and societal
responses, lead to suicide risk. This paper describes the VAs response to these data in
developing and implementing suicide prevention interventions.
0598. Cernin, P. A. et al. A COMPARISON OF SELF-RATED AND OBJECTIVELY
MEASURED SUCCESSFUL AGING CONSTRUCTS IN AN URBAN SAMPLE OF AFRICAN AMERICAN OLDER ADULTS. Clinical Gerontologist. 2011, 34:89102.
Sixty-seven (N = 67) urban African American older adults were divided into successful and
nonsuccessful aging groups based on objective MacArthur (i.e., physical and cognitive functioning) and on self-rated health criteria. Only 30% of the sample met objective MacArthur criteria
for successful aging compared to 63% who rated themselves as successful. Self-rated successful
aging was best predicted by regular exercise, whereas objective successful aging was best predicted by demographic characteristics and cognition. Reading ability mediated the relationship
between both education and cognition to objectively defined success. Finally, objective successful aging was related to quantity and quality of education, whereas self-rated successful aging
was related to a wider variety of variables. Defining successful aging on objective factors alone
may limit our understanding of successful aging in urban African American older adults.
0599. Cheek, C. PASSING OVER: IDENTITY TRANSITION IN WIDOWS. International Journal of Aging and Human Development. 2010, 70(4):345364.
This qualitative study of nine women examined the changes in their everyday lives as they
cared for their terminally-ill husbands and after their husbands died. It also studied how the
women coped with these changes, and how their coping contributed to their identity change
from wife to widow. Symbolic interaction was utilized to study the changes in their social relationships, time usage, and the utilization of everyday objects. Initially, these changes eroded
identity stability, but the womens efforts to deal with them contributed to the development of
new skills, interests, and ultimately, new identities.
0600. Clute, M. A. BEREAVEMENT INTERVENTIONS FOR ADULTS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES: WHAT WORKS? Omega: Journal of Death and Dying. 2010,
61(2):163177.
Examination of the theory base for bereavement and loss is currently just beginning for
adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Yet, as life spans increase for individuals with ID,
these adults experience more and more loss and bereavement events. Practitioners, especially
grief counselors, are finding it increasingly critical for them to understand best practice principles for working with bereaved adults with ID in their daily work. Practitioners also are asked
to guide families and care providers regarding grief and death education. This article provides
counselors and other professionals with a review of existing bereavement intervention research
for adults with ID. Practice recommendations are made on three levels: informal support;
formal intervention; and community education.
0601. Conway, F. et al. SYNERGY BETWEEN MOLECULAR AND CONTEXTUAL
VIEWS OF COPING AMONG FOUR ETHNIC GROUPS OF OLDER ADULTS. International Journal of Aging and Human Development. 2010, 70(4):319343.
The coping styles of four ethnic groups of older adults in response to negative life events
were analyzed in a population-based study of 1118 residents of Brooklyn, New York.
Using a molecular approach, data regarding the context of events and the corresponding
coping responses was obtained. Open-ended semi-structured interviews allowed participants to describe recent negative life events and explain how they coped. An empirically
derived coding system distinguished four major negative life events: Death, Illness/Injury,

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Empathic Response to Distress of Others and Interpersonal Conflict. Nine major styles of
coping emerged: Medicate, Active Coping, Passive Response, Prayer, Stoicism, Social
Support, Positive Self-Talk, Acknowledgment of Emotions, and Distraction. Gender and
ethnic differences in coping styles were found. Although ethnic specificity in coping
emerged when context was considered the few effects of ethnicity suggests that the major
normative events of later life may pull for generic coping responses.
0602. Craver-Lemley, C. et al. IMAGERY INTERFERENCE DIMINISHES IN
OLDER ADULTS: AGE-RELATED DIFFERENCES IN THE MAGNITUDE OF THE
PERKY EFFECT. Imagination, Cognition and Personality. 2010, 29(4):307322.
Studies have documented the negative effects of mental imagery on perception (also
known as the Perky effect) in younger adults, but imagery-interference effects in older
adults have never been assessed. Two experiments examined this issue directly. Experiment 1 demonstrated that visual mental images diminish visual acuity in younger adults
(mean age = 19.0) but not older adults (mean age = 73.6). Experiment 2 obtained parallel
results, showing that visual imagery interfered with performance on a visual detection task
in younger (mean age = 18.7) but not older adults (mean age = 66.7). Processes underlying
age-related differences in imagery-interference effects are discussed and implications of
these results for changes in cognitive performance in older adults are considered.
0603. Cukor, J. EVIDENCE-BASED TREATMENTS FOR PTSD, NEW DIRECTIONS, AND SPECIAL CHALLENGES. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.
2010, 1208:8289.
This paper provides a current review of existing evidence-based treatments for
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with a description of psychopharmacologic options,
prolonged exposure therapy, cognitive processing therapy, and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, especially as they pertain to military populations. It further offers a
brief summary of promising treatments with a developing evidence base, encompassing
both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. Finally, challenges to the treatment of PTSD
are summarized and future directions suggested.
0604. Currin, J. B. et al. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE, GENDER, HISTORICAL CHANGE, AND ADULTS PERCEPTIONS OF MENTAL HEALTH AND MENTAL
HEALTH SERVICES. International Journal of Aging and Human Development. 2011,
72(4):317341.
The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of age, historical change, and gender on
perceptions of mental health and mental health services. Using multidimensional measures to
assess such perceptions among older adults (1977, 1991, 2000), and younger adults (1991,
2000), we expected that older adults would have less positive mental health perceptions than
would younger adults, that more recently born cohorts of older persons would evidence more
positive perceptions, and that women, especially those more recently assessed would also evidence more positive perceptions. To an extent, we found positive historical shifts in mental
health perceptions, though data also indicated that such views may have stabilized over the last
decade for older persons, and interacted with age and gender in this respect. Age differences
favoring younger persons were, in part, replicated across historical time, and women held more
positive mental health perceptions than did men. Over historical time, older persons mental
health perceptions are, for the most part, increasingly positive, significant in light of the
increasing proportion of older persons and changes in the mental health system itself.
0605. Denver, J. Y. et al. RECENT VERSUS REMOTE: FLASHBULB MEMORY FOR
9/11 AND SELF-SELECTED EVENTS FROM THE REMINISCENCE BUMP. International Journal of Aging and Human Development. 2010, 70(4):275297.
In two related studies, we examined flashbulb memories acquired from different points in the
lifespan in younger and older adults. When asked to remember flashbulb memories from their lives,
older adults were most likely to recall events from the reminiscence bump (Study 1A). In Study 1B,

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younger and older adults recalled 9/11 and a personal flashbulb event that occurred between ages
10 and 30. Older adults memories of a recent event (9/11) were less likely than younger adults to
be classified as flashbulb memories; however, when memories were examined in their entirety,
these age-related declines disappeared. Older adults memories for a remote flashbulb event
appeared to be quite similar, if not more detailed than their memories for the recent event, suggesting that remote flashbulb memories are relatively stable over time. Implications of these data for
current views of flashbulb memory in late adulthood are discussed.

0606. Difede, J., and Barchas, J. D. PSYCHIATRIC AND NEUROLOGIC ASPECTS


OF WAR: AN OVERVIEW AND PERSPECTIVE. Annals of the New York Academy of
Sciences. 2010, 1208:19.
The growing number of soldiers returning home with psychiatric and neurologic disorders, notably posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI),
underscores the need for an interdisciplinary framework for understanding the emergent
consequences of combat. Among the challenges facing the scientific community is the
development of effective treatment strategies for TBI from blast and other injuries, given
the confounding effects of comorbid psychological symptoms on accurate diagnoses.
At the individual level, emerging technologiesincluding virtual reality, the use of
genetic biomarkers to inform treatment response, and new brain imaging methodology
are playing an important role in the development of differential therapeutics to best address
a soldiers particular clinical needs. At the macro level, new approaches toward understanding the political, cultural, and ideological contexts of mass conflict, the decision to
join in violence, and ways of preventing genocide are discussed.

0607. Doka, K. J. et al. THE ORGANIZATION OF THANATOLOGY. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying. 2011, 63(2):113124.
This article explores, using Wilenskys Model of Professionalization, the emergence of professional organizations within the thanatology. The authors review the history of four
organizationsThe Foundation of Thanatology, Ars Moriendi, The Forum for Death Education and Counseling (now the Association for Death Education and Counseling: A Thanatology
Organization [ADEC]), and The International Work Group on Death, Dying, and Bereavement
(IWG). The authors speculate on some of the reasons that the first two failed while IWG and
ADEC remain viablewhile noting challenges that these remaining thanatological organizations will experience as they seek to continue to stay relevant.

0608. Eakman, A. M. et al. THE MEANINGFUL ACTIVITY PARTICIPATION


ASSESSMENT: A MEASURE OF ENGAGEMENT IN PERSONALLY VALUED ACTIVITIES. International Journal of Aging and Human Development. 2010, 70(4):299317.
The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item
tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older
adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest
reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction Index-Z, the
Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey, the Purpose in Life Test, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory and the
Rand SF-36v2 Health Survey subscales. Zero-order correlations consistently demonstrated meaningful relationships between the MAPA and scales of psychosocial well-being
and health-related quality of life. Results from multiple regression analyses further substantiated these findings, as greater meaningful activity participation was associated with
better psychological well-being and health-related quality of life. The MAPA appears to be
a reliable and valid measure of meaningful activity, incorporating both subjective and
objective indicators of activity engagement.

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0609. Frank, G. THE THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF FREQUENCY OF SESSIONS: THE ROOT OF THE CONTROVERSY. Psychoanalytic Review.
2011, 98(1):110.
When Freud (1912, 1913) wrote about the specifics of his technique, he referred to them as
technical rules. Thus in 1922, when the International Psychoanalytcal Association (IPA)
formalized the definition of psychoanalysis as a form of treatment, it defined it as a process
that involved five sessions per week as did the early textbooks on psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysts who worked in Europe and South America employed the five-day-a-week schedule;
however, psychoanalysts in the United States began to experiment with different schedules.
Some retained the five-day-a-week schedule; some reduced the number to four, some reduced
the number even more.
0610. French, L. M. MILITARY TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY: AN EXAMINATION OF IMPORTANT DIFFERENCES. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.
2010, 1208:3845.
Traumatic brain injury, especially mild traumatic brain injury, is a common consequence of
modern warfare. In the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, much attention has been
devoted to blast as a new mechanism of brain injury. While the evidence for primary blast
effects upon the central nervous system is limited and controversial, there are a number of
aspects of blast-induced brain injury that may be different. These include high rates of sensory
impairment, pain issues, and polytrauma. In addition, the emotional context in which the injury
occurred must also be considered in understanding the clinical presentation of these patients.
Successful treatment of these individuals must use a multidisciplinary approach focused on the
varied conditions that occur in those injured.
0611. Frielingsdort, H. et al. VARIANT BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR
VAL66MET ENDOPHENOTYPES: IMPLICATIONS FOR POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS
DISORDER. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1208:150157.
Recently, a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been identified in the
gene encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The variant BDNF Met has been
shown to have decreased activity-dependent BDNF secretion from neurons and to lead to
impairments in specific forms of learning and altered susceptibility to stress. A mouse
model containing BDNFMet has also been linked to increased anxiety-like behavior. In a
translational study, mice and human carriers of the BDNFMet allele were compared in their
ability to extinguish a learned fear memory. Both showed slower suppression of the learned
fear response. In humans, the neural correlates of this behavior were validated using fMRI.
As anxiety and fear extinction lie at the core of symptoms and therapeutic approaches to
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we propose that BDNF genotype and neuroimaging
may be useful as biomarkers to provide guidance for more customized therapeutic
directions. The aim of this paper is to review the available knowledge on the BDNF
Val66Met SNP, with emphasis on anxiety- and fear-related endophenotypes and its potential implications for PTSD.
0612. Fromuth, M. E. et al. EFFECT OF STUDENT VULNERABILITY ON PERCEPTIONS OF TEACHER-STUDENT SEXUAL INVOLVEMENT. Journal of Child Sexual
Abuse. 2010, 19:419433.
This study explored whether the vulnerability of an adolescent student affected perceptions of teacher sexual misconduct. Respondents (150 male and 150 female
undergraduates) read scenarios depicting teacher sexual misconduct varied by respondent
gender, gender dyad (male teacherfemale student and female teacher-male student), and
three levels of student vulnerability. The vulnerability of the student was found to have
little impact on perceptions. On most variables, interactions emerged between respondent
gender and gender dyad. Specifically, male respondents viewed the female teachermale

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student dyad less negatively than the male teacherfemale student dyad. Female respondents generally did not make distinctions based on gender dyad.
0613. Frosch, A. THE EFFECT OF FREQUENCY AND DURATION ON PSYCHOANALYTIC OUTCOME: A MOMENT IN TIME. Psychoanalytic Review. 2011, 98(1):
1138.
History is shaped by politics, and this is certainly true for the history of psychoanalysis.
Theoretical and organizational schisms have led to heated debate about what psychoanalysis is, the best way to practice it, and the exclusion of those who do not do it the right
way. These issues are particularly important in a paper on session frequency and duration
and their relation to outcome. For many of us this topic has a very visceral, or in-yourface quality. My institutional affiliations and experience from both sides of the couch, as
well as my own research on frequency/duration and outcome, lead me to believe that the
combination of high frequency and longer duration (open-ended) treatment is the most effective form of psychoanalysis. My gathering together of facts in this paper is always
embedded in this subjective context. This threatens to politicize a topic that is difficult enough
in its own right.
0614. Ganapati, S. et al. SPATIAL DISPARITY OF HIV/AIDS SERVICE PROVIDERS: THE CASE OF MIAMI-DADE COUNTY. Journal of HIV/AIDS and Social
Services. 2010, 9:169189.
This paper examines the spatial disparity between the HIV/AIDS service providers and
the HIV/AIDS patients. The empirical focus is on Miami-Dade, a large metropolitan
county in the United States with a Latino population majority and a high AIDS incidence
rate. This exploratory study contributes to the existing literature on geographical access to
health providers. Geographic Information System (G1S) is used to examine the spatial disparity between the service providers and the patients. The study reveals that aggregatelevel analysis masks the reality of the spatial disparity. Miami Dade Countys Health
Department focuses on aggregate zones for prioritizing its resources. At this level, there is
little spatial disparity. However, evidence of spatial disparity emerges at the ZIP-code
level analysis. The major lesson from the study is that health policies need to be based on a
finer-grained analysis to address spatial disparity.
0615. Ghatak, R. A UNIQUE SUPPORT MODEL FOR DEMENTIA PATIENTS AND
THEIR FAMILIES IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL SETTING: DESCRIPTION AND PRELIMINARY DATA. Clinical Gerontologist. 2011, 34:160172.
Dementia is a disease of great concern, as the deficit in memory and other cognitive functions that characterize this condition leads to a loss of independent function, which in turn
has serious impact on individuals, families, and health care systems. Hospitals and clinics
in general do not have support programs to assist dementia patients and their families.
The day-to-day coping with the disease, care planning, and safety of dementia patients is
often left to the families or other support networks, with minimal professional assistance.
This article profiles the rationale, emergence, and process of a unique dementia support
program based on a continuum of care model, started at Stanford University Medical
Center under the Aging Adult Services Program.
0616. Greden, J. F. et al. BUDDY-TO-BUDDY A CITIZEN SOLDIER PEER SUPPORT PROGRAM TO COUNTERACT STIGMA, PTSD, DEPRESSION, AND SUICIDE.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1208:9097.
Citizen soldiers (National Guard and Reserves) represent approximately 40% of the two
million armed forces deployed to Afghanistan and Iraq. Twenty-five to forty percent of them
develop PTSD, clinical depression, sleep disturbances, or suicidal thoughts. Upon returning
home, many encounter additional stresses and hurdles to obtaining care: specifically, many
civilian communities lack military medical/psychiatric facilities; financial, job, home, and

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relationship stresses have evolved or have been exacerbated during deployment; uncertainty
has increased related to future deployment; there is loss of contact with military peers; and
there is reluctance to recognize and acknowledge mental health needs that interfere with
treatment entry and adherence. Approximately half of those needing help are not receiving it.
To address this constellation of issues, a privatepublic partnership was formed under the
auspices of the Welcome Back Veterans Initiative. In Michigan, the Army National Guard
teamed with the University of Michigan and Michigan State University to develop innovative
peer-to-peer programs for soldiers (Buddy-to-Buddy) and augmented programs for military
families. Goals are to improve treatment entry, adherence, clinical outcomes, and to reduce suicides. This manuscript describes training approaches, preliminary results, and explores future
national dissemination.
0617. Hamburg, D. A. RECENT ADVANCES IN PREVENTING MASS VIOLENCE
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1208:1014.
Since his presidency of the Carnegie Corporation of New York and co-chairmanship of
the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, David Hamburg has been
actively engaged in projects related to the prevention of genocide and other mass violence.
In these remarks to the Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease, he
describes the significance of preventing mass violence in the 21st century. In particular, he discusses the danger of nuclear and other highly lethal weapons, emphasizing examples of
prevention drawn from the Cold War and subsequent period. He delineates practical steps
that can be taken to prevent war and genocide, including restraints on weaponry, preventive
diplomacy, fostering indigenous democracy, fostering equitable socioeconomic development, education for human survival, and international justice in relation to human rights.
Training and support in preventive diplomacy are highlighted as crucially important, particularly in the context of the United Nations, using the novel Mediation Support Unit
based out of the Department of Political Affairs as a key example. He concludes that the
creation of international centers for the prevention of mass atrocities could provide a crucial
resource in preventing mass violence.
0618. Harrison, A. J., and Singer, J. A. DIFFERENTIATING RELIGIOUSNESS AND
SPIRITUALITY THROUGH BOUNDARIES OF THE MIND AND DAYDREAMING
STYLES. Imagination, Cognition and Personality. 2010, 29(4):323339.
The present research examined differences between religiousness and spirituality by
looking at their respective relationships to daydreaming and boundaries of mind. Having
thick boundaries implies a degree of separateness among aspects of mind or between a
person and the outside world, whereas thin boundaries signify fluidity. In order to observe
these personality traits in conjunction with a persons religious practices, 113 undergraduate
participants received a series of questionnaires. Although religiousness and spirituality
were highly related to each other, religiousness showed stronger relationships to thicker
boundaries. Relationships between boundary structure and daydreaming style were also
investigated, revealing that thin boundaries may have more of a negative connotation than
previously thought. Limitations and possibilities for further research are discussed.
0619. Holahan, C. K., and Velasquez, K. S. PERCEIVED STRATEGIES AND
ACTIVITIES FOR SUCCESSFUL LATER AGING. International Journal of Aging and
Human Development. 2011, 72(4):343359.
This study investigated perceived strategies and activities for successful later aging. Participants were 242 members of the Terman Study of the Gifted who responded to an open-ended
question concerning how they make the most of their aging years. Data were collected in
1996 and 1999, when the participants were average ages of 84 and 86. Longitudinal analyses
examined changes over time and cross-sectional analyses examined correlates of strategies and
activities. Results showed that strategies emphasized emotion regulation and adaptation. Activities emphasized family involvement, social relationships, leisure, productive and intellectual

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activity, and health maintenance. Reports of emotion regulation and adaptation increased over
time and mention of an intellectual orientation declined over time. Variations in activity mention
were found according to gender, age, self-rated health, health limitations, and life satisfaction.
History of higher-level occupations was related to more productive activities. Results are
discussed in terms of the challenges of later aging.
0620. Holland, J. M., and Neimeyer, R. A. AN EXAMINATION OF STAGE THEORY
OF GRIEF AMONG INDIVIDUALS BEREAVED BY NATURAL AND VIOLENT
CAUSES: A MEANING-ORIENTED CONTRIBUTION. Omega: Journal of Death and
Dying. 2010, 61(2):103120.
Despite its popularity, few attempts have been made to empirically test the stage theory of
grief. The most prominent of these attempts was conducted by Maciejewski, Zhang, Block, and
Prigerson, who found that different states of grieving may peak in a sequence that is consistent
with stage theory. The present study aimed to provide a conceptual replication and extension of
these findings by examining the association between time since loss and five grief Indicators
(focusing on disbelief, anger, yearning, depression, and acceptance), among an ethnically diverse
sample of young adults who had been bereaved by natural (n = 441) and violent (n = 173) causes.
We also examined the potential salience of meaning-making and assessed the extent to which participants had made sense of their losses. In general, limited support was found for stage theory,
alongside some evidence of an anniversary reaction marked by heightened distress.
0621. Hovey, A. et al. THE IMPACT OF CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE ON VICTIMS/
SURVIVORS: PRACTICAL WAYS PSYCHOTHERAPY CAN SUPPORT PHYSICAL
HEALTHCARE EXPERIENCES FOR MALE SURVIVORS OF CHILDHOOD SEXUAL
ABUSE. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse. 2011, 20:3757.
Many survivors of child sexual abuse who engage in psychotherapy also experience
physical health problems. This article summarizes the findings of a multiphased qualitative
study about survivors experiences in healthcare settings. The study informed the development of the Handbook on Sensitive Practice for Health Care Practitioners: Lessons from
Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse, which is intended to help healthcare providers
from all disciplines understand the effect of child sexual abuse on some survivors abilities
to access and benefit from health care. This paper discusses what psychotherapists can
learn from the healthcare experiences of the male survivors who participated in this project.
It also offers practical suggestions for supporting male clients who experience difficulty
seeking treatment for physical health concerns.
0622. Iecovich, E. LONELINESS, SOCIAL NETWORKS, AND MORTALITY: 18
YEARS OF FOLLOW-UP. International Journal of Aging and Human Development. 2011,
72(3):243263.
We examined the influence of changes in loneliness and social support networks upon
mortality during 18 years of follow-up among an elderly cohort and determined the genderspecific nature of this relationship. The study is based on data collected from the Jerusalem
Longitudinal Study (19902008), which has followed a representative sample of 605 community-dwelling elderly people. Subjects were randomly selected from an age homogenous
cohort born 19201921 and were aged 70, 78 and 85 when data were collected at baseline in
1990 and at follow-up in 1998 and 2005. All-cause mortality from age 7088 was determined
according to the National Death Registry. Sense of loneliness was found to be stable among
the majority of the respondents. Loneliness among men was found in bivariate analyses to be
a risk factor for mortality. Although multivariate analyses found that loneliness was not a significant predicts of mortality, nonetheless several social network factors (marital status at the
baseline and living arrangements) were found to predict mortality among men. Loneliness
and solitude among elderly men can be a risk factor of mortality. The findings imply that
attention should be given to this high risk group.

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0623. Inkson, K., and King, Z. CONTESTED TERRAIN IN CAREERS: A PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT MODEL. Human Relations. 2011, 64(1):3757.
In this article we extend consideration of differences of interest in employment relationships
to career issues. Two sets of intereststhose of employing organizations and of individual
workersoften make careers contested terrain in which organizations Pursue strategic
advantages and individuals personal advantages. The contestation is contextualized by current
trends to individualized employment relations and a focus on managerial, professional and
technical work. The two interest sets mirror a disjuncture between two disciplinary bases, the
vocational base underpinned by psychology and the strategic human resource management
(SHRM) base, underpinned by economics. We develop a psychological contract model in
which both individuals and organizations invest knowledge capital in the other with a view to
obtaining long-term returns. We consider the implications of our analysis and model for career
management by both individuals and organizations for future research on careers, and for the
interdisciplinary study of careers in an integrated career studies.
0624. Jacobs, C. FORESHADOWING THE PRESENTTHE LEGACIES OF
THEODOR REIK: EDITORS INTRODUCTION. Psychoanalytic Review. 2011, 98(2):
145154.
Theodor Reik showed us that it is the surprises that matter most. Beginning with New
Ways in Psychoanalytic Technique (1933), Surprise and the Psychoanalyst (1936), and
Listening with the Third Ear (1948), Reik showed the way for psychoanalysts to bridge the
gap between theory and practice.
0625. Keigher, S. M., and Stevens, P. E. CATCH 22: WOMEN WITH HIV ON WISCONSINS TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE TO NEEDY FAMILIES (TANF) PROGRAM:
A QUALITATIVE NARRATIVE ANALYSIS. Journal of HIV/AIDS and Social Services.
2011, 10:6886.
In 1996 when Congress eliminated the federal Aid to Families with Dependent Children
program it was the largest income source of women living with HIV in the United States. In
its place, Congress created a new federal block grant, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families
(TANF), to fund state-run compulsory workfare programs. To learn how welfare reform
affected HIV-positive women, this qualitative narrative analysis examines the experiences
of nine seropositive women enrolled in Wisconsins TANF program, Wisconsin Works,
between 2000 and 2003. Repeated in-depth interviews over 24 months explored participants efforts to secure health care, income, and social services. This article analyzes the
verbatim transcripts of those in-depth qualitative interviews.
0626. Kernberg, O. F. THE SEXUAL COUPLE: A PSYCHOANALYTIC EXPLORATION. Psychoanalytic Review. 2011, 98(2):217246.
This paper explores the development of the capacity for mature sexual love, starting
from the neurobiology of sexual excitement, attachment, and selective attraction, and
exploring the transformation of the behavioral expression of these basic neurobiological
systems into the complex subject experiences of erotic desire and passionate love.
0627. Kracker, J. et al. ACTIVITY PREFERENCES AND SATISFACTION AMONG
OLDER ADULTS IN A VETERANS ADMINISTRATION LONG-TERM CARE FACILITY. Clinical Gerontologist. 2011, 34:103116.
Activities can be a nonpharmacological intervention for depression in long-term care. To
address the activity needs of men, 183 residents of a VA long-term care facility were surveyed
about activity interests past and present, and activity satisfaction. With a 30% return rate, residents reported 85% overall satisfaction with activities and identified television as the most
preferred activity, past and present. Bingo, movies, and listening to music ranked high for current
activities. Prayer, reading, and pets increased in popularity. Current satisfaction with flea markets, pool, and gardening decreased from prior levels of satisfaction. Model making and arts and

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crafts activities were rated poorly. Long-term care facilities may want to expand television-based
activities for older men in ways that promote increased socialization and mental activity.
0628. Kunzendorf, R. G. et al. DEPRESSION UNLIKE NORMAL SADNESS, IS ASSOCIATED WITH A FLATTER SELF-PERCEPTION AND A FLATTER PHENOMENAL
WORLD. Imagination, Cognition and Personality. 2011, 30(4):447461.
Three variablesmanifest anxiety psychological resilience, and phenomenal flatness
were tested for their ability to qualitatively differentiate depression from normal sadness.
Toward this end 221 college students completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies
Depression Scale our newly developed Multidimensional Sadness Inventory, the Short Form
of the Manifest Anxiety Scale, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Scale of Social
Desirability, our newly developed Test for Flat versus Deep Object-Perception, our newly
developed Survey of Flat versus Deep Person-Perception, and our newly developed Survey
of Flat versus Deep Self-Perception. On each trial in the Test for Flat versus Deep ObjectPerception, the students observed two ambiguous figuresa circle/sphere with a radius of
Unit and a sqare/cube with sides 1.675 units long and they selected the bigger objecteither
the phenormenally flat circle with an area 12% larger than the area of the square or the spatially deep cube with a volume 12% larger than the volume of the sphere.
0629. Lang, A. et al. PERINATAL LOSS AND PARENTAL GRIEF: THE CHALLENGE
OF AMBIGUITY AND DISENFRANCHISED GRIEF. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying.
2011, 63(2):183196.
Following perinatal loss a type of ambiguous loss, bereaved couples struggle with and experience distress due to various forms of ambiguity. Moreover, the juxtaposition of their grief
with societys minimization often disenfranchises them from traditional grieving processes.
The purpose of this study was to explore sources of ambiguity and disenfranchised grief related
to perinatal loss. Audio-taped interviews with 13 bereaved couples at 2, 6 and 13 months following the death of their fetus or infant were analyzed. Several categories of ambiguity and
disenfranchised grief emerged, pertaining to: (a) the viability of the pregnancy; (b) the physical
process of pregnancy loss; (c) making arrangements for the remains; and (d) sharing the news.
0630. Laor, N. et al. A TRAUMA-LIKE MODEL OF POLITICAL EXTREMISM:
PSYCHO-POLITICAL FAULT LINES IN ISRAEL. Annals of the New York Academy of
Sciences. 2010, 1208:2431.
This study examines a trauma-like model of potentially violent political extremism among
Jewish Israelis. We study the psychosocial characteristics of political extremists that may lie at
the root of sociopolitical instability and assess personal (gender, stressful life events, Holocaust
family background, and political activism) and psychological parameters (self- and political transcendence, perceived political threats, in/out-group identification ratio) that may predict
readiness to engage in destructive political behavior. We examine the ideological zeal of various
political groups the relationship between the latter and perceived political threats, and the predictors of extreme political activism. Results showed that the extreme political poles displayed high
level of ideological and morbid transcendence. Right extremists displayed higher perceived
threats to physical existence and national identity. Left extremists scored highest on perceived
moral integrity threat. Higher perceived threats to national identity and moral integrity, risk, and
self-transcendence statistically explain morbid transcendence. When fear conjures up extremely
skewed sociopolitical identifications across political boundaries, morbid transcendence may
manifest itself in destructive political activity.
0631. Lau, K.-M., and Au, A. CORRELATES OF INFORMAL CAREGIVER DISTRESS IN PARKINSONS DISEASE: A META-ANALYSIS. Clinical Gerontologist. 2011,
34:117131.
Informal caregivers, mainly family members, of persons with Parkinsons disease (PD) are
usually burdened with quite different loads of stress. Over the past decade, there is no consistent

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outcome on the association between characteristics of caregivers and patients (as stress sources)
and caregiver distress. This meta-analysis integrated findings from 10 studies on the correlates of
caregiver distress in terms of depressive symptoms burden as well as stress induced by the
caregiving role. The results showed that motor symptoms of patients with PD had the strongest
relationship with caregiver distress. Increased motor symptoms and higher dependency in activities of daily living showed the highest effect sizes on caregiver distress (|r| = .42.43) than did
patients higher level of depression (r = .37), more advanced disease stage (r = .33), longer duration of disease (r = .31), as well as poorer cognitive functioning level (|r|= .28). Among the
characteristics of caregivers, only intensity of caregiving was significantly related to higher caregiver distress (r = .46).
0632. Lichtenstein, B. et al. PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESSORS OF FAMILIES AFFECTED
BY HIV/AIDS: IMPLICATIONS FOR SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE. Journal of HIV/AIDS
and Social Services. 2010, 9:130152.
This study identified the psychosocial stressors of low-income families who were affected
by HIV/AIDS in Alabama. Methods consisted of personal interviews with 12 social workers at
public agencies and a review of social work charts for 80 clients at an HIV clinic for mothers
and children. The combined results indicated that families were likely to experience housing
instability, family breakdown, mental illness, behavioral problems, and stigma.
0633. MagaZa, S., and Ghosh, S. LATINA MOTHERS CARING FOR A SON OR
DAUGHTER WITH AUTISM OR SCHIZOPHRENIA: SIMILARITIES, DIFFERENCES,
AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CO-RESIDENCY AND MATERNAL WEILBEING. Journal of Family Social Work. 2010, 13:227250.
In this cross-sectional study, the authors examined similarities and differences in depressive
symptoms and psychological well-being between Latina maternal caregivers of persons with
autism (n = 29) and schizophrenia (n = 33). They also explored predictors of maternal outcomes and the relationship of co-residence to them. Regression analysis found that mothers of
adults with schizophrenia had lower levels of psychological well-being than mothers of youth
or adults with autism. For the overall sample of mothers, co-residing with their son or daughter
was significantly related to lower levels of depressive symptoms. Qualitative analysis of the
nine mothers who lived apart from their son or daughter revealed that extreme behavior problems of the son or daughter and poor maternal health contributed to living apart. Despite
overcoming these challenges, mothers expressed a profound sense of sadness about their sons
or daughters living arrangements.
0634. Mahony, D. ASSESSING SEXUAL ABUSE/ATTACK HISTORIES WITH
BARIATRIC SURGERY PATIENTS. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse. 2010, 19:469484.
This study assessed sexual abuse/attack histories in 537 bariatric surgery patients using the
PsyBari. The prevalence rates found were lower (15.5%, 19.3% of women, 5.2% of men) than
other studies that used bariatric surgery patients but consistent with studies that used
nonbariatric obese subjects. Furthermore, bariatric surgery patients who disclosed sexual
abuse/attack were more likely to disclose physical abuse, psychological problems, psychological treatment, psychiatric medication, and psychiatric hospitalization. Among bariatric surgery
patients who disclosed sexual abuse/attack, females were more likely to disclose suicidal
ideation. A logistic regression found that for females, physical abuse and suicidal ideation
reliably predicted abuse /attack status. For males, psychological problems, psychiatric medications, hospitalization, and suicidal ideation, reliably predicted abuse/attack status.
0635. Malm, M.-C. et al. LOSING CONTACT WITH ONES UNBORN BABY
MOTHERS EXPERIENCES PRIOR TO RECEIVING NEWS THAT THEIR BABY HAS
DIED IN UTERO. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying. 2011, 62(4):353367.
Background: A change in the pattern of movement of her unborn baby could be indicative
that the baby might die. Aim: To study mothers experiences during the time prior to receiving

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news that their baby has died. Method: Interviews with 26 mothers. Results: Premonition that
something had happened to their baby a sense based on a lack of movements were experienced.
Six categories describe the mothers insight that the babys life was threatened: not feeling in
touch with their baby; worry feeling something is wrong; not understanding the unbelievable;
wanting information; and being certain that their baby had died. The overarching them There
is something wrong was formulated. Conclusion: The mother could not understand the unbelievable: that the baby had died in utero. Implications: Mothers should be cautioned to trust
their insights and seek medical advice if they are concerned over the lack of movement from the
unborn baby.
0636. Maruta, J. et al. A UNIFIED SCIENCE OF CONCUSSION. Annals of the New
York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1208:5866.
The etiology, imaging, and behavioral assessment of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)
are daunting fields, given the lack of a cohesive neurobiological explanation for the observed
cognitive deficits seen following mTBI. Although subjective patient self-report is the leading
method of diagnosing mTBI, current scientific evidence suggests that quantitative measures
of predictive timing, such as visual tracking, could be a useful adjunct to guide the assessment of attention and to screen for advanced brain imaging. Magnetic resonance diffusion
tensor imaging (DTI) has demonstrated that mTBI is associated with widespread
microstructural changes that include those in the frontal white matter tracts. Deficits
observed during predictive visual tracking correlate with DTI findings that show lesions
localized in neural pathways subserving the cognitive functions often disrupted in mTBI. Unifying the anatomical and behavioral approaches, the emerging evidence supports an
explanation for mTBI that the observed cognitive impairments are a result of predictive timing
deficits caused by shearing injuries in the frontal white matter tracts.
0637. McAllister, T. W., and Stein, M. B. EFFECTS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND
BIOMECHANICAL TRAUMA ON BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR. Annals of the New York
Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1208:4657.
The current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have resulted in a large cohort of military personnel exposed to combat-related psychological trauma as well as biomechanical trauma,
including proximity to blast events. Historically, the long-term effects of both types of trauma
have been viewed as having different neural substrates, with some controversy over the proper
attribution of such symptoms evident after each of the major conflicts of the last century.
Recently, great effort has been directed toward distinguishing which neuropsychiatric sequelae
are due to which type of trauma. Of interest, however is that the chronic effects of exposure to
either process are associated with a significant overlap in clinics symptoms. Furthermore, similar brain regions are vulnerable to the effects of either psychological or biomechanical trauma
raising the possibility that shared mechanisms may underlie the clinically observed overlap in
symptom profile. This paper reviews the literature on the neural substrate of biomechanical and
psychological injury and discusses the implications for evaluation and treatment of the
neuropsychiatric sequelae of these processes.
0638. McCabe, A. et al. IMPROVING ORAL LANGUAGE AND LITERACY SKILLS
IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN FROM DISADVANTAGED BACKGROUNDS: REMEMBERING, WRITING, READING (RWR). Imagination, Cognition and Personality. 2010,
29(4):363390.
Most reading disabilities can be traced to difficulties acquiring oral language during preschool years due to insufficient linguistic stimulation. The present 2-year project aimed to
improve the literacy-related oral language skills of 48 low-income, primarily ELL 4-year-old
children in local public preschool by providing for individual conversational experiences with
trained university students. Their results were compared to 48 peers at two comparable
preschools. Children were tested in the fall and spring on multiple measures. Throughout the
year, intervention children met with volunteers each week.

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0639. McCoyd, J. L. M. et al. PEDIATRIC DISABILITY AND CAREGIVER SEPARATION. Journal of Family Social Work. 2010, 13:251268.
The evidence that the birth of a child with a disability leads to divorce or separation is equivocal, with the majority of recent research suggesting that such a birth and childrearing may be
stressful, but not necessarily toxic, to the caregiver relationship. Such research has been limited
by small sample sizes and non-representative samples and has not been able to examine the
caregivers relationship stability over time. Using the National Survey of Supplemental Security
Income (SSI) Children and Families (NSCF), data related to severity of the childs condition,
caregiver burden, respite, and support group use were examined in relation to caregiver separation. Most variables showed no statistical significance. Our results did not support the hypothesis
that the birth of a child with a disability leads to relationship dissolution. The instability of the
childs condition and only extremely high levels of caregiver burden (the need for respite care
and the need for the family to provide more than 48 hours of home health care) were positively associated with relationship separation. Use of a support group was associated with lower
levels of relationship dissolution. The implications for service provision to families with a child
living with disability are discussed. Additionally, because parental and practitioner culture often
maintain the myth that the birth of a child with disability leads to dissolution of the caregiver
relationship, implication of this are also addressed.
0640. Mesman, G. R. et al. IDENTIFYING PREFERENCES IN PERSONS WITH
DEMENTIA: SYSTEMATIC PREFERENCE TESTING VS. CAREGIVER AND FAMILY
MEMBER REPORT. Clinical Gerontologist. 2011, 34:154159.
One problem facing professional caregivers of dementia patients involves identifying preferences in patients with impaired verbal abilities. Long-term care staff often rely on the
opinions of family or trial and error to discover patient preferences despite the availability of
empirical methods for assessing preferences in nonverbal populations. The purpose of this
study was to examine whether caregivers and family members could accurately determine the
preferences of dementia patients. Patient preferences were determined using an empirical preference assessment while caregivers and family completed a self-report measure concerning
their opinions about patient preferences. Results indicated that family and staff were relatively
inaccurate in determining the preferences of patients. Results may have implications for developing more effective care plans and improving quality of life for persons with dementia
residing in long-term care facilities.
0641. Nobus, D. RUINED BY SUCCESS, BUT RESCUED BY FAILURE: THEODOR
REIK AND THE CREATIVE IMPACT OF SOCIAL MASOCHISM. Psychoanalytic Review.
2011, 98(2):171182.
As one of the most autobiographical psychoanalytic theorists of guilt, (self-) punishment and
(compulsive) confession, Theodor Reik rarely let an opportunity go by to recall and disclose
those occasions when his beloved Sigmund Freud had disciplined his naVve foolishness with
the solid rod of paternal wisdom. Whether driven by a sense of pride or a search for legitimacy,
many an aspiring pupil would no doubt wish to share primarily those achievements that had
managed to receive the masters blessing. Reik, however, seems to have relished the moments
when Freud had once again expressed his profound dissatisfaction with one or the other aspect
of his followers personal and professional course of action.
0642. Okun, M. A. et al. DOES THE RELATION BETWEEN VOLUNTEERING AND
WELL-BEING VARY WITH HEALTH AND AGE? International Journal of Aging and
Human Development. 2011, 72(3):265287.
Previous studies have established a positive association between organizational volunteering and well-being. In the current study, we examined whether the relations between
organizational volunteering and positive affect, negative affect, and resilience are modified by
respondents age and number of chronic health conditions. This study used cross-sectional data
from the 2008 Arizona Health Survey of residents 18 years old and older (N = 4,161). Multiple

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regression analyses provided no support for the hypothesis that age moderates the association
between volunteer status and positive affect, negative affect, and resilience. In contrast, there
was a significant (p < .05) interaction between volunteer status and chronic health conditions
on positive affect and resilience. Consistent with the compensatory hypothesis, as number of
chronic health conditions increased, the relations between volunteering and positive affect and
resilience scores increased. Implications of these findings for increasing volunteering among
adults with multiple chronic health conditions are discussed.
0643. Olden, M. et al. HOUSE CALLS REVISITED: LEVERAGING TECHNOLOGY
TO OVERCOME OBSTACLES TO VETERAN PSYCHIATRIC CARE AND IMPROVE
TREATMENT OUTCOMES. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1208:
133141.
Despite an increasing number of military service members in need of mental health treatment
following deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan, numerous psychological and practical barriers
limit access to care. Perceived stigma about admitting psychological difficulties as well as frequent long distances to treatment facilities reduce many veterans willingness and ability to
receive care. Telemedicine and virtual human technologies offer a unique potential to expand
services to those in greatest need. Telemedicine-based treatment has been used to address multiple psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and substance use,
as well as to provide suicide risk assessment and intervention. Clinician education and training
has also been enhanced and expanded through the use of distance technologies, with trainees
practicing clinical skills with virtual patients and supervisors connecting with clinicians via
videoconferencing. The use of these innovative and creative vehicles offers a significant and as
yet unfulfilled promise to expand delivery of high-quality psychological therapies regardless of
clinician and patient location.
0644. Paulson, D., and Lichtenberg, P. A. EFFECT OF CAREGIVER FAMILY STATUS
ON CARE RECIPIENT SYMPTOM SEVERITY AND CAREGIVER STRESS AT NURSING HOME INTAKE. Clinical Gerontologist. 2011, 34:132143.
The present research investigates differences between primary informal caregivers who
were in the care recipients immediate family (adult children or spouses) versus those primary
caregivers who were outside the immediate family. Measurement occurred at the time of
admission of the care recipient to an urban nursing home. We hypothesized that immediate
family caregivers would report greater behavioral disturbance among care recipients and
increased caregiver depression and stress. Data were collected from 115 consecutive caregiverelder dyads at nursing home intake. Non-immediate family caregivers comprised 43% of the
sample. Consistent with our hypotheses, immediate family caregivers reported significantly
greater caregiver depression and caregiver stress. Immediate family care recipients demonstrated greater behavioral disturbance. Implications for policy and caregiver interventions are
discussed.
0645. Pflugradt, D. M., and Allen, B. P. AN EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS OF EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING FOR FEMALE SEXUAL OFFENDERS: A COMPARISON OF
CHARACTERISTICS ACROSS OFFENSE TYPOLOGIES. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse.
2010, 19:434449.
This study examined the association between female sexual offending behavioral patterns,
as delineated by Sandler and Freemans (2007) typologies, and executive functioning. The
sample included all referrals for sexual offender assessments within a womens maximum/
medium security prison between January 2009 and October 2009. Each subject was administered the Stroop and Trail Making Test and were assigned to a typological category.
Nonparametric analyses were conducted to determine if there was an association between
typology and performance on neuropsychological tests. Results yielded no significant associations between test scores and typological category. Subjects displayed average capacities for a

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subset of executive functions, suggesting that the mechanisms for sexually offending behavior
in females may differ from males.
0646. Post, J. M. WHEN HATRED IS BRED IN THE BONE: THE SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF TERRORISM. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1208:1523.
Terrorists are not crazed fanatics. Indeed, terrorist groups screen out emotionally unstable
individualsthey would be a security risk. Rather it is group, organizational, and social psychology, with particular emphasis on collective identity that motivates terrorist behavior. There is a
diverse spectrum of terrorist psychologies and motivations. In terms of generational provenance,
nationalistseparatist terrorists are carrying on the mission of their parentsthey are loyal to
families who have been damaged by the regime. In contrast, socialrevolutionary terrorists are
disloyal to families who are loyal to the regime. Religious fundamentalist terrorists are killing in
the name of God. Suicide, proscribed by the Koran, has been reframed as martyrdom, which is
highly valued. The new media, especially the Internet, have played an increasingly prominent
role in radicalizing individuals, creating a virtual community of hatred. Understanding terrorist
psychology is crucial to formulating effective counter-terrorist strategy. Key elements include
inhibiting potential terrorists from joining the group, creating tension within the group, facilitating exit from the group, reducing support for the group, and delegitimating its leader.
0647. Reich, W. A., and Ahn, E. K. INTERPERSONAL CONCORDANCE IN HIVAFFECTED FAMILIES PARTICIPATING IN A STRUCTURED CONFLICT MANAGEMENT INTERVENTION. Journal of HIV/AIDS and Social Services. 2010, 9:153168.
A process model guided a qualitative study of a 10-week multifamity conflict management
intervention, Family Pride. A central construct is interpersonal concordance, defined as the
consensus within a family on their views of self and one another. Parent/ caregivers and children described themselves and each other near the beginning and at the conclusion of this
intervention. Hierarchical classes analysis (HICLAS) facilitated measurement of interpersonal
concordance. A focused investigation of one family demonstrated a shift in their perceptions
toward greater interpersonal concordance. Further analyses revealed a general shift toward
more cooperative views of self and other family members, and toward greater interpersonal
concordance.
0648. Rizzo, A. S. et al. DEVELOPMENT AND EARLY EVALUATION OF THE VIRTUAL IRAQ/AFGHANISTAN EXPOSURE THERAPY SYSTEM FOR COMBAT-RELATED
PTSD. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1208:114125.
Numerous reports indicate that the growing incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder
(PTSD) in returning Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) military personnel is creating a significant health care and economic challenge. These findings
have served to motivate research on how to better develop and disseminate evidence-based
treatments for PTSD. Virtual reality-delivered exposure therapy for PTSD has been previously
used with reports of positive outcomes. The current paper will detail the development and early
results from use of the Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan exposure therapy system. The system consists
of a series of customizable virtual scenarios designed to represent relevant Middle Eastern contexts for exposure therapy, including a city and desert road convoy environment. The process
for gathering user-centered design feedback from returning OEF/OIF military personnel and
from a system deployed in Iraq (as was needed to iteralively evolve the system) will be discussed, along with a brief summary of results from an open clinical trial using Virtual Iraq with
20 treatment completers, which indicated that 16 no longer met PTSD checklist-military
criteria for PTSD after treatment.
0649. Robin, F. IMAGINATION AND FALSE MEMORIES. Imagination, Cognition and
Personality. 2011, 30(4):407424.
Since the publication of the famous Roediger and McDermott article (1995), researchers
have focused on the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and studied many

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 171

factors involved in memory illusions. The aim of the current study has been to investigate
the effect of imaginal encoding on memory confusion in the DRM paradigm. Overall,
results indicated that imaginal encoding improves true recall and recognition and significantly reduces false recall, whereas no reduction effect occurs on false recognition. These
results are interesting because they are inconsistent with what we would expect based on
the available findings in the literature. Otherwise, the present results call into question the
underlying processes involved in the creation of veridical and false memories during recall
and recognition in DRM tasks.
0650. Rogers, T. B., and Mapp, S. C. IMPROVING EFFECTIVENESS FOR SUPPORT
GROUPS FOR MALES WITH HIV/AIDS: FEEDBACK FROM LEADERS AND POTENTIAL PARTICIPANTS. Journal of HIV/AIDS and Social Services. 2011, 10:5567.
The purpose of this study was to investigate methods to improve support groups for men with
HIV/AIDS as barriers have been noted to full utilization. A multimodal study was conducted to
accomplish this. Two different survey methods were used: an anonymous survey of 25 potential
members and 5 semistructured telephone interviews with a purposive sample of potential members. Three leaders of successful groups for this population were also interviewed via
telephone. The facilitators and barriers to group attendance were assessed as well the desired
focus for such a group. Results determined that while the majority of respondents wanted
a group, educational groups were more desired than support groups and stigma continued to be
a barrier to attendance.
0651. Rosenfeld, N., and Kaniel, S. IMAGE OF A CONCEPT: THE ABSTRACT
VISUAL IMAGE AND ITS RELATION TO THE GENERAL AND THE SPECIFIC IMAGE.
Imagination, Cognition and Personality. 2011, 30(4):363387.
Visual imagery has been examined over the past few years with focus on general visual
images in contrast to specific visual images. A general visual image is the most primitive
image, a prototype of an image that represents characteristics of an object. In comparison, specific
visual images are attributed to one of the categories of the prototype and they are richer in
detail. In this article we propose a theoretical and experimental extension of these two categories into a third category defined as: abstract visual image. This is an image created when
subjects form a visual image of symbolic pictures of abstract concepts. The study analyzed the
characteristics of these three visual images and their efficiency of transfer of learning physics.
The findings show: 1) specific visual imagery was employed with a noticeable low frequency
in comparison to general and abstract imageries which were engaged with a high frequency; 2)
general and abstract imagery were jointly employed by means of a mental process which can be
characterized by four styles of a combination of concrete and abstract images; and 3) intensive
employment of abstract imagery leads to high study achievements in contrast to intensive
employment of general visual imagery which involves more concrete images. Nonetheless, if
general visual imagery is combined with intensive abstract imagery, the joint processing leads
to high study achievements. The findings are explained by a theory that abstract imagery
reduces cognitive load and leads to more efficient learning.
0652. Roy, M. J. et al. IMPROVEMENT IN CEREBRAL FUNCTION WITH TREATMENT OF POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER. Annals of The New York Academy of
Sciences. 2010, 1208:142149.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are signature illnesses of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, but current diagnostic and therapeutic
measures for these conditions are suboptimal. In our study, functional magnetic resonance
imaging (fMRI) is used to try to differentiate military service members with: PTSD and
mTBI, PTSD alone, mTBI alone, and neither PTSD nor mTBI. Those with PTSD are then
randomized to virtual reality exposure therapy or imaginal exposure. fMRI is repeated after
treatment and along with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and Clinical
Global Impression (CGI) scores to compare with baseline. Twenty subjects have completed

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baseline fMRI scans, including four controls and one mTBI only; of 15 treated for PTSD,
eight completed posttreatment scans. Most subjects have been male (93%) and Caucasian
(83%), with a mean age of 34. Significant improvements are evident on fMRI scans, and
corroborated by CGI scores, but CAPS scores improvements are modest. In conclusion,
CGI scores and fMRI scans indicate significant improvement in PTSD in both treatment
arms, though CAPS score improvements are less robust.
0653. Safran, J. D. THEODOR REIKS LISTENING WITH THE THIRD EAR AND THE
ROLE OF SELF-ANALYSIS IN CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOANALYTIC THINKING.
Psychoanalytic Review. 2011, 98(2):205216.
I first read Theodor Reiks (1948) Listening with the Third Ear dur ing the early years of my
clinical psychology training in graduate school, long before I became an analyst, and many
years before topics such as intersubjectivity, countertransference, and the subjectivity and
internal processes of the analyst became fashionable in psychoanalytic writing. In rereading
Reik today, it is striking to me what a profound impact his thinking had on my own development as a therapist as well as the extent to which he anticipated major trends in contemporary
psychoanalytic thinking.
0654. Sen, S. et al. DOES SOCIAL CAPITAL ACT AS A BUFFER AGAINST HIV RISK
AMONG MIGRANT MEN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA? Journal of HIV/AIDS and Social
Services. 2010, 9:190211.
The 2007 World Bank data on HIV/AIDS for sub-Saharan Africa indicates that 22.5 million
adults and children over 15 are living with HIV, including 1.7 million new infections. AIDS
killed approximately 2.3 million people in the same year, making this region by far the worst
affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. This paper proposes a macro-level model for understanding the spread of disease within the context of migration. We use social capital theory to
generate a framework for exploring how migration might seme as a conduit for the disease
transmission. Specifically, we investigated male migrants in the Republic of Angola and
argued that a migrant laborers movement away from his village diminishes his social capital in
terms of social support, norms, and networks while stresses from migration could prove to be
conducive to the spread of the HIV virus. We use univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses to explore the relationship between migration and HIV risk while considering social capital
as the intervening factor. Social capital is conceptualized as a combination of social engagement,
social support, and person-to-person contact. To this end, this study analyzes secondary data
collected on a sample of migrants in Angola. Two hypotheses are tested: Migrants have lower
social capital than nonmigrants and lower levels of social capital are related to higher risky
behaviors.
0655. Swartwood, R. M. et al. SURVIVING GRIEF: AN ANALYSIS OF THE
EXCHANGE OF HOPE IN ONLINE GRIEF COMMUNITIES. Omega: Journal of Death and
Dying. 2011, 63(2):161181.
Online grief communities represent relatively new forms of peer support. However, the
degree to which they are helpful for individual grieving processes is unknown. To date, no
research has evaluated the type or quality of support exchanged in online grief communities.
To begin to address these questions, this study analyzed 564 messages from internet grief
websites to: (1) classify the type of helping skills used, and (2) extract themes contained in the
content of the messages. Messages selected for analysis were the first response to an original
post, assuming they would be the first effort to provide support to a grieving individual. Results
revealed a majority of responses contained self-disclosure. Themes in the messages suggested
provision of more than one-way support; messages themes also included exchanging hope
for the future by sharing ones own story, validating the grief experience, providing resources,
and exchanging psychosocial support. Clinical implications and research recommendations are
discussed.

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 173

0656. Umphrey, L. R., and Cacciatore, J. COPING WITH THE ULTIMATE DEPRIVATION: NARRATIVE THEMES IN A PARENTAL BEREAVEMENT SUPPORT GROUP.
Omega: Journal of Death and Dying. 2011, 63(2):141160.
Support groups are often used to help individuals cope with challenging and unusual life circumstances through narration. Yet, little is known about specific meta-communication within a
support group setting and in what ways these interactions may benefit participants. This study
uncovers narrative themes that were expressed during a series of support group meetings specific to bereaved parents. Three central narratives were revealed in the analysis including the
death story narrative, coping/negotiating narrative, and connecting through communication
with others narrative. This research underscores the vital outlet that the support group serves
for participants and the communicative means by which subjective healing can occur.
0657. Ursano, R. J. et al. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AND TRAUMATIC
STRESS: FROM BENCH TO BEDSIDE, FROM WAR TO DISASTER. Annals of the New
York Academy of Sciences. 2010, 1208:7281.
War is a tragic event and its mental health consequences can be profound. Recent studies
indicate substantial rates of posttraumatic stress disorder and other behavioral alterations
because of war exposure. Understanding the psychological, behavioral, and neurobiological
mechanism of mental health and behavioral changes related to war exposure is critical to helping those in need of care. Substantial work to encourage bench to bedside to community
knowledge and communication is a core component of addressing this world health need.
0658. Wann, D. L. et al. APPLYING THE TEAM IDENTIFICATION-SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH MODEL TO OLDER SPORT FANS. International Journal of
Aging and Human Development. 2011, 72(4):303315.
According to the Team IdentificationSocial Psychological Health Model, team identification and social psychological health should be positively correlated because identification
leads to important social connections which, in turn facilitate well-being. Although past
research substantiates the hypothesized positive relationship between team identification and
well-being, earlier studies focused solely on college student populations. The current study
extended past work in this area by investigating the team identification/well-being relationship
among older sport fans. A sample of older adults (N = 96; M age = 70.82) completed scales
assessing demographics, identification with a local college basketball team, and measures of
social psychological well-being. As hypothesized, team identification accounted for a significant proportion of unique variance in two measures of social psychological health (collective
self-esteem and loneliness).
0659. Webster, R. J., and Saucier, D. A. I BELIEVE I CAN FLY: RE-EXAMINLNG INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN IMAGINATIVE INVOLVEMENT. Imagination, Cognition and
Personality. 2011, 30(4):425445.
Many humans seemingly crave imaginative involvement, especially fantasy, spending billions
of dollars on its industry (e.g., Harry Potter). However we argue that individuals subjectively
experience imaginative involvement at different levels of cognitive (imagery vividness) and
emotional (engagement) intensity. Two studies examined the effects of fantasy proneness and
absorption on imagery vividness and engagement after completing various flying or control visualization tasks. After having first confirmed the structure of fantasy proneness as comprising
three dimensionsfantasy intensity, childhood make-believe, and extrasensory experiences
our studies showed that across visualization tasks, fantasy intensity best predicted imagery vividness, while absorption best predicted engagement. Further, increased positive mood fully
mediated the relationship between absorption and engagement. Ultimately, not everyone experiences imaginative involvement the same: certain individuals report greater engagement and a
more emotionally enriching experience.

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0660. Yochim, B. P. et al. PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF THE GERIATRIC


ANXIETY SCALE: COMPARISON TO THE BECK ANXIETY INVENTORY AND GERIATRIC ANXIETY INVENTORY. Clinical Gerontologist. 2011, 34:2133.
This study explored the convergent and discriminant validity of the Geriatric Anxiety Scale
(GAS), a new measure of anxiety symptoms for older adults. The GAS, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI), Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition
(BDI-II), and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were administered to 117 community-dwelling predominantly White, older adults (62% female; M age = 74.75 years, range = 6089 years;
M years of education = 14.97). Scores on the GAS were strongly associated with scores on
measures of anxiety and depression, but not associated with scores on measures of reading ability or processing speed. The GAS possesses strong convergent and discriminant validity and
shows promise as a measure of anxiety in older adults.

SOCIAL ORGANIZATION
General
0661. Bothner, M. S. et al. A MODEL OF ROBUST POSITIONS IN SOCIAL NETWORKS.
American Journal of Sociology. 2010, 116(3):94392.
This article introduces a network model that pictures occupants of robust positions as recipients of diversified support from durably located others and portrays occupants of fragile
positions as dependents on tenuously situated others. The model extends Herfindahls index of
concentration by bringing in the recursiveness of Bonacichs method. Using Newcombs study
of a college fraternity, we find empirical support for the contention that fragility reduces future
growth in status. Applications of the model to input-output networks among industries in
the U.S. economy and to hiring networks among academic departments are also presented.
Implications for future research are discussed.
0662. Cook-Craig, P. G. USING SOCIAL NETWORK THEORY TO INFLUENCE THE
DEVELOPMENT OF STATE AND LOCAL PRIMARY PREVENTION CAPACITYBUILDING TEAMS. Journal of Family Social Work. 2010, 13:313325.
This article examines the role that social network theory and social network analysis has
played in assessing and developing effective primary prevention networks across a southeastern state. In 2004 the state began an effort to develop a strategic plan for the primary prevention
of violence working with local communities across the state. The process included an analysis
of how family service organizations and community collaborators networked to solve community problems. In 2005, the state joined the Center for Disease Control and Preventions
Enhancing and Making Programs Work to End Rape project to specifically focus on building
capacity for primary prevention of perpetration of sexual violence.
0663. DiPrete, T. A. et al. SEGREGATION IN SOCIAL NETWORKS BASED ON
ACQUAINTANCESHIP AND TRUST. American Journal of Sociology. 2011, 116(4):123483.
Using 2006 General Social Survey data, the authors compare levels of segregation by race
and along other dimensions of potential social cleavage in the contemporary United States.
Americans are not as isolated as the most extreme recent estimates suggest. However, hopes
that bridging social capital is more common in broader acquaintanceship networks than in
core networks are not supported. Instead, the entire acquaintanceship network is perceived by
Americans to be about as segregated as the much smaller network of close ties. People do not
always know the religiosity, political ideology, family behaviors, or socioeconomic status of
their acquaintances, but perceived social divisions on these dimensions are high, sometimes
rivaling racial segregation in acquaintanceship networks. The major challenge to social integration today comes from the tendency of many Americans to isolate themselves from others
who differ on race, political ideology, level of religiosity, and other salient aspects of social
identity.

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 175

0664. Gerber, T. P., and Mayorova, O. GETTING PERSONAL: NETWORKS AND


STRATIFICATION IN THE RUSSIAN LABOR MARKET, 19852001. American Journal of
Sociology. 2010, 116(3):855908.
The authors use employment histories from survey data to examine personal network use
and stratification in the Russian labor market from 1985 to 2001. Institutional changes
associated with the Soviet collapse increased the use of networks and shaped their prevalence and benefits in theoretically coherent ways. In Russia, networks positively affect job
quality, whether measured by occupation, current earnings or wage arrears. These findings
relate to recent debates over whether job contacts provide advantages and how social capital relates to postsocialist inequalities involving gender, Communist Party membership,
and education. Russia also exhibits a previously overlooked relationship between network
use and locality type.
0665. Gillath, O. et al. COMPARING OLD AND YOUNG ADULTS AS THEY COPE
WITH LIFE TRANSITIONS: THE LINKS BETWEEN SOCIAL NETWORK MANAGEMENT SKILLS AND ATTACHMENT STYLE TO DEPRESSION. Clinical Gerontologist.
2011, 34:251265.
Smaller social networks are associated with poorer health and well-being, especially as
people negotiate life transitions. Many older adults, however, tend to have smaller networks,
without the expected negative outcomes. To understand better how older adults avoid such outcomes we measured social network management skills, attachment style, and depression
among individuals going through a life transition. Older adults who recently became caregivers
were compared with young adults who recently transitioned to college. Although older adults
initiated fewer and terminated more social ties (being selective in their choice of network
members), both age groups had an equal number of close network members. A closer look
revealed that securely attached older adults maintained their social ties, and in turn, sustained
low levels of depression. These findings emphasize the importance of attachment style and network skills to mental health in general and among older adults specifically.
0666. H@llsten, M. THE STRUCTURE OF EDUCATIONAL DECISION MAKING AND
CONSEQUENCES FOR INEQUALITY: A SWEDISH TEST CASE. American Journal of
Sociology. 2010, 116(3):806854.
Class differences in educational decision making are important for inequality. A unique
Swedish population-level database of university applications and individuals ranking of different programs is used to analyze class differences in preferences for different program
characteristics. Compared to individuals from service class backgrounds, individuals from
manual labor class backgrounds choose programs of shorter duration with lower grade point
requirements located closer to their parents home. Children from the service class instead
prefer programs with higher earnings risk and avoid nontraditional institutions. Taken
together, the differences in degree choice lead to substantial differences in expected earnings
levels and expected unemployment risks.
0667. Karpov, Y. Y. THE DAGESTANI MOUNTAIN VILLAGE: FROM THE TRADITIONAL JAMAAT TO ITS PRESENT SOCIAL CHARACTER. Anthropology and
Archeology of Eurasia. 2010, 48(4):1288.
This article depicts the complexities of everyday life values and psychology in diverse
mountain villages of multiethnic, multilingual Dagestan. The author begins with a historical
section that outlines the significance of extended kin groups and elder councils in traditional
society. Various kinds of Islam are described, including customary law (adat) and Sufi practices.
The author then balances his analysis of historical legacies with extensive data on post-Soviet
adaptation of ethnic-based highland communities (jamaat). He contributes to crucial debates
concerning the radicalization of Islam in the North Caucasus by arguing for a continuity of folk
Islam in the Soviet period and a wide range of political Islam in the post-Soviet period.

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0668. Kirk, D. S., and Papachristos, A. V. CULTURAL MECHANISMS AND THE PERSISTENCE OF NEIGHBORHOOD VIOLENCE. American Journal of Sociology. 2011,
116(4):11901123.
Sociologists have given considerable attention to identifying the neighborhood-level socialinteractional mechanisms that influence outcomes such as crime, educational attainment, and
health. Yet, cultural mechanisms are often overlooked in quantitative studies of neighborhood
effects. This paper adds a cultural dimension to neighborhood effects research by exploring the
consequences of legal cynicism. Legal cynicism refers to a cultural frame in which people perceive the law as illegitimate, unresponsive, and ill equipped to ensure public safety. The
authors find that legal cynicism explains why homicide persisted in certain Chicago neighborhoods during the 1990s despite declines in poverty and declines in violence city-wide.
0669. Peng, Y. WHEN FORMAL LAWS AND INFORMAL NORMS COLLIDE: LINEAGE NETWORKS VERSUS BIRTH CONTROL POLICY IN CHINA. American Journal of
Sociology. 2010, 116(3):770805.
Ancestor worship and bloodline continuation are the core norms of lineage in China. Beginning in the late 1970s, these cultural norms came into direct confrontation with the state birth
control policy. Pitched against each other are the antinatalist laws backed by the powerful and
unyielding state apparatus on the one side and the ancient pronatalist norms backed by revived
lineage networks on the other. Even though the draconian state policies did succeed in dramatically reducing the overall birthrates, data analyses show that villages with strong kinship
networks tend to have higher birthrates. The findings demonstrate the normative capacity of
social networks to bend the iron bars of formal institutions. A general framework is developed
for analyzing the roles of social networks in four ideal-typical juxtapositions of formal and
informal institutions: normativism, legalism, congruence, and conflict.
0670. Schatzki, T. MATERIALITY AND SOCIAL LIFE. Nature and Culture. 2010, 5(2):
123149.
An important issue in contemporary social theory is how social thought can systematically
take materiality into account. This article suggests that one way social theory can do so is by
working with an ontology that treats materiality as part of society. The article presents one such
ontology, according to which social phenomena consist in nexuses of human practices and
material arrangements. This ontology (1) recognizes three ways materiality is part of social
phenomena, (2) holds that most social phenomena are intercalated constellations of practices,
technology, and materiality, and (3) opens up consideration of relations between practices and
material arrangements. A brief practice-material history of the Kentucky Bluegrass region
where the author resides illustrates the idea that social phenomena evince changing material
configurations over time.

SOCIOCULTURAL CHANGE
Culture contact, migration, modernization
0671. Alinejad, D. MAPPING HOMELANDS THROUGH VIRTUAL SPACES:
TRANSNATIONAL EMBODIMENT AND IRANIAN DIASPORA BLOGGERS. Global
Networks. 2011, 11(1):4362.
In this article I examine Iranian diaspora blogs in an attempt to understand how Iranian
bloggers outside Iran create and occupy online transnational spaces. Although it is acknowledged that the internet does not make offline borders and bodies redundant, there is a need to
understand how the awareness of bodily presence in offline locations and situations continually
informs and shapes online expressions. Through content analysis of English language blogs by
Iranians based in the USA and Canada, as well as interviews with diaspora Iranians who read
and write these blogs, I advance a concept of transnational embodiment. The importance of
physical travel to, proximity to, and sensory impressions of particular places within two

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 177

bounded, politically distinct nation-states shows that diasporas rely heavily on embodied experience in constructing transnational spaces and not only on psychic ties and recalled memories.
Members of the second-generation Iranian diaspora reveal unique types of embodied ties to a
diaspora home, through their apparent search for authenticity.
0672. Bernardi, F. et al. THE RECENT FAST UPSURGE OF IMMIGRANTS IN SPAIN
AND THEIR EMPLOYMENT PATTERNS AND OCCUPATIONAL ATTAINMENT.
International Migration. 2011, 49(1):148187.
This article provides an analysis of employment and occupational attainment of recent
immigrants to Spain. We use data from the Spanish labour force surveys for the years between
2002 and 2007 and compare the probability of being active versus inactive and that of being
employed versus unemployed among immigrants and native-born Spaniards, using logistic
regression models. The paper then moves on to investigate the quality of the occupation
achieved by means of multinomial logistic regression models. We find evidence that immigrants are not at a disadvantage in comparison to native-born Spaniards regarding the risk of
unemployment. This is true even after controlling for differences in socio-demographic characteristics between immigrants and Spaniards and, in particular, after accounting for the duration
of time spent in the labour market. On the other hand, a strong and persistent disadvantage even
after controlling for socio-demographic characteristics is confirmed for immigrants as far as
their access to skilled occupations is concerned. Furthermore, this disadvantage does not disappear as time spent in the host country increases. Our findings, thus, go against the assimilation
hypothesis that predicts that immigrants occupational attainment should progressively
converge to that of natives.
0673. Brettell, C. B., and Nibbs, F. G. IMMIGRANT SUBURBAN SETTLEMENT AND
THE THREAT TO MIDDLE CLASS STATUS AND IDENTITY: THE CASE OF FARMERS BRANCH TEXAS. International Migration. 2011, 49(1):130.
In the United States, the failure to achieve immigration reform at the national level has
resulted in numerous responses in local communities that have been most impacted by the settlement of new immigrants. Some of these responses have emerged in suburban communities
that have experienced a rapid rise in the foreign-born population during the last twenty years.
This essay offers an in-depth analysis of one such community, Farmers Branch, Texas, covered
nationally for a series of anti-immigrant ordinances passed by its City Council. Following a
description of the history of this community, the growth of its foreign-born population, and the
legal manoeuvres to control unauthorized immigration, the essay argues that anti-immigrant
legislation in local places like Farmers Branch is at its core a reflection of a debate about and
anxiety over American identityhow it is defined and how it is changing. In particular, these
responses are about a perceived threat to middle class status and identity. This is discussed first
in relationship to issues of home ownership and income and then, in relation to cultural dimensions of class, including matters of taste and the spatializations of middle class identity.
Finally, the paper unpacks the concept of rule of law. By invoking the claim that Americans
are law abiding while unauthorized immigrants have broken the law, law-fulness becomes an
exclusionary tool and gives those who support anti-immigrant ordinances a platform for legislating a certain quality of life, and de-Americanizing those who do not fit their
conceptualization of what it means to be American. Rule of law becomes a weapon in the fight
for middle class status and the status quo.
0674. Brodmann, S., and Polavieja, J. G. IMMIGRANTS IN DENMARK: ACCESS TO
EMPLOYMENT, CLASS ATTAINMENT AND EARNINGS IN A HIGH-SKILLED ECONOMY. International Migration. 2011, 49(1):5890.
This study examines employment access class attainment, and earnings among native-born
and first-generation immigrants in Denmark using Danish administrative data from 2002. Results
suggest large gaps in employment access between native-born Danes and immigrants, as well as
among immigrant groups by country of origin and time of arrival. Non-Western immigrants and

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those arriving after 1984 are at a particular disadvantage compared to other immigrants, a finding
not explained by education differences. Immigrants are more likely to be employed in unskilled
manual jobs and less likely to be employed in professional and intermediate-level positions than
native-born Danes, although the likelihood of obtaining higher-level positions increases as immigrants time in Denmark lengthens. Class attainment and accumulated work experience explain a
significant portion of native-immigrant gaps in earnings, but work experience reduces nativeimmigrant gaps in class attainment for lower-level positions only. The Danish flexicurity
model and its implications for immigrants living in Denmark are discussed.
0675. Colic-Peisker, V. FREE FLOATING IN THE COSMOPOLIS? EXPLORING THE
IDENTITY-BELONGING OF TRANSNATIONAL KNOWLEDGE WORKERS. Global
Networks. 2010, 10(4):467488.
In this article I explore what I call the identity-belonging of transnational knowledge workers, a diverse group of serially migrating career professionals who have spent extended periods
of time in at least three countries, usually following career opportunities. Unlike most recent
writing on transnationalism, which focuses on enduring connections of migrants with their
home countries/places, here I explore a transnationalism that may transcend the national, and
generally the territorial, principle, with repercussions for identity-belonging. In this context,
how transnational knowledge workers position themselves towards belonging to a nation and
towards the idea of cosmopolitanism is of particular interest. From data collected through indepth interviews in Australia and Indonesia, I conclude that their globally recognized profession forms the central axis of their identity-belonging, alongside a weak identification with
their nation of origin. The feeling of belonging to and identifying with particular locales and
local communities was articulated flexibly and instrumentally in association with professional
and wider social networks, while no primordial territorial attachments could be identified.
0676. Davis, T., and Hart, D. M. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO MANAGE
HIGH-SKILL MIGRATION: THE CASE OF INDIAU.S. RELATIONS. Review of Policy
Research. 2010, 27(4):509526.
Highly skilled people are among the most valuable factors of production in the contemporary world economy. Some have characterized the competition among nations for these people
as a brain drain or war for talent, which imposes significant costs on the countries of emigration. However, the distribution of costs and benefits that results from high-skill migration is
not necessarily zero-sum or fixed. It may be altered through international cooperation, producing a self-reinforcing win-win scenario for sending and receiving countries. Bilateral
cooperation, focused on specific sectors affected by migration, is the most promising approach
for realizing such a scenario. This paper explores the prospects and potential for such cooperation between India and the United States, which comprise what is probably the worlds largest
high-skill mobility relationship. After sketching the broad contours of the relationship, we
explore the prospects for mutually beneficial cooperation in three specific fields of high-skill
migration: information technology services, medicine and nursing, and graduate education.
0677. De Bree, J. et al. POST-RETURN EXPERIENCES AND TRANSNATIONAL
BELONGING OF RETURN MIGRANTS: A DUTCHMOROCCAN CASE STUDY. Global
Networks. 2010, 10(4):489509.
In this article we explore the links between return migration, belonging and transnationalism
among migrants who returned from the Netherlands to northeast Morocco. While
transnationalism is commonly discussed from the perspective of a receiving country, this study
shows that transnationalism also plays a vital role in reconstructing post-return belonging.
Return migration is not simply a matter of going home, as feelings of belonging need to be
renegotiated upon return. While returnees generally feel a strong need to maintain various
transnational practices, the meanings they attach to these practices depend on motivations for
return, gender and age. For former (male) labour migrants, transnational practices are essential
for establishing post-return belonging, whereas such practices are less important for their

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 179

spouses. Those who returned as children generally feel uprooted, notwithstanding the transnational practices they maintain. The amount of agency migrants are able to exert in the return
decision-making process is a key factor in determining the extent to which returnees can create
a post-return transnational sense of home.
0678. Findlay, A. et al. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND RECESSION. Scottish
Geographical Journal. 2010, 126(4):299320.
The relationship between international labour migration and business cycles is poorly understood. This article uses Worker Registration Scheme data to examine differences in the use of
migrant labour in Scotland following the onset of recession and argues that it has changed in
spatially and sectorally uneven ways which reflect two distinct migrant labour functionsas
substitutional relative to the domestic workforce and as complementary relative to labour
filling roles not taken up by the national workforce. In the former case the demand for migrant
labour is highly sensitive to economic cycles. This is not so in the latter case as employers in
some sectors find it difficult to source domestic labour. The conceptual advance that the article
seeks to make lies in its identification of the mechanisms accounting for the geographical distinctiveness of complementary migrant labour flows over the business cycle.
0679. Fullin, G., and Reyneri, E. LOW UNEMPLOYMENT AND BAD JOBS FOR NEW
IMMIGRANTS IN ITALY. International Migration. 2011, 49(1)118147.
The article analyses the incorporation of immigrants into the Italian labour market and the difficulties they encounter in accessing both employment and qualified occupations. The analysis is
based on the Italian Labour Force Survey and highlights the fact that the great majority of immigrants entering Italy are hardly disadvantaged in comparison to Italians as regards the risk of
unemployment, but, in contrast, they are highly disfavoured as regards the socio-professional
status of their jobs. Unlike what would happen with the old European immigration, nowadays the
segregation of immigrant workers in the lowest ranks of the occupational ladder is not due to their
poor education. On the contrary, their disadvantage increases if educational attainment is taken
into account. The leading role of low-skilled labour demand and underground economy in shaping immigrants integration in the Italian labour market is confirmed by the fact that they have
fairly easy access to unskilled and semi-skilled manual jobs, whereas they experience serious
difficulties in entering self-employment and in obtaining non-manual jobs.
0680. King, R. et al. WE TOOK A BATH WITH THE CHICKENS: MEMORIES OF
CHILDHOOD VISITS TO THE HOMELAND BY SECOND-GENERATION GREEK AND
GREEK CYPRIOT RETURNEES. Global Networks. 2011, 11(1):123.
Drawing on a wider study of 90 second-generation Greeks and Greek Cypriots who have
relocated to their ancestral homeland, in this article we focus on the significance of childhood
visits to the homeland. Freedomhow children were allowed to roam free and stay up lateis
the key trope of such memories, in contrast with the strict spatio-temporal parenting they
received in the host country. Different, sometimes less pleasant, memories, however, emerge
when the visits took place during later, teenage years. We explore the connections between
childhood visits and adult relocation. Adult returnees find that settlement in the homeland
produces a new set of challenges and reactions that differ markedly from childhood
experiences and memories. They engage a second narrative trope, nostalgia, reflecting on the
loss of the authentic nature of the homeland and its customs and values. Instead, they highlight the materialism and xenophobia of Greek and Cypriot society nowadays. However, they
see the homeland as a safer place in which to raise their own children.
0681. Kogan, I. NEW IMMIGRANTSOLD DISADVANTAGE PATTERNS?
LABOUR MARKET INTEGRATION OF RECENT IMMIGRANTS INTO GERMANY.
International Migration. 2011, 49 (1):91117.
This paper examines the labour market integration of immigrants who have entered Germany since 1990, and compares their situation with that of their predecessors. The analyses

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based on the cumulative micro-census data reveal that recent immigrants into Germany are
on average better-educated than their earlier counterparts, and some ethnic groups are even
better- educated than the national average. Despite their high levels of formal education,
these immigrants coming mostly from Eastern Europe, Africa and the Middle East face
severe integration problems in the German labour market. Thus after taking into account the
value of human capital represented by these immigrants, their ethnic disadvantages appear to
increase. This stands in sharp contrast with the disadvantages faced by classic immigrants
who arrived in Germany during the 1960s and 1970s, for whom lack of human capital had
been identified as the main obstacle to labour market integration.
0682. Landolt, P., and Goldring, L. POLITICAL CULTURES AND TRANSNATIONAL
SOCIAL FIELDS: CHILEANS, COLOMBIANS AND CANADIAN ACTIVISTS IN
TORONTO. Global Networks. 2010, 10(4):443466.
We offer an institutional analysis of Chilean and Colombian transnational politics in
Toronto to account for cross-group variation in transnational political practices and the formation of different types of transnational social fields of political action. The article is based
on interviews conducted with Chilean and Colombian community activists and Canadian refugee rights and social justice activists. We use the concept of political culture to account for
differences in Chilean and Colombian transnational politics and to explain the different kinds
of relationships the two groups have developed with non-migrants. We introduce the concept
of activist dialogues, understood as patterns of strategic political interaction between groups,
to characterize how migrants and non-migrants read and navigate their interlocutors ways of
doing politics. We argue that variation in the character of activist dialogues results in different
types of transnational social fields of political action. ChileanCanadian activist dialogues
reflect a convergence of political cultures and strategies of action; ColombianCanadian
activist dialogues are marked by a relationship in which there is a divergence of strategies of
action. Convergent dialogues produce thicker and more stable transnational social fields
Divergent dialogues are associated with a series of ad hoc initiatives, the absence of stable and
strongly institutionalized partnerships, and a thinner transnational social field of political
action.
0683. McKenzie, S., and Menjivar, C. THE MEANINGS OF MIGRATION, REMITTANCES AND GIFTS: VIEWS OF HONDURAN WOMEN WHO STAY. Global Networks.
2011, 11(1)6381.
In this article we examine the non-economic, emotional meanings that mens economic
migration has for the wives and mothers who stay in two rural communities in Honduras. Combining the literature on economic sociology and on the social meanings of relations within
transnational families, we identify three areas that allow us to capture what the mens migration
means for the women who staycommunication between the non-migrant women and migrant
men, stress and anxiety, womens personal lives and added household responsibilities.
Through interviews with 18 non-migrant mothers and wives and qualitative fieldwork in Honduras, we find that womens interpretations of mens migration are not simple, black-andwhite assessments. Instead, these are multifaceted and shaped by the social milieu in which
women live. Whereas the remittances and gifts that the men send improve the lives, the women
and their families, these transfers also convey assurances that the men have not forgotten them
and they become expressions of love.
0684. Menahem, G. CROSS-BORDER, CROSS-ETHNIC, AND TRANSNATIONAL
NETWORKS OF A TRAPPED MINORITY: ISRAELI ARAB CITIZENS IN TEL AVIVJAFFA. Global Networks. 2010, 10(4):529540.
In this article, I provide a framework for studying the transnational networks of minority
members as a political phenomenon. I make two claims. First, it is necessary to take into
account the state and its capacity to limit transnational networks if one is to capture analytically,
the full range of such networks. Second, it is important to extend the theoretical framework of

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 181

transnationalism to include populations other than migrants and to account for networks established by national minority members whose loyalty to the state can be challanged. I offer a
typology of networks organized along two major axesthe state in-bordercross-border axis
and the ethnic or religious identity axis. These two axes yield different types of in-border and
cross-border intranational and transnational networks. I base these claims on an analysis of
four case studies of cross-border and cross-ethnic networks maintained by Israeli Palestinian
citizens in Tel Aviv-Jaffa.
0685. Mullings, B. DIASPORA STRATEGIES SKILLED MIGRANTS AND HUMAN
CAPITAL ENHANCEMENT IN JAMAICA. Global Networks. 2011, 11(1):2442.
In an attempt to boost its stock of human capital and access to global flows of investment
knowledge and innovation the Jamaican state has begun to turn to skilled members of its diaspora as a vital and untapped economic resource. State strategies to accumulate human capital
within the diaspora however raise questions about the culture of labour markets and their
effects on human capital enhancement and the transfer of knowledge. Drawing on the labour
market experiences of skilled members of the Jamaican diaspora currently living on the
island, I explore the possibilities and limits that skilled diaspora network strategies offer for
capturing transforming and embedding knowledge, innovation and investment capital in
Jamaica.
0686. Murthy, D. NATIONALISM REMIXED? THE POLITICS OF CULTURAL
FLOWS BETWEEN THE SOUTH ASIAN DIASPORA AND HOMELAND. Ethnic and
Racial Studies. 2010, 33(8):14121430.
This article examines Asian electronic music, a generally progressive diasporic South
Asian scene which fuses electronic dance music beats with instruments/sounds traditionally
associated with the subcontinent and how it became embedded into majoritarian Indian
nationalism. In India the musics perceived fusion aesthetic became emblematic of an emergent India which was economically prosperous while respecting its cultural heritage. Using
the case of an album which remixed Indias national song Vande Mataram, this article explores
the convergences and divergences between Asian electronic musicians in Delhi and Hindu
nationalists. The article concludes that the musicians in Delhi did not lend to Hindu nationalism. However they perhaps gave secular Indian nationalism a cool gloss. Ultimately the
production and consumption of Asian electronic music in Delhi raises significant questions
regarding the scenes relationship to Indian nationalisms.
0687. Reyneri, E., and Fullin, G. LABOUR MARKET PENALTIES OF NEW IMMIGRANTS IN NEW AND OLD RECEIVING WEST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES. International
Migration. 2011, 49(1):3157.
Over the past two decades, all European societies have experienced continued and increasing migrations, albeit with very different intensities and characteristics. Our focus is on new
immigrantsthose who have come from abroad in the past 15 yearsin both old and new
receiving West European countries. Comparative analyses on this issue are rather weak as the
literature on immigrant integration in the labour market is well-established in the old receiving
countries but is just beginning to be developed in the newer receiving ones. The article aims at
introducing the articles collected in this special issue, which present the results of a research
project that concerns six European countriesItaly Spain, United Kingdom the Netherlands
Germany, and Denmark. Our focus is on inequalities between immigrants and natives with
respect to the risk of unemployment and to the access to highly qualified occupations. After
having highlighted similarities and differences across those countries, we tried to draw some
general conclusions concerning the main factors that may have shaped new immigrants incorporation into West European labour markets. In particular, the role played by the nature of
immigration and by the labour demand seems to be crucial.

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0688. Sen, S. et al. MIGRATION, POVERTY, AND RISK OF HIV INFECTION: AN


APPLICATION OF SOCIAL CAPITAL THEORY. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social
Environment. 2010, 20:897908.
A majority of current HIV/AIDS interventions are designed primarily after individual-based
public health models and pay little attention to the socioeconomic environment in which HIV
transmission occurs. This article focuses on outlining how migration acts as a conduit for disease transmission in South Africa and then proposes a macro-level prevention model based on
social capital theory thus then supplementing current prevention literature. It is based on the
argument that social disruption and stresses from migration lead to sexual interactions during
the migration periods that amplify the risk of HIV transmission among migrants.
0689. Sun, M., and Fan, C. C. CHINAS PERMANENT AND TEMPORARY MIGRANTS:
DIFFERENTIALS AND CHANGES, 19902000. The Professional Geographer. 2011, 63(1):
92112.
A unique feature of migration in China is its two-track system one consisting of permanent
migration and temporary migration. This article examines whether and how hukou reforms and
the maturation of migration streams since the 1980s have changed the two-track system. Using
data on interprovincial migration from the 1990 and 2000 censuses our empirical analysis
focuses on the differentials between permanent migrants and temporary migrants and their
changes over time. We document the size migration reasons and selectivity of migrants and we
evaluate the determinants of the dichotomy between permanent migrants and temporary
migrants via logistic regression models. Our findings show that between 1990 and 2000 the
gaps between interprovincial permanent migrants and temporary migrants did not narrow but
in most aspects had widened. There is little evidence that hukou reforms have lowered the barriers to urban citizenship. At the same time a larger spectrum of the rural population has joined
the temporary migration streams. The net result is a persistence of the two-track migration
system, where permanent migrants increasingly assume the position of social and economic
elites and temporary migrants are the disadvantaged and disenfranchised.
0690. Wang, L., and Roisman, D. MODELING SPATIAL ACCESSIBILITY OF IMMIGRANTS TO CULTURALLY DIVERSE FAMILY PHYSICIANS. The Professional
Geographer. 2011, 63(1):7391.
This article uses accessibility as an analytical tool to examine health care access among immigrants in a multicultural urban setting. It applies and improves on two widely used accessibility
modelsthe gravity model and the two-step floating catchment area modelin measuring spatial accessibility by Mainland Chinese immigrants in the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area.
Empirical data on physician-seeking behaviors are collected through two rounds of questionnaire
surveys. Attention is focused on journey to physician location and utilization of linguistically
matched family physicians. Based on the survey data, a two-zone accessibility model is developed by relaxing the travel threshold and distance impedance parameters that are traditionally
treated as a constant in the accessibility models. General linear models are used to identify relationships among spatial accessibility, geography, and socioeconomic characteristics of Mainland
Chinese immigrants. The results suggest a spatial mismatch in the supply of and demand for culturally sensitive care, and residential location is the primary factor that determines spatial
accessibility to family physicians. The article yields important policy implications.

SYMBOL SYSTEMS
Religion, ritual, world view
0691. Ambros, B. THE NECROGEOGRAPHY OF PET MEMORIAL SPACES. Material
Religion. 2010, 6(3):304335.
This article investigates how pets are included or excluded in the human necral landscapes of
contemporary Japan. Their placement in mortuary spaces reflects the pets paradoxical position

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 183

as hybrids between humans and other nonhuman animals. Since the beginning of the pet boom in
the 1990s a growing number of Japanese pet owners consider their beloved pets family members
during their lifetime and feel that they should hence be treated in death like a human. Paralleling
changes in human mortuary practices in the modern period, many changes have occurred in mortuary practices involving pets: pets are buried and memorialized with Buddhist rituals, cremation
has become the preferred method of disposal for pet bodies, funeral options have become more
individualized, pet cemeteries are ubiquitous in the urban landscape, and joint human-pet burials
are gaining currency. The inquiry focuses on two examples: the memorialization of pets in the
home and the interment of pet cremains in cemeteries. Despite a greater sense of inclusion contemporary mortuary practices place pets in a liminal position between animals and humans,
indicating their status as marginal, temporary family members.
0692. Anderson, D. W. BIBLICAL JUSTICE AND INCLUSIVE EDUCATION. Journal
of Religion, Disability and Health. 2010, 14:338354.
Despite that fact that inclusion of students with special educational needs in the general education classroom has become more prevalent, concerns continue about the practice from special
educators regular class teachers administrators, and parents. This article suggests that serving
students who have a disability in inclusive settings is a way to live out justice and embody reconciliation. An understanding of justice from a biblical perspective rather than simply as a legal
or philosophical matter, is essential to creating a classroom environment that represents a just
community.
0693. Arat, Y. RELIGION, POLITICS AND GENDER EQUALITY IN TURKEY:
IMPLICATIONS OF A DEMOCRATIC PARADOX? Third World Quarterly. 2010, 31(6):
869884.
This article examines the gendered implications of the intertwining of Islam and politics that
took shape after the process of democratisation in Turkey had brought a political party with an
Islamist background to power. This development revived the spectre of restrictive sex roles for
women. The country is thus confronted with a democratic paradox: the expansion of religious
freedoms accompanying potential and/or real threats to gender equality. The ban on the Islamic
headscarf in universities has been the most visible terrain of public controversy on Islam. However the paper argues that a more threatening development is the propagation of patriarchal
religious values sanctioning secondary roles for women through the public bureaucracy as well
as through the educational system and civil society organisations.
0694. Bacon, J. K., and Erickson, K. E. SPECIAL EDUCATION IN LUTHERAN
SCHOOLS. Journal of Religion, Disability and Health. 2010, 14:355367.
Religious organizations are developing supports that empower individuals with disabilities
to be included as contributing partners in their faith communities. However there is little information about the extent to which students with disabilities are included in the K12 schools
affiliated with those organizations. In this article the authors provide introductory information
about special education in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America the Lutheran Church
Missouri Synod, and the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. Contextual information about
the denominations and schools is provided as well as information gleaned from denominational
websites the websites of Lutheran organizations that support inclusive special education and
from interviews with Lutheran educators.
0695. Bernstein, E., and R-Jakobsen, J. SEX SECULARISM AND RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE IN US POLITICS. Third World Quarterly. 2010, 31(6):10231039.
Through an analysis of alliances between secular and religious actors in US politics and a
specific case study on anti-trafficking policy we show that the intertwining of religion and politics in the US comes from two sources: 1) the secular political and cultural institutions of
American public life that have developed historically out of Protestantism and which predominantly operate by presuming Protestant norms and values; and 2) the direct influence on US
politics of religious groups and organisations particularly in the past quarter-century of lobby

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groups and political action committees identified with conservative evangelical Christianity.
The sources of policies that promote gender and sexual inequality in the US are both secular
and religious and we conclude that it is inaccurate to assume that religious influence in politics
is necessarily conservative or that more secular politics will necessarily be more progressive
than the religious varieties.
0696. Buggenhagen, B. ISLAM AND THE MEDIA OF DEVOTION IN AND OUT OF
SENEGAL. Visul Anthropology Review. 2010, 26(2):8195.
Few devotees of the Muridiyya, a Sufi congregation that emerged in colonial Senegal at the
turn of the 20th century have the opportunity to glimpse or touch their spiritual masters.
Exalted Murid figures rarely leave their compounds in rural Tuba, and access to them is
restricted to high-ranking initiates such as Muslim scholars, government officials, and business
leaders. Ordinary disciples are more likely to view religious figures in the variety of media circulating in and out of Senegal. The desire for and appreciation of mediation to facilitate proper
practice and proximity to the divine distinguish Murid adepts from their Sunni counterparts.
The electronic mediation of devotional practices produces feelings of nearness to spiritual
leaders for disciples in Senegal and abroad. Through visual practices related to electronic
media, devotees receive religious merit and grace that lead to spiritual and material enrichment
and create their spiritual community.
0697. Butterworth, D. J. RITUAL PREPARATION FOR LIVING: EDUCATION IN THE
SOCIAL MEMORY OF AN EASTERN INDONESIAN PEOPLE. Indonesia and the Malay
World. 2011, 39(113):4967.
In the childhood rite of passage lodong mJ, performed by the KrowJ people from Flores
island in eastern Indonesia, infants are introduced for the first time to the implements that mil
be important for their future working life. Customarily, females are given instruction in the use
of weaving equipment and males a machete, but nowadays it is increasingly popular for both
genders to use a ballpoint pen and to rnimic the act of writing. The KrowJ state that during this
ritual children learn practical skills and a diligent work ethic concomitant with the particular
tool to which they are exposed and the pen is now seen to portend a prosperous professional
career. With reference to this rite of passage I examine transformations in the KrowJ social
memory of education that have taken root during their engagement with Dutch colonial Catholic and Indonesian administrations and which are being expressed in contemporary ritual
practice. Drawing on ecological theories of mind and a comparative Austronesian perspective
on KrowJ ritual and religion, 1 argue that the lodong mJ concurrently incorporates and affects
change in KrowJ valorisations of learning and livelihoods and as such is a key event in the construction of their social memory of education.
0698. Buursma, D R. INCLUSION FROM THE INSIDE OUT. Journal of Religion, Disability
and Health. 2010, 14:385392.
During the late 1980s the idea of inclusive Christian education came to West Michigan. This
article describes one familys journey from self-contained educational programming through a
least restrictive environment classroom to inclusive education in a Christian day school setting.
While acknowledging the challenges and struggles experienced along the way, the story celebrates the results of a determined effort on the part of school administrators staff, faculty, and the
student community to embrace students who make their way around differently and who learn at
a different pace. The article delineates the mutual benefits of inclusivity and drives home the
point that inclusive education in the Christian day school setting can be transformational for all
involved.
0699. Caspar, C. L. et al. CORNERSTONES IN ULRICH BACHS WORK ON THEOLOGY AND DISABILITY. Journal of Religion, Disability and Health. 2011, 15:3441.
This article outlines the theological cornerstones of Ulrich Bach a German theologian in the
field of theology and disability. The present text aims at offering a general approach to Ulrich

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 185

Bachs work for the English-speaking world by considering the christological, soteriological,
and ecclesiological themes of his work. Moreover, this article includes some of the central passages of his work in translation.
0700. Clarke, M. et al. CHURCHES, MOSQUES AND CONDOMS: UNDERSTANDING
SUCCESSFUL HIV AND AIDS INTERVENTIONS BY FAITH-BASED ORGANISATIONS.
Development in Practice. 2011, 21(1):317.
There are an estimated 33 million people living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus
(HIV) worldwide. While national education campaigns have been successful in providing a
broad platform of awareness of HIV and AIDS, within some countries faith-based organisations (FBOs) have assumed an important role in educating and supporting local communities to
reduce HIV transmission. This article conceptualises the successful characteristics of a Christian
organisation in West Papua and a Muslim organisation in Thailand. The ability of both these
FBOs to engage successfully with their communities on issues of sexual practice provides
important lessons for other FBOs seeking to reduce HIV transmission.
0701. Eigenbrood, R. IDEA REQUIREMENTS FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES
IN FAITH-BASED SCHOOLS: IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE. Journal of Religion,
Disability and Health. 2010, 14:393409.
Although public schools have both the obligation and ability to provide free and appropriate
public education (FAPE) for all children and youth with disabilities enrolled in public schools,
their obligation does not end there. Children with disabilities enrolled by their parents in private schools do have certain rights to services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education
Act (IDEA), and it is expected that public schools will engage in meaningful consultation with
private school officials and parents to ensure that those rights are met. In that light this article
summarizes specific requirements of IDEA for students enrolled in private schools with an
emphasis on those students enrolled in faith-based schools, and changes introduced in IDEA
2004. Although it is clear that the extent to which IDEA does apply to children in private
schools is limited, there are clear implications for the amount of federal flow-through funds that
are available for the provision of special education services to this group of students. Specific
suggestions for cooperation between public schools and private school personnel are suggested
with the goal of maximizing the IDEA benefits for children with disabilities in private schools.
0702. Frantzman, S. J. et al. THE ANGLICAN CHURCH IN PALESTINE AND ISRAEL:
COLONIALISM, ARABIZATION AND LAND OWNERSHIP. Middle Eastern Studies.
2011, 47(1):101126.
The role of the Anglican Church in the Holy Land has not been fully explored outside of an
examination of the importance of its missions in Palestine. Additionally the subsequent dispersal of the Anglican church in Palestine into various bodies such as the Jerusalem and East
Mission the Palestine Native Church Council, the Evangelical-Episcopal Church and other
organizations and their development over time has not been documented in detail. Most importantly no examination has been done on relations between various parts of the Anglican Church
and the Israeli government pertaining to land use and property owned by the church and its
members in the State of Israel. This work explores the fostering of anti-Zionism in the English
members of the church by its Arab members, the contribution of the church to the national
awakening of the Anglican Arabs, and the relationship of these processes to the IsraeliPalestinian conflict.
0703. Gaventa, B. GREAT UNEXPECTATIONS. Journal of Religion, Disability and
Health. 2011, 15:7986.
A sermon by Bill Gaventa, reflecting on the ways that occasional unusual and unexpected
actions by people with disabilities challenge our preconceptions and expectations based on the
label of disability, and illustrate the Biblical ways in which God is revealed in unexpected
people, in unexpected places and unexpected ways.

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0704. Grubiak, M. VISUALIZING THE MODERN CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY. Material


Religion. 2010, 6(3):336360.
Touchdown Jesus, the well-known moniker of the enormous mural of Christ on the University of Notre Dames skyscraper library, defines the University of Notre Dame in the
popular imagination wittily uniting the universitys famed football tradition with its Catholic
identity. Yet the original intention of the 1964 mural formally titled The Word of Life, and its
library had little to do with football. Instead the library and mural were part of President Theodore M. Hesburghs program to raise Notre Dames national reputation as a modern research
university. The library and mural embodied reforms then underway at the Second Vatican
Council whose support of academic freedom allowed Catholic universities to strive toward the
intellectual standards of their secular counterparts. This article argues that the librarys modem
architecture and its figurative Chhstocentric mural visualized the University of Notre Dames
ambition to become a great American university without leaving its Catholic identity behind.
0705. Gupta, V. B. RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVES HOW HINDUS COPE WITH
DISABILITY. Journal of Religion, Disability and Health. 2011, 15:7278.
The article reviews how the belief in the law of karma helps Hindus cope ivith disability.
Karma is neither divine retribution nor inevitable fate. One can mitigate the results of past
karma and improve present and future karma by acts of piety and good deeds. Although the law
of karma sometimes causes negative coping by evoking the feelings of guilt for having brought
the condition due to past misdeeds it generally helps in accepting the condition with equanimity. Equipoise and surrender to the will of God also help Hindus in coping with disability. The
coping strategy of Hindus is compared to that of other Eastern religions such as Buddhism,
Jainism and Sikhism.
0706. Heinen, J., and Portet, S. REPRODUCTIVE RIGHTS IN POLAND: WHEN POLITICIANS FEAR THE WRATH OF THE CHURCH. Third World Quarterly. 2010, 31(6):
10071021.
The historical prestige of the Polish Catholic Church is the result of its presence as a national
symbol of resistance, both under foreign occupation and during the communist regime. In the
post-communist era the power of the Church within the political arena has significantly
increased, through the Concordat that was signed with the state as well as through formal and
informal ties with political parties. Catholicism is the de facto religion of the state, even if
Poland remains a nominally secular country. This was illustrated by the adoption, in 1993, of a
total abortion ban. Although the relation of Poles to the Catholic dogma on sexuality and reproductive rights tends to be weak, fearing criticism from Church authorities, most politicians
avoid controversial topics and express their commitment to Catholic dogma. Thus womens
groups have encountered serious difficulties in their efforts to defend womens rights to sexual
and reproductive autonomy. Although accession to the European Union has put Poland in an
awkward position with respect to equality of rights between women and men, it has not fundamentally altered the real situation with respect to the controversial topic of abortion.
0707. Kamsma, T. ECHOES OF JEWISH IDENTITY IN AN EVANGELICAL CHRISTIAN SECT IN MINAHASA INDONESIA. Indonesia and the Malay World. 2010, 38(112):
387402.
Recent reports mention the opening of two synagogues in Manado and Tondano, two cities
in the Minahasa region of North Sulawesi. This is remarkable as Jewish corporeal presence is
considered insignificant in contemporary Indonesia. It thus raises the crucial question on the
interpretation of the presence of Jews in Minahasa. A closer look reveals that these synagogues were started by a group of Messianic Judaists; a Christian religious sect whose
members trace their family tree back to a Jewish progenitor in Europe. This article traces matters of Jewish identification in Minahasa from colonial times to the present. These are made
visible through the (re)configuration of the socio-political landscape in Indonesia as mirrored
by the family history of the Dutch Jewish entrepreneur Abraham Fontein and his descendants.

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0708. Kunz, R. YOU HAVE NOT FORGOTTEN US: TOWARDS A DISABILITYACCESSIBLE CHURCH AND SOCIETY. Journal of Religion, Disability and Health. 2011,
15:2033.
A vision is unfolded of the integration of people with dementia and their relatives. The argument is for the respect of the particular and thereby overcomes concepts of integration that
either mean total inclusion or total separation. The article explores both the challenge and
chance for the church that answer Jesus call for inclusion. Of particular importance is the sacramental dimension of faith; as in the Christian tradition, sacraments serve as symbolic bridges
between the spiritual and the material that is conceivable by people with dementia.
0709. Potvin, J. ASKESIS AS AESTHETIC HOME: EDWARD PERRY WARREN,
LEWES HOUSE, AND THE IDEAL OF GREEK LOVE. Home Cultures. 2011, 8(1):7190.
This article explores the queer writings of Boston-born Edward Perry Warren (18601928)
and the spaces of his Lewes House, East Sussex, that formed the basis of his Uranian ideal.
Warren, along with his personal secretary (aka lover), John Marshall, amassed an impressive
collection of mainly antiquities, most of which helped to form the Boston Museum of Fine Art.
At Lewes House Warren conceived a community of younger Uked-minded men many of whom
benefited directly from his financial generosity and guidance.
0710. Razavi, S., and Jenichen, A. THE UNHAPPY MARRIAGE OF RELIGION AND
POLITICS: PROBLEMS AND PITFALLS FOR GENDER EQUALITY. Third World
Quarterly. 2010, 31(6):833850.
This article explores how religion as a political force shapes and deflects the struggle for
gender equality in contexts marked by different histories of nation building and challenges of
ethnic diversity, different state-society relations (from the more authoritarian to the more democratic), and different relations between state power and religion (especially in the domain of
marriage, family and personal laws). It shows how private issues related to the family, sexuality and reproduction, have become sites of intense public contestation between conservative
religious actors wishing to regulate them based on some transcendent moral principle, and feminist and other human rights advocates basing their claims on pluralist and time- and contextspecific solutions. Not only are claims of divine truth justifying discriminatory practices
against women hard to challenge, but the struggle for gender equality is further complicated by
the manner in which it is closely tied up with, and inseparable from, struggles for social and
economic justice, ethnic/racial recognition, and national self-determination vis-a!-vis imperial/
global domination.
0711. Reinders, H. IS THERE MEANING IN DISABILITY? OR IS IT THE WRONG
QUESTION? Journal of Religion, Disability and Health. 2011, 15:5771.
This article addresses the question of whether there is meaning in disability. Looking at personal accounts of parents about the birth of their disabled child signals the experience of
devastation that leads them to ask Why? The discussion investigates religious responses to
this question to show that underlying these responses is the presupposition of a well-ordered
moral universe ruled by Gods will. This presupposition is traced back to a doctrine of providence that assumes power and control. In critique of this doctrine, an argument is presented that
providence understood in Christian terms is about trust.
0712. Shaheed, F. CONTESTED IDENTITIES: GENDERED POLITICS, GENDERED
RELIGION IN PAKISTAN. Third World Quarterly. 2010, 31(6):851867.
In Pakistan the self-serving use of Islam by more secular elements alongside politico-religious ones facilitated the latters increasing influence and the conflation and intricate
interweaving of Islam and Pakistani nationhood. A paradigm shift under Zias martial law
revamped society as much as state laws, producing both religiously defined militias and
aligned civil society groups. Examining the impact on women of fusing religion and politics,
this paper argues that women become symbolic markers of appropriated territory in the pursuit

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of state power, and that the impact of such fusing, different for differently situated women,
needs to be gauged in societal terms as well as in terms of state dynamics. Questioning the positing of civil society as a self-evident progressive desideratum, the paper concludes that gender
equality projects seeking reconfigurations of power cannot be effective without vigorously
competing in the creation of knowledge, culture and identity.
0713. Smith, B. EL SEYOR DEL PERD[N Y LOS MATACRISTOS DE OAXACA: LA
REVOLUCI[N MEXICANA DESDE EL PUNTO DE VISTA DE LOS CAT[LICOS. [THE
LORD OF PARDON (SEYOR DEL PERD[N) AND THE MATACRISTOS OF OAXACA:
THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION FROM THE CATHOLICS POINT OF VIEW.] Desacatos.
2010, 34:6176. in Spanish.
This article explores the religious responses to the violence of the Mexican Revolution in
two com munities in the state of OaxacaSan Pablo y San PedroTequixtepec in the Mixteca
Baja and Magdalena Tequisistlan in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. In Tequixtepec the dialogue
between the clergy and the lay worshippers precipitated an orthodox innovative, accepted by
the ecclesiastical authorities. In Tequisistlan, the lack of religious negotiations caused a less
acceptable religious revival, the crucificatio of an Italian traveller.
0714. Smith, C. L. SPIRITUAL ENCOUNTER BITTER WATER SWEET. Journal of
Religion, Disability and Health. 2011, 15:8789.
The gap between the congregations and families affected by disability is wide. The families
who feel connected and well-fed are few. Appointments, medical issues, exhaustion, difficult
behamors, poor communication, accessibility, lack of biblical understanding and implementation concerning disability are some of the key reasons that the gap exists. This article is an
autobiographical account of one familys experience with disability and the road to spiritual
nurture. The experiences encountered in this article have lead to the creation of a model ministry Links of Love Disability Ministry at Family Worship Center (Lansdale, PA) to help bridge
this gap. Peaceful Living (Harleysville, PA) has partnered with Links of Love to offer this
model as a template in assisting other faith communities in not only closing the gap, but in helping the families they serve to flourish as an integral part of the faith community.
0715. Stegink, P. DISABILITY TO COMMUNITY: A JOURNEY TO CREATE INCLUSIVE CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS. Journal of Religion, Disability and Health. 2010, 14:368381.
The organizational journey from Christian Learning Center to CLC Network progresses
philosophically from focusing on disability to celebrating community. Paralleling social
change in the United States, special education programming offered by the Christian Learning
Center of Grand Rapids, Michigan, has changed from the practice of providing segregated,
self-contained education, to mainstreaming, to education that is inclusive. This article traces
the evolution of support services offered by the CLC Network to Christian schools and their
teachers and students in West Michigan and throughout the United States and provides a case
study of what inclusive Chfistian education should look like. The author wishes to thank R. H.
Bear Berends, Executive Director of CLC Network, and Doug Bouman, CLC Networks
Director of Psychological Services, for their assistance and contributions in the development of
this article.
0716. Swinton, J. et al. WHOSE STORY AM I? REDESCRIBING PROFOUND INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY IN THE KINGDOM OF GOD. Journal of Religion, Disability and
Health. 2011, 15:519.
This article reflects theologically on the spiritual lives of people with profound intellectual
disabilities. It offers afresh way of exploring the theological contribution that such life experiences have for an understanding of God, human being, and what it means to be a church. By
meditating on the storied nature of human beings, this discussion offers a narrative mode of
resistance that seeks to develop powerful counternarratives that stand as a challenge to the
normal stories told about people with profound intellectual disabilities. The discussion

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examines key questions around what it means to know God even when, intellectually, one
might not know anything about God.
0717. Tweed, A. MARYS RAIN AND GODS UMBRELLA. Material Religion. 2010,
6(8):274303.
In this article I introduce a self-taught Chicana artist, Caroline Martinez, and highlight her
works religious significance. I offer a brief account of her life and a preliminary interpretation
of her art. The art that adorns her Texas home and yard, I argue, is a visual testimony to the
intercessory power of Jesus and Mary to heal the sick, feed the body, and protect the vulnerable. I then consider the implications of this case study for scholars in religious studies, Chicana
studies, Catholic studies, and art history. Martinezs art evokes three important themesreligion identity and modernityand offers reminders about three concomitant issues that face
everyone who thinks about religion and art especially self-taught artists and Chicana art: (1)
What is the function of religionand religious visual culture? (2) How do we talk about artists
religious identity especially when there are multiple converging influences? (3) To what extent
and in which sense can the work of self-taught artists like Martinez be understood as modern
and to what extent are the artist and her work shaped by the social forces of modernity?
0718. Ulrich, H. G. BODILY LIFE AS CREATURELY LIFE; THE ETHICAL COEXISTENCE OF HUMAN BEINGS WITH DISABILITIES AND ITS FULFILLMENT. Journal of
Religion, Disability and Health. 2011, 15:4256.
The title Bodily Life as Creaturely Life indicates that any reflection on human life forms,
on a human ethos must deal with the transforming experiences that let appear how human
beings coexist. Becoming aware of people with disabilities this reflection implies particular
experiences of transformation. There appears paradigmatically how ones own bodily existence is related to and connected with the bodily existence of others. The human ethos must
be described in its bodily appearance as can be learned from biblical traditions and its interpreters (such as Martin Luther and Dietrich Bonhoeffer). They suggest that communication is
bodily mediated and is fulfilled through sharing ones bodily life with one anotheras God
shares His life infesus bodily existence and His story with human beings. This sharing then, is
the context of living together, which ethics must explore instead of focusing the question for a
given common human nature, both its abilities and disabilities. Theological ethics draws the
attention to the part that every human being plays in Gods story. Theological ethics must
unfold this bodily mediated ethos wherein people find their coexistence as Gods creatures.
0719. Van Dyk, W. CHANGING SCHOOL CULTURE AT ZEELAND CHRISTIAN
SCHOOL. Journal of Religion, Disability and Health. 2010, 14:382384.
Inclusive Christian education is not simply about changing who enrolls in a school or what
supports are provided to teachers and children to make that happen. This inclusive education is
also about changing the very culture of a school community. At Zeeland Christian School,
inclusion of students with diverse learning characteristics led to changes in relationships, in
experiences of school community as an interdependent body made up of many parts, and in
instruction designed to meet the needs of all students.
0720. Vermonden, D. CUCULANO: MYTHS, LEGENDS, TALES, FABLES OR
SEDIMENTED TOOLS FOR THE TRANSMISSION OF A PERCEPTION? Indonesia and
the Malay World. 2011, 39(113):2947.
Cuculano, a vernacular term in the Cia-cia language of Buton, Indonesia, is based on the root
cula (story) and is a mixed local genre. It does not fit within western categories of myth or fable
and there is no such equivalent in Cia-cia. This hybrid nature is an opportunity to question
western interpretations about such storied. The exploration of western categories reveals their
fuzziness affecting the criterion of belief. Focusing on the question of transmission, I highlight
the problems with the neo-Darwinian framework proposed by Boyd and Richerson. I develop
an alternative approach that is more phenomenological and ecological inspired mainly by

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Merleau-Pontys approach of learning as co-naissance Within this perspective cuculano can


be considered as tools calls signs) for the reproduction of a perception; cuculano are actors in
the process of transmission of a particular being-in-the-world.

THEORETICAL, METHODOLOGICAL AND GENERAL


0721. Anonymous, ANTHROPOLOGIES OF CONSCIOUSNESS. Time and Mind: The
Journal of Archaeology, Consciousness and Culture. 2010, 3(2):125134.
Linguistic and etymological perspectives illustrate that the term consciousness is used to
refer to a wide range of phenomena. Definitions of being conscious include: not asleep; awake;
awareness of ones own existence, sensations, thoughts, and environment; subjectively known;
capable of complex response to the environment; intentionally conceived or done; deliberate.
The ancient Indo-European roots provide a broader view of consciousness original meanings
and connotations. These meanings of consciousness are based upon the Latin root conscius,
which means knowing something with others. The roots of the Latin conscius include scire
(to know) and con (with). The conventional interpretation is that the Indo-European root of
consciousness is expressed in skei, the extended root of sek, which means to cut, split, or divide,
implying knowing by making differentiations.
0722. Arias, D. L. SOBRE ANTROPOLOGQA POSMODERNIDAD Y TEORQA
CRQTICA. [ABOUT ANTHROPOLOGY, POSTMODERNISM AND CRITICAL THEORY.]
Desacatos. 2011, 35:97114. in Spanish.
The attempt of this essay is, first, to rethink some discussion about the relevance of
postmodern anthropology in the light of history and some critics authors, also to witness the
sterile and old debates between modern and postmodern. On the other hand, I propose to take as
a model one text critic from Key Chow on Chinese cinema to show other contexts, not necessarily ethnographic, in which issues that are treated with some seriousness and gravity, as the
de-constructionism, can be thought otherwise. Finally, I conclude with a brief reflection on
the question of rationality and the misinterpretation of other cultures behind the previous
example.
0723. Balzani, M. ANTHROPOLOGY AND THE INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE: HISTORY, PRACTICE AND FUTURE CHALLENGES. Anthropology in Action.
2010, 17(23):6071.
The article contextualizes the educational, political and social context in which the International Baccalaureate (IB) diploma programme was established and describes the place of social
anthropology within the general aims of the diploma programme as a whole. The article then
discusses the current diploma curriculum for social and cultural anthropology and the issues
arising from this for the teaching and learning of anthropology in a global context, including
teacher support and comparisons with other national pre-university educational qualifications.
Some of the perceptions of the IB diploma among teachers, students and parents are also briefly
discussed.
0724. BarthJlJmy, J. H. WHAT NEW HUMANISM TODAY? Cultural Politics. 2010,
6(2):237252.
Jean-Hugues BarthJlJmy argues for a reading of humanism and Enlightenment that strips
them of their scientistic and Eurocentric implications and makes the values of both available
for contemporary appropriation. Drawing on the work of Gilbert Simondon and mobilizing his
conception of the relationship between human beings and technology against the conception
implicit in Marx, he seeks to establish a ground for an encyclopedist humanisma genetic
encyclopedismthat lies beyond both the humanism combated by Heidegger and that philosophers own anti-anthropological positions.

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0725. Beardsworth, R. TECHNOLOGY AND POLITICS: A RESPONSE TO BERNARD


STIEGLER. Cultural Politics. 2010, 6:181199.
This paper considers Bernard Stieglers contribution to contemporary critical theory.
Stieglers singular understanding of technology widens critical debate on the specificity of contemporary society and prolongs in a novel manner, remaining commitments of recent French
philosophy to the Marxist analysis of capitalism, underpinned by Freudian libidinal economy. I
argue that the originality of Stieglers work lies in his understanding of retentional finitude: what
he calls tertiary memory. This understanding provides him with critical purchase on contemporary capitalist forms. It has allowed him most recently to develop an embryonic critique of
political economy, focused on technological and libidinal practices of consumerism.
0726. Bennett, D. ENCOUNTERING ANTHROPOLOGY: AN EXPLORATORY
STUDY OF DEGREE CHOICE. Anthropology in Action. 2010, 17(23):2033.
Social anthropology in the U.K. is largely absent from the pre-university curriculum, contributing to the disciplines marginal status within higher education. My paper reports a small-scale
empirical study of the transition to undergraduate anthropology as a socializing process that begins
with the choice of discipline, continues as a learning experience and enables students to acquire elements of the disciplines culture. The study identified chance factors, serendipity and
opportunism as important influences on choice of degree. These factors reflected the availability to
applicants of cultural and economic capital. Students demonstrated varying degrees of socialization
in identifying with anthropologys epistemological and social norms and values. My findings justify current attempts to increase the visibility of anthropology among pre-university students. They
also support teaching initiatives that promote deep learning at undergraduate level. Both developments are necessary to sustain anthropology as a university discipline.
0727. Bunn, S. FROM ENSKILLMENT TO HOUSES OF LEARNING. Anthropology in
Action. 2010, 17(23):4459.
This article is an exploration of how the interdisciplinary relationship between art and
anthropology can contribute to teaching anthropology in schools. The argument is made that
through practical engagement with the environmentwhether natural, social or builtone
can develop important and complementary approaches to teaching and thinking about anthropology. Three specific areas of activity are examined: skill and practical work with materials,
doing childrens ethnographies and playing house. The author draws upon her own experience of working both as an artist and an anthropologist.
0728. Callan, H., and Street, B. ANTHROPOLOGY, EDUCATION AND THE WIDER
PUBLIC. Anthropology in Action. 2010, 17(23):7286.
The article addresses the position of anthropology in new educational contexts considering
anthropology in education and the anthropological study of education. While some transatlantic comparisons are drawn, the emphasis is on developments within the U.K. These are treated
historically, using the Royal Anthropological Institutes experience in working for an anthropological presence in pre-university education from the 1980s to the present as an extended
case-study. The work done by the RAIs Education Committee to design and introduce a new
GCE A-level in anthropology, culminating in its successful accreditation by the national regulator, is recounted in the style of rich ethnography. A case is made for the potential of
academic associations to create the alliances across sectors that are needed in this context; and
conclusions are tentatively drawn regarding the implications of these initiatives for the future
of the discipline and its public engagement.
0729. Chen, L.-M. et al. A QUALITATIVE INQUIRY OF WISDOM DEVELOPMENT:
EDUCATORS PERSPECTIVES. International Journal of Aging and Human Development.
2011, 72(3):171187.
This study draws on the perspectives of educators to explore the factors and processes underlying wisdom development. We interviewed 25 wise Taiwanese nominees and used a grounded

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theory method to analyze the qualitative data. The wise nominees mentioned eight facilitative
factors, including work experiences life experiences, social interactions, observations, family
teachings, professional development, religion, and reading. The process of wisdom development involves facilitative conditions, inner assimilation and adjustment, transformations of
actual actions, and feedback from the results of actions. Findings are discussed in relation to
relevant theory and research.
0730. Crogan, P. KNOWLEDGE, CARE, AND TRANS-INDIVIDUATION: AN INTERVIEW WITH BERNARD STIEGLER. Cultural Politics. 2010, 6(2):157170.
This interview explores the cultural and political dimensions of Stieglers enterprise.
Stiegler explains his conceptualization of cultural politics and why it is key to his analysis of
contemporary crisessocial economic and environmental. He situates his work in relation to
the problematization of the conventional spectrum of left and right political positions. Referring to the work of Marx Max Weber, Michel Foucault, and Gilbert Simondon, Stiegler
characterizes his account of cultural capitalism in relation to his critique of the philosophy of
technology.
0731. Crogan, P. BERNARD STIEGLER: PHILOSOPHY, TECHNICS, AND ACTIVISM.
Cultural Politics. 2010, 6(2):133156.
This essay characterizes the principal theoretical coordinates of Stieglers philosophy of
technology and assesses its relevance for critical explorations between culture and the political. The focus is on Stieglers maior philosophical series, Technics and Time, and how he
articulates therein his contribution to the philosophical consideration of technics in relation to
key influences such as Gilbert Simondon, AndrJ Leroi-Gourhan, Jacques Derrida, Martin
Heidegger, Edmund Husserl, and Immanuel Kant. It then examines the activist dimension of
Stieglers later writing projects in the context of his work at the Pompidou Centres Institut de
Recherche et dInnovation of which he is the founding director.
0732. Hash, K. M., And Tower, L. E. THE DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF
ONLINE LEARNING MODULES TO DELIVER LIFESPAN CONTENT IN HUMAN
BEHAVIOR IN SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT COURSES. Journal of Human Behavior in the
Social Environment. 2010, 20:379392.
This article details the development and evaluation of a lifespan development computer
modules that were used in human behavior in social environment courses. An anonymous,
Web-based survey was developed to evaluate the modules. Supporting the first hypothesis, the
majority of students (83.5%) found the modules to be a good learning alternative. The hypotheses that MSW students will experience more barriers to Web-based instruction and that
students who previously mastered more content will spend less time on modules than students
who previously mastered less content were not supported. Lessons learned provide implications for the use of computer-assisted instruction.
0733. James, L. BERNARD STIEGLER AND THE TIME OF TECHNICS. Cultural
Politics. 2010, 6(2):207228.
This paper examines Bernard Stieglers thinking about technics as developed in the first
two volumes of his Technics and Time trilogy. It does so against the backdrop of Francis
Fukuyamtfs highly influential thinking about technologically driven historical progress in The
End of History and the Last Man (1992). The paper argues that Stieglers account of an originary
supplemental logic structuring the relation oi the human to the technical offers an understanding
of technological development which is radically different from that of Fukuyama. It shows how
Stieglers philosophy of time and technical prosthetics emerges in what is called a transformative
combination of a range of thinkers (most notably Husserl, Heidegger, Derrida, and Virilio).

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 193

0734. Melkers, J., and Kiopa, A. THE SOCIAL CAPITAL OF GLOBAL TIES IN SCIENCE: THE ADDED VALUE OF INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION. Review of
Policy Research. 2010, 27(4):389414.
The globalization of science is demonstrated in the mobility of scientists across national boundaries the composition of the U.S. scientific workforce, and increased collaboration across national
boundaries. While studies based on bibliometric and other data have been useful in identifying
trends collaborative clusters, and other patterns in international collaboration, they do not reveal the
social dynamics behind those collaborations. This paper addresses the human and social capital
factors that explain whether or not an academic researcher in science and engineering has an international collaborator. Further through detailed statistical models, the analysis also addresses the
factors that differentiate the specific resources derived from those international ties. Results show
that non-U.S. citizens are more likely to have close international collaborators, but that a range of
factors explain this relationship Further results show that U.S. academic faculty mobilize different
collaborative resources from international collaborators, versus their domestic collaborators.
0735. Ord\Zez-Matamoros, H. G. et al. INTERNATIONAL CO-AUTHORSHIP AND
RESEARCH TEAM PERFORMANCE IN COLOMBIA. Review of Policy Research. 2010,
27(4):415432.
This article examines the ways in which International Scientific Collaboration as observed by
the co-authorship of journal articles written by local scientists and partners located overseas,
affects the ability of research teams to produce bibliographic outputs and to contribute to local
knowledge. A sample of 672 teams was randomly selected for the analyses. In addition 20 interviews with experts and team members were administered to discuss models and results. Results
show that co-authoring with partners located overseas increases team output by nearly 40% and
by between three and five bibliographic products. It also shows that a teams odds of involving
Colombia in its research process are 2.2 times larger for those co-authoring with a partner located
overseas than for those that do not. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed.
0736. Popson, C., and Witteveen, G. GRASSROOTS DEDICATION AND OPPORTUNISM: THE PRE-UNIVERSITY ANTHROPOLOGY EDUCATION MOVEMENT IN THE
UNITED STATES. Anthropology in Action. 2010, 17(23):3443.
To anyone who has taught anthropology to middle and high-school students in the United
States, the disciplines value to intellectual and social development is undeniable. These
educators are the engine of a small, long-lived movement to make anthropology a core part of
the curriculum that students are exposed to during middle and high school, before they enter college or university. Despite valiant efforts and because of some very difficult challenges(public
misperception of the field, lack of institutional support, and the nature of the U.S. public education system)the movement has not caught the momentum it needs to induce major changes.
Nonetheless, new opportunities and some limited pockets of success offer good reasons to be
cautiously optimistic. Rather than trying to compel entire school districts or education departments to adopt anthropology courses and standards, advocates are now focused on leveraging
such opportunities to introduce as many educators and students as possible to anthropology.
0737. Simondon, G. THE LIMITS OF HUMAN PROGRESS: A CRITICAL STUDY.
Cultural Politics. 2010, 6(2):229236.
Human progress cannot be measured by what people produce but by the stages of production. The shift from the development of language in the classical period to religion in the
medieval and technical progress after the Renaissance does not tell the whole story. Each of
these domains forms an internally consistent system involving people as both agents and subjects of development, and each system tends towards a stifling completeness at its height. Each
successive system represents a more primitive need: to communicate, to be at one with the
world, to sustain life. As such, each is progressively more universal. But technical progress is
not truly systemic, passing by peoples of the underdeveloped world, and requires reflexive
thought to bring out this failure, and to integrate technical progress with human progress as a
whole.

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0738. Simpson, B. A GOOD STRAIGHT ROAD: REFLECTIONS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRE-UNIVERSITY ANTHROPOLOGY IN THE U.K. Anthropology in Action.
2010, 17(23)):105113.
The articles assembled in this collection provide a timely focus upon a critical issue for the
reproduction of anthropology as an institutionalized form of knowledge in the U.K. and more
widely. Simply stated, the problem they identify is as follows: anthropology is a relatively
small discipline with low visibility beyond the sites in the academy where it is taught and where
research is carried out; there are currently significant threats to the future of anthropology as
practised within British higher education and in other countries too (e.g. in terms of its funding,
sustainability, perceptions of relevance, the current nature of evaluation and audit); one of the
main areas of vulnerability, in this regard, is the recruitment of new generations of students into
the discipline, which is variable and volatile across the sector; and finally a significant factor
here is the virtual absence of anthropology in curricula at pre-university level, particularly in
the U.K. In addition, the papers show a strong conviction that anthropology has something
valuable and engaging to offer at this level and into employment possibilities beyond.
0739. Verkaaik, O., and Spronk, R. SEXULAR PRACTICE: NOTES ON AN ETHNOGRAPHY OF SECULARISM. FocaalJournal of Global and Historical Anthropology. 2011,
59:8388.
In Europe today, the most heated identity politics revolve around matters of sexuality and
religion. In the context of integration debates that occur in different forms in various countries, sexuality has gained a new form of normativity, and new sexual sensitivities have
replaced former ones. So far, scholarly discussions deal with these sensitivities in a
deconstructivist and critical manner, denaturalizing discourses on culture, identity, and religion. However, these debates do not consider the experiences of people implicated in these
debates, and their often emotional and political engagement in matters where sexuality and
religion intersect. Joan Scotts coinage of the term sexularism denotes a particular form of
embodiment that is part of secularism in Europe today. Rather than studying the discourse of
secularism, this article focuses on the practice of secularization; how do people fashion their
daily lives concerning sexuality, religion and its intimate intersection?
0740. Vu, C. M. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE THEORIES ON THE CONCEPTUALIZATION OF POVERTY IN SOCIAL WELFARE. Journal of Human Behavior in
the Social Environment. 2010, 20:9891010.
Poverty has been a widely explored issue that has been debated across many social science
academic disciplines. Due to its multidimensional nature different interpretations of the causes
of poverty have been put forth. This analysis examines the theories of poverty from five social
science disciplines: psychology, anthropology, sociology, economics, and political science.
While some of these ideas have evolved since they were originally conceived, these theories
have significantly contributed to the conceptualization of poverty in social welfare. Since
social welfare does not have a common theory of poverty, future directions should involve an
attempt to develop a unifying theory of poverty for clarification on shared discussions because
of its impact all areas in the field of social welfare and social work practice.

URBAN STUDIES
0741. Ballard, R. SLAUGHTER IN THE SUBURBS: LIVESTOCK SLAUGHTER AND
RACE IN POST-APARTHEID CITIES. Ethnic and Racial Studies. 2010, 33(6):10691087.
The slaughter of animals is a fundamental aspect of the economic, social and spiritual life of
many people in South Africa. Under apartheid, these events generally occurred in rural areas or
urban townships designated for black people. Since the transition to democracy in the 1990s,
increased suburban mixing has exposed established middle-class residents, notably white
people, to cattle slaughter. The article explores the resulting public discourses on these events,

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 195

such as condemnations, liberal appeals for tolerance and Africanist claims to citizenship and
space. In addition, the article examines anxieties that some white people express in relation to
the materiality of the slaughter of animals in residential areas. The article offers a multi-layered
analysis of reactions to animal slaughter in relation to race, identity, difference, space and the
place of animals and meat production in cities.
0742. Bunar, N. THE GEOGRAPHIES OF EDUCATION AND RELATIONSHIPS IN A
MULTICULTURAL CITY: ENROLLING IN HIGH-POVERTY LOW-PERFORMING
URBAN SCHOOLS AND CHOOSING TO STAY THERE. Acta Sociologica. 2010, 3(2):
141159.
Given the institutional and financial opportunity to choose any schoolpublic or private/
independentin the city, How are we to understand students choosing to stay in their lowperforming, high-poverty schools with bad reputations? Drawing on interviews with 53 students from two urban schools in Stockholm and Malm`, as well as on the secondary literature
and theoretical perspectives on community discourse and the freedom of choice policy, I argue
that we will never understand why students choose to stay if we consider only the values of the
pedagogical commodities exchanged in the educational quasi-market. The analytical gaze
ought to embrace sociological perspectives on the local community and schools, including
individual strategies in relation to school choice and the power of relations, categorization and
stigmatization. Thus, I conclude that neither deficiency in information, transportation costs and
time nor some murky cultural-religious incentives are behind the decision to stay. The major
incentive can be found in the ongoing negotiations between different aspects of community and
school discourse that young people develop, whereby, among other things, the prospect of
losing a network and the feeling of safety and becoming an outsider in exchange for gaining
access to a Swedish middle-class school is, for the time being, not deemed a fair deal.
0743. Crul, M., and Schneider, J. COMPARATIVE INTEGRATION CONTEXT THEORY:
PARTICIPATION AND BELONGING IN NEW DIVERSE EUROPEAN CITIES. Ethnic and
Racial Studies. 2010, 33(7):12491268.
Drawing upon results from the TIES survey on the second generation in eight European
countries the authors propose a new perspective on integration or assimilation. The proposed comparative integration context theory argues that participation in social
organizations and belonging to local communities across European cities is strongly dependent on the integration context. Differences in integration contexts include institutional
arrangements in education, the labour market, housing, religion and legislation. Differences
in the social and political context are especially important for social and cultural participation and belonging. The TIES data show high degrees of local involvement in the second
generation and the dwindling centrality of single ethnic belongingsa reflection of the dramatically changing ethnic and (sub)cultural landscapes in cities in Europe. The article
challenges established notions of newcomers and natives, explores the remaking of the
mainstream and argues for the investigation of mobility pathways for a better understanding
of integration or assimilation as on-going processes.
0744. Del Tredici, P. SPONTANEOUS URBAN VEGETATION: REFLECTIONS OF
CHANGE IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD. Nature and Culture. 2010, 5(3):299315.
Urban habitats are characterized by high levels of disturbance, impervious paving, and heat
retention. These factors, acting in concert, alter soil, water, and air conditions in ways that promote the growth of stress-tolerant, early-successional vegetation on abandoned or unmaintained
land. In most urban areas, a cosmopolitan array of spontaneous plants provide important ecological services that, in light of projected climate change impacts, are likely to become more
significant in the future. Learning how to manage spontaneous urban vegetation to increase its
ecological and social values may be a more sustainable strategy than attempting to restore
historical ecosystems that flourished before the city existed.

196 / ABSTRACTS IN ANTHROPOLOGY, Vol. 68(1), 2014

0745. Jorgensen, A., and Gobster, P. H. SHADES OF GREEN: MEASURING THE


ECOLOGY OF URBAN GREEN SPACE IN THE CONTEXT OF HUMAN HEALTH AND
WEIL-BEING. Nature and Culture. 2010, 5(3):338363.
In this paper we review and analyze the recent research literature on urban green space and
human health and well-being, with an emphasis on studies that attempt to measure biodiversity
and other green space concepts relevant to urban ecological restoration. We first conduct a
broad scale assessment of the literature to identify typologies of urban green space and human
health and well-being measures, and use a research mapping exercise to detect research priorities and gaps. We then provide a more in-depth assessment of selected studies that use diverse
and innovative approaches to measuring the more ecological aspects of urban green space and
we evaluate the utility of these approaches in developing urban restoration principles and practices that are responsive to both human and ecological values.
0746. Palamar, C. FROM THE GROUND UP: WHY URBAN ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION NEEDS ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE. Nature and Culture. 2010, 5(3):277298.
While increasing urbanization intensifies the need for ecological restoration in densely populated areas projects implemented in urban settings are often beset with conflicts stemming
from a mismatch between traditional restoration practices and social realities. As ecological
restoration practitioners seek to protect and remediate urban ecosystems, I contend that the
broad set of principles developed by the environmental justice movement can provide an excellent conceptual framework for integrating social ecologies into restoration plans. Successful
integration is constrained, however, by a number of challenges both within the Principles of
Environmental Justice and ecological restoration theory and practice. Using a case study of
New York Citys Green Guerillas community gardening program, I show how the principles
can begin to be operationalized to provide an effective grounding methodology for the design,
development, and implementation of urban restoration projects.
0747. Rao, U. MAKING THE GLOBAL CITY: URBAN CITIZENSHIP AT THE
MARGINS OF DELHI. Ethnos. 2010, 75(4):402424.
There is a growing scholarly interest in the spatialisation of class relations in post-industrial
cities. Gentrified suburbs exclude the poor and re-work notions of public property and urban
citizenship to the advantage of the rich. My study moves beyond the sanitised places of the
inner city and shows how the cleaning mission affects life in the new spaces of deprivation. I
analyse home making in a resettlement colony of Delhi. After being removed from the hubs of
the labour market and with little state support, resettled slum dwellers struggle under harsh
conditions for survival. Those who can afford this expensive venture embrace home ownership
at high personal risks und by exploiting the channels of the informal economy, hoping that possessing a legal dwelling will root them more firmly in the city. In practice, the new status is an
often uneasy fusion of a formal and informal status and thus remains essentially precarious in
an environment that criminalises informality.
0748. Sohn, J., and Knaap, G. MARYLANDS PRIORITY FUNDING AREA AND THE
SPATIAL PATTERN OF THE NEW HOUSING DEVELOPMENT. Scottish Geographical
Journal. 2010, 126(2):76100.
This study attempts to examine whether new urban housing development has been effectively constrained within the Priority Funding Area (PFA) in Maryland, USA. More
specifically, it adopts a propensity score approach to the analysis of panel data on housing
starts in Maryland between 1998 and 2003, extracted from the MdProperty View Database.
While many other relevant studies use features of local housing markets as the indicators of
programme success, this empirical analysis can directly examine the number and the location
of newly constructed houses for testing the efficacy of the programme thanks to the detailed
information available from the Property View dataset. In order to avoid the endogeneity problem associated with designating PFA, probability of being PFA for each census tract is
estimated using a probit model and is included in the panel regression model. The findings of

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY / 197

the study suggest that residential parcel development continues to expand at the outside of the
PFA in the Smart Growth era.
0749. Trigger, D. S., and Head, L. RESTORED NATURE, FAMILIAR CULTURE: CONTESTING VISIONS FOR PREFERRED ENVIRONMENTS IN AUSTRALIAN CITIES.
Nature and Culture. 2010, 5(3):231250.
How are preferences for native and introduced species of plants and animals given
expression in Australian cities? Given the nations predominantly European cultural heritage,
how do urban Australians articulate multiple desires for living environments encountered in
everyday life? In examining the cases of inner city parks, backyards, and more general views
about flora and fauna appropriate for the city, the paper considers a range of deeply
enculturated attachments to familiar landscapes. While residents have considerable interest in
the possibilities of urban ecological restoration, our interviews, ethnographic observation, and
textual analysis also reveal cultural preferences for introduced species and empiaced attachments to historically modified landscapes. These preferences and attachments are linked to
senses of identity developed during formative life experiences. In the relatively young post-settler society of Australia, such drivers of environmental desires can sit uneasily alongside
science-driven propositions about what is good for biodiversity and ecological sustainability.
0750. VJlez, W., and Burgos, G. THE IMPACT OF HOUSING SEGREGATION AND
STRUCTURAL FACTORS ON THE SOCIOECONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF PUERTO
RICANS IN THE UNITED STATES. CENTRO Journal. 2010, 22(1):175198.
The massive migration of Puerto Ricans from traditional settlement hubs in the Northeast to
emerging gateways like Central Florida raises a number of questions that are explored in this
paper. First, which counties have experienced the largest growth in the Puerto Rican population
between 2000 and 2006? Second are Puerto Ricans living in Central Florida doing better in
terms of wages and other social characteristics than Puerto Ricans living in other U.S. counties? Third do county and individual-level variables explain the effect that living in Central
Florida has on wages? Data from the 2000 Census and the 2006 American Community Survey
show that Central Florida counties have experienced some of the highest growth in the Puerto
Rican population, that Puerto Ricans living in Central Florida are not enjoying the highest
wages, and that both county level factors and human capital variables explain the Central
Florida wage disadvantage. Puerto Ricans receive higher wages in counties with larger Puerto
Rican populations, with relatively low levels of concentrated disadvantage, and in counties
with an abundance of good jobs in the financial and business sectors. In addition, Puerto Rican
workers benefit economically from living in counties with relatively low levels of residential
isolation from whites.