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Sketch y

sin3x for

< r < 360'.

We have 'compressed'3 cycles of


the curve into the range 0-360o.

One cycle.

Draw

a sketch

a y: cos(r d y:3sinx

graph of the following for 0 < x < 360'.


90o)

c y: tan(r*90")

Match each equation with one of the sketch graphs below.


C: y: sin(x - 90")
B: Y:cos(x-90')
A,
sin2x
F: y :2sinx
E: y:cosx-1
sin.x * 1
D,

Draw a sketch graph of the following for 0 < r < 360".


c
b y: tan2x
a y :2sinx

y:
y:

dy=sin(x*90')
198

b y:sinx-12
e y: cos2x

e Y:2sinx*2

y:

.t
smztr

I
I
i

Draw a sketch graph of y : 2 sin(l + 180") for 0 < r < 360o.


b Use your graph to write down the solution to the equation

4a

2sin(r

* 180.):2 (for0<r<360')

Draw a sketch graph of y : tanlxfor 0 < r < 350o.


b How many solutions are there to the equation
(for 0 < I < 360")
tanlx : lz

5a

5* Draw a sketch graPh of the following

360o.

c y:1-cosx

by:cos(-x)
e Y: -2 sinx

a Y: -costr
d y: sin(-2r)

7a

for 0 < r <

On the same axes, sketch the curves y

cos4x and y

sin 2x f.or

0<x<90o.

b How many solutions are there to the equation cos 4x : sin 2r in this range?

8 a Sketchthecurve A :2tanZxfior0 (x{

z.

b In the range 0 < x < z how many solutions are there to the equation
2tan2x:11?

Calculate the length of the side marked with a letter' All lengths are in cm.

In triangle ABC, a : 4.3, b : 7.2, c : 9. Find C.

nn

In triangle DEF, D

In triangle PQR, p

: 8, 4 :

58o, EF

:7.2, DE = 5.4. Find F.

14,

r:

7.

Find

0.
199

In triangleh{Z,Y

6a

97.3",X2:

22, XY

14. Find

Z'

A point T is 11 km due north of a point S. A point_R,-which is east of the line


S. Calculate the bearing of R
;oining T and S, is 8 km from T and 7 km from
from S.
A fourth point Q is on a bearing of 320" from s and is 10 km from T.
Calculate angle TQS and hence the bearing of T from Q'

Find the area of each triangle' All lengths are in cm'

8 An equilateral

triangle has an area of 300 cm2. Calculate the length of the sides

of the triangle.

If sin 27" :0.454, give another angle whose sine is 0.454.

10 Sort the

f-'i"

following into pairs of equal value.

3o"l

fcos

45"-l

li*55.]
I tan 45"

l-ri"

ltanrzs.l

E,3oFl

45"-l

icos6|

t1 Write down the exact value of


the following, using surds where
necessary.
a tan 60o
b cos.45
c sin 120.
d cos 120o
e tan 135o
f cos 30o

12 solve the fo'owing trigonometric


equations in the given intervals
(to 1 decimal place whEr".,"."rrrry
)

,
asinx:-afor0<r<350o
.,
3
c tanx:-0.7for0<x<360.
7-

pcosr:_itor0<x<360.
^
bcosr:_3.
dsinr:_lfor0<x<360o

-l
For each diagram find:
a the length of minor arc AB
b the area of the minor sector AOB

solve the following trigonometric equations in the given intervals:

"

,ir,(*-:) : - 4, 0 -x12n
\ 2) z

. "o,(" . f) : -|

rc,0,-x .-2n

b
sin/x-'\ :1fo. 0lx'-2rr
"""'\^

3) 2-"'"

d tan(x -

I):t

for

-z ( x I

rr

Find all values of gbetween 0o and 360'for which

2sin0+8cos20:5,
giving your answers correct to the nearest
16 Sketch the

0.1o

where necessary.

following curves for 0 < x < 360"

a y:3sinr
d y:1 * cosr

b y: cos(r - 90')
e y :2cos4x

c y: sinZx

Solve the following trigonometric equations in the given intervals:


a cos2r * 2sin x - 2:0 for0'<.r<360'(1 exactvalue)

b 2sin2 x - cos x - 1.:0 for 0 <.r < 2n (3 exactvalues)


c 6cos2r * sin x - 5 :0 for -180o ( ff < 180" (2 exactvalues
d
e
1.8

and 2 values
to 1 decimal place)
6sin2x * cos x - 4:0 for -180o (.tr< 180'(2 exactvalues and 2 values
to 1 decimal place)
4cos2 x - 4sinx - 5 - 0 for -zr< x4 rr (2 exact values).

Find the exact solutions to the following trigonometric equations in the given
intervals:

:1
6) 2
b cosr(x- t\ :1
a

sin'(x* 3)

3J

ro,

-rr< x 1r

ro,

o1x12n

c sin(x+a\:1
21 4 ro, o4x,-2,-

201

In triangle

X:tz,} :

97'3",X2

22'XY

14' Flr:'.dz'

aApointTis1LkmduenorthofapointS'ApointR'.*T"hiseastoftheline
s. Calculate the bearing of R
joining T and s, Js k^ from T u"a /m trom

from S.
from S and is 10 km from T'
A fourth point Q is on a bearing of 320"
bearing of T from Q'
Calculate angle f-QS a"d hencJthe

are in cm'
Find the area of each triangle' All lengths
a

Ft" 3o;l

It-'tFl

|.*45"-l

t*'3oFl

tr"

Fi" 45f

45;l

F t 60;-l

11 Write down the exact value of the following, using surds where
necessary.

a tan 60"
d cos 120'

b
e

cos45

sin 120"

tan 135o

cos 30o

L2 solve the following trigonometric equations in the given intervals


e
(to 1 decimal
place

where,","."rruryi

sin

*:

t
-lforo<x<360o
J-

tan

x:

-0.7 for

<x<

360o

cos

*: -?for0<r<360o
4

sin

r:-lforo<x{360o
2

19 Solve the following trigonometric equations in the given intervals

sin2(r

- 40') :94

for 0o < x < 360" (exact values)

: I for 0 < x 12rr (exact values)


2
c 8cos2 x *2sinx-5:0 for0'<tr<360" (to L decimalplace)
d sinr : 3 cos r for 0 <.r < 2n (to2 decimal places)
e 2sin2l : sin.r costr for 0 < r < 360o

cos 2x

20 In the diagram shown,

: radius of circle
l: arc length
0: angle at centre in radians
A : area of sector
a If r : 8cm and 0 : l.S,find l.
b If r: 6 cm and 0 : 0.8, find A.
c If I : 12crr. and 0 :1,, find r.
d If A : 20 cm2 and r :2crr., find 9.
e If / : 50cm and r : 20cm, find 0.
f If A : 3cm2 and I : 3cm, find r and 0.
g If A : 8 cm2 and I : 4cm, findr.
r

2T Achord PQ of a circle of radius 10 cm subtends an


angle
U2of A radians at the centre O. Calculate the
exact areas of the two parts into which the chord
PQ divides the sector POQ.

22 In the diagram, the circle

has centre O and radius r.


Angle AOB is g radians and C is the mid-point
of OB. The length of AC is l.
a Express 12 in terms of r and 0.
b Given that I : !r, calanlate the value of g,
correct to 3 decimal places.
c Given thatr :2cn, calculate the area of the
shaded region, giving your answer correct
to 2 decimal places.

202

i
ii

29

sketchthegraph

oIy:

sinrforvalues of rsuchthat0o <x<720".

Sketclr, on the same diagram, the graph of y

that0o <x<720".

sin 11, for values of

such

iii State the number of solutions of the equation


sinr: sinlr
for values of r such that

iv

< x <720".

specify the transformation which transforms the complete graph of


u : sin x (i,e. the graph drawn for all values of x) to ttre complete graph of

vI

i:snir.
30

0o

IocRI

f(r):5sin3ro, 0<x<180.
sketch the graph of. f.(x),indicating the value of x ateach point where the
graph intersects the x-axis.

write down the coordinates of all the maximum and minimum points of
f(x).

c Calculate the values of

31

r for which f.(x) :2.5.

IEDEXCELI

a Find all the solutions of the equation

sin (3r

45"):9.7

in the interval -90o < r ( 90o, giving your answer to the nearest
No credit will be giaen for simply reading aalues
from a graph.

0.1o.

Describe a sequence of geometrical transformations that maps the curve


y : sin r onto the curve y : sin (3r + 45").

tAeAI

207

If log2 x

a
5

c log2li

b log216x

log2r3

Solve the following equations:

logls (3x +

B log,15

\2 then find the following:

11

b 42'-1:65
e logT(x-3):8
h log3 9 : logle r

:2

logls (5x)

t
i

Log,S:4
log5

x:

:6

Logd2

- 8(3') :0.

Solve the equationS%

8 lf 7v :

3", show

lhaly

kx for some constant k which is to be determined.

9 If 8v :

5', show thaty

kx f.or some constant k and find the value of k.

10 a If log13 + log xy - log3x

O,find an equation involving logx and logy.

Hence find y in terms of x.

11 a If log.l.2 - log xy + Loglx2 :


b Hence findy in terms of r.

find an equation involving log r and (ogy.

0,

12 a Write down, in its simplest form, the common difference of the arithmetic
log23

Show that the sum of the first ten terms of A is 55 log2 3.

1-3 Find the value of


answer.

+ ...

log29 *log227

x for which

23x

+"1

- 3'+ 2, giving3 significant figures in your

Express as a single logarithm.

a log2 + 1og5
d log 3 + log 100
e 21og4 + Iog2

b log 20 - log4
e log9+log9
h 3log2*Log4

2Log3
log48 - log 8

f
i log5+log6-1o910

Evaluate the following.

a
d

log5 25

tog, (*)

b log21,6
e lo91610000

c lo961

b 6o:17

c 7o:3

f logr(|)

Write aasalogarithm.

a 1,V:4
[Hint Remember

'102

:100

<+ log1e L00

2'l

213

Express the following in terms of log

logab2

d Los&

"

a,Iogb andlogc.

logi6

logc2a

tog4

lb
f loga

Find.r, correct to 3 significant figures.

c 11,': 100

b 3':8

a 5':17

2*

- t :5

Solve the equations

alog2(x+5)-Iog2x:3
c log5 Gx + 47) - logr (x + 1) :2

blog3(x+11)-logr(x-t):4
d

Log,7

:2

_z t,7x+10

7 a Simpltf1?.

x'I

Find the value of r for which \og2(x2

Given thatb

5x

7x

lo& 27, express in terms of

togoS

t0)

- logz @2 + 5x) :3.

b:

Log,(9a)

Given thatb:Iogo2, express in terms of


a logo8
b Iog,(1,6a)

b:

10 Given that 5 *

3 log2

11 a Given that

+ 2logsx:logt!, show thaty:3x2.

log2y,show that y

32x3.

Hence, or otherwise, solve the equation


7

12a

Iog(4a2)

+ 2Logsr: logs Vx

- 2)

Show that log" m,Iogomn andlogmn2 are three successive terms of an


arithmetic sequence whose common difference islogon.

b Given that mnz : a, show that the sum of the first 5 terms of the arithmetic
sequence with first term logo m and common difference log,on is 5.

Given that
2log2x

k andlogr(Zx)

find the value of r.

214

k+4

Express as a single logarithm in its simplest form

log2+2log18 -ltog36

a Show that log2 8 :


b Find the value of

1og2 8a

ii

tog2

tocRl

3.

11r

(,m,)

tAQA]

Given that p : logq 16, express in terms of p,

a logr2,
b logr(8q).

IEDEXCEL]

4 a Write down the exact value of r given that 4' : 8.


b use logarithms to find y, correctto 3 decimal places, when 5v: 10. tocRl
5 It is given that ln x :

p + 2 andlny

:3p.

[nr:

log"x]

Express each of the following in terms of p:

a ln(xy),
b ln(x3),

. (i)
'"
5 a Simolifv
f ---J
b

IOCR]

y2+4x+g

""

x.*x

Find the value of x for which logr(r..,

4x

* 3) -

logz (x2

tg1

:4.
IEDEXCELI

The variable

satisfies the equation3,.Ab + 1 -

By taking logatithms of both sides, show that

6)c

+ 2.

r : 1ot'.
log 8

tAQAl

215

8i

Solve the equation

f+4x2-9x-6:0,
giving each root in an exact form.
Given that

2ln(x + 2) + lnff

ln (13x + 6),

t
a
a
a
a
a
a

prove that

x3+4x2-9x-6:0.
111

a
a
a
f

Hence solve the equation

Zln(x + 2) + lnr

ln (13x + 6).

a
a
a

IOCR]

a
a
a

9a

Given that 3

* 2log2x:logz!,

show thaty

:8*.

b Hence, or otherwise, find the roots a and B, where


3 + 2Iog2x : logzf. x - 3).
c Show

that log2

o1

a
a
a
a

I
a
a
I

F, of the equation

a
a

q.: -2.

d Calculate logr$, giving your answer to 3 significant

figures.

lr

IEDEXCEL]

eD
a

:11

L0a Find the smallest integer satisfying

the inequality

ls

2 > 100643.

a
a

b Find the exact solution of the equation


In(2A + 1) -

I
a
a
a

In4: 1.,

giving the answer in terms of

e.

lReminder

lny:

Log.yl

a
a
a

IOCR]

.wl

L1

Given that

a
a

Iogx:logo5 * 2log"3,
where a is a positive constant, show that

r:

a
a
t

i Write down the value of Log22.


ii Given that
logry : loga2,
find the value of.y.

so.

lt-ht

45.

t
a
a

rthe

;
I
I

poinr

Sotic

SFeat

a
a
a

IAQA]

Ther

. Afun
- -{,ndlr
a

216

Find the constants A and B in the following.

a (x*Z)(Ax +B): x2+7x+']-,0


c (r* 2)(Ax+B): 3x2+8x+ 4
e (2x + 1)(Ar + B): 6f +7x+2
g @- 1)(Ax+B): x3+2x2-x-2

b (x+1)(Ax+ B):2*+5x+3
d (x-2)(Ax+B): 3*-5x-2

(2x +

h (f

3XAx+ B) = 6x2 +7x-3

3)(Ax+B):3x3-f *9x-3

Find the constants A, B and C.


a (x * 1,)(Ax2 * Br * C) :2x3 + 13x2 +']-,6x -15
b (r + 2)(Ax2* Br * C) : x3 + 7f + 1,6x + 12

: x3 * f - x -'1,
d (r+3)(Ax2 *Bx* C):2x3+9*+llx+5
e (x - 2)(Ax2 * Bx * C):4x3 - 9x2 + 5x - 6
c

(tr

1)(Atr2

* Br*

C)

following cubics

Use the factor theorem to factorise the

bf(r):'r3-7x*6
d f(r) :.f + x2 - 6x
t f(x):r9+ x2-2x-8
hf(x):f+4x2-x-4
i f@):4f *1012 +x-6

a f(x'):'x3-7x-6

c f(r):x3-3x*2
e f(r):f +x2-2

gf(x):i3-5f+5x+3
i f(r) :2f -t 2x2 - \lx * 3
Find a given that:
a (r - 2) is a factor
b (r + 1) is a factor
c (x - 1) is a factor
d (r + 3) is a factor

:
of f(r) :
of f(r)

as far as possible:

af

+ 3x + 2
i3 - 2x2 * ax -17
of f(x) :2x3 + Sxz - 3x * a
of f(r) : flx3 - * + 4x - 6
x3

Find a andb given that


a (x - 1) and (x - 2) are factors of f@) :2x3 + af + bx - 6
b (r + 1) and (r - 5) are factors of f(r) : ax3 -'1,4x2 + bx + 10
c (r * 3) and (x - 4) are factors af f@) :3f - 7f + a* * bx + 24
d (x + 2) and (3r + 1) are factors of f(x) :3f + axz + bx - 2
e (x - 1) and (2x + 3) are factors off(x): ax3 + 3x2 + bx - 3

Enda giventhat (r + 4) is a factorof f(x)

:f

+8x2 +

ax*

12 andhence

factorise f(x) completely.

I!

Kx)

:f

Sftrow that

3f

(r

- 2) is a factor of f(x) :

+x-

1,

find f(1) and

(-

x3

1). Hence factorise


4x2

x*

f(r).

6 and hence solve

f(r)

0.

Fnd the three solutions to each of the following equations (giving your
answers as fractions where necessary):

e 10ri-29x2*25x-5:0
c 4f-72x2*5r:0

12x3

37x2 _t 2gx

6:0

d,f-x:0
1,19