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hapter 4



n-induced vvolcano-pluttonic arc, is

Java, with a baackbone comprising a subduction
outhernmostt leading ed
dge of the ccontinental Sunda Platee,
considereed classicallly as the so
overridinng the oceaniic Australia--Indian platee (Fig. 4.1).
In facct, the structu
ural configuuration is thaat of alternatting highs annd transversee depressionns
related to
o a more com
mplex patterrn, where discrete crustaal blocks cann be interpreeted as piecees
separatedd from the orriginal monoolithic cratonn.
Two dynamic
proccesses interaact:
*Colliision of bloocks in Pre--Tertiary tim
mes by closing of oceaanic gaps iss recorded or
marked by roughlyy east-west ophiolitic
beelts (Ciletuh
h in West Jaava, Lok Ulo
U in Centraal
ut the collidinng pieces arre not clearlyy identified.
Java) bu
*Laterral displacem
ment betweeen blocks in Tertiary tim
mes is made by transcurrrent faultingg,
componeents of large--scale strike--slip movem
ment in respoonse to the plate-converg
gence processs
Thosse mechanissms are part of extensionnal and convergent globbal geotectonic events to
which are related platform, fore-and
bacck-arc basinn sedimentattion, and occurrence oof
verse depressOffsshore North Java, some extensional,, half-grabenn and grabenn-like, transv
sions, which
are am
mong the ricchest oilprovvinces in thee country (S
Sunda Basin
n, Asri Basinn,
Arjuna Depression)), locally exttend to the laand area wheere they merrge into back
k-arc basins.
S is divideed into two major
provinnces West annd
The Java Island and the adjaacent Java Sea
va. The diviiding line beetween thesee two areas is chosen ass a meridiann-line, roughhly
East Jav
joining the Karimu
un-Jawa Islaands to Sem
marang continnuing southw
wards on laand (Fig. 4.22).
t chapter.
The souuth Java outeer arc-basin is also incluuded within this

Figg. 4.2. Tectonnic map of Jav

va showing thhe tectonic provinces of Javva and the Teertiary basin
outtlines. Tertiaryy volcanics in black.


4.1. WEST
The West
Java region currrently markks the trannsition betw
ween frontall subductioon
beneath Sumatra, to
o the west. However, tthe region has
h been coontinuously active sincce
n the Eocenee. The Eoceene rifting, aas throughou
ut SE Asia, was probab
bly related to
rifting in
the colliision betweeen India annd Asia (e.g. Tapponiier et al. 1986) and resulted
in a
significaant influx of
o coarse elastic sedim
ments. The OligoceneR
Recent histtory is morre
dominateed by subdu
uction-relateed volcanism
m and limesttone deposittion.
In genneral, West Java may be
b subdividded into the following tectonic proovinces: (seee
Fig. 4.3; modified affter Martodjjojo, 1975; L
Lemigas, 19975, and Keeetley et al, 1997)
nal area: A relatively stable plattform area, part of the Sundalannd
- Norrthern basin
Continennt, with N--S trending rift basinss offshore and adjacent onshore,, filled witth
Oligocene non-marine
clastics, ovverlain by Miocene
andd younger shallow
- Boggor Trough composed of Miocenee and young
ger sedimennts mostly deeper
sedimentt gravity flow facies. Young E-W
W trending anticlines formed durring a recennt
episode of
o north-directed comprressive struccturing;
- Moddern Volcannic Arc: Acttive andesittic volcanism
m related too subductionn of Indian
Oceanic Plate below
w Sundalandd Continent (GedePangg
grango, Salaak, Halimunn, etc.).

Figg. 4.3. Summaryy of West Javaa tectonic map (from

different sources)

uthern slop
pe regional uplift: m
mainly Eoceene-Miocenee sedimentts, includinng
- Sou
volcanic rocks beloonging to the
Old Anndesite Form
mation. Struucturally coomplex, N-S
trending block faullts, E-W treending thruust faults annd anticlinees and posssible wrencch
m. SouthWeest Java conntains a num
mber of sediimentary baasins that fo
ormed withiin
the axiall ridge and
d in the area between the volcaniic arc and submerged accretionarry
prism associated witth the northw
ward subduction of the Indian Oceeanic Plate.


- Bantten Block: The most western

partt of Java Islland which may be subbdivided intto
Seribu Carbonate
in the north, Rangkas Bitung
mentary suub-basin, annd
Bayah High
in the south. In the
t west theere are minnor low andd highs so called
Kulon an
nd Honje High,
and Ujung
Kulonn and West Malingpingg Low (Lem
migas, 19755;
Keetley et
e al, 1997)..

Fig. 4.4. Locaation of half ggraben sub basiins / depocentrres

within the Su
unda, Asri and NW Java Bassin Areas (Kohhar
et al, 1996)

offfshore and adjacent
onsshore basinaal area com
mprises two major basinns
The Northern
so called
d North Weest Java Bassin and Sunnda-Asri Baasinal area (Fig.
4.4). The
T northerrn
part of thhis area is dominated
b extensionnal faulting with very m
minimum coompressionaal
ng. The basins were dominatedd by rift related
fault which form
depocenttres. In the NW Java Basin the m
main depocentres are ccalled the Arjuna
North, Central
and South and the
t Jatibaranng Sub-basiin. The depocentres aree dominantlly
filled wiith Tertiary sequence with
thickneess in excesss of 5,500 meters. Thhe significannt
structurees observed in the north
hern basinall area consisst of variouss type of higgh trend areea
associateed with faullted anticlinne and horstt block, foldding on the downthrown side of thhe
major fauults, keystone folding and
a drape ovver the baseement highs. Rotationall fault blockks
were alsoo observed in several areas. The coompressionaal structurinng were onlyy observed in
the early
y NW-SE rifft faults. These faults w
were reactivaated during Oligocene time
several series
of do
ownthrown structure aassociated with
transprresional fauulting in thhe
Sunda arrea.
ugh the Northwest Jav
va basin areaa is currenttly positioneed in a back
k arc settingg,
the Westt Java Sea rift
r systems did not form
m as back-aarc basins. E
Extension diirection fauult
patterns and basin orientation
o the Northhwest Java basins sugggest that thee sub-basinaal
of a large, reggional, dextrral strike-sliip
areas aree pull-apart basins at the southern terminus
system; i.e.
i the Malaacca and Seemangko fauult zones pro
opagating down to the west
w flank oof
the Sundda craton. Through
booth Eocene--Oligocene rift phases,, the primaary extensioon
directionns were NE--SW to E-W
W. Two obseervations suupport. the iinterpretatioons that thesse
basins arre not back--arc related; 1) the exttension direcction for the West Javaa Sea rifts iis
nearly perpendicula
ar to the present subdduction zon
ne, 2) a thiick continenntal crust iis
involvedd (Hamilton,, 1979).


The NW Java depression is asymmetrical, with its deepest Arjuna Sub-basin lies at the
foot of the Arjuna Plateau, separated by a major N-S trending fault. The basin opens
southward into the onshore Ciputat, Pasir Putih and Jatibarang Sub-basins, separated by
the Rengasdengklok and Kandanghaur - Gantar Highs, respectively. The sub-basins are
characterised by the presence of alternating highs and lows bounded by extensional deepseated faults which were active during sedimentation.
The Jatibarang Sub-basin (Fig. 4.4) is bounded by the Kandanghaur - Gantar- horstblock to the west, and the Cirebon fault, east and north-eastwards. This major growthfault is responsible for an important accumulation of Tertiary rocks including the
Jatibarang volcanics, in the Jatibarang Sub-basin.
The Vera Sub-basin is a deep Mesozoic and Tertiary depression NE of Arjuna Subbasin. This sub-basin is bounded by some major faults, especially to the south. The
structures orientation is SW and SSW, similar to the direction of the Billiton Basin
where pre-Tertiary sediments are also known.
The Sunda-Asri basinal area consists of Sunda and Asri basin. This structural element
is the westernmost basin of the northern basinal area of West Java. The Sunda Basin is a
roughly northsouth depression with its main depocenter, the Seribu half graben, at its
eastern edge, separated from the Seribu platform by steep flexures and faults. To the
west, the basin is bounded by the Lampung High, to the south by the Honje High and to
the north the Xenia arch separates the Sunda Basin from the Asri Basin. The Sunda Basin
is the deepest basin in the northern basinal area of Java, where the basement is more than
3.8 second TWT, in the downthrown block of the Sunda/Seribu fault. A series of normal
faults dissect the area in small horst and graben features.
The Asri Basin, located to the northeast of the Sunda Basin, is the second deepest basin
within the region with basement as deep as 3.0 sec. TWT. It is bounded from the Sunda platform eastwards by a major normal fault. To the northwards and westwards, it is bordered by
steep gradients and is dissected by normal faults. STRATIGRAPHY
The sediments of the West Java Sea basins are grouped into two very distinct sedimentary
units which are the rift related sediment fills dominated by nonmarine / continental sedimentary sequences and the post-rift (sag) basin fills dominated by marginal marine and
marine sedimentary sequences (Fig. 4.5). In the following discussion, the sediment sequences
are divided into five different tectonostratigraphic units based on their tectonic origins
(Kohar et al, 1996). Basement
The sedimentary sequence of the North West Java Sea basins rests on a multicomplexes of
a Pre-Tertiary basement representing the continental crust of the Sundaland.
The basement assemblage (Fig. 4.5) is composed of metamorphic and igneous rocks primarily of Cretaceous and older ages and subordinate limestones and clastic sediments of possible Early Tertiary age. This melange of lowgrade meta-sedimentary, igneous, and metaigneous rocks is the result of subductionrelated accretionary processes associated with the
Meratus Suture (Fig. 4.1 & 4.2) which was active during the Cretaceous and Paleocene.
Metamorphic grade varies widely througbout the sub-basins indurated limestones to low
grade metamorphic philites. Based on basement dating, regional metamorphism ended during
the Late Cretaceous, while deformation, uplift, erosion and cooling continued into the
Paleocene. Late Cretaceous to Paleogene calcalkalic magmatism occurred throughout on-


shore and offshore Java due to normal subduction related processes. Andesitic magmatism
continued into the early Eocene.
Another important igneous event in the West Java Basin, was a Pliocene phase of alkali
basalt magmatism which is preserved as either sills or dikes or as volcanic edifices.
Based upon the deep going, mostly extensional-fault series, the basinal area could be divided into alternating graben-like sub-basin and positive ridge or platforms. Figure 4.4 displays the basin configuration of the West Java Sea basinal area. Early Rift Fill
The early rift fills include the Banuwati Formation in the Sunda Basin and the Jatibarang
Formation in the Arjuna Sub-basin. Continental and lacustrine systems dominated these
sequences. The early rift fills are typically composed of immature clastics ranging from
alluvial fanglomerate and conglomeratic sand'stones to fluviatile sandstones and shales,
culminated by anoxic lacustrine shales deposition in the Sunda Basin. Further east, in the
Arjuna Sub-basin, the sequence is represented by alternating volcanic clastics and lacustrine
clastics composed of andesitic volcaniclastics flow and tuff mixed with basement derived
sediments (Gresko et. a1.,1995). The early rift fills overlie basement and present in most of
the deepest part of the Sunda; Asri and Arjuna Sub-basins.
The alluvial fan facies which composed mainly of conglomerates, coarse to medium
grained sandstones associated with basin margin fault. Its thickness ranges from 200 m to 30
m in a distance of 3 miles and until finally shales out to the south. It is interpreted that the
alluvial fan deposition associated with a NWSE trending basin margan fault, forms the early
rift fill sediments, and progrades into a possible lake environment further south.
The fluviatile sandstones and shales facies which onlap the alluvial fan facies. The fluviatile sandstones is interpreted as an axial channel fill if they are associated with alluvial fan
and as a braided alluvial plain deposition on the western flank of the early rift graben
(hanging wall fill).
The third facies is transgressive deep lacustrine facies composed of black shales which
covers the entire Banuwati area in the Sunda and Asri basins. Syn-rift fills
Unconformably overlying the early rift fills is a thick syn-rift fill unit represented by the
Talangakar Formation in the west and lower Cibulakan/Talangakar Formation in the east.
This unit is present throughout the North East Java Basin, filling the series of half grabens of
the West Java Sea Basin (Fig. 4.5).
The Talangakar is divided into two members, the lower member and the upper member.
The syn-rift fills include only the lower member and are of economic importance as primary
oil reservoirs in major oil fields (Cinta, Widuri, Ze(da, BZZ) in the Sunda, Asri and Arjuna
basins. The sequence is Oligocene to Early Miocene in age and dominated by non marine
sediments composed of interbedded fluviatile sandstones, shales and coals. Overbank
mudstones and occasionally shallow lacustrine mudstones fill the interchannel area. In the
Arjuna area coals, limestones and marine shales are also present in the upper part of the synrift unit. The coal and carbonaceous mudstones have been typed as the main hydrocarbon
source rock for the Arjuna crude (Gresko et. al., 1995, Sukamto et. al., 1995). Maximum
thickness of this syn-rift unit is 2000 m in Sunda and Asri Basin.
Age determination is problematic in the syn-rift fill unit as diagnostic pollen and fossils
are absent. The age determination was based on the overlying post-rift unit (Upper Talangakar) and the underlying Banuwati lacustrine unit and a thought that this unit has an Oligocene
to Early Miocene age.


4.JAVAANDJAVASEA Early Sag Basin Fills

The early sag basin fills represent the overall transgressive setting in the Java Sea area related to the sea level rise during Early Miocene time. At this time the basin boundaries between the subbasins (Sunda, Asri, and Arjuna) were not clearly defined. Basin bounding
faults perhaps, were still active locally but subsidence had decreased significantly and rifting
had ceased. Consequently, accommodation space was not entirely controlled by the movement of the faults for these post-rift sag successions. The overall depocentre shows a relatively symmetrical, work shape basin throughout the West Java Sea area. Non depositions
continue to occur on paleohighs until Baturaja carbonate deposition commenced during Middle Miocene time, forming a bald area for the marginal marine deposition of the early syn-rift
fills (Fig. 4.5). The early sag basin fills (postrift) include the previously described as Upper
Talangakar and the carbonates of the Baturaja Formation and conformably overlie the synrift fills throughout the basin (Fig. 4.5).
The lithology in the early sag basin fills consists of interbedded sandstones, siltstones,
mudstones and coal, and marine sliales overlain by a continue succession of platform to
reefal carbonates (Baturaja). The sandstones and reefal carbonates of the early sag basin fill
unit contain importance hydrocarbon reservoirs for most of the oil and gas fields within the
area. The non marine elastics are dominated by channel fill, point bars and marine bar
sandstones deposited in a wide range of environments from low sinuosity channels on alluvial plain, distributary channels to marginal marine bars. Coals and overbank mudstones, and
siltstones filled the floodplain area, forming intraformational seal for the prolific fluvial
sandstones of the early sag fills unit.
As transgressive process continues, fluviatile.and deltaic sandstones, coals and non marine
shales deposition ceased, marine environment gradually advanced onto the highs. Reefal
carbonates grew on basement highs (i.e. Krisna, Bima, Rama) forming a fringing reef
complex around the highs. Main Sag Basin Fills
The main sag basin fills is dominated by shallow marine (neritic) to nearshore and deltaic
facies include the Gumai, Air Benakat and Parigi Formation in the SE Sumatra area and most
of the Upper Cibulakan Formation and Parigi Formation in the Northwest Java Basin (Fig.
4.5). During middle Miocene to Late Miocene the overall West Java Sea area were connected
forming large sag basin. The lower part of the main sag fills occasionally onlaps the basin
flank but by the end of Late Miocene shallow marine deposition covered the West Java Sea
In the Sunda-Asri area the main sag basin fills are dominated by shallow marine elastics
consisting of marine mudstones, calcareous and glauconitic sandstones qnd thin limestone
stringers. The sequence is culminated by extensive platform carbonate deposition with some
local carbonate build-up (reef) within the Air Benakat limestones. The Gumai-Air Benakat
Formation sandstones are 10 to 70 feet thick and interbedded with shallow marine
mudstones, they typically show a coarsening upward sequences. Locally, carbonate build-up
also developed in the southern basin margin area.
In the Rengasdengklok High/Seribu Shelf near the Northwest Java coastal area a series of
thick reefal carbonates (Mid-Main carbonate) developed on a roughly N-S trending parallel
to the regional basement fault blocks of the area. The carbonate build up consists of skeletal
wackestone and packstone with the main grain constituents are corals, benthonic
foraminifera, bivalves, echinoderm fragments, red algae and minor quartz and glauconite
grains. The age of this carbonate build up is thought to be Middle Miocene.
Shallow marine carbonate sedimentation continued of reefal build-ups in the upper part of
the main sag basin fills, previously called the Pre-Parigi and Parigi Formation Shallow


marine mudstones, shales and glauconitic sandstones filled the inter-reef and open marine
area. The distribution of the Pre-Parigi and Parigi build-ups shows a N-S and NW-SE
elongation, these build-ups commonly grew on a basement high or on an underlying Baturaja
build-up which caused only a slight topographic elevations (Fig. 4.5). The carbonate build-up
comprises a combination of skeletal packstone, wackestone, and grainstone interbedded with
mudstone lithofacies. On seismic section the geometry and distribution of these build-ups are
clearly identified as well defined sub-elliptical mounding features. Late Sag Basin Fills
Late sag basin fills represent the latest sedimentary sequence below the present day sedimentation of the West Java Sea area that include the Cisubuh Formation.
In the west, the late sag basin fills composed of marine claystone and mudstone and
culminated in the continental deposits of conglomerate and volcanic clastic sediments. The
continental deposition occurred during the sea level low of the Pleistocene time, approximately 1.5 Ma, when the Sumatra and Java Islands were part of the main Sundaland to the
north. Sandstones and conglomeratic sandstones interpreted as fluvitile sandstones and
volcanic clastic are the main lithology of the Cisubuh continental.
To the east, in the Arjuna basinal area, this unit is entirely composed of marine claystone
and mudstone with thin sand stringers. Shallow marine deposition continued in the south
eastern part of the Sundaland covering the western part of the North West Java Basin.
To the South of the northern basinal area, the north-south orientation of the structures,
sub-basins and high is overprinted by an eastwest feature of the Bogor Trough where the influences of the volcano-magmatic and its compressional effect are primordial (Fig. 4.3). The
entire Bogor Trough is a thrust-fold belt and towards the north, the system is progressively
younger in age, starting from Lower Miocene in the south to Plio-Pleistocene in the north.
All sediments supplied from the North are shaling out here. Volcaniclastics were brought
from the South. The Bogor Trough extends eastwards to the northern East Java region. STRATIGRAPHY
The Bogor Sedimentary Province (Fig. 4.6) is filled by 3 systems of sedimentation including the Ciletuh, Bayah and Jatibarang Formations. The Middle to Late Eocene Ciletuh Formation (1400m) lies on top of a Late Cretaceous to Paleocene subduction complex composed
of mostly dismembered Pre- Tertiary oceanic crust and other rock units. Lower slope
turbidites consisting of alternations of both volcaniclastics and conglomerates with fewer
intercalations of volcanics, polymict breccia and claystone characterize the Ciletuh deposits.
The second system consists of the transitional to shallow marine quartzose sandstones of
the Bayah Formation which are also believed to be mainly Middle to Late Eocene in age.
Intercalations of claystone and lignite are common. Marine sediments belonging to the
Oligocene Batuasih Formation unconformably overlie this unit. These consists of marls,
black claystones and shales which partly interfinger with the Oligo-Miocene Rajamandala
Formation reefal limestones (90m). These are often thought of as equivalents of the Batu
Raja Limestone.
The third sedimentary system is characterized by volcanic sediment gravity flows. The
lowermost of these is the Early Miocene Jampang Formation, consisting of breccias and tuffs
up to 1000m thick. The name "Old Andesite" is frequently used for this unit. Correlative with
the Jampang and located further to the north is the Citarum Formation, consisting of tuffs and
greywackes up to 1250m thick. These two formations are believed to represent


contempooraneou's coomponents of
o the samee deep mariine fan systtem, where the Jampanng
Formatioon correspon
nds with the proximal fann deposits, and
a the Citarrum Formatiion, the distaal
fan depoosits. The Jaampang is overlain
by the Bojong
glopang Form
mation limeestone. In thhe
northern areas of thee Bogor Bassin the Citaruum is overlaain by the Middle
Mioccene Sagulinng
nsists of breeccias up to 1500 m thicck. This is ovverlain by cllaystones annd
Formatioon which con
kes of the Upper
Mioceene Bantargaadung Form
mation (600 m
m) which iss followed by
the gravity flow brecccias of the Late
L Miocene Cantayan Formation.
The seediments witthin the firstt and secondd systems weere derived from the norrth, while thhe
third systtem was deriived from thhe south. (Scchiller, 1993))

Fig. 4.6. Straatigraphic diaggram of Tertiarry Formation inn West Java (M

Martodjojo, 198

The modern
volcaanic arc is an
a active anddesitic volcaanism relatedd to subducttion of Indiaan
Ocanic Plate
below Sundaland
(Geede-Pangranngo, Salak, Halimun,
etcc., volcanoes).
Results of
o previous work in Weest Java sugggest the occcurrence of vvolcanic pro
oducs of Latte
Tertiary magmatic
acctivity. For example,
Perrtamina (19888) recordedd a K-Ar agee of 12.0 0..1
Ma from
m a calc-alkalline pyroxenneandesite laava which reepresents paart of the bassement of thhe
Quaternaary Wayang Volcano. Pertamina
sttudy (1988)) concluded those volcaanic rocks iin
West Jav
va range inn age from
m 4.360.04 Ma to 2.6620.03 Maa suggesting
g continuouus
magmatic activity during
Plioceene time. Thhe youngestt age of vollcanic rockw
was obtainiees
W Java), wherre the K-Ar dating of thee lava flow is
i 1.33_+0.228
from wesst of Pe abuhhanratu (SW
Ma (Soerria-Atmadja et al., 1994)). See chapteer 4.4 for furrther details on the magm
matic arc.



The southern mountains extend from Pelabahanratu Bay to Nusakambangan Island. These
represent the southern flank of the Java synclinal structure, an uplifted crustal block dipping
to the south. The oldest rocks in the southern mountains are schists, phyllites and quartzites
into which have intruded ultrabasic rocks. These rocks, which are exposed in the
southwestern corner of island (the Jampang), are covered uncomformably by the Ciletuh formation of conglomerates and sandstone of late Eocene to early Oligocene- age (Baumann et
al., 1973). Unconformably, on the top of Ciletuh formation, is the Jampang formation of
early Miocene age. The Gabon formation in the eastern part of western Java is similar to this
Jampang formation. The Jampang formation consists primarily of volcanic sedlments such as
brecciaous marl and clay. The underlying Ciletuh formation has been intruded by quartz
porphyry, which might have brought the ore of the Cibitung gold mines (Nishimura &
Hehuwat, 1980).
The Banten Block comprises several structural highs and lows (Fig. 4.3). The Seribu
Platform has a rather thin Tertiary section (1.5 sec. TWT) which consists of Baturaja and
mostly post-Baturaja sediments, located in the north of the Banten Block. It is separated
from the Sunda Basin in the west by the major Seribu fault system, and gently plunges
eastwards and northwards into the Arjuna Subbasin and to the North Seribu basinal area,
respectively. The later is a narrow deeper area affected by NS and NW-SE growth faults.
Gentle drape over large basement high areas and reefal buildups are the main structures
of the platform itself. Its onshore prolongation is known as the Tangerang High, which is
separated from the Ciputat Sub-basin by a major NNW-SSE trending fault.
The Bayah and Honje Highs are Tertiary structural highs located on the south coast of
West Java, Indonesia, situated at the margin of the Malingping Low, the western
extension of the Bogor Trough (Fig. 4.3). The Honje High comprises mainly Miocene
volcanoclastics flanked by Pliocene sediments to the west and Eocene strata to the east.
Together with the adjacent Sunda Strait strike-slip basin, it probably formed in response
to movement along the Sumatra strike-slip fault (Fig. 4.7). In the Sunda Strait and east
and west of the Honje horst structure, and north and south of west Java (Malod et al
1996) are a series of moderately dipping half grabens which trend N-S. These are clearly
visible on seismic to the south, offshore of the Honje High. The Bayah High comprises
large E-W trending anticlines cored by Eocene clean coarse-grained sandstones (Keetley
et al, 1997). STRATIGRAPHY
The Banten Sedimentary Province consists of 3 main cycles of sedimentation (Fig. 4.8).
The oldest part of the first system is dominated by Paleocene volcanic and igneous rocks
equivalent to the Jatibarang Formation. These are overlain unconformably by shallow
marine to terrestrial deposits belonging to the Eocene Bayah Formation. The lower
portion consists of mostly black shales with some larger foram rich limestone lenses which
have been interpreted as prodelta deposits (at least 300m thick). The upper portion of the
Bayah Formation consists of quartzose sandstones and pebbly sandstones with thin coal
lenses (maximum 110 cm thick). The total thickness of this unit is approximately 800m.


Fig. 4.7. Geodynamic

intterpretation off SW Java offshhore. The subdduction of the oceanic crust of
o the Indian
ocean is obblique in front of Sumatra. As a result the Mentawai
Sliveer Plateis mqvinng northwestw
wards and the
sediments of the accretionary prism aree movingin the same direction
n along the Meentawai Fault. This
T induces
the concavve shape of the accretionary prism
SW Java offshore. Thiss major geodynnamic motion is conjugated
with a smaaller motion along
the cimaandiri Fault. As a result of th
his complex teectonic patternn the forearc
basin is intterrupted south
h of the Sunda Strait (Malod et
e al., 1996).

Fig. 4.8. Stratigraphy

off West and Souuth West Java area
a (from diffferent sources).


The seecond cycle unconformaably overliess the Bayah Formation, and is compprised of volcanic breeccias and sandstones
w some cllaystone bellonging to thhe Cicarucuup Formationn.
These aree interpretedd as brecciass deposited as the basall portion of an alluvial fan
f sequencee.
These arre followedd by the Oligocene
too Early Mio
ocene limesstones of th
he Cijengkool
Formatioon which aree often rich in larger beenthonic forrams. Suddeen massive influx
of volcanics frrom the soutth consisting
g of tuffs annd breccias deposited
byy sediment gravity
belong too the Miocenne Cimapag Formation.
The thhird cycle iss entirely co
omposed of shallow to transitional marine sediiments whicch
corresponnd with thee Saraweh and
a Badui Formations
10000m thick). The
T youngesst
nfluenced seediments aree from the M
Middle Mioccene Bojonggmanik Form
mation whicch
consists of claystonees and sanddstones withh some ligniite lenses. T
These are unnconformablly
b Pliocene sediments (Schiller, 19993).
overlain by
4.2. 1.. TECTONIC
The sttructural history of the East
E Java caan not be sepparated from
m the structuural history of
the westeern part of thhe island andd the tectoniics of the SE
E Asia regionn. This area is located on
the southheastern edg
ge of the Sundaland
wherre basementt is Cretaceeous to basaal
Tertiary melange. Thhis old continental marggin has a no
ortheast to southwest strructural trennd
n offshore noorth Java seiismic data (F
Fig. 4.9).
that is cleearly seen on
In genneral, the Eaast Java regiion can be ggrouped intoo five tectonnic provinces (Fig. 4.10);
modifiedd after Yulihaanto et al, 19995), from nnorth to south
h are:
- Nortthern slope includes thee stable Rem
mbang contiinental shelff and Randuublatung trannsitional zone
- Kenddeng Trough
h, the easternn extension oof Bogor Troough, a labille deep sea basin.
- Moddern Volcaniic Arc
- Soutthern slope regional
4.2.2. NORTHER
Sloppe covered the
t Northeasst Java Basin
n which liess between th
he Sunda CraaThe Northern
ton to thee north and a volcanic arrc to the souuth (the Java Axial Rangee). The basin
n can be classsified as a classic back-arc basiin. It consissts largely of
o a shelf diipping gentlly southwardd,
which is covered by a relatively thin stratigrraphic sectioon (averaging less than 1850
In contraast, the deep basin area contains morre than severral thousand meters of seediments.
The sttructural con
nfiguration of
o the westerrn part of thee onshore NE
E Java Basinn incluse subbbasins wiith two diffeerent orientattion. The Paati Trough treends NE-SW
W, whereas th
he Cepu andd
negoro subb
basins are aligncd E-W
W. The NE-S
SW orientattion of the Pati Trouggh
typifies the developm
ment of assym
mmetrical haalf graben sttructures (Yuulihanto et al,
a 1995).

Fiig. 4.9. Northeast Java Basin outline

The Northern
Sloope stratigraaphy, represeented by thee Rembang and Randub
blatung zonees
are dominated by stable
continnental shelff to basinal slope sedim
ments. Strattigraphic annd
y Yulihanto et al. (19955) show fourr depositionaal cycles witthin the Tertistructurall analyses by
ary sedim
ments of this area: a Laate OligocenneEarly Miocene extensiional phase,, followed by
Early Miiocene basin
n subsidencee, a Middle M
Miocene exttentional phaase, and Uppper MioceneePliocene basin subsiddence (Fig. 4.5).

Fig. 4.10. Eastt Java regional structure map (Latief et al, 1990).

Fig. 4.11.
East Javaa regional schematic cross section (Latief et
e al, 1990).

Miocenne extensionnal phase Late Olligocene - Early
hase is chharacterizedd by the formation of NE-SW
The initial exteensional ph
hese occur iin associatio
on with leftt lateral mo
otion along a
asymmettrical half grabens.
NE-SW fault systeer,i that can
n be tracedd from thee NE Java Basin acro
oss to soutth
ntan (Baritoo and Asem
mAsem bassins). Three depositioonal sequennces can be
recognizzed in this phhase (Fig. 4.5):
l. Ngiimbang Form
mation - low
wstand systeems tract: th
he early phaase of deposition -starteed
with the Late Oligoocene-Early Miocene seea level dro
op and incluudes a basinn - floor annd


progradational slope complex. Basin floor deposits formed mainly by carbonate debris flows resulting from the collapse of the eastern margin fault scarp. The progradational
complex developed during the final phase of eustatic drop and consists of wacke packstone lenses.
2. Kujung Formation - transgressive systems tract: the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene
sea level drop was followed by a rise in relative sea level. The associated transgressive
systems tract consists of fine grained sediments in the lower part of the Kujung
Formation. The dominant lithology is marl interbedded with thin bedded green
fossiliferous sandstone and limestone, and it contains larger forminifera, algae, and coral
debris. In the upper part of the Kujung, the monotonous marl is intercalated with
bioclastic limestone. At the type locality, the Kujung is 500 m thick. It was deposited in a
deep, open marine environment during the Late Oligocene.
3. Prupuh Formation - highstand systems tract: The final extensional phase is topped
by bioclastic limestone of the Prupuh Formation. It consists of interbedded reefal bioclacarenite, bio-calcilutite, and blueish gray marl. These accumulated in outer neritic
environments during the Late Oligocene. Early Miocene basin subsidence phase
Early Miocene subsidence developed a ramp-type depositional platform (Fig. 4.11).
Sedimentation began in the Early Miocene with progradation of a fine grained complex
of lower shoreface or offshore deposits in a lowstand systems tract (Tuban Formation).
These may be associated in some places with development of incised valley fill.
A transgressive phase accompanied the subsequent sealevel rise, with accumulation of
fine grained shale and marl in the Tawun Formation. Basinal subsidence closed in the
Early Miocene with accumulation of bioclastic limestone in a highstand systems tract
(upper part of Tawun Formation). The type locality of this formation is in Tawun Village
and its thickness is about 730 m. The lower part of the formation is dominated by blackgray claystone and marl, changing gradually upward to gray siltstone. The siltstone
intercalates with bioclastic limestone, consisting of orbitoid wackstone-grainstone with
large forams, coral fragments, algae and molluscs. An upward increase in the bioclastic
content of the limestone indicates an isolated shallow marine environment. Middle Miocene extensional phase
The Middle Miocene extensional phase is characterized by formation of a NE-SW
asymmetric half graben, which appears to have migrated eastward from the Late
Oligocene-Early Miocene graben (Fig. 4.5). This second extensional phase is interpreted
to result from rejuvenation of NE-SW left-lateral fault movement due to Middle Miocene
oblique subduction of the oceanic Wharton plate under the continental Sunda plate.
Four depositional sequences,developed during this phase: (Tim Studi Cekungan
Tersier, 1994). The first sequence consists dominantly of slope-front fill seismic facies,
which are interpreted as slope-fan deposits of a lowstand system tract. It can be correlated
with the lower part of the Ngrayong Member (Fig. 4.5). Subsequent sea-level rise
resulted in development of a transgressive system tract, including beach to shallow open
marine deposits in the middle part of the Ngrayong Member(Fig. 4.5).
Sea-level rise ended with development of a highstand systems tract of coastal plain
and deltaic deposits. These are included in the upper part of the Ngrayong Formation.
The second sequence is less well developed. This sequence consists mainly of transgressive and highstand systems tracts. These correlate with the Bulu Formation, which
mainly consists of bedded grainstone and wackstone, and the lower part of the Wonocolo


Formation, composed of interbedded fossilferous sandy marl and thin bedded gray
fossilliferous calcarenites.
Similar to the second sequence, the third sequence consists mainly of transgressive
and highstand systems tracts. The upper part of the Wonocolo Formation is interpreted
as the transgressive system tract of the third sequence, consisting of shale with
intercalation of calcarenite. The third sequence, highstand systems tract is characterized
by progradational sediments in the lower part of the Ledok Formation. The type locality
is in Ledok Village, Cepu, where the thickness of this formation ranges from 100 to 250
m. The Ledok consists of thickening upward units of glauconitic, fossliferous, greenishgray calcareous sandstone, interbedded with thinning upward beds of fossiliferous,
greenish-gray sandy marl. The upper part of the Ledok Formation is characterized by
bioturbation and large cross bedding, indicating outer to inner neritic environments.
Seismic stratigraphic analysis of the fourth sequence indicates that the middle part of
the Ledok Formation corresponds to progradational reflector patterns of a highstand
systems tract. Upper Miocene - Pliocene basin subsidence phase
An erosional or unconformity surface separates Middle Miocene from the overlying
Upper Miocene-Pliocene section, associated with the formation of incised valley fill in
many places e.g., Cepu and Bojonegoro areas (Yulihanto, 1993). The depositional history
of the study area ended with sedimentation of the Mundu Formation, which consists of
marl and shale that accumulated in association with the Pliocene sea level rise.
Fossiliferous, greenish-gray marl dominates the lower part of the Mundu, while the
upper part includes interbedded fossiliferous, greenish-gray sandy marl of the so-called
Selorejo Member. The formation was deposited in outer neritic environments during the
Late Miocene to Pliocene.
The Kendeng Trough is a strongly folded and sometimes heavily faulted region,
located to the south of the northern slope. Structuring is very recent and is probably still
active. Fold axes are oriented in an east to west direction; an indicator that the adjacent
and parallel volcanic chain is, at least in part, responsible for the compression.
The Kendeng Zone can be subdivided into eastern and western areas, roughly split at
the location of the Solo River outcrop sections at Ngawi. East of here folds are tight but
not usually faulted, at least not on surface. Note that going east from Ngawi the age of
sediments outcropping in this zone gets steadily younger. In the east, south of Surabaya,
the folds are nearly lost under recent alluvium and even Pleistocene rarely crops out.
West of Ngawi, towards Semarang, the folds expose rocks as old as Early Miocene
and much faulting has been mapped. This east - west variation in structuring reflects a
gravity anomaly trend, with the lowest gravity values in the west of the zone. The
complexity and thickness of the Tertiary sediments in the western part of the Kendeng
Zone, as well as surface undulation, are recognized from seismic. STRATIGRAPHY
The Kendeng Zone represents the central deep of the East Java Basin. Most
lithological features show deep marine influence. The stratigraphy of the Kendeng zone
includes the following units:


- Pelang Formation: consists of 125 m of alternating massive to bedded fossiliferous

gray marls and gray claystones with intercalations of bioclastic limestones. These strata
accumulated in neritic-environments during the Early Miocene.
-Kerek Formation: consists of about 800 m. of turbidites, made up mostly by fining
and thinning upwards beds with sedimentary structures typical of density flows.
Lithologies include gray tuffaceous sandstones and gray claystones or marls.
- Kalibeng Formation: consists of massive fossiliferous greenish gray marl intercalated
with thin bedded tuffs. These sediments accumulated in a bathyal environment during
Pliocene time. The upper part of the Kalibeng (Atasangin Member) is composed of
interbedded white tuffaceous fine to coarse sandstones, white tuffs, and brown volcanic
breccias. These were deposited as turbidites.
Other facies of the Kalibeng are the Cipluk Member, with marl and claystone (200-500
m.); The Kapung Member, which is composed of bioclastic wackstone and grainstone;
and the Kalibiuk Member, characterized by claystone and balanus marl.
- Sonde Formation: The lower part of this formation (Klitik Member) is dominated by
sandy marl interbedded with calcareous sandstones and white tuffs, while the upper part
consists of balamnus packstone and grainstone. The formation was deposited in shallow
marine environments during Pliocene time.
- Pucangan Formation: It includes 323 m of conglomeratic-coarse sandstones,
tuffaceous sandstones, volcanic breccias, and black clay containing fresh water molluscs.
This formation was deposited in a limnic environment during Late Pliocene to
Pleistocene time.
- Kabuh Formation: The formation is 150 m. thick, more or less, and it consists of
interbedded coarse sandstones with cross bedding, vertebrate fossils, lenses of
conglomerates, and yellow tuffs. These accumulated in continental, fluvial and limnic
environment during the last 0.75 MY.


In the Central and East Java region the Tertiary volcanic arc has been recorded as
having three distinct phases of activity. Based on groupings of radiometric ages (Bellon
et al., 1990) and the stratigraphic occurrence of volcanic beds, the following phases can
be recognized:
An early active volcanic phase from about 50 to 19 Ma (mid Eocene to mid Early
A period of relative quiescence from about 19 Ma to about 11 Ma (late Middle
Miocene). A considerable increase in volcanic activity at about 11 Ma, with the volcanic
chain moving about 50 kilometers north to its present position.
At about 3 Ma the volcanism changed with a new series of active volcanoes along the
main arc, but also more K-rich volcanoes lying off the arc trend (e.g. Gunung Muria [1.10.4 Ma], offshore to the north on Bawean Island [0.8-0.3 MYBP], and Gunung Lasem
[1.6-1.1 Ma, but not especially K-rich]).
DSDP holes in the Indian Ocean west and south of Java yield data supporting the end
of the second, the third and the last phase listed above. These wells contain tuffs dated as
11 MYBP and younger, with a notable increase in pyroclastic content in Late Pliocene or
basal Quaternary times (about 2-3 Ma). The location of these sites on a northwar,ds
drifting oceanic plate precludes them recording Javanese volcanic activity much before
11 MYBP. For instance at 19 MYBP, when the Old Andesite" phase came to an end, '
the DSDP sites would have been some 400 kilometers further south of the volcanic arc.
Note that between,' these main volcanic events there was still some continuing


background volcanism, as seen by the tuffs present in Middle Miocene beds in the south
of Java (Lunt et al, 1996).
See chapter 4.4 for further details on magmatic arc.
The southern slope regional uplift is also known as the southern mountains, consist of
the "old andesite" volcanic and volcaniclastic suite, initially interbedded with and then
more completely overlain by Miocene limestones. These limestones often develop as reefal
facies such as in the area south of Malang, the island of Nusa Barung, the Puger area and the
Blambangan Peninsula. The southern mountains today are the site of dramatic karstified
topography that is relatively young, i.e. it is, probably the result of Quaternary uplift on the
southern flanks of the modern volcanic chain.
The most extensive Miocene reFfal facies arg in the south and east of Java. Also in the
eastern area, in addition to the andesitic extrusives, there is reported to be a granite batholith
near Merawan. This granite and associated dikes intrude and reported alter some older
Miocene limestones and andesites but are then covered by the .reefal limestones. Detailed
data on the granite and the reefal limestones in this area is scarce but Van Bemmelen
deduced that the limestones that follow the intrusion are equivalent to the reefal Wonosari
Limestones further west in the Southern Mountains. The western Wonosari Limestones are
probably latest Early to Middle Miocene in age. It would therefore appear that the Merawan
granite is related to the older, 19 to 50 MYBP, volcanic phase, although there is still a
question of how a "granite" occurs so far from a continental margin, and intrudes at such
shallow depths (Lunt et al., 1996).
There are many signs pointing to a southerly quartz provenance that is separate from the
Ngrayong sands of the north. These include the petrographic data in Muin (1985) that consistently records nearly 30% of sand grains as quartz in the Early to mid-Middle Miocene
volcaniclastics Kerek Beds. In addition papers such as those by Kadar and Storrs Cole (1975)
from the later Early Miocene of the Southern Mountains note biostratigraphy samples containing abundant quartz grains along with the transported larger forams they were studying
(Lunt et al, 1996).

4.3 SOUTH CENTRAL JAVA BASINS (Adapted from Bollinger & de Ruiter, 1975)
The South Central Java basinal area lies south of Central Java (Fig. 4.12) on the northern
flank of a major present day elongate bathymetric basin lying between the volcanic arc of
Java itself (and its extensions NW and E) and the non-volcanic outer ridge bounding the Java
Trench on its north flank. In broad tectonic setting this area is classified as fore arc basin, and
it is a megatectonic feature associated with all island arc systems and may vary considerably
in its complexity: The area contains two Neogene sedimentary basins whose structural
outlines were determined during a Late Oligocene phase of folding, faulting and volcanism.
The basins were filled with clastics of deep marine facies. The high areas surrounding the
depocenters were covered mainly by an incomplete section of Neogene shallow marine
limestones (including reefs). Three Neogene tectonic events of possibly regional importance
are deduced from stratigraphic and seismic records: a minor Early Miocene event, a Mid
Miocene event, and a Late Pliocene event. None of these events however, has considerably
deformed the offshore Neogene.
South of Central Java the deeper part of the outer arc basin proper shallows steadily northwards and seismic records show that a "basement" ridge and sediment filled basin are traversed before reaching the Java coast (Fig. 4.13). A simplified mega-structural sense be


considereed part of the "southern mountains" of west and east Java w

which in the broad
embayyment sou
uth of Centraal Java runss beneath thee sea (Bolligger & De R
Ruiter, 1974)) by the Nussa
gan ridge (F
Fig. 4.12). South
of thiis ridge an east-west trrending deppression - thhe
"western basin" - co
ontains over 10,000 feett of undeformed sedimeent. Still furtther south aan
orm lies bettween the "w
western basiin" and the slope to thee present daay
extensivee high platfo
outer arc basin.
xtension of thhe Kebumenn Basin on laand (Fig. 4.1
12). It is charrThe ceentral provinnce is the ex
acterizedd by a greatter thicknesss of Neogenne (over 15,000') and tthe absence of a distincct
unconforrmity at the base of thee Miocene. Deeper seismic horizonns, conformaable with thhe
base Mio
ocene, could
d be mapped over most of
o the area down
to a deepth of over 25.000'. Thiis
basin is again
separatted from thee outer arc baasin by a bro
oad but deepper "basemen
nt" ridge.
The eaastern provinnce (Fig. 4.112) is the offfshore contiinuation of thhe Gunung Sewu plateaau
(south off Yogyakartta) which consists
of flat
f lying Miocene
limeestones in outcrop.
limestonee plateau covers most of the coastall regions of eastern soutth Java and can be traceed
east at leeast as far as
a Lombok Island. In thhe offshore area, large carbonate build-ups,
found annd one was drilled (ALV
V-1). As in the westernn province aan angular Base-Miocen
unconforrmity occurss. The Neogene sedimenntary sequen
nce dips genntly to the soouth. Seismiic
lines and
d structural cross
ns give an iimpression of
o the structtural style of
o the variouus

F 4.12. Southh Java regionall map (Bollingeer & de Ruiter, 1975)


sections are knnown from ssouthern Cenntral Java.
Few Paleogene
In the Jiwo Hills and
a at Nangggulan the olldest Paleoggene sedimennts are of Middle
age (Fig.. 4.14). Theey were initiially depositted in a shallow marine environmennt (limestonees
and clasttics), and graade into a deeep marine ffacies over a relatively tthin vertical interval. Uppper Eocenne was founnd in bathyal developmennt in both areas.
In the geographic center of Jaava (Lok Ullo, Banjarneegara area) aan interesting melange of
shallow and deep deeposits (Figg. 4.15) is ppresent, rangging in age from Uppeer Cretaceouus
nian), over Paleocene
too Upper Eoccene. Most probably we are dealinng
(Cenomaanian/ Turon
here withh an olistosttromal mixtu
ure, which was
w emplaceed into a troough during the Late Eoocene.


Fig. 4.13.
South Javaa schematic crooss section (Bolinger & de Ruuiter, 1975).

ments indicate a tectonnically activve period, innThese few observvations of Eocene
n only fasst subsidencee and fransggression but also pronouunced topog
graphic gradivolving not
evennt of Late Oligocene
The Paleogene hisstory was terrminated by a regional tectonic
of stroong faulting and subsequuent subsideence on the Sunda Shielld
It is exprressed as a phase
and as a major foldiing phase in
n East Kalim
mantan. In thhe area undder discussio
on it involveed
block tecctonics, pro
obable transccurrent movvements and
d widespread volcanic activity. Thhe
"Old Anddesites" of South
Java (Fig.
4.14) may
m be attribbuted to thiss phase. Durring that tim
the structtural setting was createdd which was to control thhe Neogene sedimentary
The faacies distribbution of thee Neogene appears
to be
b controlledd by the possition of preeexisting high
areas annd the interv
vening depreessions.
Such highs
originated during the Late Oliigocene phase either by simple volccanic activityy,
or were the
t result off uplift and tilting
of exxtensive tectoonic blocks. The Karangbolong higgh
(Fig. 4.112), the West Progo Mountains
aand some smaller
fshore highss, we woulld
categorizze as relicts of simple volcanic
buildups. On thhe other hannd Nusa Kam
mbangan annd
the western offshoree province, the Gunungg Sewn high
h and the eaastern offsh
hore provincce
originally deep
have to be considerred as upliffted high arreas. Here Oligocene,
sedimentts emerged and were trruncated by erosion in Late Oligoccene and Eaarly Miocenne
Amonng the deprressions thee central offfshore basiin with its extension onshore
n basin) andd the depresssion of Yoggyakarta apppear to havee been persiistently deepp.
The Latee Oligocenee tectonic event
is not expressed as an anguular unconfoormity in thhe
central basin.
In conntrast to thiis, the westeern offshoree basin and possibly thhe Banyumaas
basin onshore started to subsidee only in thee Early Mioccene.
dimentary seequence on the highs iss incompletee and consissts mainly oof
The Neogene
Early: too Mid Miocene shallow
w marine lim
mestone ' whhich overliees unconform
mably the so
called "O
Old Andesitee".
The basinal
areeas are filled with generally
marinne clastics of variablle
composittion. Clastiic material of volcaniic origin, ranging from
m fine-grained tuffs to
boulder beds is fouund as well as deep marine
day, sometimes interbeddedd with calciim
volcannic materiall suggests different phaases of activve
turbidites. The preseence of so much
m during thhe Neogene. The calcituurbidites aree presumablyy derived frrom the areaas
where shhallow marrine limestoone was deposited on highs that were volcanically lesss


F 4.14. Soutth Java schemaatic cross sectioon (Bolinger & de

The reelation betw

ween a high and a low area can be best
b illustratted from thee well data oof
AIveolinna (ALV-1) and Boreliis (BOR-1) drilled offsshore, in thhe Eastern Province
Central Province
resspectively (F
Fig. 4.12). A
ALV-I encouuntered a seection consisting of deeep
marine Pliocene clay, overlyying some 1000' of shallow m
marine Midddle Miocenne
ne. 'The latteer rests uncoonformably on strongly
y dipping, U
Upper Oligoccene tuff annd
clay. Th
he well botttomed in undateable volcanic agglomerate
es. The BO
OR-1 sectioon
consists of deep marine,
Plioccene and M
Miocene claay. The well bottomedd in undateed
basalt. The
T Miocenee section is not
n complete owing to local
It is of
o interest th
hat the Lower Miocene deep marin
ne clay of BOR-1
correelates seismiically with the down flank exttension of the
t Mid Miiocene carbbonates of ALV-1.
suggests that limestoones startedd to be depossited on the flank of thee Alveolina high alreaddy
only duuring the Mid
M Miocenee,
during thhe Early Miiocene and transgradedd the high fully
when th
hey coveredd the formeer non-depoositional/eroosional areaa. Limestonne depositioon
stopped later duringg the Midddle Miocenee, following
g a period oof increasedd subsidencce
g in water depths
too great for lim
mestone prodduction. As the car bonnate build-uup
still stoood out as a pronounceed high on the sea botttom, duringg Late Mioocene time it
became non
n deposittional. Fine Upper Mioccene elastics were depoosited aroun
nd it until thhe
bathymetric lows were
filled and
a the cresst of the hig
gh became covered by
y sediment at
in Figg.
about beeginning of the Pliocenee. The essennce of stratiigraphic knoowledge is given


F 4.14. Interrcalations of reeddish shale an
nd chert fragmeent
melange unit in Lok Ulo
U area.

Early Miocene teectonism is reflected byy the rapid subsidence of the westtern offshorre
basin and
d possibly the
t onshore Banyumas basin. It invvolved faultting and vollcanism. Thhe
only cleearly dated (by paleontology) voolcanics off this time occur in the Baturnng
Mountainns, SE of Yogyakarta.
However, aareas of oldder volcanicc activity were
reactivatted: West Progo Mountains
((van Bemm
melen, 19449), Gabon
n volcaniccs
diyono, 19733).
A midd Miocene tectonic phhase appearrs to have had a majoor regional effect. It iis
d by gaps in sedimentation not onlyy on all the highs, but aalso in somee depressionns
(Yogyakkarta area). It was folllowing this event thaat the limeestones on the offshorre
"Alveolina"-high weere drownedd and sedimentation ceaased. On Javva a new phhase of stronng
volcanicity was trigggered.
d the first pphase of regional up- lifft
A majjor tectonic event of Laate Pliocenee age caused
at Java Itt was accom
mpanied by folding
and widespreadd volcanicityy.
Java has
h often been
referreed to as a cclassical ex
xample of thhe relationsship of caleealkaline magmatism
m to subductiion. Subducction of the Indian
Oceaan beneath the Sunda arrc
is considdered to havve been acttive since att least Eoceene time, acccording to geodynamiic
reconstruuctions (Haamilton 19779, Katili 11975, Rangiin et al. 19990). The geology annd
y of the Quaternary
Sunda are volcanoes have beenn the subjeect of manny
investigaations (Hutcchison 19822, Wheller et al. 19877) but mucch less is known
Tertiary magmatism
m. Expbsurees of the olldest knownn volcanic rocks in Jaava occur aas
a in the melange-typ
fragmentts of calc- alkaline lavvas of late Cretaceous - Eocene age
rock form
mations, e.g
g. Karangsam
mbung (Supparka et al., 1990; Suparrka and Soeeria-Atmadjaa,
1991). Exposures
o the younnger calc-allkaline volccanic rockss, considereed as Oligooof
Miocenee age (Bemm
melen, 19499), are moree widely disstributed. They are expposed mostlly
along the southern coast of Jav
va, and are referred to as the "Oldd Andesitess". The morre
nd active volcanoes
of Java ofteen overlie volcanicand/
/or intrusivee-rock unitss.
recent an
Volcanicc rock unitss are interccalated withh Neogene sediments, and intrusivve rocks cuut
these sed
diments. Ho
owever, avaailable radioometric or fission
trackk ages on thhese Tertiarr?
magmatiic rocks are relatively scarce
(Hehhuwat, 1976
6; Nishimuraa et al., 19778). It seem
that the location
of the
t axes of the successiive magmattic arcs in Jaava has shiffted not morre
than 60 km northw
wards to thhe present position off the Quateernary Sundda arc sincce
Oligocene tiime.
Investtigations by
y Bellon et al. (1989) and
a Soeria--Atmadja ett al. (1990) have show
that Terttiary magmaatic activityy in Java toook place in two distinctt periods: Late
Eocene Early Miiocene and Late Mioceene - Late Pliocene. Thee products oof the earlieer event havve


built up the "Old Andesites", whereas those of the latter may be related to the early stages
of magmatic activity of the modern Sunda arc (Bellon et al. 1989).
K-Ar datings of the magmatic rocks in Java by Soeria-Atmadja et al (1994) indicate
that two stages of volcanic activity may be distinguished throughout the Tertiary period.
The earlier one took place from 40Ma (Karangsambung and Pacitan) to 19 - 18 Ma
(Pacitan and Pangandaran). The following volcanic activity occurred between 12 Ma
(Pertamina 1988) or 11 Ma (Bobotsari) to 2 Ma (Jatiluhur) and were succeeded by the
Quaternary volcanism of the Sunda arc. The possible existence of a real break in
volcanism between 18 and 12 Ma is questionable as new data on K-Ar ages point to
volcanic activity at 13.7 Ma (JM-61, Bayah) and 15.3 Ma (PC-3, Pacitan). Perhaps we are
only dealing with a relative paucity within the 18 - 12 Ma range.
Quaternary rocks in Java could be divided into non-volcanic and volcanic products.
The non-volcanic products represented by LowerMiddle Pleistocene sediments of mostly
non marine, and only little amount of marine sediments. The volcanic products are
mainly as the results of Middle Pleistocene to Recent volcanic activities. However, little
amount of Plio-Pleistocene to Lower Pleistocene volcanic materials have also been found
in certain areas as the result of old quaternary volcanic activities. The quaternary
sediments are exposed almost in all regions in Java, particularly at the middle and
northern part of this island.
In West Java, the quaternary sediments belong to Citalang, Tambakan and Ciherang
Formations were deposited in non-marine environment. Tambakan and Citalang
Formations are distributed in central west Java, and Ciherang Formation in northeast
Java. Fri~sh water molluscs and vertebrate fossils are found within these formations, but
no homminid fossils. Based on vertebrate fossils, the age of these formations are Lower
to Middle Pleistocene. Upper Pleistocene to Recent volcanic products covered the
sediments of those formations.
Towards the east of the West Java region, the quaternary rocks are well exposed in Bumiayu Area, known as Bumiayu Basin. The oldest rocks are non marine sediments of Cisaat Formation (regrouped from formerly of Kaliglagah and Mengger Formations) of
Lower Pleistocene, followed by Gintung Formation of Middle Pleistocene. These formations then covered by Upper Pleistocene to Recent volcanic products of Linggopodo
Formation and from the activities of Slamet Volcano.
The fresh water molluscs and vertebrate fossils were found in this area, but no homminid found from these formations.
The most important Quaternary in Java is found in Sangiran, Central Java and in Kendeng Zone of East Java. Sangiran area is situated at about 20 Km north of Solo, is a dome
in elongated form, and the axis of this dome is of north-south ward, with mud volcano
and several block faults in the center of the dorrLe.
The Sangiran dome is dissected by some rivers, with the biggest is Kali (river) Cemoro
in the middle part of the dome, flowing from west to east direction. The rivers were denudated the area form the low undulated hills and valleys where the sediments are cropped
out in this dome.
In Sangiran area and in Kendeng Zone of East Java, the oldest sediments are belong to
Kalibeng Formation of Late Pliocene in age.
This formation consists of calcareous grey clays and marls were deposited in shallow
marine environment. Above the Kalibeng Formation were deposited Pucangan
Formation, consists of Iaharic breccias at the lower part and black and bluish grey of
clays with intercalation of thin layers of tuff, diatomae and molluscs beds, were deposited


in the swamps, lake and shallow marine environments during Early Pleistocene. Many
vertebrate and Homo erectus fossils have been found in the black clays of Pucangan
Formation in Sangiran area. The Pucangan Formation is overlain by Kabuh Formation,
consisting of fine to very coarse tuffaceous sandstones with lenses of pumice.ous
conglomerate intercalated by silt and black clay. Cross bedding, parallel bedding and
scouring structures are often found within sandstones and conglomerates. In Sangiran, the
calcareous conglomerate is compacted, dense and rich with vertebrate and homminid
fossils, was found at lower part of the Kabuh Formation, is well known as "Grenzbank
Layer". The Kabuh Formation is rich with vertebrate and Homo erectus fossils of Middle
Pleistocene in age then covered by Upper Lahar of Notopuro Formation. The Notopuro
Formation overlain by a sequence of alternating of tuffaceous sandstones, conglomerate
and clays, and lahar layer at the uppermost part of this sequence which are belong to
River Terraces Unit.
Many vertebrate fossils were found in Java, e.g. Stegodont trigonocephalus VK,
Hippopotamus namadicus, Rhinoceros palaeosondaicus, Bubalus (Buffaloes) c.f
paleokarabau etc.. Hominid fossils, are found mainly from Sangiran area, and little
amount from Sambungmacan (Sragen) and Patiayam (Central Java), from Kedungbrubus,
Trinil, Ngawi, Ngandong and Perning (Mojokerto), East Java. The hominid fossils consist
of Meganthropus paleojavanicus, Homo (Pithecanthropus) erectus, Homo erectus
mojokertensis, and Homo erectus ngandongensis.


The Geological
inn Bandung is the onlyy geologicall museum in
i Indonesiaa.
Organizaationally, it is a section
n within the Geological Research annd Development Centree,
Directoraate General of Geology
y and Mineraal Resources, Ministry of Mines an
nd Energy.
This museum
wass officially inaugurated
d on.16 Mayy 1929, coinnciding with the Openinng
Ceremonny of the 4th.
Pacific Science Coongress. Thhe building designed by
b the Dutcch
architectt, Menalda van Schuuwenburg, in art decco style. Itt was firstt known aas
"Geologiische Laborratorium", which
at preesent well known
as thhe Geologiccal Museum
located at
a Jalan Dipo
onegoro 57 (Previouslyy called "Wiilhemina Booulevard") Bandung.
Samplles of rockss, minerals, fossils, andd various kinds
of chaarts, drawings, dioramaas
are colleected in the Geological Museum. IIn the main hall various maps of Indonesia
d. A panel displayingg the development of the earth, samples off meteoritess,
geological time-sccale are displayed
i the Hiistorical G
Geology Gaallery (Easst
Mineral Reso
ources Galleery (West Wing)
collectt minerals, rocks,
petrolleum drillinng
rig. Volccanological gallery whiich display sseveral mod
dels of volcaanoes are allso displayeed
in the West
W Wing toogether with general geoology items collection.