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PUSAT PENGAJIAN KEJURUTERAAN AEROANGKASA

KAMPUS KEJURUTERAAN
UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA
14300 NIBONG TEBAL, PULAU PINANG

-----------------------------------------------------------EML 222/2
ENGINEERING LAB II

------------------------------------------------------------EXPERIMENT REPORT

Lab title: FORMATION OF BOUNDARY LAYER ON A FLAT PLATE


Name: AHMAD SHAQEER BIN MOHAMED THAHEER
Group: G3
Matrik #: 111706
Lecturer/Demonstrator: DR. NOORFAZREENA MOHD.
KAMARUDDIN/
EN. MOHD. SANI SULAIMAN
Experiment date: 20/9/2012

Date submitted: 27/9/2012

Student Signature: ..............................

Lecturer/Demonstrator comments:

Marks:./.

EML 222/2 EXPERIMENTAL LAB II


EXPERIMENT 4
TOPIC: FORMATION OF BOUNDARY LAYER ON A FLAT PLATE

INTRODUCTION

Figure 1: The formation of boundary layer.

Consider an airfoil shown above, as the air travel towards the


airfoil, it will move on top of the airfoil yet not too far from the body. If
is like sticking to the body. Thus it creates a layer of air called the
boundary layer. In a scientific definition, boundary layer is a layer
adjacent to a surface where a viscous effect is important. As the air
moves from the stagnation point (v=0), the speed of the air inside the
boundary layer are the same with the speed of the air outside it and
this is called the free stream velocity.
The boundary layer can be divided into 2 major regions which is
the laminar boundary layer and the turbulent boundary layer. As the
air moves towards the center of the body, since the flow is viscous and
depends on the shape of the body, it loses the energy or speed of the
air because of the friction of the air and the surface of body and this
creates drag.

Figure 2: The formation of boundary layer.

As you can see above, these are the effects of boundary layer which
leads to the formation of skin drag friction. This effect really decrease
the efficiency of a product such as it uses more power to overcome the
drag and in the case of aerospace industries, it really increase the fuel
cost, the material life or the body of the aircraft itself. So this
experiment will help us:
1. To determine at which moment or we can say the transition
region where the laminar will change on to the turbulent.
2. And, what is the thickness of boundary layer on a flat plate
depends on different Reynolds Number.

Figure 2: The effect of drag on a non-spinning ball.

The Reynolds number is a dimensionless number that tells us the


smoothness of the flow or to indicate whether the flow is smooth
(laminar) or rough (turbulence). Consider a flow a pipe, assume it is a
fully developed flow, if the Rex <2300 , laminar flow occurs. If the
Rex > 4000 , it said that turbulent flow occurs and between 2300 and
4000, it is called transition flow.

INSTRUMENT
1. Flat plate
2. Pitot tube
THEORY
The formation of turbulent boundary layer is given by:
T=

0.37 x
5 Rex

and the formation of laminar boundary layer is given by:


L=

5.0 x
R ex

Rex=

u x

The Reynolds No.:

From the Bernoulli equation;


U 2 P P 0
+ =
2

U
P0 P=
2

From the reading of manometer:


P0P=k . h
Thus, combine both equations we get:
2(P0P)
u =

2 m gh

2k .h

INDEXES

density (kg/m3):

air

1.23.
4

free stream velocity (ms-1).

dynamic viscosity (Nm/s):

distance from the leading edge (m).

air =1.785 x 105 .

T =
the thickness of the turbulent boundary layer when the
local velocity is
u 0.99 U .
L

m . g=1000 ( 9.81 )=9.81 x103.

density of manometer fluid.

manometric head.

Rex

Reynolds Number.

Perpendicular distance from flat plate (mm).

the thickness of the laminar boundary layer.

PROCEDURES
1. The flat plate is placed horizontally in the device. To calculate the
stagnation pressure, the pitot tube is placed on top of the flat
plate and at 5 cm from the leading edge. This will be the first
value of x .
2. The pressure difference of the device is set at 2 cm.
3. The device is turned on and initial reading is measured.
4. The pitot tube is raised 1 mm and the reading of the manometer
head is taken.
5. Repeat the step 4 until 20 mm.
6. Then, change the distance x to 11 cm.
7. Repeat step 5 and 6; change the value of x to 18.3 cm and
23.7 cm.
8. After finish taking the reading, the pressure difference is raised
to 4 cm.
9. Repeat step 3 to 7.

RESULTS
For an air gap: 0.02 m,
Y
(mm)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

= 0.050m
U
h
(mm)
(ms-1)
29.0
21.77
30.0
22.15
31.0
22.51
31.0
22.51
31.0
22.51
31.5
22.69
31.0
22.51
30.5
22.33
31.0
22.51
31.0
22.51
31.0
22.51
30.5
22.33
30.5
22.33
31.0
22.51
31.0
22.51
31.0
22.51
31.0
22.51
30.5
22.33
30.5
22.33
30.0
22.15
x

= 0.110m
U
h
(mm) (ms-1)
27.5
21.20
27.5
21.20
28.5
21.59
29.5
21.96
29.5
21.96
29.5
21.96
29.5
21.96
29.5
21.96
29.5
21.96
30.0
22.15
29.5
21.96
29.5
21.96
30.0
22.15
30.0
22.15
30.5
22.33
30.0
22.15
30.0
22.15
30.0
22.15
30.0
22.15
29.5
21.96
x

= 0.183m
U
h
(mm)
(ms-1)
27.5
21.20
27.0
21.01
28.0
21.40
29.5
21.96
29.5
21.96
30.0
22.15
29.0
21.77
30.0
22.15
31.0
22.51
31.0
22.51
31.0
22.51
31.0
22.51
31.0
22.51
31.5
22.69
31.5
22.69
31.5
22.69
30.5
22.33
31.5
22.69
31.5
22.69
32.0
22.87
x

= 0.237m
U
h
(mm)
(ms-1)
27.0
21.01
28.0
21.40
28.5
21.59
29.5
21.96
30.5
22.33
30.5
22.33
31.0
22.51
30.5
22.33
31.0
22.51
30.5
22.33
31.5
22.69
31.0
22.51
31.0
22.51
31.5
22.69
31.5
22.69
31.5
22.69
31.5
22.69
32.0
22.87
31.5
22.69
31.0
22.51
x

Table 1: The manometric head, h (mm) and the local velocity, u (ms-1) on
different value of distance from the leading edge, x (m) for air gap of 0.02
m.

20
18
16
x1 = 0.050m

14
x2 = 0.110m
12

Perpendicular Distance from Flat Plate, Y (mm)

x3 = 0.183m

10
8
6

x4 = 0.237m

4
2
0
21.00 21.50 22.00 22.50 23.00
Air Velocity, U (m/s)

Graph 1: Perpendicular distance from the flat plate, Y (mm) vs. the local
velocity, u (ms-1) for air gap of 0.02 m.

For an air gap: 0.04 m,


7

Y
(mm)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

= 0.050m
U
h
(mm)
(ms-1)
43.0
26.52
46.0
27.42
49.0
28.30
50.0
28.59
50.5
28.73
50.5
28.73
50.0
28.59
50.0
28.59
51.0
28.88
51.0
28.88
51.5
29.02
51.0
28.88
51.0
28.88
51.0
28.88
51.0
28.88
50.5
28.73
51.5
29.02
51.0
28.88
50.0
28.59
51.0
28.88
x

= 0.110m
U
h
(mm)
(ms-1)
41.0
25.89
44.0
26.82
45.5
27.27
46.0
27.42
46.5
27.57
46.5
27.57
47.5
27.87
49.0
28.30
49.0
28.30
49.0
28.30
49.5
28.45
48.5
28.16
48.5
28.16
49.0
28.30
51.0
28.88
51.0
28.88
51.5
29.02
51.0
28.88
52.0
29.16
51.0
28.88
x

= 0.183m
U
h
(mm)
(ms-1)
41.0
25.89
42.0
26.20
45.0
27.12
46.0
27.42
46.0
27.42
45.0
27.12
49.0
28.30
47.0
27.72
47.0
27.72
49.0
28.30
49.0
28.30
49.0
28.30
50.0
28.59
50.0
28.59
50.0
28.59
50.0
28.59
50.0
28.59
50.0
28.59
51.0
28.88
50.0
28.59
x

= 0.237m
U
h
(mm)
(ms-1)
42.0
26.20
45.0
27.12
44.5
26.97
43.0
26.52
45.0
27.12
45.0
27.12
45.5
27.27
47.0
27.72
47.5
27.87
48.5
28.16
50.0
28.59
50.0
28.59
49.5
28.45
50.0
28.59
49.0
28.30
49.0
28.30
50.0
28.59
50.0
28.59
51.0
28.88
52.0
29.16
x

Table 2: The manometric head, h (mm) and the local velocity, u (ms-1) on
different value of distance from the leading edge, x (m) for air gap of 0.04
m.

20
18
16
x1 = 0.050m

14
x2 = 0.110m
12

Perpendicular Distance from flat plate, Y (mm)

x3 = 0.183m

10
8
6

x4 = 0.237m

4
2
0
25.00 26.00 27.00 28.00 29.00 30.00
Air Velocity, U (m/s)

Graph 2: Perpendicular distance from the flat plate, Y (mm) vs. the local
velocity, u (ms-1) for air gap of 0.04 m.

For an air gap of 0.02 m,


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Data

Distance
from the
leading
edge, x
(m)

Local
velocity,
u (ms1
)

0.050

22.69

0.110

22.33

0.183

22.87

0.237

22.87

Reyno
lds
Numb
er,
Rex
73603
15933
5
27151
5
35163
5

Table 3: Mean value of the local velocity,


the boundary layer,

u
or

The
Flow
thickness
Type
of the
(laminar boundary
or
layer, T
turbule
or L
nce)
(x10-3m)
Laminar
0.921
Turbulen
3.708
ce
Turbulen
5.545
ce
Turbulen
6.819
ce

(ms-1) and the thickness of

(x10-3m).

For an air gap of 0.04 m,

Data

Distance
from the
leading
edge, x
(m)

0.050

0.110

0.183

0.237

Local
velocity,
u (ms1
)

Reyno
lds
Numb
er,
Rex

Flow
Type
(laminar
or
turbule
nce)

9411
20804
8
34277
1
44824
8

Laminar
Turbulen
ce
Turbulen
ce
Turbulen
ce

29.02
29.16
28.88
29.16

Table 4: Mean value of the local velocity,


the boundary layer,

u
or

The
thickness
of the
boundary
layer, T
or L
(x10-3m)
0.815
3.515
5.292
6.496

(ms-1) and the thickness of

(x10-3m).

10

30.0
28.0
26.0
Local velocity, _ (ms-1)
40mm24.0

20mm

22.0
20.0
0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

Distance from Leading Edge, x (m)

Graph 3: Local velocity,

(ms-1) vs. the distance from leading edge,


(m) for both air gaps.

8.0
7.0
6.0
5.0
Boundary Layer Thickness, (mm) 4.0
4cm

2cm

3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

Distance from Leading Edge, x (m)

Graph 4: The thickness of the boundary layer, vs. the distance from the
leading edge, x (m) for both air gaps.

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DISCUSSIONS
The graph 1 and 2 shows the increase of air velocity as the
perpendicular distance from the flat plate increases. As the air moves
toward the boundary plate, the air changes from laminar to turbulence
flow along the way. The region of turbulence boundary layer becomes
bigger and this is depends on the several factors that might disturbed
the formation of the flow. This shows that as air reaches the leading
edge and a few moments later, it changes to turbulence flow.
On the contrary, the graph 3 shows the mean local velocity of
the air on the flat plate. It tells us the average velocity of the air inside
the boundary layer before it reaches the free stream velocity. As you
can see, the velocity increases as the leading edge becomes further
away. This due to the fact that as the leading edge becomes further, it
already in the region of turbulent boundary layer. As we all know, the
properties of turbulent flow, it occurs on a high speed velocity and that
proves it is a turbulent flow at that specific distance.
On top of that, as expected, the thickness of the boundary
increases as the distance of the leading edge increases on graph 4.
The boundary layer thickness proves to us that the bigger the
thickness of the boundary layer, it show that the flow is turbulence.
In addition, for the different air gap, the difference in mean
velocity and the boundary layer thickness regardless of its distance
from the leading edge, the value is increase to several times. This is
probably due to the larger air gap, increases the air input and output
which increase the mass flow rate of the system. Thus, it increases the
velocity of the system and as a result bigger boundary layer thickness.
As the data shows, all of the flow that produces is turbulent. This
is due to the some errors that occurred during the experiment such as
1. The condition of the machine is not good.
2. Parallax error due to limited space when taking the reading.
3. The air pump is not stable and it can be seen when taking the
manometer head reading.
4. Lots of leakage in the system.
5. Poor handling of data.

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CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


The experiment conducted was a success even though there are
errors that cannot be avoided because of several fair reasons. The
objective of the experiment is to determine the thickness of boundary
layer was able to achieve. The graph was matched the expected
results. So in general, it can be said that, the boundary layer are
depend on the Reynolds Number. The boundary layer thickness
increases when the mean local velocity and the distance from the
leading edge increase. Not to forget, the accuracy of the data or the
results can be increases by:
1. Using a modern wind tunnel to get a better result because of
small disturbances can increase the fatality of the experiment
since the data are too small in magnitude.
2. Increase the number data taken to have a more consistent and
more accurate data.
3. Use computer to handle the data in order to avoid the loss of
data.
REFERENCES
1. Cengel, Yunus A. Fluid Mechanic Fundamentals and Applications
2nd Edition. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Education (Asia), 2010.
2. Dr. Elmi Abu Bakar. Buku Makmal EML 222/2 Makmal
Kejuruteraan
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Malaysia:Pusat
Pengajian
Kejuruteraan
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6. http://www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/CIVE1400/Section4/boundary_la
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7. http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Dictionary/boundary_lay
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