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# Entropy

## Entropy is a measure of number of specific ways in which a thermodynamic system may be

arranged. Based on 2nd law of thermodynamics, in any cyclic process, the entropy will either
increase or remain the same. Entropy is a state function, which the entropy change of a system is
the same for any process that goes from an initial state to a final state, whether it is a reversible
or irreversible process.
S=

dQ
T

From the general equation of entropy above, we can notice that entropy is the ratio of heat over
temperature, which will give its unit as joule/kelvin (J/K)
Carnots theorem
Carnots theorem states that all heat engines between two reservoirs are less efficient than a
carnot engine operating between the same reservoir, and every carnot heat engine between a
pair of heat reservoirs is equally efficient, regardless of the working substance employed or the
operation details.
To calculate maximum efficiency of carnots engine:
T
max =carnot =1 C
TH
Temperature Entropy (T-s) Diagram
A T-s diagram is the type of diagram most frequently used to analyze energy transfer system
cycles. This is because the work done by or on the system and the heat added to or removed from
the system can be visualized on the T-s diagram. By the definition of entropy, the heat transferred
to or from a system equals the area under the T-s curve of the process.

In the liquid-vapor, water and steam exist together. For example, at point A, water with an
entropy (sf) given by point B, exists together with steam with an entropy (sg) given by point C.
The mixture quality in any point in the liquid-vapor region can be found using :

The Carnot Cycle

## State 1: Hot Reservoir

The hot thermal reservoir is at the same temperature as the gas within the system (TH = constant).
Step 1-2: Isothermal Expansion
The gas slowly expands and cools isothermally. Reversible heat transfer into the system occurs.
This keeps the system temperature constant at TH throughout the expansion. Therefore, this is a
reversible isothermal expansion.
State 2: Insulation
The system is no longer in contact with the heat source. The cylinder is perfectly insulated.
As the pressure slowly decreases, the fluid slowly expands and the temperature drops. This
State 3: Cold Reservoir
Before the next step, the insulation is removed and the cylinder is placed in contact with cold
reservoir. (TC = constant = T3)
Step 3-4: Isothermal Compression
The gas is slowly compressed and gets infinitesimally warmer. Reversible heat transfer out of the
system occurs. This keeps the system temperature constant at T 3 = TC. Therefore, this is a
reversible isothermal compression.

The system is no longer in contact with the heat sink. The cylinder is perfectly insulated. As the
pressure slowly increases, the fluid is slowly compressed and the temperature rises. This process

## a. The First Carnot Principle

The efficiency of a reversible cycle will always be greater than the efficiency of an irreversible
cycle operating between the same two thermal reservoirs.

## b. The Second Carnot Principle

All reversible power cycles operating between the same two thermal reservoirs have the same
efficiency.

Efficiency
The 2nd Carnot Principle combined with the Kelvin or Ideal Gas Scale led to:
Qc Tc
=
Qh Th

## Efficiency of a reversible Heat Engine (HE)s such as Carnot Cycle:

=1

Tc
Th

Rankine Cycle
The Rankine cycle is the fundamental operating cycle of all power plants where an operating
fluid s continuously evaporated and condensed. The Rankine cycle is a model that is used to
predict the performance of steam turbine systems. The Rankine cycle is an idealized
thermodynamic cycle of a heat engine that converts heat into mechanical work. The heat is
supplied externally to a closed loop, which usually uses water as the working fluid.

In a real power plant cycle, the compression by the pump and the expansion in the turbine are not
isentropic. In other words, these processes are nonreversible and entropy is increased during the
two processes. This somewhat increases the power required by the pump and decreases the
power generated by the turbine. The efficiency of the steam turbine will be limited by water
droplet formation. As the water condenses, water droplets hit the turbine blades at high speed
causing pitting and erosion, gradually decreasing the life of turbine blades and efficiency of the
turbine. The easiest way to overcome this problem is by superheating the steam.
By superheating the steam, the state 3 on this figure will move to the right of the diagram and it
will become drier steam after expansion.

The Rankine cycle consists of four step and is shown by the figure above:

1-2: The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure. As the fluid is a liquid at
this stage, the pump requires little input energy.
2-3: The high pressure liquid enters a boiler where it is heated at constant pressure by an
external heat source to become a dry saturated vapor.
3-4: The dry saturated vapor expands through a turbine, generating power. This decreases
the temperature and pressure of the vapor, and some condensation may occur.
4-1: The wet vapour then enters a condenser where it is condensed at a constant pressure
to become a saturated liquid.

## Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC)

The organic rankine cycle (ORC) is named for its use of an organic, high molecular mass fluid
with a liquid-vapor phase change, or boiling point occurring at lower temperature than the water
steam phase change. The fluid allows rankine cycle heat recovery from lower temperature such
as biomass combustion, industrial waste heat, geothermal heat, solar ponds etc. the low
temperature heat is converted into useful work that can itself be converted into electricity.
a. Working principle of ORC
The principle of ORC is same as rankine cycle. The working fluid is pumped to a
boiler where it is evaporated, passed through an expansion device, such as turbine,
and then through a condenser heat exchanger where it is finally re-condensed.

## b. Choice of working fluid

There are some optimal characteristics of working fluid used in ORC, they are:
Isentropic saturation vapor curve
Low freezing point, high stability temperature
High heat of vaporization and density
Low environmental impact
Safe to use (non-corrosive, non-flammable, non-toxic)
Examples of working fluids:
CFC
HCFCs
HFCs
HCs
PFCs
c. Applications of ORC
ORC is applied in these examples, such as:
Waste heat recovery
Biomass power plant
Geothermal plants
Solar thermal power
Rankine Efficiency

The Rankine Cycle is the practical vapor power cycle that is most similar to a Carnot Cycle.
The condenser effluent in a Rankine Cycle is a saturated liquid.
The boiler effluent in a Rankine Cycle is either saturated vapor or superheated vapor.

## 1. Boiler: Heat added at constant pressure

Assumptions: open system, steady state, reversible process. KE = PE = 0. No shaft work in
the boiler.

The boiler effluent can be superheated vapor in a Rankine Cycle. When stream 2 is superheated,
the quality of the turbine effluent increases and reduces the chances of damaging the turbine
rotor.

## 2. Condenser: Heat rejected at constant pressure

Assumptions: open system, steady state, reversible process. KE = PE = 0. No shaft work in
the condenser.

The quality of the turbine effluent must be high to avoid damaging the turbine rotor. The
condenser effluent, stream 4, is generally a saturated liquid, but it can also be slightly subcooled.

Turbine

A turbine is a machine that transforms rotational energy from a fluid that is picked up by a rotor
system into usable work or energy.
Vapor from the boiler at state 2, having an elevated temperature and pressure expands through
the turbine to produce work and then is discharged to the condenser at state 3 with relatively low
pressure, Neglecting heat transfer with the surrounding the mass and energy rate balances for a
control volume around the turbine reduce at steady state to give

W
=^
H 2 ^
H3

m
Turbine efficiency =

Pump
Pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases) by mechanical action.
Liquid that condensate leaving the condenser at state 4 is pumped from the condenser into the
higher pressure boiler. Taking a control volume around the pump and assuming no heat transfer
with the surroundings. Mass and energy rate balances :

W
^3
=^
H 4 H

m
Pump Efficiency =

EfficiencyandBackWorkRatio
Recallthattheperformanceofapowercycleismeasuredbyitsthermalefficiency, .Anotherwayto
describeperformanceisthebackworkratio(BWR),theratioofpumpworkrequiredandturbinework
generated:

Question 1
You are asked to learn the concept of the Rankine cycle as explained in a suitable
thermodynamics textbook, and then, to explain how an ORC works using the
following TS diagram

The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure. The high pressure liquid enters a
boiler where it is heated at constant pressure by an external heat source to become a dry
saturated vapor then the vapor is heated again until it become superheated steam. The
superheated vapor expands through a turbine, generating power. This decreases the
temperature and pressure of the steam, and some condensation may occur. The steam then
enters a condenser where it is condensed at a constant pressure to become a saturated
liquid.
Question 2

You need to download the following reference from the General Electric (GE) website:
ORegen: GE Waste Heat Recovery system to reduce CO emissions and increase plant
efficiency. BY ANDREA BURRATO / GLOBAL SERVICES, GE OIL & GAS. Based on the
information given:
a) Verify the 11,500 kW gross power and 9,800 kW net power claimed in the reference
b) List the reasons why cyclopentane is used as the working fluid.
c) In what situation and condition that an ORC is applicable? Give several example!

## Based on the information given (ORegen: GE waste heat recovery system to

reduce CO2 emissions and increase plant efficiency):
a. Verify the 11500 kW gross power and 9800 kW net power claimed in the
1
2
3
4

Stream
(pump)
(boiler)
(turbine)
(condenser)

Temperature (oC)
65
250
140
60

S (J/K)
-2.8
-1.4
-1.3
-2.8

Phase
Liquid
vapor
Vapor/liquid
liquid

## Assumptions for this problem:

1. Each component are assumed in a steady state
2. The process of the working fluid is reversible
3. Turbine and pump are operated in adiabatic
4. Both potential and kinetic energy are neglected
We use the equations below to solve this problem. Each component has their
own equation:

Pump:

=v (P 4P1 )
m

Heat exchanger:

Qin
=h1h2
m

Turbine:

Wt
=h 2h3
m

Condenser:

Qout
=h3h 4
m

Wpump=0

m=

W cycle
h2h 3

## h2 is determined by using steam table at T=250 oC (saturated), S2=1,4KJ/Kg

next, calculate h3 by using quality of water
S3=1,3KJ/Kg
T3=140oC

X 3=

S3 S F
S gS f

Thus h3=SF+X3hFg
From the preceding steps above, we can get the mass flowrate

Finally, we can calculate the 2 variables which are the net power (

## b. List the reasons why cyclopentane is used as the working fluid

High molecular weight, because it will reduce the size of the turbine
High critical pressure, because it allows greater expansion
Low boiling point. If ambient air is used as cooling medium, its boiling
temperature at approximately 1 bar should be higher than the ambient
temperature. At 1 bar, cyclopentane evaporates at about 50 oC
c. In what situation and condition that ORC is applicable? Give several
examples!
The ORC technologies can be applied in a situation, such as:

Every low grade heat source starting at 55oC, can technically be used
as an input heat source to an ORC.