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PART

Design of Foundations

and Earth-Retaining Structures

The final step in the design of a foundation is the structural analysis and design of its various parts.

Most modern substructures consist of reinforced-concrete

elements designed in accordance with the same fundamental

principles that apply to reinforced-concrete members in

general. Hence, in Part D it is presumed that the reader already possesses a thorough knowledge of statics, strength

of materials, and principles of reinforced-concrete design.

Only those aspects of design peculiar to foundation engineering will be discussed.

I n many instances, a t least preliminary structural designs of a foundation must be prepared to serve as a basis for

estimates of cost before the most suitable type of foundation can be selected. Therefore, the information in Part D

may often be required before all the steps outlined in Part C

can be carried out.

The designer is likely to have the impression that those

aspects of foundation engineering dealing with soils are

based on highly empirical procedures, whereas he may

regard the design of reinforced-concrete members as having

a more satisfactory theoretical basis. Yet, more mature

reflection on the origin of current procedures for analyzing

and designing concrete members leads to the conclusion that

modern design codes have comparatively little basis in

theory and have been derived to a considerable degree from

the results of tests in the laboratory and in the field. Without proper appreciation of this fact, the designer is likely

to lack a sense of proportion and to devote relatively too

little consideration to the characteristics of the soil deposits

at a site.

313

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Arthur N. Talbot (1857-1942)

Teacher and research worker associated for over 50 years with the

University of Illinois and influential in the formation and development

of its Engineering Experiment Station. Beginning in 1903 he directed

a comprehensive investigation of reinforced concrete in all its structural forms. His investigation of footings, from 1908 to 1912, furnished

the basis for procedures of design and represented the only extensive

experimental work on this subject prior to 1944. (Photo courtesy of

Mrs. Warren G. Goodell.)

PLATE23.

374

23

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CHAPTER

loaded footings is based on the assumption

that the soil pressure against the bottom of

the footing is uniformly distributed. There

is much indirect evidence that this is a satisfactory and generally conservative assumption, although there have been few if any

reliable field observations of the actual distribution of contact pressures.

The rules for design of footings, like those

for all types of concrete members, have a

primarily empirical basis. Current methods

originated with an extensive series of tests

made by A. N. Talbot and reported in 1913.

Many of Talbots findings are still reflected

in the present code of the American Concrete Institute. The principal changes since

1913 take account of the increased strength

of concrete and reinforcing steel. For example, comprehensive investigations of

footing behavior carried out by F. E.

Richart at the University of Illinois in 1944

demonstrated that the allowable bond

stress could be increased for reinforcing bars

with more effective types of deformations.

This determination and other observations

from the Richart tests led to several re,visions

in the ACI Building Code of 1951; major

revisions were also made in 1963 and 1971.

updating has been in effect.

Procedures for the analysis and design of

concrete and steel structures evolved during

the 1960s from those based on elastic behavior (working-stress method) to those based

on plastic behavior (strength method). I n

the working-stress method, the stresses are

computed for the loads that can reasonably

be expected to act on the structure, and

these stresses are compared with allowable

stresses determined by applying a factor of

safety to the ultimate strength. O n the

other hand, in strength design, the margin

of safety is introduced by multiplying the

loads by load factors, and the forces, moments, and shears induced in the members

by the factored loads are compared with

the ultimate strength of the members. The

ultimate strengths may additionally be

modified by capacity factors that depend on

various considerations, such as workmanship.

The selection of loads and factors of

safety applicable to foundations has been

discussed in Art. 17.3. Further references

to this subject occur in other chapters of

Part C. The foundation engineer must deal

with stress-strain characteristics and ultimate strengths of soil and rock irrespective

375

376

he may be concerned with safe pressures or

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specified by a building code; at other times,

or perhaps even on the same project, he

may need to determine factors of safety

against ultimate strengths for exceptional

overloads.

In most instances when strength procedures are used for the structural design of

footings and pile caps, it is necessary first

to proportion the foundation or to determine the number or arrangement of piles,

in accordance with procedures described in

Part C, for working loads without application of load factors. Thereafter, the load

factors must be applied and the soil pressures and pile reactions produced by the

factored loads must be calculated and used

for analysis.

Design plates throughout Part D illustrate basic principles of the structural design of certain types of foundations. The

strength method of design is used in most

of the illustrations.

If the primary failure of a square column

footing occurs as the result of shear, a section of concrete, flaring out downward

from the column, is punched from the rest

of the footing. Cracks form initially on the

under side of the footing while the stresses

in the steel are still low. As the shear increases, the cracks propagate upward toward the edges of the column, and the footing fails in diagonal tension before the

average stress in the tensile steel reaches the

yield point. If the shape of the footing is

rectangular, and the ratio of length to

width is large, the crack may extend across

the full width of the footing.

The preceding discussion of the modes of

failure of a footing indicates that the design

or stress analysis may appropriately be

based on the moment and shear at certain

critical sections where failure due to excessive strains in flexure or diagonal tension

may be initiated. The critical section for

shear is commonly located at a distance

d/2 from the face of the column, pedestal,

or wall, as shown in Fig. 23.1. Hence the

length of the section de is equal to the depth

of the footing plus the width of the column.

The total shear used in computing the unit

stress for a square footing is the sum of the

forces on area cdef in Fig. 23. la. If the footing is rectangular, the total shear on

cdefgh is used for critical section de (Fig.

2 3 . l b ) ; the shear stress on d'c' must also be

checked for the total shear on d'e'gh.

If the part of the structure resting on the

footing proper consists of reinforced concrete, the critical section for flexure and for

development length is ordinarily assumed

to extend across the footing at the face of the

column, pedestal, or wail, as shown by ab

and jk in Fig. 23.1. The stresses in the concrete and steel are computed from the forces

and moments acting on this section. For

footings under masonry walls, it is common

practice to investigate flexural stresses at a

section under the wall; usually the quarter

point is chosen. If the column load is transferred to the footing through a base plate, it

is reasonable, because of the flexibility of

that for other reinforced-concrete members,

is related to the manner in which the member may fail. Experiments have indicated

that several different types of structural behavior may be exhibited before the ultimate strength of a footing is reached. At

some strength less than the ultimate, the

deformations and cracks in the footing are

likely to be so great that the footing is no

longer useful. This is referred to as the stage

of primary failure. The nature of the primary failure is sometimes difficult to determine because of the interdependence of

various factors.

If inadequate tensile reinforcement has

been provided a t the bottom of the footing,

the primary failure is evidenced by excessive yielding of the bars. On the other hand,

if the development length of the reinforcement is inadequate, the primary failure may

take the form of slipping of the bars. In

both these instances, the ultimate failure is

Placing of Reinforcement

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377

FIGURE

23.1. Critical sections for shear, flexure, and development of reinforcement in ( a ) square and ( b ) rectangular footings.

the edge of the plate and the face of the

column.

The foregoing comments concerning

critical sections have made it apparent

that the stresses computed in an analysis of

a spread footing are only average values

found from total moments or shears acting

on sections many feet in extent. I t is impossible to predict, under field conditions, the

actual variation of these stresses along any

section of the footing. I t is fortunate, therefore, that footings, like other indeterminate

structures, have considerable ability to redistribute the moments and shears before

failure occurs at the sections that may be

overstressed.

23.3. Placing of Reinforcement

I n a wall footing the main reinforcement

is placed at right angles to the wall and

should be spaced uniformly. Furthermore,

some longitudinal reinforcement is desirable

to assist in bridging soft spots associated

with the almost certain variation in soil conditions along the length of the footing. A

steel percentage of 0.2 to 0.3 is adequate for

this purpose in all except unusual cases.

The reinforcement in square footings is

usually placed in directions parallel to the

edges. I n each direction the bars are com-

monly spaced uniformly. Likewise, the reinforcement in the long direction of rectangular footings is usually distributed uniformly across the full width. O n the other

hand, tests on rectangular footings have

demonstrated that the bars in the short

direction should be spaced more closely

near the center than at the outside. The

following equation is often used for determining the distribution of the steel:

nb

in which

nb

(

z)

s+

1

nt

23.1

short dimension of the footing

n f = total number of bars required by moment at the

critical section

S = ratio of long side to short

side of the footing

concrete at the bottom of footings, particularly if the bottom of the excavation is below

the water table. The excavation should be

dry when the concrete is placed. Moreover,

the reinforcement should be protected by

at least 3 in. of concrete.

378

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footings is largely a matter of trial. Revisions

may be necessary as the design progresses.

Usually the depth determined by shear is

adequate to satisfy the requirements of

flexure. If shear on the critical section de

(Fig. 23.1) is assumed to control the depth

of a square footing, the following equation

is useful in selecting the depth d :

soil pressure Q,, (lb/sq ft) and the shear stress

u c (lb/sq in.), for strength design, by the

expression C = q,, /576v,. In this expression

u, is adjusted by the appropriate capacity

factor. The net soil pressure q,,, effective in

producing shear and moment in the footing,

is the factored column load divided by the

footing area. The value of k is the ratio of

the least column or pedestal width a to the

footing width B ; thus k = a / B .

-B

Minimum-Depth Curves

The curves of Fig. 23.2 have been developed from eq. 23.2 to give the designer a

- --Ji

I I\

4

\

- - I-- d

444f T

8 1

desiqn (ib/ sq in.)

(lb/sq ft)

Rectunqu/ur footin92

Before entering curves,

+-.+

let B'rep/oce 6 in

o / B a n d d/Brotios

provided two-way behavior prevails.

reinforcement, and design procedure. Both

footings were proportioned in DP 18-1.

The computations in this design plate indicate that the previously assumed depths of

the footings were several inches too large.

However, any revisions of the depths in

DP 18-1 would not be justified in view of

the negligible effect of depth on the required areas.

The design computations and allowable

stresses used in these examples are for the

most part in agreement with the strength

methods recommended in the ACI Building

Code adopted in 1971. One deviation, however, is that the minimum reinforcement

for flexure has been set conservatively at 0.5

per cent even though the yield strength of

the steel is 60 kips/sq in.

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footing. If a depth equal to or greater than

that indicated by Fig. 23.2 is used, the

shear stress corresponding to the factored

column load will not exceed the ultimate

value. Although the curves have been constructed for square footings, they can be

utilized equally well for rectangular footings, as long as two-way behavior controls,

by using an adjusted value of B . The equation for making this adjustment is

379

B = B d 2 S

23.3

footing, which replaces B in both the a / B

and d / B ratios, and S is the ratio L I B .

The complete design procedure, exclusive

of the juncture of the column and footing,

can be summarized as follows:

1. Proportion the area of the footing in

accordance with the methods given in

Part C.

2 . Apply load factors to the column loads

and compute the necessary ratios for

entering Fig. 23.2.

3. Select the trial depth from Fig. 23.2,

and check the unit shear stress. For

rectangular footings, the unit shear

stress corresponding to one-way action

across the footing should be checked

also.

4. Select a trial moment arm for the tension-compression couple and calculate trial values of the total tensile force

T and the total compressive force c

due to moment.

5. Select the reinforcement based on the

above trial value of T.The amount

of reinforcement is often governed by

minimum values specified in codes for

flexure and for shrinkage stresses.

6 . Check the compressive stress block

and repeat steps 4 and 5 if greater accuracy is believed necessary.

7. Check the development length of the

reinforcement.

COLUMN AND WALL FOOTINGS

The two footings designed in DP 23-1

illustrate the application of previous dis-

Piles

Various types of piles were described in

Chap. 12. The selection of the proper type

of pile for given soil conditions was given

considerable attention in Parts B and C.

Reinforced-concrete footings are used

with all types of piles and serve as pile

caps as well as supports for the columns.

FIGURE

23.3. Concrete footing on piles, showing

critical section for design.

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380

the footing as shown in Fig. 23.3, and about

3 in. of concrete should separate the bottom

reinforcement and the tops of the piles.

In general, the procedure for designing

footings supported by piles closely parallels

that used for footings on soil. Any differences

are due to the concentrated reactions from

the piles instead of the relatively uniform

pressure from the soil. Although the locations of the piles in the field are likely to be

at least several inches from their theoretical

critical section for shear at the same location as for footings on soil. As shown in Fig.

23.3, a section de, located at a distance equal

to one half the depth of the footing from the

face of the column, is ordinarily used for

investigating diagonal tension. The critical

section ab for flexure and development

length may be assumed at the face of the

column as in the case of footings on soil.

If the center of a pile is one half-diameter

or more outside the critical section, the

381

DP 23 -/

Bui /ding

Focrtt'nqs

Sh Z o f t

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F i i i a 9 Desi9p. Strucfurq/

fnferior :Cont'd from Sh./

Piles

effective in producing moment or shear on

the section. The reaction from any pile

located one half-diameter or more inside

the section probably contributes very little

to the moment or shear; hence, it may be

considered as zero. For intermediate positions, a straight-line interpolation is commonly used to estimate the appropriate

portion of pile reaction for analysis and

design. By reference to Fig. 23.3, it becomes

apparent that the shear and moment on ab

whereas the shear on de will be one pile

reaction (two halves), provided the centers

of the piles are more than half the pile

diameter from the points d and e. For example, if the distance x is only one fourth

of the pile diameter, three fourths of a pile

reaction are assumed to contribute to the

shear on section de.

DL = 208 (L4)= 29i

L L = 290* ( L 7 ) =493=

784 = Pu

Base PL

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Wl4

c=7= 348

L 3 4 =/025Q.f".

A /02'=-

c 3.0"

PmNIConfroIg,

no revisions in Asore needed

Jd *38(0179/ =3OO"ak

< t 3:Z"

382

PILE-SUPPORTED COLUMN FOOTING

SUGGESTED READING

Principles of reinforced-concrete design,

not discussed in this chapter, are described

in standard texts on that subject. Among

these are

P. M. Ferguson (1973), Reinforced

Concrete Fundamentals. New York,

Wiley, 3rd ed., 750 pp.

G. Winter and A. H. Nilson (1973), Design of Concrete Structures. New York,

McGraw-Hill, 8th ed., 615 pp.

The Building Code of the American Concrete Institute is adopted by incorporation

into most building ordinances throughout

the United States and is kept current by

frequent revisions.

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of 30 tons, arbitrarily used in DP 23-2, was

discussed in Chap. 12 and Part C. A section halfway between the face of the steel

column and the edge of the base plate has

been selected as critical for tension and development of the reinforcement. The section

determined in this manner is approximately

10 in. from the center line of the column.

The critical section for shear is located a

distance from the center line of 10 in. plus

half the footing depth.

383

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