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WORKING DRAFT

AN ACADEMIC PLAN FOR THE SELF-STUDY OF


THE ROLE AND STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING OF
HIGHER EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Michael W. Massey
Institute of Higher Education
University of Georgia
Athens, Georgia, USA

A paper prepared for the Summer School 2004


Center for Higher Education Policy Studies, Universiteit Twente
Enschede, The Netherlands, July 5-9, 2004

June 11, 2004

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents

Introduction

Review of the Literatures

Literature One: International and Global Higher Education

Literature Two: Strategic Management and Planning

Literature Three: Democracy and Development

10

Methodology

10

Findings

11

Conclusions

12

Recommendations for Further Research

14

Appendices

16

1.

United Nations' Classification of Medium and Low Human


Development Countries

17

2.

Inventory of Course Titles Identified

19

3.

Inventory of Instructional Objectives Identified

21

Bibliographies

25

1.

International and Global Higher Education

26

2.

Strategic Management and Planning

39

3.

Higher Education, Democracy, and Development

80

AN ACADEMIC PLAN FOR THE SELF-STUDY OF


THE ROLE AND STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING OF
HIGHER EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Introduction
This paper is not a conventional academic paper. It is my academic plan for self-study of related
topics during the upcoming school year, the second year of my doctoral program. I am in the
early stages of my doctoral research, so this is a work-in-progress and, by definition, only
partially complete.
This paper began as a project for the course "Academic Plans in Higher Education" that I have
just completed at the Institute of Higher Education (IHE) at the University of Georgia (UGA).
That project built upon a bibliography of international and global higher education. Since then, I
have incorporated a bibliography of strategic management. I have also incorporated a
preliminary bibliograpy on higher education, democracy, and development.
Therefore, this document is a draft-in-progress that combines at least three literatures--those of
international/global higher education, strategic management/planning, and
democracy/development. My goal is to explore what I believe to be the accelerating global
interdependence among higher education, democratization, and economic and social change and
development. This paper forms the foundation for examing the pros and cons of various national
approaches to and solutions in the development of systems of postsecondary education, the
structural conditions and social changes necessary for building effective systems of
postsecondary education in developing countries, and the resulting structure of the global
marketplace for higher education services. (For the purposes of this paper, I use the terms higher,
postsecondary, and tertiary education synonymously.)
The specific purpose of this paper is to construct a foundation for the multidisciplinary study of
literatures related to the following research question:
What is the role of postsecondary education in the emerging democratization
of developing nations?
Despite the multiple literatures of inquiry required by this question, my Institute presently has
only one course in "comparative higher education." According to the Director of the Institute, it
is offered infrequently, and it is unclear when the course will next be offered. Thus, the IHE
offers little formal curricula upon which I may draw on topics that examine higher education
relative to others such as globalization, national development, social capital, social justice,
postcolonialism, human capital, and democracy, among possible others. However, I can explore
these topics on my own, with faculty guidance, and, therefore, I have constructed this plan.
Following Stark and Lattuca (1997), the intent of this paper is to develop a multidisciplinary
academic plan to review relevant literatures, learning objectives, and bibliographies upon which I
can conduct a self-study relevant to my research interests during the 2004-05 school year. Thus, I

wish to conduct and capture, through a descriptive study, a database of information that will
guide and inform my subsequent self-study to accomplish the following specific objectives:

To identify the top-ranked U.S.A. higher education programs;


To survey their international Web-based curricula;
To compile their learning objectives;
To compile a working bibliography of international and global higher education from the
top higher education programs;
To compile other related working bibliographies, as needed;
To acquire and apply the key theoretical dimensions of the major schools of thought
about development and the role of higher education in the development of nations; and,
To construct an academic plan as a continuing resource for my directed study under one
or more professors during the 2004-05 school year.

My basic assumption is that the top-ranked higher education programs are more likely than
others to contain formal curricular elements on international versus domestic issues--such as
globalization and development--and their interrelationships with higher education.
To accomplish this, I reviewed the 2004 U.S. News Best Graduate Schools Survey, identified the
top-ranked programs in higher education in the U. S. A., surveyed their websites for appropriate
curricula, analyzed those offerings, developed a database of relevant materials, and combined
them into an academic plan for self-study.
Review of the Literatures
At least three bodies of literature are identified and examined in this paper: (1) the literature of
international and global higher education; (2) the literature of strategic management and
planning; and, (3) the literature of higher education, democracy, and development. My primary
initial goal is to identify relevant literatures; therefore, the full review of these literatures is
preliminary and beyond the scope of this academic plan.
Literature One: International and Global Higher Education
That said, a number of definitions and conclusions can be highlighted from the literature
surveyed to-date.
Lesser- and medium-developed countries are defined by the United Nations (U. N.) as those
countries, which fall below certain levels on the "Human Development Index," as calculated and
published by the U. N. (United Nations Development Programme, 2002). See Appendix 1 for a
listing of both lesser- and medium-developed countries. The U. N.'s "Human Development
Index" is constructed from several indicators of societal and human development for the
purposes of cross-societal comparisons.
" 'Comparative education' and 'international education' are often confused. The former refers to a
field of study that applies historical, philosophical, and social science theories and methods to
international problems in education. Its equivalents in other fields of academic study are those

dedicated to the transsocietal study of other social institutions, such as comparative government,
comparative economics, and comparative religion. Comparative education is primarily an
academic and interdisciplinary pursuit." (Epstein, p. 918)
"International education . . . fosters an international orientation in knowledge and attitudes and,
among other initiatives, brings together students, teachers, and scholars from different nations to
learn about and from each other. International education also includes the analysis and
description of such activities.... However, there is some disagreement on the specific range of
activities encompassed by international education. Halls (1989) categorized it as a subfield of
comparative education, consisting of 'international pedagogy'. This would include such terms as
education for international understanding, internationalization of teaching norms, and the study
of international education institutions. Others characterize it as an applied field attached to
comparative education." (Epstein)
"Comparativists, as distinct from international educators, are primarily scholars interested in
explaining why educational systems and processes vary and how education relates to wider
social factors and forces. International education tends to focus more directly on descriptive
information about nations and societies and their education systems and structures. International
educators use findings derived from comparative education to understand better the educational
processes they examine, and thus to enhance their ability to make policy relating to programs
such as those associated with international exchange and understanding." (Epstein)
"Development is defined in terms of three dimensions: (a) economic, (b) social/cultural, (c)
political. . . . economic development means the increase in the efficiency of the production
system of a society. Social/cultural development includes changes in attitudes, values, and
behaviors. Finally, political development is understood to mean the equal distribution of power
and the absence of domination of any one group over another. Political development thus
includes political participation, access to political positions, and the development of national
integration, cohesion, and identity . . . . In this broader definition of development it is important
to emphasize first the distinction between formal, informal, and nonformal education. Each of
these is related differently to the process of development, and each type of education requires
different types of policies in terms of education and development goals and strategies. Second, it
is also important to distinguish between basic literacy, primary, secondary, and tertiary
education. The strength of the relationship between these different levels of education and the
development of a society requires specification. Finally, an enduring debate in formulating
education policies for development is whether academic or vocational education programs are
more appropriate for development strategies." (Fagerlind and Saha, 1994)
"Higher education is of paramount importance for economic and social development, yet it is in
crisis throughout the world." (World Bank, 19___) "In most developing countries, higher
education has experienced radical transformations since independence." (Salmi, 1991a) "In
many LDCs [lesser developed countries] today, the education sector is still characterized by
relatively low levels of enrollment. On the other hand, however, expansion in the public
provision of education is limited by constraints in the public budget." (Mingat, Tan, & Hoque,
1985). In addition, questions of quality remain despite many years of heavy investments.
(Verspoor and Leno, 1986) "...inappropriate labor market legislation and government behavior as

an employer may have contributed to problems of graduate unemployment, credentialism, and a


swollen bureaucracy in some countries." (Blomqvist and Jiminez, 1989) "Today, the problems
confronting developing countries' higher education systems include inefficiencies such as high
repetition and dropout rates; a growing gap between what is taught and what is being demanded
by the labor market; and the increasing need to provide education for diverse student group[s]."
(Regel, 1992) "University costs, and in particular benefits, [must be examined] in their broadest
sense to arrive at the true contribution of higher education to the standard of living of the present
and future generations." (Psacharopoulos, 1980)
The World Bank greatly increased its involvement in science and technology during the 1980s.
(World Bank, 1992). "It emphasizes the importance of research training, both for the efficient
adaptation and use of modern technology and for proper environmental management."
(Thulstrup, 1992) "...in countries where a foreign language has been adopted for all science
instructions, poor foreign language proficiency is an important cause of high wastage and
repetition rates and low achievement in scientific and technological courses." (Eisemon, 1992)
"Over the past three decades, developed countries have experimented with different ways of
using scientific research and technological development to promote economic growth. One
means is through establishing industry-university research collaborations.... At present, there is
no consensus regarding which mechanisms are effective and under what circumstances." (Parker,
1992)
"There are four main directions for reform in developing countries: ...encouraging more kinds of
public and private institutions, providing incentives for public institutions to diversify sources of
funding, redefining the role of government, and introducing policies that emphasize quality and
equity." (World Bank, 19___) "...public subsidies should be targeted toward disciplines that have
high social returns." (Blomqvist and Jiminez, 1989) "...each country needs to design a higher
education reform strategy consonant with its specific economic and social circumstances. This
requires a long-term vision defining the mission of higher education and its various
components.... Financial measures appear most successful when integrated into system-wide
institutional diversification strategies whereby countries accommodate the growing social
demand through low-cost alternatives (short cycle programs, open university) while
strengthening prestige institutions for graduate studies and advanced research." (Salmi, 1991b)
"Attention is drawn to the need for effective policy structure to manage higher education, to link
costs of reforms to benefits such as increased opportunity, and to take account of the institutional
constraints to change as well as to carefully articulate educational reforms with other public
policies that influence the performance of higher education systems." (Eisemon and HolmNielsen, 1995). "The major change is the emergence of a distributed knowledge production
system. ... The challenge is how to get knowledge that may have been produced anywhere in the
world to the place where it can be brought to bear effectively in a particular problem-solving
context. This requires the creation of a cadre of knowledge workers - people who are experts at
configuring knowledge to a wide range of applications. Universities of the 21st century will have
to develop many more and different kinds of links with surrounding society." (Gibbons, 1998)
"The decade of the 90 ' s has seen a remarkably consistent worldwide reform agenda for the
finance and management of universities and other institutions of higher education. What is
remarkable about the consistency is that there are very similar patterns in countries with
dissimilar political-economic systems and higher educational traditions, and at extremely

dissimilar stages of industrial and technological development." (Johnstone, Arora, & Experton,
1998).
Future research needs to focus less on areas that have been frequently examined--such as
financing and educational technologies--and more on complex socioeconomic issues that have
received little attention to-date--e.g., "...those that reflect new pressures on the system.
Expansion, differentiation, and the knowledge revolution,...the governance of higher education,
the need to consider higher education as a system, and the public interest in higher education."
(The Task Force on Higher Education and Society, 2000) In addition, gender is a serious and
contentious issue due to many socioeconomic factors. "...the most essential factor for successful
intervention seems to be a strong demand for educated women in the labor market combined
with a high private demand for higher education by women (and their parents)....High secondary
enrollment rates, heavy private demand for women ' s education, and the availability of student
places do not necessarily guarantee an increase in women ' s participation in higher education unless the programs are dovetailed to meet the specific demands of the labor market." (Dundar
and Haworth, 1993)
Literature Two: Strategic Management and Planning
For centuries, the study of strategy was synonymous with the study of war--due not to a perfect
one-to-one correspondence, but, rather, due to their common foundations in human conflict,
competition, and the quest for survival.
The tenets of the strategy of war have been described for over 2,500 years by Asian warlords
(e.g., Sun Tzu, _____), medieval samurai (e.g., Miyamoto Musashi, _____), and many later
militarists (e.g., von Clausewitz, _____). Such works have continued to the present. Books on
business strategy still use military metaphors, such as "leading your company to victory" (Cohen,
2004) and "Business as War" (Allard, 2004) while Sun Tzu's and Mushashi's books have been
promoted for years as the discerning M.B.A.s guides to strategy.
With the emergence of evolutionary theory in the mid-nineteenth century and the establishment
of anthropology, sociology, political science, and psychology as independent scholarly
disciplines in the mid-to-late nineteenth century, the investigation of competition and conflict
took a more humanistic turn and focused on interpersonal, cultural, and political conflicts.
Simultaneously, the strategy of war continued to develop with technological innovation and the
recurrence of major conflicts.
The combination of these elements set the stage for the development of a new discipline of
business, corporate, and organizational strategy.1 There are many definitions of corporate
strategy. Simply and informally, corporate strategy is what management does--the organized
allocation of resources to achieve organizational goals. A more comprehensive definition is:
Corporate strategy is the way a company creates value through the configuration and
coordination of its multimarket activities.2 (Corporate strategy differs from business strategy in
that the latter is the overall plan for a diversified company while the former is the plan for an
1
2

The remainder of this Introduction draws heavily on Chapter 1 and Appendix A in Collis & Montgomery, 1997.
Ibid., p. 5.

individual business unit. In academe, the corporation is the college or university, and the
business unit is the college, school, or department.) The critical focus of corporate strategy is on
the relationship between the whole and the parts of the firm.3
Collis and Montgomery continue: [D]espite the radical shifts of the 1980s and 1990s, corporate
leadership still often does not provide the kind of strategic direction that welds a company
together or creates substantial value over the long run [emphasis added]. The same appears
true of leaders in higher education and their highly fragmented organizations of complex scope
(and, sometimes, scale). In fact, the authors ask, Do universities need corporate strategies?
Their answer is, At their core, questions such as these are ones of corporate strategy.4
The authors outline a six-element framework that produce corporate advantage that, in turn,
creates economic (and other) value. Those elements are: vision/goals/objectives; resources;
businesses; structure; systems; and, processes.5 The primary purpose of this second literature
review is to identify and examine the major frameworks and models of strategic management
and planning for subsequent analysis of how they can be used to plan and implement effective
systems of higher education in developing countries. I am exploring strategic management as an
analytical lens with which I am already familiar, given my M. B. A. and teaching in M. B. A.
programs.
Arguably, the earliest notable work to focus on business strategy was Peter Drucker's The
Concept of the Corporation (Drucker, 19___). First published in _____, Drucker's book-long
treatise examined the highs and lows of the evolution of strategy and operations of the American
corporation, General Motors, from the early to mid-twentieth century during which it attained
dominance in its industry. No one before Drucker had ever taken such a close and thorough look
at the complexities of a single business organization, and the book remains a classic in the
literature.
Drucker was followed in the 1960s and 1970s by a body of work by Igor Ansoff and, then, by
Andrews, Christensen, Bower, and others of the Business Policy Group of Harvard Business
School. Harvards innovation, among others, was to raise the discussion of corporate strategy
from the individual business functions (finance, marketing, production, control, etc.) to a view of
the firm as a whole to be optimized. Andrews et al identified corporate strategy as defining the
businesses in which a company will compete, preferably in a way that focuses resources to
convert distinctive competence into competitive advantage [emphasis added]. . . . [B]ecause the
approach was conceptual rather than analytical [however], it could not address the underlying
economics of corporate advantage, and what specifically made the whole more than the sum of
the parts.6
A specialist management consultancy, the Boston Consulting Group, invented the growth/share
matrix as a primary analytical tool for resource allocation decisionmaking in diversified
companies. The two dimensions of the matrix were industry growth rate, which attempted to
3

Ibid., p. 6.
Ibid., p. 6.
5
Ibid., p. 7.
6
Ibid., p. 15.
4

capture the potential cash usage of a business, and relative market share, which was a surrogate
for overall competitive strength and hence the cash generation potential of a business.7 The
BCG Matrix is well known for its star, cash cow, dog, and question mark metaphors. The
resulting 2x2 matrix was further developed by General Electric in its 3x3 market attractiveness
matrix for portfolio management.
In the 1970s and 1980s, the competitve environment of American business changed dramatically,
and a number of consulting firms helped develop new approaches to value-based management
i.e., how can the firm maximize its value for its shareholders? This involved the careful
measurement of the cash flow consequences of any strategic or operating decision.8 The global
consultancy, McKinsey & Company, led in the development of value-based management, as
well as its 7-S Framework. Those seven elements are: shared values (central); structure;
strategy; systems; style; staff; and skills.
In 1985, Michael Porters seminal Competitive Strategies appeared with his five forces model of
competition. Those are: rivalry among existing firms; threat of new entrants; threat of substitute
products; bargaining power of suppliers; and, bargaining power of buyers Porter importantly
provided a classification of generic business unit strategies based on the ways in which value is
created: fundamentally, by cost leadership, differentiation, or quick response strategies. He also
developed the analytical tool of the value chain by which nine elements are analyzed for their
contributions to the creation of value. They are: firm infrastructure; human resources
management; technology development; procurement; inbound logistics; operations; outbound
logistics; marketing and sales; and service. This work later resulted in Porters four generic
corporate strategies: porfolio management (a la BCG), restructuring, transferring skills (among
business units), and sharing activities (also among business units). These corporate strategies lie
on a continuum of headquarters involvement from low to high, respectively.
During this decade, a number of contributors also challenged the mostly prevailing view that
hierarchies were the most appropriate governance structure.9
In 1990, academicians, Prahalad and Hamel, introduced the enormously influential notion of
core competence . . . a capability or skill that provided the thread running through a firms
businesses, weaving them together into a coherent whole. The idea that a core competence
uniquely defined a firm and was the source of value creation was intuitively appealing. Managers
in multibusiness firms began to conceive of their firms as portfolios of competencies . . . .
However, the initial discussion left out much of the detail regarding how to develop a corporate
strategy based on core competence.10
With Porters and Prahalads and Hamels developments, advances in corporate strategy had
shifted away from the consulting firms and back to academe, where it remains. Next came the
resource-based view of corporate strategy, or strategy that is founded on the strategic investment

Ibid., p. 17.
Ibid., p. 20.
9
Ibid., p. 2.
10
Ibid., p. 22.
8

in the resources of the firm--e.g., human resources, manufacturing experience, supply chain
design and management, and knowledge management.
While it is difficult to concisely characterize strategy in the first decade of the 21st Century,
there is an increasing focus on global strategy and the execution or implementation of strategy.
This last focus is non-trivial, for there are both intended and unintended consequences of strategy
execution, so corporations are seeking new ways to maximze the former and minimize the latter.
Literature Three: Democracy and Development
This section is under development.
Methodology
Literature reviews were conducted--and are still in progress for--international and global higher
education, strategic management and planning, and democracy and development, as described in
the previous section.
In addition, a convenience sample of the top 15 programs of higher education, as ranked in the
2004 U. S. News Best Graduate Schools Survey, was identified. Fifteen were selected, as the
Institute of Higher Education at the University of Georgia is ranked 18th this year. The websites
of those 15 programs were then identified and searched via a set of relevant keywords to capture
syllabi in the broad intersection of higher education, democracy, development, and globalization.
An analysis of the resulting database of materials led to the compilation of an inventory of
learning objectives along with a substantial working bibliography to be used to guide and inform
my subsequent self-study of the following research question. The programs surveyed, and their
rankings are shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Top 15 Higher Education Programs, U.S.A.
Rankin
Higher Education Program
g
1
University of Michigan
2
University of California - Los Angeles
3
Penn State University - University Park
4
Michigan State University
5
University of Southern California
6
Stanford University
7
Indiana University - Bloomington
8
Harvard University
9
Columbia University - Teachers College
10
University of Maryland - College Park
11
The Ohio State University
11
Vanderbilt University
13
University of Texas - Austin
13
University of Wisconsin - Madison
15
University of Arizona
10

In a some instances, I broadened my program sample outside of higher education where the types
of syllabi that I sought were contained within other program areas, such as policy or
administration. Since generalizability is not an issue with this project, this decision did not
adversely bias the achievement of my objectives.
The websites of these top programs were next searched for the following keywords among their
online syllabi: higher education, democracy, development, international, comparative,
global/globalization, nation-building, social justice, social capital, and human capital, and results
were captured from these searches. In some cases, other related course titles were captured, too.
Umbrella self-study courses--such as Directed Study, Dissertation Research, Independent Study,
Individual Study, Research Topics, Special Topics, etc.--were excluded from the results, except
in the case of one specific course at Indiana. In addition, no attempt was made to include general
educational foundations courses, such as Anthropology of Education.
Findings
The proposed search of relevant, multidisciplinary literatures was initiated and is continuing. The
current progress of these literature searches are shown in Bibliographies 1-3 at the end of this
paper.
The best results for identifying courses in international and global higher education were
obtained from the six universities highlighted in Table 2 below. Results are said to be "best"
where the higher education programs possessed a Web-based presence (all of the programs did)
and for which there were online course syllabi (six of the 15 programs). Other programs often
had relevant courses, without publication of syllabi, so they could not be analyzed under this
methodology--e.g., Teachers College (Columbia) with 15 courses. Thus, 40% of the top 15
programs had significant online publications of relevant higher education and international
course offerings. Only two of them had online syllabi for courses on higher education and
democracy.
See Appendix 2 for an alphabetical listing of the 72 courses identified. Course syllabi
encompassed terms such as: comparative, international, policy, development, economic, nationbuilding, world change, educational change, societal change, educational systems, politics,
international cooperation, social capital, democracy, social justice, marginalized settings, global
peace, alternative development, indigenous learning, political economy, developing societies,
gender, cross-national, and planning. Syllabi were also found that focused on geographic-specific
places, such as Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Europe.
From Table 3 below, four of the programs, or 26.7%, presented no courses relevant to this study,
but 73.3% of the top 15 higher education programs did, and a total of 72 relevant courses were
identified. Of the programs that presented relevant courses, 30.6% had relevant courses but
showed no online syllabi or course descriptions, while 34.7% had online course descriptions
only, and 34.7% had both online syllabi and course descriptions. Thus, slightly more than two-

11

thirds had a significant online presence for generally describing higher education, international,
and development curricula.
Table 2: Best Results, Top 15 Higher Education Programs, U.S.A.
Ranking
Higher Education Program
1
University of Michigan
2
University of California - Los Angeles
3
Penn State University - University Park
4
Michigan State University
5
University of Southern California
6
Stanford University
7
Indiana University - Bloomington
8
Harvard University
9
Columbia University - Teachers College
10
University of Maryland - College Park
11
The Ohio State University
11
Vanderbilt University
13
University of Texas - Austin
13
University of Wisconsin - Madison
15
University of Arizona
In Table 4 below, only one of the top 15 programs--Harvard--presented instructional objectives
for all of its programs. Two programs--Maryland and Wisconsin--presented a mix of syllabi with
and without instructional objectives. In contrast, twelve programs (80.0%) included no
instructional objectives in their syllabi that are posted online. The syllabi appear complete in
every other respect, so I suspect that this is not just an online editing decision and that
instructional objectives simply were not included. A total of 38 instructional objectives were
identified from the remaining three programs--Harvard, Maryland, and Wisconsin--for an
average of 0.528 objectives per course syllabi presented online. This is an interesting finding.
An inventory of all instructional objectives from the course syllabi discovered is contained in
Appendix 3.
Conclusions
While some higher education programs present no or little online presence, there is a strong
showing for at least a minimal international and development curriculum among the top 15
higher education programs in the U.S.A. although three of the top 15 programs showed only one
or two relevant courses and four offered none. However, 46.7% of the programs had minimal
curricular offerings, while 53.3% had three-to-ten course offerings each, providing minimally
sized versus substantially sized curricular presences in about half the programs each.
The primary purpose of this study was to develop a sound foundation for further self-study, and
this goal was realized beyond my expectations. The data that I discovered are rich.

12

Table 3: Findings, Online Syllabi and Course Descriptions, Top 15 Higher Education Programs,
U.S.A.
Rankin
Higher
Relevant
Course
Syllabi and No Relevant
g
Education
Courses
Descriptions
Course
Courses
Program
Mentioned,
Only Shown Descriptions
Found
but Neither
Online
Shown
Syllabi nor
Online
Course
Descriptions
Shown
Online
1
Michigan
2 courses
2
5 courses
2 courses
UCLA
3
Penn State
10 courses
4
Michigan State
X
5
USC
X
6
9 courses
Stanford
7
3 courses
1 course
Indiana
8
7 courses
Harvard
9
Columbia
15 courses
10
8 courses
Maryland
11
Ohio State
X
11
Vanderbilt
2 courses
13
Texas
1 course
13
7 courses
Wisconsin
15
Arizona
X
Totals
22 courses
25 courses
25 courses
N/A
%-to-Totals
30.6%
34.7%
34.7%
N/A
The top 15-ranked programs in higher education in the U.S.A. were identified and their websites
searched for online syllabi containing selected keywords. Other relevant syllabi were captured as
they were discovered during the keyword-searches. Seventy-two courses were discovered, as
were 38 instructional objectives relevant to my self-study. In addition, a voluminous working
bibliography was captured. It is partially attached to the end of this paper; however, 60+ pages of
additional sources remain to be typed into the bibliography.
Although beyond the scope of this project, it should be noted that some websites of the top 15
higher education programs are substantially more user-friendly and helpful than others.
Approximately, one-third of the courses discovered presented neither course descriptions nor
syllabi. I believe that these programs--including four of the top five and five of the top ten--risk
becoming less competitive, in the absence of other factors. Approximately one-third of the
programs presented course descriptions, allowing a fuller analysis of their programs by online
visitors. And a final one-third went so far as to present their syllabi (and, in the case of Stanford,
dissertation titles, dissertation titles-in-progress, and bibliographies by content area prepared with
the assistance of the editors of Comparative Education Review). The online presences of the
13

latter programs are certainly the most helpful to visitors and scholars, and I expect that the online
publication of these materials will help make their programs more competitive in the future,
especially if they maintain technological leadership. The extent to which the presentation of full
syllabi is limited or enhanced by faculty-university labor agreements regarding intellectual
property is also beyond the scope of this study.
Table 4: Findings, Instructional Objectives, Top 15 Higher Education Programs, U.S.A.
Rankin Higher
Instructional No
g
Education
Objectives
Instructional
Program
Contained in Objectives
Online
Contained in
Syllabi
Online
Syllabi
1
Michigan
X
2
X
UCLA
3
Penn State
X
4
Michigan State
X
5
USC
X
6
X
Stanford
7
X
Indiana
8
X
Harvard
9
Columbia
X
10
X
X
Maryland
11
Ohio State
X
11
Vanderbilt
X
13
Texas
X
13
X
X
Wisconsin
15
Arizona
X
Totals
3
14
(NOTE: Totals add to more than 15 due to multiple counts.)
Recommendations for Further Research
The recommendations for further research are personal ones, as the purpose of this study was to
develop an academic plan for subsequent self-study.
The next steps for me are to, first, add 60 remaining pages of my literature searches and, as
necessary, update the bibliographies further.
In addition, there are a number of identified courses whose syllabi I was unable to capture;
therefore, I will contact the appropriate professors and request, as professional courtesy, copies
of their syllabi. I have already obtained one from Stanford.
This Summer, I will write a paper for EDHI 8000, The History of Higher Education in America,
on the history of the World Bank in the tertiary education of developing countries. My inventory
of instructional objectives and working bibliography will contribute substantially to this effort.
14

Finally, I will conduct my self-study, as outlined in this paper, beginning in the Summer of 2004
and continuing throughout the 2004-05 school year.

15

APPENDICES
1.

UNITED NATIONS' CLASSIFICATION OF MEDIUM AND LOW HUMAN


DEVELOPMENT COUNTRIES

2.

INVENTORY OF COURSE TITLES IDENTIFIED

3.

INVENTORY OF INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES IDENTIFIED

16

APPENDIX 1
UNITED NATIONS' CLASSIFICATION
OF
MEDIUM AND LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT COUNTRIES
The United Nations classifies medium-human development countries as those with a Human
Development Index of 0.500 < HDI < 0.799. (UNDP, 2002) They are as follows:
Albania

Egypt

Algeria
Armenia

El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea

Azerbaijan
Belarus
Belize
Bolivia
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Cambodia
Cameroon
Cape Verde
China

Fiji
Gabon
Georgia
Ghana
Grenada
Guatemala
Guyana
Honduras
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Republic
of
Jamaica
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kyrgyzstan
Lebanon
Lesotho

Columbia
Comoros
Congo
Cuba
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador

Libyan Arab
Jamahiriya
Macedonia, TFYR
Malaysia
Maldives
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova, Republic of
Mongolia
Morocco
Myanmar
Namibia
Nicaragua
Oman
Panama

Saint Vincent and the


Grenadines
Samoa (Western)
Sao Top and
Principe
Saudi Arabia
Solomon Islands
South Africa
Sri Lanka
Suriname
Swaziland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Thailand
Tunisia
Turkey

Papua New Guinea


Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Romania
Russian Federation
Saint Lucia

Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Vanuatu
Venezuela
Viet Nam
Zimbabwe

(Total: 84 countries or areas)

17

APPENDIX 1 (CONTINUED)
The United Nations classifies low-human development countries as those with a Human
Development Index of HDI < 0.500. (UNDP, 2002) They are as follows:
Angola
Bangladesh
Benin
Bhutan
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Central African Republic
Chad
Congo, Democratic Republic
of
Cote d'Ivoire
Djibouti
Eritrea

Ethiopia
Gambia
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti
Lao People's Democratic
Republic
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali

Niger
Nigeria
Pakistan
Rwanda
Senegal
Sierra Leone

Mauritania
Mozambique
Nepal

Uganda
Yemen
Zambia

(Total: 36 countries or areas)

18

Sudan
Tanzania, U. Republic of
Togo

APPENDIX 2
INVENTORY OF COURSE TITLES IDENTIFIED11
Courses

University

African Education: Past, Present, and Future


Alternative Education, Alternative Development
Colloquium on Comparative and International Education
Colloquium on International Education and the United Nations
Comparative and International Adult Education
Comparative and International Education
Comparative and International Education
Comparative Education
Comparative Education
Comparative Education
Comparative Education I
Comparative Education II
Comparative Higher Education
Comparative Higher Education
Comparative Issues in International Higher Education Policy Reform
Cultural Approaches to Technological Innovation and Learning
Culture and Education in a Global Context
Cultures of Teaching and Learning in Japan
Doctoral Seminar in International and Transcultural Studies
Education and Change in Societies
Education and Demographic Change in the United States and Abroad
Education and Economic Development
Education and Economic Development
Education and National Development
Education and Strategic Planning
Education and the Development of Nations
Education and the Status of Women
Education for Global Peace
Education for National Development: Theory for Informed Action
Education in Developing Societies
Education in the New Europe
Education Policy Analysis and Research Utilization in Comparative
Perspective
Education Policy and Planning: International Perspectives
Educational Mobility in Comparative Perspective
Educational Planning in International Educational Development:
Ethnicity, Gender, Human Rights
Educational Policy Studies in Comparative Perspective
Ethnicity, National Identity, Education
Fundamental Concepts in Peace Education

Wisconsin
Maryland
Penn State
Columbia
Penn State
Michigan
Columbia
Columbia
Maryland
Wisconsin
Indiana
Indiana
Penn State
Texas
Vanderbilt
Stanford
Maryland
Maryland
Columbia
Indiana
Penn State
Stanford
Vanderbilt
UCLA
Columbia
Columbia
Stanford
Maryland
Harvard
Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Harvard

11

No relevant courses were found for Arizona, Michigan State, and USC.

19

Harvard
Penn State
Columbia
UCLA
Penn State
Columbia

Gender Issues in International Educational Policy


Human and Social Dimensions of Peace
Implementing Educational Change for Social Justice in Marginalized
Settings
Independent Study in History, Philosophy, and Comparative Education
Indigenous Learning for Global Action
International Efforts in Education
Introduction to Comparative Education
Introduction to Distance Education
Introduction to International Comparative Education
Introduction to Social Science and Comparative Education
Issues and Institutions in International Educational Development
Issues and Institutions in International Educational Development
Issues and Trends in Literacy Education
Native Americans in the 21st Century: Nation-Building I
Native Americans in the 21st Century: Nation-Building II
Perspectives in African Education
Political Economy of Education in a Global Context
Politics of International Cooperation in Education
Postcolonial Studies of Education
Preparation of Instructional Materials for Developing Countries
Proseminar in Comparative and International Education
Qualitative Research and Evaluation in International Education
Second Year Research Workshop in International Comparative Education
Seminar: African Education
Seminar: Asian Education
Seminar: Educational Planning and Curriculum Change in Developing
Countries
Seminar in Cross-National Studies in Educational Problems
Social Capital, Schools, and Democracy
Strategic Planning and Organizational Change in International and
National Educational Settings
Topics in Comparative and International Education
United Nations as Peace Developer, The
Workshop: Comparative Studies of Educational Systems
World, Societal, and Educational Change
World, Societal, and Educational Change: Comparative Perspectives
(Total: 72)

12

Included due to the legal sovereignty of Native American tribes in the U.S.A.

20

Wisconsin
Columbia
Harvard
Indiana
Maryland
UCLA
UCLA
Penn State
Stanford
UCLA
Columbia
Maryland
Penn State
Harvard12
Harvard2
Penn State
Maryland
Stanford
Columbia
Columbia
Penn State
Columbia
Stanford
UCLA
UCLA
Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Harvard
Columbia
Michigan
Columbia
Stanford
Stanford
Stanford

APPENDIX 3
INVENTORY OF INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES IDENTIFIED
Objective

Program

A focus on cultures of teaching and learning in Japan will enable


participants to acquire four important resources . . . . 1)
intellectual, cultural, experiential, pedagogically useful, contentdriven studies of Japanese educational forms as they reveal
important features of Japanese culture and society.

Maryland

A focus on cultures of teaching and learning in Japan will enable


participants to acquire four important resources . . . . 2)
opportunities to critique, develop, and evaluate instructional
materials.

Maryland

A focus on cultures of teaching and learning in Japan will enable


participants to acquire four important resources . . . . 3) access
to networks of culturally and educationally knowledgeable
colleagues in the United States and Japan, including their
Japanese partners via teleconference and E-mail exchanges.

Maryland

A focus on cultures of teaching and learning in Japan will enable


participants to acquire four important resources . . . . 4)
opportunities to reflect on the preparation of high-quality
instructional materials, professional presentations, modes of
teaching and the identification of community resources related
to Japan.

Maryland

The central focus of this course . . . is to . . . debate and analyze: How do Maryland
communities negotiate and connect various knowledge systems in
order to address local/global concerns?
The central focus of this course . . . is to . . . debate and analyze: How to
integrate and internalize local knowledge orientation within
academic institutions?

Maryland

The central focus of this course . . . is to . . . debate and analyze: What


can global community and academic institutions learn from
indigenous knowledge innovations?

Maryland

The course will develop an understanding of the process of policy


Harvard
formation, and of methodologies to assess education needs and to
formulate policy priorities.
The course will develop the ability among course participants to draw

21

Harvard

policy implications from rigorous educational research on schooleffectiveness and school-improvement.


The course will develop the ability to apply alternative conceptual
frameworks to understand the implementation of real cases of
educational reform.

Harvard

The course will develop the ability to write a research paper discussing
the implementation of an education policy to contribute to the
literature in this field.

Harvard

The course will familiarize course participants with contemporary


education issues in developing countries and policy alternatives
to improve education in these settings.

Harvard

The course will familiarize course participants with the literature on the
implementation of educational change, with particular emphasis
on educational innovation and reform in developing countries.

Harvard

The course will familiarize course participants with the methodologies


Harvard
of sector assessment and logical frameworks, and with alternative
models to conceptualize the relationship between research and
policy.
The course will familiarize participants with the theoretical and
disciplinary underpinnings of implementation research.

Harvard

To assist the students in acquiring the keys to the major schools of


thought about development and the role of education in national
development.

Harvard

To assist the students in becoming familiar with the issues surrounding


educational participation, equity, and the definition of quality.

Harvard

To assist the students in developing an understanding of how theoretical


perspectives on development influence the setting of education
goals and policies, by governments, international organizations
and local organizations.

Harvard

To be able to discuss and critique some of the prevailing assumptions


about education and development.

Maryland

To convey an appreciation for the variability of political, cultural and


economic issues surrounding the study of gender, education and
international policy.

Wisconsin

22

To develop a more thorough understanding of the economic, social, and


political dimensions of educational development within and
across national boundaries.

Maryland

To foster a greater awareness of the roles and responsibilities of


international, national, and local actors and institutions in
educational planning and practice.

Maryland

To gain a basic understanding of the status and role of Native nations.

Harvard

To help develop a critical understanding of: . . . the explicit and implicit


assumptions [about political economy of education in a global
context].

Maryland

To help develop a critical understanding of: the implications for


educational policy and practice [about political economy of
education in a global context].

Maryland

To help develop a critical understanding of: the major theoretical


frameworks [about political economy of education in a global
context].

Maryland

To help develop a critical understanding of: the research methods and


empirical findings that support these frameworks [about political
economy of education in a global context].

Maryland

To help students develop a language for challenging and refining some of Wisconsin
the prevailing assumptions in international policy about gender
and education.
To identify and compare the assumptions, beliefs, and limitations of
different educational policy and planning approaches.

Maryland

To improve critical thinking and writing skills.

Maryland

To identify and develop strategies for addressing the challenges of self- Harvard
determination in Indian Country (and other developing societies).
To provide students with the background necessary to understand
current debates about gender in international educational policy.

Wisconsin

To understand concepts and processes such as political sovereignty


social self-sufficiency, cultural self-determination, economic
development, land and resource protection, civil rights, health
and social welfare as they relate to Native nations.

Harvard

23

Upon completion of the course, students should be able to analyze


community participation models for their strengths and
weaknesses and propose changes to support a more complex
understanding of the context.

Harvard

Upon completion of the course, students should be able to chart the


evolution of education planning and policy making processes
in developing countries.

Harvard

Upon completion of the course, students should be able to consider


Harvard
the impact that globalization and changing relevance of the nationstate on educational planning and policy making in the future.
Upon completion of the course, students should be able to identify and
compare the assumptions, benefits and limitations of major
education planning and policy formation approaches.

Harvard

Upon completion of the course, students should be able to understand


Harvard
the tensions between political, pedagogical and economic criteria
in education policy and planning and to recognize them in a
variety of contexts.
(Total: 38)

24

BIBLIOGRAPHIES
1.

INTERNATIONAL AND GLOBAL HIGHER EDUCATION

2.

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING

3.

HIGHER EDUCATION, DEMOCRACY, AND DEVELOPMENT

25

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