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DELMAR PUBLISHERS, MOUNTAINVI EW AVENUE, ALBANY, NEW YORK

12205

ELECTRO

MECHANISMS

AUTOMATIC
CONTROLS

ACTUATOR

POINT

ROY

D.

BYRD

DELMAR PUBLISHERS, MOUNTAIN VIEW AVENUE, ALBANY, NEW YORK

12205

DELMAR PUBLISHERS
Division of Litton Education Publishing, Inc.

Copyright

1972

By Technical Education Research Centers,

Copyright
all

will

is

claimed until April

portions of this

be

in

Inc.

1977. Thereafter

1,

work covered by

this copyright

the public domain.

All rights reserved.

No

the copyright hereon

part of this

work covered by

may be reproduced

any form or by any means

or used in

graphic, electronic, or

mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping,


or information storage and retrieval systems

without

written permission of Technical Education Research


Centers.

Library of Congress Catalog Card

Number:

70-170796

PRINTED

IN

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Published simultaneously

Delmar Publishers,

in

Canada by

a division of

Van Nostrand Reinhold,


The project presented
formed pursuant to
Education,
Welfare.

Ltd.

or reported herein

a grant

was

per-

from the U.S. Office of

Department of Health, Education, and

The opinions expressed

herein, however,

do

not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the


U.S. Office of Education, and

no

official

endorsement

by the U.S. Office of Education should be

inferred.

Foreword

The marriage of
technical personnel

with combination

electronics

many

optical
skills

must

New

today's industries.

in

Increasingly, technicians

kinds

in industrial

be competent also

is

one of

who want

The most

pations.

for

occupations have emerged

who work

many

with systems and

This need for combination

in electronics.

who

is

preparing for a career

technology.

This manual
for students

new demands

mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, thermal, and

especially significant for the youngster

is

creating

is

requirements well beyond the capability of

skill

technical specialists.

devices of

and technology

a series of closely related publications designed

the broadest possible introduction to technical occu-

effective use of these

manuals

is

combination textbook-

as

laboratory guides for a full-time, post-secondary school study program that

provides parallel and concurrent courses

in electronics,

mechanics, physics,

mathematics, technical writing, and electromechanical applications.

unique feature of the manuals

in this series is

the close correlation of

technical laboratory study with mathematics and physics concepts.

topic

is

studied by use of practical examples using

modern

Each

industrial applica-

The reinforcement obtained from multiple applications of the concepts


shown to be extremely effective, especially for students with widely
diverse educational backgrounds. Experience has shown that typical junior
college or technical school students can make satisfactory progress in a welltions.

has been

coordinated program using these manuals as the primary instructional material.

School administrators

manuals to support a

programs

in

such fields

or quality assurance.

will

common
as:

be interested
first-year

in

of these

the potential

core of studies for two-year

instrumentation, automation, mechanical design,

This form of technical core program has the advantage

of reducing instructional costs without the corresponding decrease

power so frequently found

in

in

holding

general core programs.

This manual, along with the others

in

the series,

is

the result of six years

of research and development by the Technical Education Research Centers,


Inc.,

(TERC),

quarters

in

a national

nonprofit, public service corporation with head-

Cambridge, Massachusetts.

It

has undergone a

number of

revisions

as a direct result of experience gained with students in technical schools

community

and

colleges throughout the country.

Maurice W. Roney

//'/'

The Electromechanical Series

TERC

is

engaged

cal Technology.

in

an on-going educational program

The following

titles

in

Electromechani-

have been developed for this program:

INTRODUCTORY

ELECTROMECHAN ISMS/ MOTOR CONTROLS


ELECTROMECHAN ISMS/DEVICES
ELECTRONICS/AMPLIFIERS

ELECTRONICS/ELECTRICITY

MECHANISMS/DRIVES

MECHANISMS/LINKAGES
UNIFIED PHYSICS/FLUIDS
UNIFIED PHYSICS/OPTICS

ADVANCED
ELECTROMECHAN ISMS/AUTOMATIC CONTROLS
ELECTROMECHANISMS/SERVOMECHANISMS
ELECTROMECHAN ISMS/FABRICATION
ELECTROMECHAN ISMS/TRANSDUCERS
ELECTRON ICS/COMMUN ICATIONS
ELECTRONICS/DIGITAL

MECHANISMS/MACHINES
MECHANISMS/MATERIALS
For further information regarding the
its

EMT

program or for assistance

in

implementation, contact:
Technical Education Research Centers,

44

Brattle Street

Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138

iv

Inc.

Preface

Technology, by

its

very nature,

is

As

a laboratory-oriented activity.

such, the laboratory portion of any technology program

is

vitally important.

These materials are intended to provide a meaningful experience with


automatic controls for students of modern technology.

The topics included provide exposure to

basic principles of control

systems, transducers, actuators, amplifiers, and controllers.

The sequence of presentation chosen

The

is

by no means

may choose

expected that individual instructors


than the given sequence.

particular topics chosen for inclusion in this

primarily for convenience and

economy

inflexible.

of materials.

volume were selected

Some

instructors

The

many

better

local needs.

materials are presented

an action-oriented format combining

in

of the features normally found in a textbook with those usually

associated with a laboratory manual.

1.

may

them to

wish to omit some of these exercises or to supplement some of

meet their

It is

to use the materials in other

Each experiment contains:

An INTRODUCTION which

identifies the topic to be

examined and

often includes a rationale for doing the exercise.


2.

A DISCUSSION

which presents the background, theory, or tech-

niques needed to carry out the exercise.


3.

A MATERIALS

list

which

identifies

of the items needed

all

in

the laboratory experiment. (Items usually supplied by the student

such as pencil and paper are not included


4.

A PROCEDURE

which

presents

performing the experiment.

In

in

the

lists.)

step-by-step

instructions for

most instances the measurements

done before calculations so that all of the students can at


least finish making the measurements before the laboratory period

are

ends.
5.

An ANALYSIS GUIDE which

offers suggestions as to

student might approach interpretation of the data

draw conclusions from


6.

PROBLEMS

in

how

the

order to

it.

are included for the purpose of reviewing the rein-

forcing the points covered in the exercise.

The problems may be

of the numerical solution type or simply questions about the


exercise.

Students should be encouraged to study the test material, perform the


experiment, work the review problems, and submit a technical report on
each topic. Following this pattern, the student can acquire an understanding
of,

and

skill

the job.
technical

with, basic electric circuits that will be extremely valuable on

For best results, these students should have a sound background in


mathematics (algebra, trigonometry, and introductory calculus.)

These materials on basic control systems comprise one of a series of


volumes prepared for technical students by the TERC EMT staff at
Oklahoma State University, under the direction of D.S. Phillips and
R.W. Tinnell. The principal author of these materials was Roy D. Byrd.

An

Data Guide is available for use with this volume.


Byrd and Mr. D.A. Yeager were responsible for testing the
materials and compiling the instructor's data book for them. Other members
of the TERC staff made valuable contributions in the form of criticisms,
corrections, and suggestions.
Mr.

Instructor's

R.D.

hoped that

volume

volumes in
this series, the instructor's data books, and the other supplementary materials
will make the study of technology interesting and rewarding for both
students and teachers.
It

is

sincerely

this

THE TERC

vi

as well as the other

EJvlT

STAFF

Contents

experiment

INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMATION

experiment

SENSING DEVICES

experiment

CONTROLLERS

22

experiment

ERROR GENERATORS

30

experiment

ELECTRONIC CONTROLLERS

42

experiment

PNEUMATIC CONTROLLERS

63

experiment

HYDRAULIC CONTROLLERS

72

experiment

ELECTRICAL ACTUATORS

80

experiment

FLUID ACTUATORS

88

experiment 10

SYNCH ROMECH AN ISMS

97

experiment 11

MONITORING DEVICES

experiments

SYSTEM RESPONSE

experiment 13

POSITION

experiment 14

VELOCITY CONTROL SYSTEMS

experiment 15

PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS

.112
.

CONTROL SYSTEMS

editorial staff at

150

.160

Delmar Publishers are interested

continually improving the quality of this instructional material.


is

invited to submit constructive criticism

and questions.

reviewed jointly by the author and source editor.

Box 5087

vii

New York 12205

in

The reader

Responses

will

Send comments

Editor-in-Chief

Albany,

124
142

The author and

be
to:

INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMATION

experiment

INTRODUCTION. The

ever-increasing use of automatic control systems in industry requires large

numbers of suitably trained electromechanical technicians.

In this

experiment the basic principles

of a control system will be investigated.

DISCUSSION.

simple control system

device which allows a


trol
in

human

is

is

such a manner

ears

and the

ability to feel are used to note the effect,

is

If

the temperature

below the comfort

in

the

and

room temperature

level

rises

or above, the switch

is

the

the heater

level,

turned on manually with the switch.

as to achieve a desired per-

person's eyes,

heat source used to control the tempera-

room

the flow of energy to a machine or process

formance.

ture in the room.

operator to con-

is

When

to the comfort

manually turned

the temperature

the

the hands or feet then control the application

off.

of energy.

controlled variable and the controlling device


is

Industrial control

into

two

systems, usually,

general categories:

closed-loop systems.

In

it

heat source.

open-loop and

monitored and kept

at a

temperature

predetermined value

in figure

in

the

room

is

must be employed and

to be kept at

a switch

turn the heat on and off.

switch

1-1.

The room heater

in

If

the

some

operated to

The operator can

such a manner as to keep the tem-

perature at the predetermined value.

TEMPERATURE

3 GAGE
BATHROOM
115

the

room

control the process variable by operating the

simple example of an open-loop sys-

shown

is

predetermined value, a temperature indicator

some type of feedback.

is

the

be classified as an open-loop system.

constantly

automatic control systems and must employ

tem

in

pently of the process variable, the system can

automatically. Closed-loop systems are termed

device

Since the controlling device operates inde-

controls. In a closedis

The controlled
The temperature

is

does not affect the operation of the switch.

an open-loop system,

loop system, the process variable

the switch.

fall

the controlling device operates independently


of the process variable

In this process,

HEATER
ELEMENT

VOLTS
AC

o
HEAT
Fig. 1-1

Simple Open-Top Control System

EXPERIMENT

INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMATION

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS
BIMETALLIC CONTACTS

TEMPERATURE GAGE

115

TEMPERATURE
ADJUSTMENT

VOLTS
AC

Simple Closed- Loop System

Fig. 1-2

An example
shown

of a closed-loop system

The room has

1-2.

in figure

stat-controlled heating system.

ature

in

room

the

falls

below

If

The

is

thermo-

the temper-

When

turned on.

room

rises

above the desired

stat contacts
off.

the temperature
level,

18th century.

is

is

temperature

turned
is

the

and compares

it

in

perature at
matically.

system.

the actual
is

order to keep the

drive

governor

1-3 turns

faster,

thus

As the

force.

move outward,

move outward
balls of

the

the control coupling

coupling

strip (sensor)

Any

figure

increases, the

moves up the governor shaft. As the control


moves up the governor shaft, it
moves the control valve toward the closed di-

(process variable)

(set-point).

(error or deviation)

in

due to centrifugal

and compared to the predetermined desired

room temperature

shaft

the governor rotate faster and

automatic control system,

measured by the bimetallic

As the engine speed

of the governor shaft increases, the balls of

room tem-

some predetermined value auto-

room temperature

all

turning the governor shaft faster. As the speed

with the desired value, termed

In this

The system

1-3.

in figure

the characteristics of an automatic control

ously monitors the actual

the set-point,

the speed

This simple control system exhibits

The thermostat continuroom temperature

the thermostat.

shown

the late

a mechanical de-

of a steam engine automatically.

the

controlled variable and the controlling device


is

He employed

in

the thermo-

open and the heater

In this process, the

in

automatic control system was

vice, the fly-ball governor, to control

a desired level,

the thermostat contacts close and the heater


is

first

probably invented by James Watt

amount of steam to the


The engine slows because of

rection, reducing the

difference

between the actual tem-

driving cylinder.

perature and desired temperature will cause

the decrease in steam admitted to the driving

the thermostat contacts (controller) to either

cylinders.

open or

will

The opening and closing of the


contacts controls the amount of heat delivered
close.

by the heater element (actuator)

in

As the engine

move inward

slows, the fly-balls

causing an increase in steam

admitted to the driving cylinders. This action


continues until the speed of the engine drive

maintain-

ing the desired temperature.

shaft

and the position of the

fly-balls are bal-

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT

INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMATION

FLY BALL GOVERNOR

FLY BALLS

INPUT OF

STEAM

Fig. 1-3

anced.

Automatic Control System

This set speed can be adjusted by

moving the point where the governor

To

to the shaft.

point

Watt's

is

is

locked

function can be compared

employed.

case of the fly-ball governor,

increase speed, the logic

where the governor

placed higher on the shaft. Lowering

Fourth, a controller

the point decreases the space.

is

is
is

it

is

In the

point

locked to the shaft.

needed that compares

This system

is

the actual, controlled function with the refer-

termed an automatic control system, since

it

ence element or set-point and generates cor-

automatically controls the speed of the engine

rective information.

drive shaft.

governor,
Fifth,

From
ball

this simple explanation of the fly-

governor,

it is

easy to determine the basic

it

is

In

information supplied by the controller to control

the process variable.

necessities required in automatic control sys-

fly-ball governor,

performs this service.

it is

In the case of the fly-ball gov-

the speed of the drive shaft. Second,

a sensing device

must be employed to measure

the variable to be controlled. In this case

the fly-ball governor.


set-point

An

the variable to be controlled must

be identified.
ernor

it is

Third, a reference or

with which the actual controlled

fly-ball

an actuator must act on the corrective

tems.

First,

the case of the

the control coupling position.

it

is

In the case of the

the control valve that

automatic control system consists of

four main elements:

(1) a sensing device, (2) a

set-point or reference element, (3) a controller,

and

(4)

an actuator.

These elements are fun-

damental to any automatic process.

block

diagram of an automatic control system

shown

in

figure 1-4.

is

EXPERIMENT

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMATION

Monitoring

System

THE PROCESS
Variable to be
Controlled

ACTUATOR

SENSOR

Manipulates the
Variable to be
Controlled

Measures the
Variable to be
Controlled

CONTROLLER
Compares the
Actual Variable
to be Controlled
with Set-Point
and Generates
Corrective
Information

SET-POINT
Reference

Element

Fig. 1-4

In

practice,

Block Diagram of an Automatic Control System

modern industry

Automation

requires

which

constant monitoring of the process or system


variable to see that

it

conforms to

has

many

advantages,

among

are:

a prede-

Automatic recorders or indiemployed which monitor each variable and indicate and sometimes record its

termined value.

more consistent product or

process.

cators are

2.

Accuracy and consistency


ling

value.

in

control-

the speed of rotating shafts and

positioning of moving parts.

The employment

of devices to control

automatically one or more functions

chine or an industrial process


Generally, automation

mation.

is

is

as an automatic control system.

control

is

in a

The basic

ma-

principles of automatic control

systems, whether they /control a process or a

called auto-

They

referred to

machine, are essentially the same.

Automatic

volve measurement, comparison and

ment of energy flow so that deviation


duced to a minimum.

the employment of a device to auto-

matically control a single function or process.

in-

adjustis

re-

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT

INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMA TION

MATERIALS
1

Stroboscope

Motor, 28 volt DC, 1/100

Generator, permanent magnet,

2 Resistors,

HP

approximately 3.8 volts/100

RPM

2 Power supply, 0-40 volts


Transistor,

Transistor,

Transistor,

Potentiometer, 0-10 k2

kfi

1/2W

Resistor,

10 kft 1/2W

Resistor,

2 kft 1/2W

Shaft, approximately 4 inches in length

3 Adapter couplings

HEP 232 or equivalent


HEP 254 or equivalent
HEP 53 or equivalent

One-ounce weight

Lever arm, 3 inches

Heat sink -

Heat sink -

in

length

HEP 232
HEP 254

PROCEDURE
1

2.

Assemble the motor, generator and


Construct the experimental circuit

irque load as
i

shown

shown

in figure

in figure

1-6.

-5.

EXPERIMENT

INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMATION

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

Fig. 1-6

3.

Set the torque load for

Experimental Setup

minimum by moving

as possible to the shaft. Secure the

arm

the arm until the one-ounce weight

in this

the distance from the center of the shaft to the center of the torque load.
distance in Data Table, figure 1-7 as R.

is

as close

position with the locking screw. Measure

Record

this

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT

INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMATION

4.

Turn the power supplies on and adjust each voltage to 24

5.

Adjust

RM

Note:

Do not change

volts.

the speed of the motor, measured with the stroboscope,

until

RM

setting of

6.

Turn the motor power supply

7.

Set the torque load to a distance of

is

1000 RPM.

for remainder of the tests.

off.

.5 inches.

This distance

is

measured from the center

of the torque load.


8.

Turn the motor power supply on.

9.

Measure the speed of the motor with the stroboscope.


Data Table as S
g

10.

Repeat steps

6, 7,

and the distance R


11.

Record

this

measurement

in

the

maximum

8 and 9 for a

torque load. Measure and record the speed S


g

the Data Table.

in

Adjust the motor supply to zero volts.

Do not

turn

if

off.

Disconnect the lead from the

negative terminal of the generator.


1

2.

Disconnect the lead connecting the motor to the collectors of


junction. Connect this lead from the

3.

14.

Set the torque load to

5.

16.

Repeat steps

power supply.

as in step 3.

6, 7, 8,

is

1000 RPM.

9 and

0 and record these data

Calculate the approximate torque


is

in

is

the distance R recorded

Calculate the percent of change

%
Enter these data

R
inches

in

RPM
1000

in

in

as

SQ

in

the data table.

inch-ounces delivered to the load.

the product of the load weight and the radius.

radius
17.

positive side of the

at the collector

Gradually increase the voltage of the motor power supply until the motor speed, measured
with the stroboscope,

minimum

motor to the

Q2 and Q3

The

load weight

the data table. Enter these data

is

in

The

load torque

one ounce and the


Data Table as T.

speed with increasing load. The percent of change

Change =

-^Z

x 100

the table.

So

RPM

in.-oz

1000

1.50

1.50

Fig. 1-7

The Data Table

Change

% Change

inSa

inS Q

is

EXPERIMENT

INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMA TION

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

PROBLEMS
1

Draw

a block diagram of an open-loop system used to control the water level in a

city water tower.


2.

block diagram of a closed-loop system used to automatically control the

Draw

water

level in a city

water tower.

3.

Identify

two systems where automatic control of

4.

Identify

two systems where automatic

5.

What

are

some advantages of

machine

control of a process

is

is

employed.

using automatic control systems?

employed.

experiment

INTRODUCTION.

In

SENSING DEVICES

order to control a machine or a process automatically, the state or condi-

tion of the variable to be controlled

must be known.

In this

common

experiment some

detecting

elements, termed sensors or transducers, will be investigated.

DISCUSSION.

In

An example

an automatic control sys-

tem, the whole system

relies

on

figure 2-1.

a sensing

of a transducer

This transducer

is

shown

in

a thermistor

is

element, called a sensor or a transducer, which

bead made of metallic oxide, which exhibits a

senses the condition, state, or value of the

high

variable

value.

In

the

and taste

feel, see, smell

is

is

sion to the brain.

The

if

brain

some predetermined

necessary,

actuates

would

used to sense the

compares

in

this

reference and,

the proper response

resistance

10C decrease

Since the thermistor bead

temperature.

output that
erly

reflects this condition,

it

prop-

is

termed a transducer.
There are many types of transducers

use today.

Generally, the sensing device used

automatic control system

is

in

an

include:

called a transducer.

transducer senses the condition, state, or

value of the process variable and transforms a

portion of
type.

increase.

its

typical thermistor bead

senses temperature and produces an electrical

system

resistance decreases.

resistance will double for every

body condi-

produced for transmis-

tions and an output

its

its

The output of the transducer

is

com-

Some

of the

more

in

familiar ones

microphones, which convert sound

into electrical energy; strain gages,

which con-

vert stress into electrical energy; accelerometers,

energy into an output of some

in-

Should the

temperature of the bead decrease,

the ability to hear,

condition, state, or value of the

signal with

creases,

reflects this condition, state, or

human body,

If

the temperature of the thermistor bead

to be controlled and produces an

output which

negative-temperature characteristic.

cal

which convert acceleration into

energy.

It

electri-

would be impossible to

list all

of the transducers and their application.

New

pared with a predetermined value (set-point)

types of transducers are being created every

to determine

day to meet new applications. Some controlled


variables with appropriate detecting and meas-

an error

if

a difference (error) exists.

exists, the

system must

initiate

If

the

necessary corrective action to reduce this error

uring elements are

to zero.

table.

j-aaaJ

shown

in

the following

U/V\J.TRANSDUCER
BEADS

"U/SAr-|

THERMISTOR BEAD
BULB

r^WV>

Fig. 2-1

Thermal Transducer

Mm in'
MOUNTING
BASE

EXPERIMENT

INTRODUCTION TO A UTOMA TION

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

Measuring Elements

Sensing Device

Process Variable

Galvanometer or Bridge

Thermocouple

Temperature

Bridge Network

Thermistor

Bourdon Tube

Thermometer Bulb
Rate of Flow

Turbine Generator

in

Flow Path

Pulse Counter

Galvanometer or Bridge

Network

Magnetic Flowmeter
Orifice Plate or Venturi

Mercury Manometer and

Tube

Float

Diaphragm
Using Balance, etc.

Resistance Strain Gage

Strain, Torque,

Bridge Network

Tension and Force


Velocity

Fly-Ball

Governor

Tachometer Generator

Linkage and Points


Electrical Deflecting

Instrument or Network

Linear Potentiometer

Displacement or

Bridge Network or
Electronic

Position

Rotarv Potentiometer
Electronic

Network

Network

Capacitors

Synchronous Receiver
Synchronous Transmitter
Electronic Circuit
Photo-electric Cell

Flapper and Nozzle

Pressure

Bourdon Tube

Motion-Potentiometers

Diaphragm

Linkage and Pointer

Bellows

Fig.

2-2

Table of Controlled Variables

EXPERIMENT

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

Sensing Device

Process Variable

Level

Thickness

INTRODUCTION TO A UTOMA TION

Measuring Elements

Floats

Linkages and Pointer

Electrodes

Electronic Networks

Capacity Probes

Electronic Networks

Photo-electric

Electronic Networks

X-Ray

Sensitive Materials

Radioactive

Geiger-Mueller-Tube

X-Ray

X-Ray

Ultrasonic

Electronic Oscillators and

Sensitive Material

Bridge Circuit

Radioactive

Geiger-Mueller-Tube

Proximity

Magnetic Pickups

Electronic Circuit

Photo Detectors

Photovoltaic, Photocon-

ductive and Photoemissive Devices

Hair Hygrometer

Humidity

Thermometers and
trical

Elec-

Bridge

Electrical Circuit

and/or

Bridge

Various Sensors

Density

Electrical Bridges, etc.

Conductivity

and PH

Fig.

Many

2-2

Table of Controlled Variables (Cont'd)

industrial processes require trans-

act

by converting the

linear or angular

motion

ducers to detect the displacement or position

into an electrical signal that reflects the dis-

some moving component, the amount of


movement, and the direction. These sensors

placement or position.

of

EXPERIMENT 2

SENSING DEVICES

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

RESISTANCE STRIP

^TO CONTROLLER

ARM

Fig.

in

TERMINALS

SLIDER

2-3

Linear^

Potentiometer

The linear-motion potentiometer shown


figure 2-3 converts linear motion into

changes

in resistance.

The

slider,

connected to

the moving component, moves over the

resist-

The movement of the

slider

ance element.

varies the resistance

When

minals.

between the output

the moving

ter-

component moves
As a result the

to the right, so does the slider.


resistance

creased.
left,

so

between the output terminals

When

is

de-

component moves to the


does the slider. As a result the resistthe

ance between the output terminals

in-

is

Thus, the resistance change of the

creased.

TO CONTROLLER

potentiometer reflects the amount of linear

movement and the direction

of the

movement.

The angular-motion potentiometer shown


in

figure

changes

2-4 converts angular motion into

in resistance.

The angular

Fig.

Note that this sensor


to approximately 300 of rotation.

ited

the shaft

is

rotated

in

the

clockwise direction, the resistance between

and C

is

lim-

rotation of

nent, varies the resistance between the output

When

Angular-Motion Potentiometer

tion of rotation.

the shaft, connected to the rotating compo-

terminals.

2-4

The tachometer,
motion into

gular

figure 2-5, converts an-

a voltage that reflects the

speed of rotation.

It

generator whose field

consists of a small
is

DC

produced by a per-

and the resistance

manent magnet. The angular rotation of the

between terminals B and C decreases. When

armature coupled to the rotating component

the shaft

in a

terminals

is

increases,

rotated in the counterclockwise

direction, the resistance

between terminals

that

magnetic
is

field

produces an output voltage

directly proportional to the speed at

and C decreases and the resistance between


terminals B and C increases. Thus, the resist-

which

ance change

of the voltage output

in

the potentiometer reflects the

amount of angular movement and the

direc-

it is

be of the

rotated.

AC type,

speed of rotation.

in

The tachometer may

also

which case the frequency


is

a function

of the

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS
The bonded wire

EXPERIMENT 2

strain gage

shown

SENSING DEVICES

ARMATURE

in fig-

ure 2-6 can be used to sense pressure, compression, tension

of

sectional area,

perature

wire

and torsion. The resistance

wire depends upon

is

is

and temperature.

proportional to

The

cross-

the tem-

If

held constant, the resistance of the

directly proportional to

inversely
area.

length,

its

strain gage

about 0.001

is

its

length,

^TERMINALS

cross-sectional

its

al-

BRUSHES

loy of copper and nickel which has a relatively

high elasticity.

When

a strain, caused

TO
CONTROLLER

PERMANENT
MAGNET

a fine wire filament

diameter made from an

in. in

OUTPUT

and

by com-

Fig.

2-5

DC

Tachometer

BONDING CEMENT

PAPER

LEAD WIRE

.STRAIN-SENSITIVE
AXIS

LEAD WIRE
RESISTANCE ELEMENT

Fig.

2-6

The Bonded Strain Gage

pression or tension, stretches the wire of the


strain gage, the cross-sectional area

and the

overall length

is

is

Both of

increased.

these factors cause an increase

in

reduced

the electrical

resistance of the strain gage.

BOURDON

The bourdon tube,

TUBE
figure 2-7, can

used to measure the pressure of a fluid.

tube of

elliptical cross section

made

be

It is

of thin,

springy metal formed into an incomplete spiral.

One end

of the tube

inlet for

the fluid.

and

is

the

tube

free to

straighten.

is

is

fixed and provides an

The other end is


move. As the pressure

increased,

the

As the pressure

tube tends to return to

its

tube
is

PRESSURE
INLET

sealed
inside

FIXED END

tends to

2-7 Pressure Measurement Using Bourdon


Tube and Angular-Motion Potentiometer

reduced, the

original

Fig.

curved

13

EXPERIMENT 2 SENSING DEVICES

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

CASE

DIAPHRAGM

PRESSURE
INLET

BELLOWS

SPRING

BELLOWS TYPE

(A)

Fig.

The movement of the

form.

CASE

free

(B)

2-8

end

DIAPHRAGM TYPE

Pressure Transducer
pro-

is

ing

no obstruction to the flowing

portional to pressure changes and produces an

the principle that an emf

output

ductor moving

free

The

signal that reflects these changes.

end of the tube can be linked through a

is

range of pressure

is

bourdon tube

spiral

is

When

detected by

which the

Bellow-type or diaphragm elements are

used where the pressures involved are low.

To measure

In

is

a pointer.

This
In

to give an increase

companied by
crease

is

in

is

in

placed

in

is

a direct

If

the

kept constant, the emf

in-

measure of the rate of flow.

many

processes

in

which

it

is

in

shown

The

capacitive liquid-level transducer

in figure

2-10. The capacitance of a


is

directly pro-

portional to the dielectric constant and the

and inversely proportional to


the distance between the plates. If the area
area of plates,

the pipe-

which

is

is

capacitor with parallel plates

the form of an

velocity

is

but

in,

necessary to maintain a given level of liquid

is

the differential-pressure type of

flowmeter, a restriction,

line

strength

a vessel.

transmitted via gearing to

orifice plate or venturi,

produced by an electromagnet.

is

There are

extracted from the mov-

mechanical flowmeters, the

is

An emf

The required magnetic

liquid flows.

field

duced

2-8.

flow of fluid causes motion within the measuring unit.

flow

its

two electrodes embedded

field

the rate of flow of fluid in a

closed pipe, energy


ing fluid itself.

in figure

con-

in a

The mag2-9. The

insulated from, the wall of the tube through

flat-

used.

These transducers are shown

field.

provides the required movement.

a high

to be measured, a

induced

flowmeter is shown in figure


moving fluid is the conductor and

The assembly

then called a pressure gage.

is

magnetic

netic

mechanical coupling to a pointer over a scale


calibrated in units of pressure.

in a

liquid uses

of the plates and the distance between the

ac-

a decrease in pressure. This de-

plates are kept constant, the capacitance of

the capacitor will vary with the value of the

measure of the rate of flow.

flowmeter having no moving parts and offer-

dielectric constant.

14

The

capacitive liquid-level

EXPERIMENT 2

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

SENSING DEVICES

INDUCED emf

MAGNETIC

TO CONTROLLER

ELECTROMAGNET

FLUID

FLOW

Fig.

2-9

Electromagnetic Flowmeter

height of the dielectric (liquid) between the

transducer consists of an insulated metal elec-

trode mounted near and parallel to the metal


wall of the tank.

The

wall of the tank

plates.

and

The

greater the height, the larger the

capacitance and the

less

the height, the smaller

The capacitance

the electrode form the plates of the capacitor

the capacitance.

The capacitance of the capacitor depends on the

proportional to the level of the liquid

and the

liquid acts as the dielectric.

Fig.

2-10

vessel

Capacitive Liquid-Level Transducer

15

is

directly
in

the

ADJUSTED SCREW

TO CONTROLLER

FIXED CONTACT

MOVABLE CONTACT
INVAR
BIMETALLIC STRIP

BRASS

NONCONDUCTIVE BASE

Fig. 2-

The
ure 2-1

changes

is

shown

bimetallic thermostat

consists of

convert light energy

in fig-

a thermal transducer used to sense

temperature.

in

Bimetallic Thermostat

1 1

two

The

bimetallic strip

dissimilar metals

welded

which has

The

strip

is

made

a relatively large rate of

and an alloy of nickel and iron


which has a

When

energy.

detecting the level of liquids in closed tanks,

Mag-

netic pickups are used to detect proximity

and

of brass,

in

counting processes. Humidity sensors, such

expansion,

as

the hair hygrometer, are used to detect

(called invar),

moisture content.

relatively small rate of expansion.

heated, the brass expands at a greater

rate than the invar.

As

a result

rate of expansion, the free

cooled, the strip returns to


tion, opening the contacts.

ment

of this uneven

end of the

bends upward, closing the contacts.

at

electrical

or the thickness of a sheet of material.

to-

gether, each with a different temperature ex-

pansion constant.

into

X-ray and radioactive sensors can be used for

its

The transducers contained in this experiare but a few of the many devices used

The

as sensors in industry today.

strip

When

this

normal posi-

experiment reflects the heat of the auto-

matic control system and

The temperature

portance to be restated.

which the contact points open or close can

objective of

fully control a

is

In

of sufficient im-

order to success-

machine or a process, auto-

be controlled by means of an adjusting screw,

matically, the state, condition or value of the

which brings the fixed contact nearer or


away from the movable contact.

variable to be controlled

far-

must be detected and

measured. The transducer

ther

is

a device used in

automatic control systems to sense


Phototubes,

photomultipliers,

photo-

and photo-

to transform a portion of

transistors are light-sensing transducers that

output signal of some type.

voltaic cells, photoconductive cells

a state,

condition or value of the process variable and

16

its

energy into an

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT 2

SENSING DEVICES

MATERIALS
1

Stepping motor, 28 volt

VOM

Angular motion-potentiometer, 20 kl

DC power

Adapter coupling

1/2W
2 Resistor, 10 kSl, 1/2W
1
Switch, SPST
1

Scale and indicator assembly

Wheatstone bridge

or

FEM

Resistor,

supplies 0-40
kft,

PROCEDURE
1

Assemble the motor, potentiometer, and indicator assembly as shown

SCALE

in figure

2-1 2.

POINTER

POTENTIOMETER

(A)

SIDE VIEW

POINTER

SCALE,
IN

(B)

END VIEW OF POTENTIOMETER


Fig. 2-

(C)

12

END VIEW OF MOTOR

The Mechanical Setup


17

GRADUATED
DEGREES

EXPERIMENT 2

2.

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

SENSING DEVICES

Construct the experimental circuit as shown

in figure

2-1 3A.

-A
20k
E
28

-VSAr

- B

WHEATSTONE
BRIDGE

VDC

(A)

ANGULAR POSITION WITH RESISTANCE OUTPUT

20k

E = 28

VDC

VOLTS

28

DC

(B)

ANGULAR POSITION WITH VOLTAGE OUTPUT

--

20k

28

-VNAr

VOLTS

5-vwVNAAr

DC
C

1kn

(C)

ANGULAR POSITION WITH ERROR DETECTION

Fig.

2-13

The Experimental Setup

18

i0kn

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS
3.

EXPERIMENT 2 SENSING DEVICES

Set the pointer of the indicator to zero degrees. Loosen the set screw securing the potentiometer wiper arm contact to a midpoint position between the ends of the resistance

element. Secure the potentiometer shaft to the motor by tightening the set screw.
4.

With

Wheatstone bridge, measure the resistance between terminals

B to C. Record these

in

to B,

to C, and

the Data Table, figure 2-1 4A.

Resistance

Position
in

Degrees

A to

A to C

B to C

Steps 4-6 Results

Fig.

5.

2-1 4A

The Data Table

Step the motor one step by closing the switch.

After the motor has stepped, turn the

switch off.
6.

Measure the resistance, with the Wheatstone bridge, between terminals

to B,

to C,

and B to C. Record these data and the angular position indicated by the pointer.
7.

Repeat steps 5 and 6

until

one complete revolution of the motor shaft has been attained.


19

EXPERIMENT 2

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

SENSING DEVICES

8.

Construct the experimental circuit as shown

9.

Repeat steps 3 through 7 for the voltage, measured with


nals

A to

B,

to C, and B to C.

2-1 3B.

in figure

Record these data

in

DC

voltmeter, between termi-

the Data Table, figure 2-1 4B.

Voltage

Position
in

Degrees

A to C

to B

B to C

Step 9 Results

Fig.

10.
1 1

The Data Table

Construct the experimental circuit as shown

in figure

2-13C.

Repeat steps 3 through 7 for the voltage between terminals B to C, E to


Record these data in the Data Table, figure 2-1 4C.

ANALYSIS GUIDE.

In

motion potentiometer
voltage,

2-J4B

V DC

D and D

to C.

the analysis of these data, a discussion concerning the use of the angular

as a position or displacement transducer should be presented.

versus angular position in degrees for the data recorded in the data table.

20

Plot the

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT 2 SENSING DEVICES

Voltage

Position
in

Dearees

V BC

ED

V DC

Step 11 Results

Fig.

2-1 4C

The Data Table

PROBLEMS
1

Describe,

2.

Why

3.

Is

4.

What

5.

is it

in

your own terms, the function of

necessary to use a sensor

in a

closed-loop control system?

a sensor necessary in an open-loop control


is

an error signal?

Name and

How

is it

a transducer.

system?

Why?

generated?

discuss the operation of

two transducers not included

this experiment.

21

in

the discussion of

experiment

INTRODUCTION. The

CONTROLLERS

part of a control system which compares the measured value of the

controlled variable with the desired value and operates to correct or limit deviation from the
desired value is called a controller. In this experiment, the basic principles and modes of operation of a controller will be investigated.

DISCUSSION. To understand the function


a controller, the role

it

to be at

of

The

sens-

at

state or value of the variable to be controlled

mode

signal

this condition, state or value.

the sensor

measures

is
it

The output

maximum

its

of control

When

of

set-

This

position, usually On.


is

shown

3-1

in figure

the

of the liquid

level

in

the vessel

rises

and compares

with a reference

the float causes the switch contacts to open.

which corresponds to the de-

Opening of the switch contacts de-energizes


the electrically-operated solenoid valve and the

it

Any
is

deviation between the

two

detected and an output signal

which acts to bring the condition,

above a predetermined

liquid inflow

sig-

cut off.

is

mined

state,

level,

level (set-point),

When

the

of the

level

drops below the predeter-

liquid in the vessel

is

generated to the final control element (actuator)

than the

less

that reflects

sired condition, state or value of the process

nals (error)

is

If

accepted by the controller, which

signal (set-point)

variable.

position, usually Off.

point, the controller causes the actuator to be

ing device or transducer senses the condition,

and produces an output

minimum

the controlled variable

plays in an automatic

control system should be examined.

its

the float causes the switch con-

tacts to close.

Closing the switch contacts en-

or value of the process variable to that indi-

ergizes the electrically-operated solenoid valve

cated by the set-point, thus eliminating the

and the liquid inflow

is

turned on.

error or deviation. Production of the counter-

action

is

called the characterization of the

controller output signal and the

ployed

is

called the

mode

The

method em-

in

the vessel

may

be changed by adjusting the set-point, higher


or lower as desired.

On-Off, Proportional, Reset and Rate.

own characteristics and purpose.


The controller may use either a single mode of
Each has

of the liquid

of control.

There are four different modes of control:

level

"On"

to "Off" time

with

the

load

The time
is

interval of the

varied in accordance

demand.

In

On-Off

the

Controller, there

is

no happy medium that

the controller uses

in

correcting the controlled

its

variable

toward the desired condition.

actuator

is

operation or a combination of the different


either full

On

or

The

full Off.

modes.
In

On-Off Control, sometimes called two-

In

Proportional Control, there

is

a con-

position control, the controller operates the

tinuous linear relationship between the value

actuator at only two positions, which are gen-

of the deviation and the actuator manipula-

erally located at a
If

minimum and maximum.

the controlled variable

is

tion.

The

ratio of the percentage of full scale

signal of the transducer to the percentage of

greater than the

set-point, the controller causes the actuator

full-scale

22

output from the controller

is

called

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT 3

CONTROLLERS

ELECTRICAL SOURCE
SOLENOID

VALVE

LIQUID

\/

SET-POINT

ADJUST

CONTACTS

VESSEL
LIQUID

DISCHARGE VALVE

~)

Fig. 3-1

Two-Position Control

portional band, the

The smaller the promore precise the control

over the process.

In

the proportional band.

some

4, LIQUID

if

reduced too

stable

the system will

far,

and hunt.

In

other words,

become unit

will

have

continuous actuator movement.

controllers the

proportional band can be manually set as desired.


is

The purpose of the proportional band


maximum actuator movement

Hunting or

to permit a

with a large process variable.


trolled only

troller set-point

This difference

is

will

called offset.

usually an un-

make

proportional controller as fast -acting as possi-

always

ble in a system,

between the con-

and the controlled

is

desirable condition, but in order to

Processes con-

by proportional action

result in a small difference

instability

it

is

common

crease the proportional

practice to de-

band (increasing the

gain or sensitivity) until this condition

variable.

is

ex-

perienced and then increase the band until the

Reducing the

proportional band can reduce the offset, but

hunting stops.

23

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

CONTROL L ERS

EXPERIMENT 3

FLAPPER VALVE

INLET

SET-

POINT

ADJUST

PROPORTIONAL BAND

DISCHARGE OR
LOAD VALVE

DISCHARGE

Fig.

The proportional mode of control


trated in figure 3-2.
lever

is

the liquid

in

the vessel

rises

the

level

of

of the liquid

in

from

rising.

gral

the vessel

falls

the

below the

determined set-point, the float causes the

by an amount that

difference or error exists.

normally used with

pre-

through

is

adjusted
level

is

in

necessary to

Integral,

set-point.

point adjustment.

all

The

is

illustrated

in

disks coupled by a friction

operate

a set of gears.

screw control valve

One

of the disks

position of the friction drive roller

trolled

loads without set-

is

speed.

until the variation in the

sel falls

24

is

con-

by the float arm. When no error exists,

the drive roller

However, the proportional

band can be reduced

called a pro-

driven at constant speed by an electric motor.

In pro-

portional control, the controlled variable can-

not be held constant at

is

proportional control

reset, control

Two

roller

drive

proportion to the amount that

away from the

this

Reset control

portional-plus-reset controller.

within the proportional band the inflow valve

the

is

dif-

The
figure 3-3.

level

inte-

related to the

and such a controller could be

flap-

valve between the

let

is

and the "time" that

variable,

trolled

level

move the intwo extreme positions is


At all other levels
the proportional band.
range of water

arm.

ference between the set-point and the con-

per valve to open a proportionate amount.

This increases the inflow to the vessel.

lever

control, the output of the controller

varied

amount. This

When

its

Reset Control, sometimes called

In

reduces the inflow to the vessel and tends to


level

The propor-

as an

termined set -point, the float causes the flapper

prevent the

tolerable.

float closer to the fulcrum of

above the prede-

valve to close a proportionate

is

band can be reduced by moving the

tional

turnbuckle to a

When

adjustable set-point device.

controlled variable

is illus-

The turnbuckle functions

flapper valve.

Proportional Control

system, the float

In this

connected through

3-2

When

at a neutral position, zero

is

the

level

below the

of the liquid

in

the ves-

set-point, the drive roller

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

CONTROLLERS

EXPERIMENT 3

SCREW DRIVER CONTROL VALVE


LIQUID
IN

DRIVE DISK

DRIVE
DISK

MMW

CONSTANT
SPEED
FRICTION DRIVE

MOTOR

GEARS

ROLLER

Fig.

moves below the


is moved outward

When

to the deviation.

An

Integral Control

and the valve

neutral point,
at a rate that

3-3

is

In a proportional-plus-reset control,

the level rises above

ward

at a rate that

When

viation.
is

is

moved

is

is

tional effect

in-

reset effect

The

stationary.

The

reset rate

is

sponse

is

duplicated.

the number of times per

called "repeats per

of integral time.

Reset rate

minute" and

Reset response,

"time" because of the corrective action of the

re-

troller

output continues to drive the actuator

The

rate of control

and

less,

small until finally the output of the controller

produced by a load change. The con-

set-point.

less

the inverse

when added

is

As the error becomes

the rate of output signal change becomes very

offset

measured variable

to cause

of error.

rate of reduction of error decreases with

actuator.

is

constant and the error between the set-point

and the controlled variable

to proportional control, acts to eliminate the

as long as the

commence immediately
amount

therefore

is

is

the out-

and the change produced by the

the actuator to reduce the

zero, the valve

minute that the proportional part of the

in

put of the controller produced by the propor-

proportional to the de-

the deviation

change

trolled variable exists, the

the set-point, the drive roller moves above


the neutral point, and the valve

when

an error between the set-point and the con-

proportional

troller

output

signal

plus-reset control

not at the

the

is

zero.

The con-

an exponential; therefore,

actuator drives the controlled

toward the set-point

by the actuator

changes with the amount of deviation from

is

change with proportional-

in

variable

smooth and contin-

uous manner. The advantage of adding

the set -point.

to proportional control

25

is

reset

that the controlled

EXPERIMENT 3
variable

though

CONTROLLERS

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

brought back to the set-point even

is

new

actuator position

The controlled

is

As

required.

a quick review, there are four general

types of control:

variable can therefore be main-

On-Off control,

tained at the set-point throughout the load

maximum

range of the equipment.

Proportional Control,

in

operates the actuator

in a

capacity

relationship that
In

Rate-Action Control, sometimes called

derivative control, the output of the controller


is

proportional to the rate of change of the de-

viation or error.

Rate control

is

is

minimum

or

more quickly
ac-

tion required.

continuously linear

proportional to the error

signal; Reset Control, in

which the controller

operates the actuator

some manner that

in

in

which the controller operates the actuator

some manner that

is

related to the rate at

signal changes.

MATERIALS
923A

Thermostat, type

Dual pressure control, type 01 2-1 505

or equivalent

or equivalent

Heater element, 100-watt

light

bulb

Switch,

Relay,

Air supply 0-1 5 psi regulated contact

1 1

5-volt,

24V

coil

with

SPDT

Cardboard box, approximately


10 x 10 x 10 in.

DC power
Fan,

supply, 0-40V

15-volt, 60-Hertz

Miscellaneous couplings

0-amp, SPST

contacts

arrangement
1

Pressure gage, 0-30 psi

Hand

Switch,

valve

SPST

PROCEDURE
1

Construct the experimental setup shown

is

in

which error

capacity;

which the controller

between the set-point


and the controlled variable and the time during
which the deviation exists, and Rate Control,

used together

by anticipating or accelerating the control

which

related to the deviation

with other types of control to return the controlled variable to the set-point

in

the controller operates the actuator at either

in

figure 3-4.

2.

Close the manual hand valve and adjust the regulated

3.

Adjust the low pressure range screw to a "cut-in" setting of 10

4.

Adjust the low pressure differential to a "differential" setting of 5

5.

Adjust the thermostat control to 90 F.

6.

Measure and record the temperature inside the box

26

in

air

pressure to

1 1

psi.

psi.

psi.

the Data Table, figure 3-5.

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT 3

CONTROLLERS

VOLT
RELAY

24

COIL

30V DC
110V AC

Fig.

3-4

The Test Setup

27

EXPERIMENT 3

CONTROLLERS

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

With your hand, hold the flapper against the nozzle opening and carefully open the hand

7.

valve until the contacts in the pressure control unit close.

the pressure

in

Release the flapper and record

the Data Table.

8.

Turn

9.

For every 1F temperature change, record the pressure, temperature and the time
Data Table.

and S2 on.

90 F Setting

90 F Setting

Pressure

Temp.

(F)

Prp<iif

Time

(psi)

Temp.

79

(F)

RQ

80
81

Q1

82

Q?

83

9?

84

HZ

85

Q1

86
87

89

88

88

89

89

90

90

91

91

92

92

93

93

92

92

91

91

90

90

89

89

88

88
Fig.

3-5

The Data Table 9(fF

28

irp

(psi)

Time

in

the

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT 3

Adjust the fan position so that the time

10.

On

to time Off of the heater element

repeat step 9 for 3 cycles of the temperature variation

(maximum

Repeat steps 9 and 10 for a thermostat setting of 80 F.

11.

CONTROLLERS

to

minimum,

Record these data

equal and

is

etc.).

in

the Data

Table, figure 3-6.

80 F Setting

Temp.

F)

Pressure

Time

79
80
81

80
79

80
81

80
79

80
81

80

79

Fig.

ANALYSIS GUIDE.

3-6

Explain the On-Off

The Data Table 80 F

mode

of operation

in

connection with a heating system.

Explain the variations observed and the differential temperature and relate these terms to your
Prepare a graph of Temperature versus Time for the 80 and 90 thermostat settings as

data.

recorded

in

your data.

PROBLEMS
1

What

physical quantity activates the thermostat?

how a change

2.

Explain

3.

What

is

the set -point device?

4.

What

is

the actuator?

in detail

in

temperature operates the thermostat.

experiment

INTRODUCTION.

In

ERROR GENERA TORS

an automatic controller, the device or stage that compares the transducer

output with the set-point and generates an error


In this

experiment, methods of error generation

DISCUSSION. The

signal
will

error generator device or

an error

signal

is

error signal

is

tor

then amplified to a

comparator or error generator.

Rg

will

by thevenizing the

symbol

The

is

shown

The

creases to 5 volts DC.

V BA

may

plifier

or a synchro arrangement.

amplifier, a differential

A DC

network used as an error generator


analyzing

how

tector operates, assume that

R4 = R5 =
age
able

is
is

kfi,

R-|

is

When

ratio

the ratio de= R2 =


=

is

error voltage

de-

wou Id

^5

th

_
=
th

Sp R 2

"R+
'1

TR R 4

R
3 + 4

^3

the controlled

10 volts DC.

has

voltvari-

th

at the desired operating value, the out-

put of the transducer

assumed to

R t h remains the same value, but


changed to a new value of

am-

shown

and the set-point input

10 volts DC.

The

R th + R 5

be generated by a ratio network, a bridge net-

work,

In

is

4-2.

be determined by
c

4-1.

in figure

(+) indicates that a point

Suppose that the transducer input

level neces-

In an electronic controller, the error

in figure

Resis-

be of positive polarity.

sary to drive the actuator.

summing

circuit.

be used as the load. The thevenized

equivalent circuit

developed that reflects

the amplitude and phase of the deviation.

called the

calculated

compares the transducer


output with the set-point output to determine
any deviation between the two. If a deviation
stage of a controller

exists,

is

be examined.

10(1k)

5(1k)

1k + 1k

1k+1k

The
E th =

output of the error generator stage may be

5-

2 1/2 = 2 1/2 volts

TRANSDUCER

SET-POINT
INPUT

INPUT

R5

ERROR OUTPUT

o
Fig.

4-1

Ratio Network For Error Generation

30

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS
and Vg^, the output error
.

V BA

signal,

2 1/2 (1k)
=
1k + Ik

ERROR GENERA TORS

EXPERIMENT 4

is

1/4 volts

Now

o-

-o

with point B positive with respect to point A.

suppose that the transducer input

increases to 15 volts.

The

error voltage

be determined by solving the circuit

would

4-2A

for

the thevenized resistance:


l

th

R 1 R2

R3R4

R 1 + R2

Rg + R4

R R
1

=
1th

+ R

R
1

th

+R 4

kilohm

the circuit

solving

(A) Rfhevenins

1k (1k)
Ik + Ik

Ik + 1k

R th =

Then

1k (1k)

R,R,
n 3"4

4-2B

in

for the

'TR

sp

thevenized voltage,

=
th

V BC " V AC
E

E th -

sp

R2

R ^ + R2

E tr R 4

Rg +
E

E th

= 10(1k)

10 (1k)

1k+

1k + Ik

1k

th =

E
th

TR

+R 2

+R 4
3

'

B' Ethevenins

Finally solving the circuit in

error voltage,

sp

E th ' 0

V BC- V
AC

Vg A we
,

4-2C for the

AAAr

have

'th

"th

V BA

R5
th
R th + R 5

V BA

0 1k
= 0
1k + 1k

BA
(C)

'BA

th

R5

4-2

Of
31

th

+ R

THEVENIN'S EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

Fig.

R th + R 5

th

Thevenin's Equivalent

Ratio Detector

=1k

ERROR GENERATORS

EXPERIMENT 4

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

TRANSDUCER

(B)

AMPLIFIER WITH

4-3

Fig.

The Differential Amplifier

R t h remains the same value, but E tn has


changed to a new value of

connected to the base of Qi and the transducer output is connected to the base of

The
E
"

th

COMMON EMITTER RESISTOR

BASIC AMPLIFIER

(A)

'

R2

E th R 4

+ R2

R3 + R4

sp

R.,

differential amplifier

how

In analyzing

tn

signal,

mA

of base current

controlled variable

is

V BA

= -1-1/4

is

figure

volts.

signal

in Q-j.

Q2

is

mA. The
shown

in

the transducer input increases, causing

+9

Q2

to double, the output

shown

error signal

ducer output and the set-point, as well as the

4-4B.

direction of deviation.

zero, the output error signal

shown
Another method of electronic error gen-

shown

Qi and

If

4-3. The differentwo equal gain transThe set-point output is

is

may be

4-4C.

in figure

is

-9 volts as

Thus, the differential

used to generate an error

nal that reflects the

in figure

volts as

the transducer input decreases to

in figure

amplifier

sig-

amplitude of the deviation

between the transducer output and the

amplifier consists of

istors,

volts as

amplitude of the deviation between the trans-

is

is

4-4A.

the base current of

Thus, the output error signal reflects the

tial

the

Ik + 1k
If

eration

When

at the desired operating

value, the base current of

output error
-2-1/2 (1k)

have an equal cur-

Q2

rent gain of about 9, and the set-point voltage

causes

E th = 5 - 7-1/2 volts = -2-1/2 volts

and Vg^, the output error

the basic amplifier op= R2 = ^'<

R^ = Rei

assume Rq^ =
the transistors Q-j and

10 (Ik) _ 15 (Ik)
1 k + Ik
1k + Ik

amplifier

employing direct coupling.

erates,

DC

is

set-

point, as well as the direction of the deviation.

32

EXPERIMENT 4

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

(A)

(B)

ERROR SIGNAL, V A = 0 VOLTS


TRANSDUCER INPUT EQUAL SET-POINT INPUT

ERROR SIGNAL, V gA = +9 VOLTS


TRANSDUCER INPUT GREATER THAN SET-POINT

ERROR SIGNAL, V gA
(Ci

Fig.

= -9

VOLTS

TRANSDUCER INPUT LESS THAN SET-POINT

4-4

Differential Amplifier Operation

ERROR GENERATORS

EXPERIMENT 4

ERROR GENERATORS

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

FORCE

PRESSURE

PISTON WITH AN
Fig.

may be

mechanism or

Sf R = 2f L

moment-balance mechanism.

= 100

lbs

is

shown

Zf L = PA

piston does not move.

For

P =

static balance, the

force acting toward the right equals the force


acting toward the left.
For example, if the
force acting toward the right
force acting to the

left

P =

100 lbs, the


must be 100 lbs. The

pressure required for balance

(4.2)

in

the two forces are balanced, the

If

SQUARE INCHES

generated by a force-balance

simple force-balance mechanism

figure 4-5.

Simple Force-Balance Mechanism

pneumatic or hydraulic controller,

In a

the error

4-5

AREA OF

is

Sf L

100
2

lbs

in.

rn
= 50psi
.

is

force-balance mechanism using a diaphragm or a flexible bellows as the piston is

Zf D = Sf,

shown

(4.1)

in figure

4-6.

The

spring, with a spring

SPRING

DIAPHRAGM AREA


CHAMBER

NULL POSITION

A-

TRANSDUCER

1X1

VENT

\_

RESTRICTOR
AMPLIFIER
AIR OR
HYDRAULIC

SUPPLY

] OUTPUT
[

V///////A
4-6

Force-Balance Mechanism and Amplifier

34

2 IN. 2

constant of 100

lbs/in.,

compressed

is

ERROR GENERATORS

EXPERIMENT 4

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS
1

in.

to

exert a force of 100 lbs on the diaphragm.

The movement of the diaphragm controls the


poppet valve of the
controlled variable
value, the

fluid amplifier.
is

When

the

at the desired operating

PIVOT

output of the transducer must be

2F down

2F up
2F down "

00'bs

2F up = PA

SF up

P =

00

lbs
2

= 50

When

This valve

the vent

is

is

psi

If

again

is

dia-

null or zero

is

practically

2F up

2F down

2F up

PA

2F down

= 50

not fully closed because

permitting a small

amount

of pres-

the output of the transducer increases

the diaphragm

psi,

The distance the

balanced.

is

sure to bleed off.

to 100

are

deviation position

this balance

attained, the poppet valve inlet


closed.

4-7

phragm moves down from the

in.

for a balanced condition.

Simple Moment-Balance Mechanism

Fig.

until the forces are again

psi

X2in.2 = 50

lbs

lbs

50 lbs
= 1/2 inch
100 lb/in.

move upward
balanced. The diswill

= 25

tance the diaphragm moves up from the null


or zero deviation position

The poppet

is

from the

2F down

2F up

PA = 100

psi

X 2

in.

may be

2F down = 200lbs

in

200

x=

lbs

=
2mches

valve will

direction.

simple

the counterclockwise direction, the mech-

anism

Tooib7in".

The poppet

its

movement balance mechanism


is shown in figure 4-7. If the movement in the
clockwise direction is equal to the movement

(4.3)

f/k

used to generate an

error signal that reflects the amplitude of the

= 200 lbs

deviation, as well as

X=

move downward
Thus, the force-

output of the amplifier.


balance detector

2F up

valve will

null position 1/2 inch, increasing the

is

in

balance and no

movement

occurs.

The product
move upward

of the force exerted by f i multiby the moment arm (distance from pivot
to the point the force is applied) is termed a
plied

inch,

reducing the output of the amplifier.

moment.

Now
transducer

phragm

suppose that the output of the


is

will

decreased to 25

move downward

psi.

The

For example,

dia-

terclockwise

until the forces

35

is

100

if

the force

lbs, f

f-|

acting coun-

acting clockwise for

EXPERIMENT 4

ERROR GENERA TORS

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

AIR OR HYDRAULIC SUPPLY

SET-POINT

HOPPER & NOZZLE AMPLIFIER

&

fl

PRESSURE
TO COOL

SPRING

ERROR ARM

PIVOT

MOMENT

--

0.5 IN.

AREA

-NULL

OUTPUT ERROR

ARM

TO
TRANSDUCER

Fig.

4-8

Moment-Balance Mechanism and Amplifier

balance must be

2M CW = f D

2M CCW =2M CW

00

2" = 200

lbs

2M ccw = PA

2M CCW =FD
100

X 2

lb

in.

2 D 2 = 200

f2

= 200

= 200

P =
Ib-in.

If

to

= 200

stant of

100

The

When

100

is

compressed

lbs in a

(4.6)

200
(0.5

Ib-in.

in.

2
)

in.

psi

psi,

the

the output arm moves clockwise

moments

are again equal.

The

dis-

tance the arm moves clockwise from null position or zero deviation position is
is

shown

2M CW = 2M CCW

spring, with a spring con-

lb/in.,

exert a force of
tion.

lbs

moment-balance mechanism
4-8.

the output of the transducer increases

450

until

Ib-in.

in figure

2M ccw
AD

P = 400

Ib-in.

T~1 in.

>

(4.5)

2M cw = f 2 D 2
f

Ib-in.

(4.4)
<

2M ccw =

POSITI ON

inch to

2M CW =

clockwise direc-

the controlled variable

is

(PA)D

at the

desired

operating value, the output of the


transducer must be

2M CW = 450

2M CCW = SM CW

lbs

X 0.5

in/

2M ccw = fD=(k x )D
36

in.

(1 in.)

= 225

Ibs-in.

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

Fig.

X=

2M ccw

225

kD

(100

Ib-in.

4-9

-=1.125

lb/in)

error

arm

Hopper and Nozzle Clearance

inches

SM CW

CW

= 175

"CCW

The output
inch

CW

ERROR GENERATORS

EXPERIMENT 4

will

Ibs-in.

= fD =

(kx)

2M ccw

(1.00 - 1.125) reducing the pressure

to the load.

175

Ibs-in.

kD
100

If

the output of the transducer decreases

350

to

psi,

distance the

from the

moments are again equal.


arm moves counterclockwise

null or zero deviation position

X = 0.875

inches

The output
inch

2M CW

"

CCW

is

2M ccw

cw

) 2

the output arm moves counter-

clockwise until the

The

move -.125

to the load.

= (PA) D

error

CCW (1-0.875),

arm

will

move 0.125

increasing the pressure

The clearance between the

and nozzle (point

imately calculated using the diagram

2M CW

= 350

psi

X 0.5

in.

(1

4-9.

in.)

MATERIALS
0-10 cm

0-100

Scale,

Supply,

Spring, approximately 3/4 inch

Valve, manual shut-off

diameter, 2 inch length

Pointer and indicator assembly

Bellows assembly,

Miscellaneous hoses, fittings, nuts

Regulator, air pressure 0-1 00 psi

Gage,

air pressure

inch diameter

0-1 00

air

and bolts

psi

37

pressure

flapper

to nozzle) can be approx-

psi

in figure

EXPERIMENT 4 ERROR GENERA TORS

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

PROCEDURE
1.

Construct the experimental setup shown

2.

Adjust the set-point until the spring length


pressed)

in figure

4-10.

approximately 2.0 inches

is

(slightly

com-

y
2.0"

0
BELLOWS

ADJUSTABLE
SET-POINT

SPRING
(A)

TOP VIEW

ML

77777777

1
)

POINTER

SCALE

BELLOW
POINTER

SPRING

SCALE

12

0 Q
|

L7T3U

3T
(B)

U U

10

cm

e
(J

ADJUSTABLE

SIDE VIEW

SET-POINT

C ITJOQ

ADJUSTMENT
SPRING

AIR

SUPPLY

REGULATOR

BELLOWS
POINTER

EH
MANUAL

5
7777777777/

'

(C)

VALVE
Fig.

DIAGRAM

4-10

Test Setup

38

SCALE

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMEN T 4

ERROR GENERA TORS

Deflection
Pressure

in

Fd
R

psi

cm

in lbs

F,
in lbs

10

10

20
30
40

50
60

70

80
90
4-11

Fig.

3.

The Data Table

Adjust the scale position, to the right or

left, until

the hairline pointer

is

over a convenient

number.
4.

Adjust the pressure regulator to 10

5.

Read and record the amount of deflection of the

psi as indicated

by the gage.
hairline pointer in the Data Table,

figure 4-11.
6.

Calculate the force at each pressure reading exerted by the bellows assembly using the

following equation where

is

the area of bellows:

R = PA.

7.

Record these

8.

Repeat steps

9.

Calculate the spring constant using the following equation:

in

4,

the Data Table as

5 and 6

in

10

psi

increments.

k =

where Af is the force

at

100

psi

Af/A v

and A^

39

is

the total deflection

in inches.

10.

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

ERROR GENERA TORS

EXPERIMENT 4

Calculate the force at each pressure reading exerted by the spring assembly using the

following equation:

f=k x
11.

Record these data

ANALYSIS GUIDE.

in

the Data Table as

F|_.

Using the data from the data table, plot the pressure versus the deflection

of the pointer. Plot a graph of the force exerted by bellows versus the force exerted by the spring.
Discuss

how the

device

in

the experiment

may be used

as an error detector.

PROBLEMS
1.

The

ratio

network

4-12 has the following values:

in figure

R5 = 350 ohms. Determine

R-|

= R2 =

R3

= R/j =

the thevenin equivalent circuit for the network assum-

ing the internal resistance of set-point device and the transducer are negligible.

Fig. 4-

2.

In

problem

1,

12

Ratio Network For Error Generation

the set-point

the error output volate,

is

2 volts and the transducer input

V^g.

40

is 1

volt.

Calculate

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS
3.

The simple

EXPERIMENT 4

ERROR GENERA TORS

force balance mechanism in figure 4-5 has a pressure of 25 psi applied.

Calculate the force required for the piston to be stopped.


4.

The simple moment balance mechanism


^2 f 25

5.

lbs.

figure 4-7 has a force f

-j

of 50 lbs and

Determine the distance from the pivot to force ^2 required for balance.

What type of feedback


figure

in

(positive or negative)

4-8?

ft.

41

is

used

in

the mechanism shown

in

experiment

INTRODUCTION. The

ELECTRONIC CONTROLLERS

*^

controller

the brain of an automatic control system.

is

determines the

It

difference between the desired condition and the actual condition and drives the actuator to

duce this difference to zero.

In this

experiment, an electronic amplifier used as a controller

re-

will

be examined.

DISCUSSION. An

electronic controller must

If

have sufficient sensitivity (gain) to respond to


a low-level error signal

ficient

suf-

Vacuum

tube, gas tube,

magnetic and solid state controllers (amplifiers)

The

are

commonly used throughout

overall

performance of

particularly with respect to gain

AC

must provide

a suitable

The

its

the

DC actuator is shown

Q2 form

DC

one direction.

produced and

motor-rotation

peramplifiers used to

are

Q3

a differential amplifier.

Q5

amplifier,

energizes a

or

Qg

DC motor

drive

respectively.

and

Q4

or

decreases, transistor

Q-j

equals the voltage measured from

the wiper of

R2 transistors Q-j and Q2 conduct

zero.

Q4

With zero base-to-emitter

aid cutoff

amplifiers

is

bias,

Q2

Q3

to

Q2

is

zero,

its

wiper

the

conducts

and

of

less

than

collector increases.

This energizes relay

motor to drive
is

in

causing the

the other direction until a

obtained.

The input potentiometer


gyro

could be a

R-|

input of an automatic missile control

system, or a variable set-point input of an

measured from

Q-j to the collector of

the voltage at

biases Q3.

measured from the

R-j

the collector of

the voltage

also zero.

at

balance

equally. Therefore, the voltage

Q-j

The

increases.

until

in

motor.

wiper of

is

in

such that the

is

The voltage from the collector of Q to the


1
collector of Q2 becomes positive and forward

Qg

control relay, which

the voltage

the

R2

continues

voltage

Q2 and

the power

Q5

mechanically

is

rotation

and

turn controls the direction of rotation of the

When

The

from the collector of

error signal and

figure 5-1 A.

sufficiently

closing of relay 2

which

voltage at the wiper of

If

in

Qg

drives

The

the follow-up potentiometer F^, to rotate

and

otuputto the actuator.

controller having a

Q4

motor,

the error signal

the

voltage

coupled through a gear train to the load and

or DC, the amplifier must be

suitable for the type of signal

62 and

collector decreases.

causes

is

frequency response. Since the error signal can


be either

conducts more than

voltage at

reverse biases Q3.

determined by the characteristics of the amplifier,

transistor Q-j

to energize relay 2.

industry.

control system

R-j increases,

from the collector of Q2 to collector of


becomes positive and forward biases Q4 and

output to satisfactorily drive the con-

system actuator.

trol

and must produce

the voltage at the wiper of

automatic process system.

The motor

is

the

system or process actuator, while the potenti-

is

and

ometer

and the output of both power

is

the process transducer.

shows the block diagram of the

zero.

control system or process.

42

Figure 5-1

DC

automatic

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT 5

Fig. 5-

1A

Electrical

ELECTRONIC CONTROLLERS

Schematic

DC
SET-POINT FOR
VARIABLE INPUT

TRANSDUCER OR

DC

DC

FOLLOW-UP

ERROR
DETECTOR

>

ACTUATOR DC

~7

L.
IB)

Fig. 5-

IB

BLOCK DIAGRAM

DC Error Signal
DC Actuator

Controller System with a

and a

43

/
/

AMPLIFIER

LOAD

EXPERIMENT 5

ELECTRONIC CONTROLLERS

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

OTWOMOTOR

PHASE

OUTPUT

Fig.

A
and an

controller having an

AC

actuator

is

shown

AC
in

5-2A

Electrical

error signal

of

figure 5-2A.

and Q2 are preamplifiers. Q3 is a driver


amplifier that drives the output power ampliQ4.

Q4

is

SCRs

that drive the control winding of a

two-phase servo motor.

The servo motor

is

mechanically coupled to the load and to the

Q-|

fier

Schematic

rotor of the control transformer.

transformer-coupled to a pair

With the control transmitter and the con-

44

ELECTRONIC CONTROLLERS

EXPERIMENTS

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

INPUT OR
REFERENCE

AC
AMPLIFIER

AC
AC

TRANSDUCER
AC

LOAD

ACTUATOR AC

>

ERROR DETECTOR

(B)

BLOCK DIAGRAM

Fig.

5-2B

Controller System with an

and an

AC Error Signal

AC Actuator
and the voltage induced

trol

transformersynchro rotors at zero mechan-

tion,

ical

degrees, the voltage induced into the rotor

transformer motor winding decreases to zero.

windings of the control transformer

is

zero.

Under these conditions the speed of the twophase servo motor

is

rotated

counterclockwise, an error signal


in

is

rotated

veloped

in

the rotor of the control transmitter


clockwise, an

error signal

is

de-

the rotor winding of the control

transformer.

This

AC

error signal

is

amplified

by Q, Q2, Q3, and Q4. The output of the


power amplifier Q4 is transformer-coupled to
the gates of the SCRs.

The SCRs control the

is

180 out of phase with

the signal that was generated with the clock-

wise rotation.

This error signal

is

amplified

and coupled to the gates of the SCRs

in

such

manner that the voltage developed across the


control phase of the motor is 90 leading the
a

excitation voltage.

causes the motor

The

This phase relationship

to rotate in the other direc-

motor drives the

direction of rotation and speed of the control

tion.

motor.

rotor of the control transformer

rotation of the

in a

counter-

clockwise direction and the voltage induced

The voltage induced

SCRs

of Ti fires the

in

into the secondary

is

by 90 degrees.

in

the rotor winding decreases to zero.

such a manner that the

The

voltage developed across the control winding

of the motor

is

the rotor windings of the control

transformer that

When

the control

Should the rotor of the control transmitter be


developed

also zero.

in

shaft of the control transmitter

is

the

leading the excitation voltage

variable reference or input to the control sys-

This phase relationship causes

tem.

the motor to rotate in one direction.

Since

The motor

is

the system actuator, while

the control transformer

is

the system follow-

mechanically geared to the rotor

up synchro or transducer. Figure 5-2B shows

of the control transformer, the rotation of the

the block diagram of the automatic control

motor drives the rotor

system.

the motor

is

in

the clockwise direc-

EXPERIMENT 5,

ELECTRONIC CONTROLLERS

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

REFERENCE

EXCITATION VOLTAGE

PHASE-SENSITIVE DETECTOR

5-3

Fig.

Controller System with

AC Error Signal and a DC Actuator

Utilizing a Phase-Sensitive Detector

A
The

AC

controller having an

input and a

AC

DC actuator

shown

is

have conducted more current than diode

error signal

in

amplifier and transducer

the usual

is

type, but employs a phase-sensitive detector

DC

to produce a

voltage

Both diodes,

polarity de-

polarity

AC

error signal.

the other direction.

and D2, conduct during the

D-|

half-cycle of excitation

transformer

T2

error signal

is

when the

duced voltage
polarity

in

When

shown,

the secondary

diode

current than diode


builds

DC

T-j

the

the polarity of

T2

is

opposite

shown, both diodes would be reverse

biased. Capacitors

C1 and C2 maintain the

DC

cycles.

in-

dary of

more

The excitation voltage

T2 should be

greater

in

at the secon-

amplitude than

the error voltage induced into the secondary

greater charge

of

Tv

than on capacitor

C-|

output

shown

in

the

This voltage polarity causes the

DC

actuator voltage to rotate

when

in

During the half-cycles of

output essentially constant during these half

has the

conducts

D-j

D2.

upon capacitor

C2; hence, the


figure.

that

applied to transformer Ti, the

diodes do not conduct equally.

and the motor would have rotated

excitation

polarity of

When an AC

as shown.

is

a result, the charge

whose

pends upon the phase of the

D-j.

on capacitor C2 would
have exceeded that of C-|. The DC output
voltage would have been of the opposite
As

figure 5-3.

is

in

as

one

direction.

the error voltage applied to transformer

had been of opposite phase, diode

Direct-coupled amplifier stages

used

If

in

that produces a

T-j

D2 would

may be

conjunction with an error detector

DC

output.

Such amplifiers

tend to be unstable with respect to tempera-

46

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENTS

ELECTRONIC CONTROLLERS

AC EXCITATION

AMPLIFIER

AC

ACTUATOR
AC

>

MECHANICAL CHOPPER

A
Fig.

5-4

Controller System with a

DC Error Signal and an AC Actuator

Utilizing a

ture and supply voltage variations.

error signal to an

AC

Chopper

former winding. When the reed

For this

reason, choppers are used to convert the

DC

position, the current flows

signal, permitting the use

short time later the reed

tion

AC

DC

having a

and

error signal

shown

is

the upper

in

upward through

the upper half of the transformer winding.

of R-C or transformer-coupled amplifier stages.


controller

LOAD

is

in

the lower posi-

and the current flows downward through

5-4.

the lower half of the transformer winding. This

The chopper can be an electromechanical device or an electronic circuit. Sometimes the

periodic reversal of current direction through

the primary of the transformer causes, an

chopper

voltage to be induced into the secondary.

an

actuator

is

is

called a modulator.

in

figure

The

sinusoidal

excitation applied to the driving coil of the

AC
The

amplitude and phase of the square wave are

chopper causes a metal reed to vibrate between

dependent on the amplitude and polarity of

two fixed

the

The contacts

contacts.

are con-

nected to opposite ends of the transformer.

The

DC

error voltage

is

it

error signal.

vibrating reed rests

known

applied between the

reed and the center tap of the transformer.

the reed vibrates,

DC

As

The

length of time the

on the fixed contact

as the dwell time.

After the

voltage has been converted to an

form,

converts the error voltage

alternately to the opposite ends of the trans-

it

AC

error

wave-

can be applied to a conventional

amplifier.

47

DC

is

AC

EXPERIMENTS

ELECTRONIC CONTROLLERS

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS
AC EXCITATION

AC EXCITATION

rJUHSiASlSiSU

RING-TYPE

DEMODULATOR
DC ACTUATOR
RING-TYPE

MODULATOR

OR ELECTRONIC CHOPPER

LOAD

L
Fig.

Controller System with a

5-5

Another method that could be used

shown

in figure

In this circuit the

is

converts the

DC

and fed to

to AC.

The

AC

a ring demodulator.

DC Actuator

amplifiers with feedback exhibit characteristics

DC

similar to electronic amplifiers with feedback,

and for

this reason, a study of electronic

am-

am-

plifiers

with feedback

Fig-

The

ring

ure 5-6 shows an amplifier

DC

out-

signal

demodulator produces the required

and a

is

fed to a ring modulator that

error signal

plified

5-5.

DC Error Signal

is

(3,

be pursued.

will

of the output voltage

is

in

which

a fraction,

fed back and added

to the input.

put to the actuator.


Hydraulic, pneumatic, and other types of

With

negative

feedback,

an

amplifier

AMPLIFIER

INPUT

+V

OUTPUT

^
J

Fig.

5-6

Amplifier Circuit Using Feedback

48

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

Should the gain of the amplifier change

having a high value of gain can be used in a

way

ELECTRONIC CONTROLLERS

EXPERIMENT 5

that will exhibit parameters that are

to

in-

dependent of the amplifying device and supply

500

(a drastic

the amplifier circuit gain

5-6, the feedback voltage

|3

may oppose

the

= e " e
f
in

500 =
9.8
51

Therefore, the gain of an amplifier circuit

with negative feedback

But

and
ef

value of

is

500
+500(0.1)

A' =

input voltage to give

new

Referring again to figure

voltage variations.

reduction), the

is

practically constant

is

approximately

= 0e o
(5.2)

Therefore,

Negative feedback also modifies the input


e

= e " 0e
in
o
a

impedance of the amplifier.

and
e

jn

is

jn

=in

'in

andl in =
.

'in

Rn in

But with feedback,

Ae in

e
e

Rj

- 0e

+A)3) =

(1

out feedback

R in =

=
Q + A0e o Ae jn

assume the input resistance with-

= Ae
a
(e

Referring again

to figure 5-6,

= e in " $e o

= e - 0(Ae )
in
a

+ A0
Collecting terms and solving for

ej

n,

but
e

jn

= e
a
e

= A' (the stage gain with feedback)

R in "
,

-in

(1

+/3A)

(1+0A)
=

(1+0A)R jn

(5.3)

R in
A' =
1

(5.1)
Aj3

An
of 0.1

An
of 0.1

is

of 1000.

amplifier circuit with a feedback ratio

gain of the amplifier circuit

amplifier circuit with a feedback ratio

used with an amplifier that has a gain

1000 and an input resistance of 1 kilohm.


The input resistance of the amplifier circuit is
of

used with an amplifier that has a gain

The

is

is

R' = [1

A' =
1

1000
= 1_000 = 9.9
+ 1000(0.1)
101

R'

49

+0.1(1000)] 1kfi

= 101 kft

EXPERIMENTS

ELECTRONIC CONTROLLERS

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

Fig.

5-7

Operation Amplifier Having Proportional Control

Thus, the input impedance of an amplifier


with negative voltage feedback
a factor of (1

is

increased

by

/3A).

(5.4)

An

operational amplifier circuit used to

obtain proportional control

is

shown

in figure

The amplifier has

a high value of gain,

usually several thousand.

This means that an

5-7.

extremely small variation

move the output through

in

Thus, the output of the circuit

input voltage will


range.

its full

To

is

many

instances

it is necessary to determine the algebraic sum of two or more sig-

hoff's current law.

-R f/R jn
sometimes termed the proportionality con-

In

in

= 0

nals.

Figure 5-8 shows a

which

is

receiving

the circuit

two

summing amplifier
The output of

inputs.

is

Therefore,

R
+

in

pro-

stant or scale factor.

de-

termine the output voltage of the circuit, assume the voltage e is zero and apply Kirck-

is

portional to -Rf/Rj timesthe input.


n

Rf

p:

i
i-R-e
2

(5.5)

= 0
Thus, e
0

O-

-AAAr

e9

O-

AAAr

is

the

or difference of the inputs.

-Oe

"2

Fig.

sum

5-8

A Summing Amplifier
50

EXPERIMENTS

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

ELECTRONIC CONTROLLERS

AAAr

-O

in

Fig.

some

In

circuits,

5-9

An

Integrating Amplifier

the output will vary

Therefore,

with the time integral of the input. This type


circuit,
is

termed an integrator or

shown

figure 5-9.

in

circuit can be calculated

reset amplifier,

e in
-4

The output of the

if

= 0

by
-in

Mr.

de o

+C-JT
dt

= 0

But

de.

= -C

dt

=
de
e dt
o
r-jC
;

-in
'in

r.

(5.6)

and

Thus, e Q
If

'f-

dF

is

the time integral of the input.

the capacitor and resistor in figure 5-9

are interchanged as

AAAr

i.

in
e.

in

O-

Fig. 5-

JO

Differentiating Amplifier

shown

in figure

5-10, the

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

ELECTRONIC CONTROLLERS

EXPERIMENTS

If

Fig.

5-11

Proportional Plus Reset Plus Rate

Amplifier System

circuit

becomesa

The output
is

differentiator or rate circuit.

f=

signal of a differentiating amplifier

de n

'

dt

R.,

proportional to the rate of change of the

The output of the


determined by
input signal.

circuit can be

-R

0 =

Thus, the output


i-j

de in
;

= 0

tive or rate of

an

In

is

dt

proportional to the deriva-

change of the input.

optimum control

tion of proportional, reset

rate action

combination of the foregoing

shown

dt

and

combinais

This effect can be obtained by using

desired.

de in

circuit, a

in figure

circuits as

5-11.

MATERIALS
2

DC power

supplies,

0-40V

Audio generator, sine - square


2 Diodes, IN457 or equivalent
1

ohm CT

Resistors,

Resistor, 18kft

Resistor,

3 Capacitors, 100juF 6 volts

2 Transistors, 2N398 or equivalent


Transformer, 200 ohm primary
1

and 500

1/2W
22kfZ 1/2W

Capacitor,

Oscilloscope

juF

12 volts

secondary

10kfi 1/2W

5 Resistors, 1kft 1/2W

PROCEDURE
1.

Construct the experimental circuit shown

2.

Adjust the frequency of the audio generator to 400 Hertz and the amplitude to a

in figure

5-1 2A.

maximum.
3.

Connect the

DC power

supply as shown

chopper and adjust the voltage

at point

in figure

A to
52

volts.

5-1 2B to the input of the electronic

EXPERIMENTS

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

ELECTRONIC CONTROLLERS

AUDIO OSCILLATOR
TEST CIRCUIT

(A)

1juF

X
IB)

ft
SQUARE

DC
SOURCE

WAVE
GENERATOR

INPUT CIRCUIT

(CI

Fig. 5-

DIFFERENTIATING CIRCUIT

Test Setup

12

4.

Measure and record the voltage and waveforms

5.

Repeat steps 3 and 4 for

6.

Calculate and record the gain of the impedance matching stage using the equation,

DC

input voltages of

at points A, B,
.0,

in

7.

Calculate and record the gain of the preamplifier.

8.

Calculate and record the gain of the entire system.

53

C and

D.

0.5, 0.0, -0.5, -1 .5,

and -2.0

volts.

EL ECTRONIC

EXPERIMENT 5

Connect the differentiating

9.

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

CONTROLS
circuit

shown

5-12C

in figure

to the input of the electronic

chopper.

Adjust the frequency of the square wave generator to 20 Hertz and the output voltage to

10.

2 volts peak.
1 1

Measure and record the voltage and waveforms

Repeat steps

12.

6,

C and

D.

-1.5

DC

7 and 8.

+2

Input Voltage

at points A, B,

DC

DC

+1

DC

+0.5

DC

13

The Data Table

-0.5

DC

+2 PK

DC

-2

Impedance Matching
Stage Gain
Preamplifier Stage

Gain

System Gain

Fig. 5-

ANALYSIS GUIDE. How

can a

DC

purpose of the electronic chopper?

impedance matching stage

from

utilized?

error signal

How
Why is

from

a transducer be amplified?

What

does the electronic chopper operate?

is

Why

PROBLEMS

2.

The input error signal to an AC amplifier


volts, what is the gain of the amplifier?
The AC

amplifier in problem

is

0.2 volts.

Without feedback, the

AC

If

the output voltage

is

10

has a feedback circuit added that has a feedback

Determine the gain of the amplifier

ratio of 0.02.
3.

amplifier in problem

kilohms. Using the feedback factor

in

problem

2,

circuit.

has an input resistance of 1.5

what

is

the input resistance of the

amplifier?
4.

The

amplifier circuit in figure 5-7 has the following components:

Rf = 20k2 and an input


5.

The

signal,

jn

of

volt.

R-j

= 10k2,

Calculate the output voltage.

5-10 has the following components: R-j = 1 megohm,


and an input signal, ej n = 2 sin cot. Determine the output voltage

amplifier circuit in figure

C = 0.5

juF

equation.
6.

The amplifier

C =

circuit in figure

5-9 has the following components:

second.

R-|

megohm,

wave voltage with an amplitude of 10 volts and a


Sketch the output voltage waveform versus time.

0.5 /iF and an input square

time duration of

an

the gain of the impedance matching stage different

a conventional amplifier?

1.

is

the

54

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENTS ELECTRONIC CONTROLS


(DC input = + 2V)

Procedure step 4:

A TO GROUND

TO GROUND

1
1

l]

JIM

tilt

II

CTO GROUND

D TO

GROUND

Ull

-m-i-

Mil

1
1

II

Mil

Fig. 5-

Mil

14

mi]

JIM

]i

Mil] JIM

The Results

-H++-

lilt

-H-H-

II

EXPERIMENT 5

A TO GROUND

TO GROUND

C TO

GROUND

D TO

GROUND

MM

Mil

INI

II

MM

F/fir.

5-

14

r jiii

1
1

-H-H- -H-H- -H-H-

(DC input of

5:

1 1

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

ELECTRONIC CONTROLS
Procedure step

r JIM

.OV)

Mil

II

-H-H- -H-H- -H-H- -H-H- -H-H

nil" JIM

The Results (Cont'd)

56

II

-H-H-

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT 5
Procedure step 5:

A TO GROUND

TO GROUND

CTO GROUND

D TO

GROUND

MM

till

H4H

MM

MM MM MM MM

(DC input = 0.5V)

till"

'Mil

MM MM MM

Mil

\\\\

MM

H-H

mm" "mm

-H-H-

F/ff.

5-14

ELECTRONIC CONTROLS

"mm

H-H

MM MM MM

MM MM MM MM

The Results (Cont'd)

MM

MM

-H-H-

M M

-H-H-

MM

EXPERIMENTS

ELECTRONIC CONTROLS

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS
(DC input = OV)

Procedure step 5:

A TO GROUND

TO GROUND

II

MM

MM MM mi" Jill

Mil

CTO GROUND

MM MM MM

D TO GROUND

MM MM MM

Fig. 5-

14

II

II

Mil"

MM

II

Mil"

MM

mm"

MM MM

The Results (Cont'd)

58

II

till

MM MM

MM MM

II II

II

1
1

II

II II

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT 5
Procedure step

A TO GROUND

TO GROUND

CTO GROUND

D TO

GROUND

MM' H-H

II

-H-H-

II

mi MM

(DC input = -0.5V)

5:

II

II

MM

II

Mil

5-

74

ELECTRONIC CONTROLS

11

Mil" Jill

Mil

Mil" +H+

MM" j

II

Mil" j

II

MM

The Results (Cont'd)

59

II

MM MM

II

-H-H-

II

II II

MM

II It

11

EXPERIMENTS

ELECTRONIC CONTROLS
Procedure step

A TO GROUND

till

It

TO GROUND

till

CTO GROUND

-nit

(DC input =

5:

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

lilt

till"

Mil

-1 .5V)

Jill

III!

Mil

D TO GROUND

till

F/fif.

tilt

iih

MM

5-

14

JIM

tin" JIM

II

Mil" "till

Mil

The Results (Cont'd)

60

II

II

It

II

Procedure step

A TO GROUND

ELECTRONIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENTS

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

H-H HI

MM

(DC input = -2.0V)

5:

Mil" '+H+

II

II

II

II II

INI

TO GROUND

CTO GROUND

H-H

GROUND

llll

D TO

HI

till

lltl

Jill

Mil" j

nn" j

II

II

Mil

llll

F/flr.

5-/4

Tfte /?esi//fs (Cont'd)

5/

1
1

ii

MM MM

-H-H-

-H-H-

EXPERIMENTS

Procedure step

ATO GROUND

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

ELECTRONIC CONTROLS

TO GROUND

C TO

GROUND

D TO

GROUND

H-H

mi

MM

1 1

(AC input = 2

Hit

F/'sr.

5-/4

peak at 20 Hz)

nil

MM* JIM

H-H

>

volts

mm" "mm

MM

II

The Results (Cont'd)

62

-H-H-

II II

II

experiment

INTRODUCTION. A

large

number of

PNEUMATIC CONTROLLERS

controllers use compressed air as the control

medium.

In

the presence of explosive or inflammable vapors, pneumatic systems are safer than electronic ones.
In this

experiment

DISCUSSION.

pneumatic controller

will

be examined.
the flapper to

Pneumatically-operated con-

automatic

move toward the

nozzle.

This

systems are

causes an increase of pressure at the nozzle,

simple and require very little maintenance.


The system provides high power amplification
using small amounts of compressed air.

allowing the bellows to expand, opening the

trollers

for

control

poppet

more

valve.

air to

Opening the poppet valve allows

escape to the atmosphere, reducing

the output pressure.

is shown in
The system utilizes a combination
flapper and nozzle mechanism and a pneumatic
relay. The mode of operation is as follows. If

simple two-step controller

figure 6-1.

the controlled variable


sired value, the

is

If

the controlled variable

is

causes the flapper to

greater than the de-

nozzle.

move away from the

This causes a decrease of pressure at

the nozzle, allowing the bellows to collapse.

SET-POINT

TO TRANSDUCER

2 AIR SUPPLY

PILOT RELAY

LEAK TO
ATMOSPHERE
6-1

than the

desired value, the output of the transducer

output of the transducer causes

Fig.

less

OUTPUT
PRESSURE

Pneumatic On-Off Controller

63

EXPERIMENT 6 PNEUMA TIC CONTROL L ERS

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

FEEDBACK
SET-POINT

SUPPLY
PRESSURE

6 PIVOT

vwi

OUTPUT

FLAPPER

PRESSURE

vVWI

RESTRICTOR

TO CONTROLLED
VARIABLE
AIR SUPPLY

FLAPPER & NOZZLE AMPLIFIER

(A)

6-2

Fig.

closing the

poppet

valve reduces the

air

provide the

for a very small

system

movement

very narrow proportional band; hence,

it

proportional

The

system with

sensitivity

point.

6-2 can be used as

controller.

The operation

creases, the bellows

away from the

a proportional
is

as follows:

value.

A flapper

in-

nozzle, allowing

more

air to

This action

decrease in output pressure causes

the bellows to collapse, moving the flapper

diameter of about 0.010 inch. The nozzle has

about 0.020 inches.

type

When

reduces the output pressure to the set-point

supplied to

the nozzle through a restrictor, which has a

a diameter of

in

expand, moving the flapper

be vented to the atmosphere.


is

shown

amplifier

the controlled variable (output pressure)

is

6- 2 A.

Air at a constant pressure

The

6-2B.

in

can be adjusted by

The flapper-nozzle

simple flapper-nozzle amplifier

in figure

related to the flapper-

can

figure

shown

is

moving the flapper pivot

The flapper-nozzle combination in various


forms is the basis of most pneumatic con-

The output

range of output.

be used as a two-step controller.

trollers.

full

nozzle clearance by the curve

obtained

of the flapper.

a proportional

is

FLAPPER-NOZZLE CHARACTERISTICS

pressure of the device

escaping to the

is

0.004

0.003

The Flapper-Nozzle Amplifier

Closing the poppet

amount of

change of output pressure

full

relay

valve.

(B)

increasing the output pressure.

atmosphere,

0.002

0.001

NOZZLE CLEARANCE INCH

toward the nozzle, reducing the amount of

is

vented to the atmosphere.

positioned against the nozzle opening in accor-

air

dance with the transducer output and the

increases the output pressure to the set-point

point.

The nozzle back pressure

proportional

to

the

value.

inversely

between the

distance

nozzle opening and the flapper.

motion of about 0.002 inch

is

set-

is

The proportional

displacement amplification

flapper

to

1 ).

The

64

sensitivity
is

and the

very high (1000

flapper-nozzle amplifier

as a displacement type.

sufficient to

This action

is

classified

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT 6 PNEUMA TIC CONTROL L ERS

ADJUSTABLE RESTRICTOR

OUTPUT

FLAPPER

A - POSITIVE FEEDBACK CHAMBER


B - SET-POINT CHAMBER
C - TRANSDUCER INPUT CHAMBER
D - NEGATIVE FEEDBACK CHAMBER

Fig.

Proportional Force Type Controller

force-type proportional controller

shown

in

figure 6-3.

is

The force type con-

pressure are equal, the entire section

anced and the flapper

is

bal-

is

stationary.

operates by converting the controlled

troller

variable
ces.

6-3

- NOZZLE-BACK PRESSURE CHAMBER


- EXHAUST CHAMBER
G - OUTPUT PRESSURE CHAMBER
H - SUPPLY CHAMBER
E

and set-point into corresponding

for-

This type controller provides greater

flexibility in achieving various

kinds of con-

trol action.

The
usually

the pressure from the transducer

in-

creases as a result of an increase in the value

of the process variable, the increased pressure

on diaphragm 2 and
to the right on diaphragm 3.
Diaphragm 3
has twice the area as diaphragm 2 and the result
exerts a force to the left

set-point pressure signal, which

is

supplied by a pressure regulator,

is

applied to the set-point

If

chamber

(B).

The

a movement of the flapper to the right. This


movement reduces the clearance between the
is

chamber (A)
on diaphragm 1.
The pressure in the negative feedback chamber
(D) exerts a force to the left on diagraphm 3.
The two forces are balanced since both
chambers obtain their pressure from the same

action closes the poppet valve and forces the

source, the output pressure chamber. Thus,

if

valve stem to the right, thus opening the supply

the set-point pressure and the transducer input

port and permitting air to enter the output

pressure in the positive feedback

flapper and nozzle, increasing the pressure in

exerts a force to the right

the nozzle back-pressure chamber (E).

The

increased pressure in the nozzle back-pressure

chamber forces diaphragms 4 and 5 to the


right against the action of the spring.

This

EXPERIMENT 6 PNEUMA TIC CONTROLLERS

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

PROPORTIONAL BELLOWS
D-

VAA

PIVOT

A/V>

VARIABLE
RESTRICTOR

/77777T/

INPUT

FIXED RESTRICTOR

TO
TRANSDUCER

&4

Fig.

chamber

pressure

Proportional Plus Derivative Control

The pressure

(G).

output chamber increases and exerts


to the left

on diaphragm

feedback chamber

its

The pressure continues to

on diaphragm

diaphragm 3 are equal and


are equal.

to

its

At

this

(2)

off.

but the pressure


slowly.

lows

The

vary

cause the

The

by the

in

flapper positions will

cause the output pressure to change suddenly,

the force to the

chamber shut

The change

able.

left

pressure exerted by the output will

will

direction of the change in the controlled vari-

on

original position with the supply of air

to the output-pressure

the controlled variable suddenly

direction of change will be determined

on diaphragm 5
point the valve stem returns

and the force to the

If

flapper to step further open or closed.

3.

increase until (1)


left

The addition of the

figure 6-4.

changes value, the transducer

pressure increases

a force to the left

the force to the right and the force to

right

feedback.

Since the negative

5.

in

variable restrictor results in a delayed negative

directly coupled to the

is

output pressure chamber,


and exerts

shown

the

in

a force

is

in

the bellows can only change

The slower

pressure change

due to the variable

capacity of the bellows.

in

restrictors

the

bel-

and the

This delays and

re-

duces the feedback, and, since the feedback

in

is

direct relationship with the transducer input.

negative, the

For any given output

the transducer signal. Thus, the delayed nega-

signal,

the pressure

in

the positive feedback chamber will depend on

tive

output pressure

is

higher and leads

feedback produces a derivative response.

the ratio between the fixed orifice restriction

and the adjustable

orifice restriction.

With the

adjustable restriction fully closed, there


positive feedback

proportional band

its

The

no

is

very wide.

derivative time

ment of the

feedback and the proportional band

the product of the

and the

capacitance of the bellows. Therefore, adjust-

With the adis

is

resistance of the feedback restriction

from the output, and the

justable restriction fully opened, there


tive

is

restriction adjusts the derivative

posi-

time.
is

at

narrowest.

A
A

proportional-derivative

controller

proportional-integral controller

sentially a proportional controller

is

66

is

es-

with a posi-

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT 6 PNEUMA TIC CONTROLLERS

RESTRICTOR

////////

POSITIVE

^y-INTEGRAL

FEEDBACK"

////////

PROPORTIONAL

NEGATIVE
FEEDBACK

yjyy

*/wsl
77777777

77777777

SUPPLY
INPUT

TO
TRANSDUCER

OUTPUT

_^<J>

SET-POINT

ADJUST

Fig.

tive

feedback and

a restrictor.

6-5

Proportional Plus Integral Control

When

the trans-

flapper to be

moved

closer to the nozzle as

ducer input suddenly increases, the flapper-

the integral bellows lengthens and will further

to-nozzle clearance decreases and the output

increase the output pressure.

pressure

increases.

The output pressure

continues until the pressure

is

applied directly to the negative feedback bel-

is

which repositions the flapper and stabilizes the output pressure at a new value. But,
lows,

its
is

equal and the controlled variable returns to


desired value.

The proportional

pivot,

commences to change. This change

value of the restrictor

will

pressure

be proportional to the duration of the

and the

integral

time
in

adjusted by the

is

the positive feedback

line.

deviation since the bellows acts as a capacitance

which

sensitivity

adjusted by selecting the position of the

the pressure in the positive feedback bellows


in

The above action


the two bellows

in

The optimum

combines pro-

controller

charged through a variable restrictor.


Thus, the rate of change of the pressure in the

tion.

bellows

portional-plus-reset-plus-rate controller.

is

is

portional,

proportional to the pressure differ-

integral

and derivative control

This type of controller

is

termed

ence across the restrictor and the capacitance

method of obtaining the three actions is

of the bellows.

in

This action

will

cause the

ac-

a pro-

The
shown

figure 6-6.

INTEGRAL
BELLOWS

PROPORTIONAL &
DERIVATIVE BELLOWS
RESTRICTOR

AIR SUPPLY

TRANSDUCER
INPUT

Fig.

6-6

OUTPUT
Proportional-Plus Reset-Plus Rate Controller

67

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT 6 PNEUMA TIC CONTROLLERS

Fig.

Self-Operated Controller

self-operated controller, usually termed

a pressure regulator,

The

6-7

regulator

is

The

valve) type.

is

shown

in

is

low the diaphragm moves downward be-

cause the spring force

figure 6-7.

dead-end (contains
set-point

is

ward

a relief

force,

The

stops

when the

diaphragm measures the output pressure, and

force

downward.

the sensor

is

flow of

the force acting on the valve plug.

The manipulated

variable

is

the output pressure.

When

When

the flow rate past

the valve plug, and the controlled variable

greater than the up-

The movement

the area of the diaphragm.

determined by

the adjustment of the spring compression.

is

due to the pressure acting against

air

force upward

and

is

equal to the

This action increases the


raises the

the output pressure

output pressure.
is

high, the valve

plug reduces the flow of air and lowers the

is

output pressure.

the output pressure

MATERIALS
1

Spring, approximately 1/8

X 3/4 in.
2 Pressure gages 0-30

in. dia.

long

psi

Spring balance, 0-3000 grams


Spring balance, 0-1000 grams
Air cylinder, 1 in. dia. X 4 in. stroke

Manual shut-off valve

1
1

Air-regulated supply,

Copper

Copper adapter
flare to

0.25

in.

0-30

0.25

fitting,

in.

psi

ID

0.25

in.

ID

NPT

3 Copper T-type fitting


1

Flapper arm 9

in.

Miscellaneous nuts, bolts and tubing

PROCEDURE
1.

flare nut,

Construct the experimental set-up shown

in figure

68

6-8.

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT 6 PNEUMA TIC CONTROLLERS

VARIABLE
RESTRICTOR

'

(A) Schematic

NOZZLE

(b)

Fig.

6-8

REGULATOR

Flapper and Nozzle Assembly

Pneumatic Amplifier Test Setup

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT 6 PNEUMA TIC CONTROL L ERS

2.

Adjust the regulator to 15

3.

With the nozzle completely closed by the flapper, adjust variable restrictor until the
output force (f 0 is 2500 grams. Do not change the setting of the variable restrictor for
the remainder of the experiment.

psi (P-j).

4.

Decrease the input force adjustment until the force output

5.

Read and record the force input

6.

Increase the input force

7.

Read and record the input force

8.

Calculate and record the amplifier input force

the Data Table as f x

in

10.

Repeat steps 6 and 7

in

zero grams.

by 25 grams.
(f
i

),

the output force


(f
j

9.

is

=
in

f
1

n)

(f

Qut and the pressure, P 2


)

by

" fx

25 gram increments

until the

output force

is

2500 grams.

Calculate and record the force gain (Af) of the amplifier by using

A ff

=^l
f-

'in

f
1

in

0 grams

out

0 grams

Af
0

Pi

15

psi

15

psi

15

psi

15

psi

15

psi

15

psi

15

psi

15

psi

15 psi

15
Fig.

ANALYSIS GUIDE.

6-9

The Data Table

Plot a graph of force input versus force output.

output versus force output.

psi

Plot a graph of pressure

Discuss the relationship of the amplifier gain with output pressure

and force.

70

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT 6 PNEUMA TIC CONTROLLERS

PROBLEMS
Draw

a diagram

showing the addition of negative feedback to the amplifier system

in

2.

diagram showing the addition of positive feedback to the amplifier system


figure 6-8A.

in

3.

Redesign the amplifier

in figure

6-8A

to incorporate rate action.

4.

Redesign the amplifier

in figure

6-8A

to incorporate reset action.

5.

Draw the

1
.

figure 6-8A.

Draw

electrical

analogy to the amplifier

71

in figure

6-8A.

experiment

In this

DISCUSSION.
troller

is

pneumatic

Hydraulically-operated controllers provide great power and positiveness of

INTRODUCTION.
action.

experiment we

Essentially,

fulid

HYDRAULIC CONTROLLERS

can

be

is

closed.

vented

the

to

electric

atmosphere, but a hydraulic system employs


a

sump

system and

relief valve

is

used to prevent the system from

principal

methods of operation

and the four-way valve control. In both


cases, the input to the controller must be a

trol

The accumulator contains


filled

well

of hydraulic controllers are the jet-pipe con-

An accumulator can be connected to the outlet side of the pump to serve as a reservoir of
diaphragm with one side

The system must be

insure satisfactory operation.

The two

causes the viscosity of the fluid to change.

stops.

exceeding a given operating value. A hydraulic


supply system is shown in figure 7-1

Since the

motor and pump run continuously, it may be


necessary to employ an oil cooler as heat

high pressure fluid.

motor

filtered to

that collects the return fluid from the


serves to dissipate heat.

characteristics of this type of controller.

dred pounds per square inch. The accumulator


can run the system for a short time after the

hydraulic con-

system that

system

examine some of the

will

mechanical force to position memeber

with gas,

controller.

usually nitrogen, at a pressure of several hun-

in

the

Also, a steady supply of hydraulic

ACCUMULATOR
DIAPHRAGM
RELIEF VALVE

RESERVOIR

ELECTRIC

ELECTRICAL
SOURCE

-+-+-+--

MOTOR

-t-

OUTPUT

FILTER

HYDRAULIC
PUMP

34

SUMP
~+ H-^-T-t-"-*

FILTER

Fig. 7- 1

Hydraulic Supply System

72

EXPERIMENT 7 HYDRAULIC CONTROLLERS

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

PISTON

POWER
PISTON

TO POWER ACTUATOR

ORIFICES

MECHANICAL
INPUT FROM
TRANSDUCER

JET-PIPE

PIVOT

PIVOT

HYDRAULIC
PRESSURE
SUPPLY

n rTO SUMP
Fig.

7-2

Jet-Pipe Hydraulic Controller with Proportional

Controls

fluid

under pressure must be used. Hydraulic

able

action or

any combination of the three

greater than the desired value, the jet

is

pipe swings to the right and increases the pres-

controllers providing proportional, rate or reset

sure

re-

on the

moves to the

piston

A proportional

hydraulic controller

ing jet-pipe control

High

pressure

is

shown

hydraulic

in

fluid

back force to the

utiliz-

figure 7-2.
is

pivoted to permit

swing approximately 0.006

inches.

it

When

on

side of the cylinder

the

left side

The
is

pressure

on the

arm provides

a propor-

On-Off, or two position control,

very rapid

treme

equal to the fluid pressure im-

pinging on orifice B.

proportional

band adjustment.

complished

jet-pipe such that the fluid pressure impinging


is

is

pipe

to

mechanical input and the feedback position

orifice

This

jet

the

at the desired value, the

is

increasing the feed-

and returns the

point on the feedback

is

controlled variable

left,

left,

The

left side.

Changing the location of the pivot

action.

tional

jet-pipe

on the

to a neutral position.

pumped

through the jet-pipe.

The

right side of the piston while de-

creasing the pressure

sponses are readily available.

is

ac-

the hydraulic controller by a

movement of the piston to its exwhen the measured value


slight amount from the set-point.

positions

changes a

right

in

equal to the pressure on

of the cylinder.

piston does not move.

If

Proportional plus integral action can be

Therefore, the

the controlled

accomplished with the addition of an auxiliary

vari-

73

EXPERIMENT 7 HYDRAULIC CONTROLLERS

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

POWER

TO

PISTON

ACTUATOR

ORIFICES

AUXILIARY
PISTON

MECHANICAL
INPUT

ADJUSTABLE BYPASS

HYDRAULIC
PRESSURE
SUPPLY

TO SUMP

Fig.

7-3

Jet-Pipe Hydraulic Controller with Proportional Plus Integral Control

piston with an adjustable bypass. This system


is

shown

able

is

7-3.

the controlled vari-

through the restrictor and allows the auxiliary

move to the right. This causes the


jet pipe to move to the left. This again causes
the power piston to move to the right. This

pipe swings to the


sure

across the auxiliary piston causes fluid to flow

greater than the desired value, the jet

in figure

on the

left

left side

If

and increases the

pres-

of the power piston, thus

decreasing the pressure on the


auxiliary piston.

piston to

left

continuing action depends upon the time

side of the

The power piston moves

to

gral

the right and causes fluid to flow into the

of the input mechanical signal and

The proportional

integral action.

The auxiliary
increases the force on

inteis

an

sensitivity

right side of the auxiliary piston.

can be adjusted by moving the pivot point on

moves to the left,


the feedback arm and returns the jet pipe to a
neutral position. The foregoing action is pro-

the feedback arm. The integral time

piston

portional.

by the bypass

However, the pressure difference

shown

is

adjusted

valve.

simple one-tube hydraulic controller


in

figure 7-4.

If

is

the controlled variable

FEEDBACK LINK
CONNECTING TUBE
tj

PIVOT

SPRING

MECHANICAL
"5

INPUT
SIGNAL

0
THREE-WAY
VALVE

6
TO HYDRAULIC
SUPPLY
Fig.

7-4

TO SUMP

0
o

o
0

POWER PISTON

One-Tube Hydraulic Controller

74

mm

OUTPUT

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

HYDRAULIC CONTROLLERS

EXPERIMENT 7

POWER

Jm OUTPUT

PISTON

SPOOL

FOUR-WAY
VALVE

WOOL

.y

<

MECHANICAL
INPUT

TO SUMP

TO HYDRAULIC SUPPLY

Fig.

is

7-5

Four-Way Valve

greater than the desired value, the mechani-

cal

input moves the connecting tube to the

This opens the connecting tube to the

right.

power piston
is reduced, and the spring pushes the power
piston to the left. The feedback link is connected from the otuput of the power piston
to the input of the three-way valve. The feedsump, the fluid pressure

at the

flows through the

left side

This causes the power

ahead of

into the

power

to the

right, fluid

At the same time, the

sump.

through a feedback

piston, connected

linkage to the spool of the four-way valve,

to close the connecting tube.

or balanced position

power piston due

piston.

forced out through the drain

is

it

moves the spool to the

tinues until the force on the

move

As the piston moves to the

right.

line

power

piston to

back moves with the power piston and tends


This action con-

of the four-way

valve into the left side of the

spool

is

in

is

left until

obtained.

the neutral

When

the

the balanced position, the force


zero, since fluid flow

to the fluid pressure acting to the right and the

on the power piston

spring force acting to the left are equal. Thus,

to the piston

the position of the power piston

proportional

weak, the four-way valve can be positioned

One tube

by the use of

to the mechanical input signal.


draulic

controllers are usually

is

hy-

employed

in

valve.

is

cut off.

a jet-pipe

If

is

the input signal

is

ahead of the four-way

The action of the

the four-way valve

speed controls for engines.

is

jet-pipe controlling

called a booster.

The

booster system has an increased mechanical

To obtain

a higher

power output force

advantage.

than that which can be obtained from the

greater than

The hydraulic controller usually consists


of two operating units: a pilot valve to control
oil pressure and the output flow, and a power

the desired value, the mechanical signal input

piston to provide the required displacement of

moves the spool to the

the final control element or actuator.

jet-pipe,

the four-way valve control

ployed.

7-5.

If

four-way valve

is

shown

the controlled variable

right.

is

is

em-

in figure

Supply

fluid

EXPERIMENT 7

HYDRAULIC CONTROLLERS

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

MATERIALS
Scale,

0-6 inches

2 Springs, spring constant 4

in.

-lb

1/2

2 2

lb

valve, electrically-controlled

2 Pulley, 2

lbs/in.,

length

weight
lb

4-way

in.

0-25

psi

3 Gages, 0-30

weight

2 Switches,

weights

5 lb weight

2-way cylinder, 1-1/2

in.

diameter

Hydraulic supply, regulated

10

volts,

psi

SPST momentary ON,


4 amps

Miscellaneous nuts, bolts,

diameter

etc.

piston, six-in. stroke

PROCEDURE
1.

Construct the test setup shown

in

figure 7-6.

SPRING

0
2"

SCALE

(d)

1
]

Fig.

2.

Add weight

7-6

Spring Constant Test Setup

until the pointer

deflects 0.25

inches.

WEIGHT

(w)

Record the weight

in

the Data Table,

figure 7-8, as w.
3.

Repeat step 2

4.

Construct the test setup shown

5.

Adjust the hydraulic supply regulator to 20

6.

Alternately operate S-1


cycle

7.

is

at the

in

0.25 inch increments until


in

its

two-inch deflection

is

obtained.

figure 7-7.

and S-2

midpoint of

until

psi.

the pointer on the piston rod os thetwo-way

travel.

Alternately adjust the spring until the tension

in

piston rod indicator remains at the midpoint of

the spring connecting link

is

taut and the

its travel.

8.

Read and record ?2 and P3

9.

Alternately operate S-1 and S-2 until the piston rod pointer indicates +0.5 inches.

10.

Read and record P2 and P3

in

in

the Data Table, figure 7-9.

figure 7-9.

76

HYDRAULIC CONTROLLERS

EXPERIMENT 7

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

TO HYDRAULIC
SUPPLY REGULATOR

11

Vsn;

i\v

SPRIN G ADJUSTMENTS
>>>>>>>>>^

Fig.

11.

Calculate

12.

From

AP =

IP2 - P3I

7-7

Experimental Setup

and record these values

II

in figure

7-9.

the data recorded in the Data Table, figure 7-8, determine the force applied to the

spring corresponding to a 0.5 inch deflection.

77

Record

this data in the table as F.

EXPERIMENT 7 HYDRAULIC CONTROLLERS

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

0 pounds

0 inch
0.25

0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25

1.50
1.75

2.00

Fig.

7-8

P2

Spring Data

AP

p3

in.

psi

lbs

+0.5

+1.0
+1.5

+2.0
-0.5

-1.0
-1.5

-2.0

Fig.

13.

7-9

Data Table

II

20 psi

Repeat steps 9 through 12 for +1.0, +1.5, +2.0, -0.5, -1.0, -1.5, and -2.0 inch piston rod
pointer indications.

78

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS
ANALYSIS GUIDE.

EXPERIMENT 7

HYDRAULIC CONTROLLERS

Plot a graph of deflection versus force for the spring used in the experiment.

Plot a graph of deflection of the piston rod versus force.

Plot a graph of

AP

versus F.

PROBLEMS
1.

Calculate the force exerted on the spring

diameter of the piston


2.

What force

is

is

in

figure

7-7 when

AP

is

20

psi

and the

1-1/2 inches.

required to stretch a spring with a spring constant of 10 lbs/inch

through a distance of two inches?


the experiment.

3.

Discuss the operation of the electrically-operated 4-way valve used

4.

Design a hydraulic amplifier using a four-way valve with a mechanically positioned


spool and having negative feedback.

in

experiment

INTRODUCTION. Any

E LE C TR

C A L A C T UA T 0 R S

process or automatic control system requires a device to correct the

controlled variable by varying the manipulated variable.

In this

experiment, some electrical

actuators will be examined.

DISCUSSION. The output

of a controller

shown in figure 8-1. The


split field motor contains two field windings,
or what amounts to the same thing, a centertapped field winding. One field tends to proautomatic control

is

ultimately applied to an error-correcting device,

trols

The actuator con-

termed an actuator.

the manipulated variable to bring the

To

controlled variable to the desired value.

do

this,

response.

The

power and have

either

good speed

in

For reference, the direc-

the other direction.

can correct errors

CW, and counterclockwise, CCW. The arma-

direction.

it

servomotor

Both

ture

satisfies

DC and AC

available, the choice being

DC

8-2

SCR

or through

Split field

error signal

in

field windings.

motors are designed to oeprate

is

in figure

8-2.

If

a positive

applied between the terminals

Control of Split Field Motor

80

its

low current and may be controlled

by SCRs as shown

servomotor used

Fig.

be connected independently to the

at relatively

the nature of the available voltage source.

of the

may

DC supply

servo-

made on

the basis of the load power requirements and

One form

one direction and

tions of rotation are identified as clockwise,

these requirements.

motors are

in

the other field tends to produce rotation

actuator's direction of control

should be reversible so that


in

duce armature rotation

the actuator must be capable of sup-

plying adequate

is

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

SCR

and common,

will

EXPERIMENTS ELECTRICAL ACTUATORS

switch from the "off"

"on" state during the half-cycle


which the anode is positive. Even though

direction in which the actuator controls the

state to the

load.

in

to the load and the feedback potentiometer

a positive signal

SCR,

will

it

is

applied to the gate of the

when

the

AC

makes the

voltage

anode negative with respect to the cathode.


With SCR 1 conducting, the current flows

CW field, causing
the CW direction.

through the
rotation

in

motor armature

When

the error

removed from the gate terminal, the


armature of the motor stops. The seped of
the motor is controlled by the firing angle of
the

is

SCR. As the

firing angle lessens, the

motor

speed increases.

If

through

mechanically coupled

is

mechanism.

a suitable gear

switch to the "off" state during

the half-cycle

signal

The actuator

in figure

of operation

is

DC motor

The DC motor

8-3.

controlled through relays.

speed of the motor

is

The

not controlled, just the

direction of operation.

When

plied to the coil of relay

1,

a voltage

is

ap-

the relay energizes,

NC

con-

up through the shunt

field

cuasing current to flow through the


tacts of relay 2,

is

direction

of the motor, through the

NO

contact of relay

and back to the source. This causes the


motor to rotate in the CW direction. Should
is

applied between

common, SCR 2

will

causing current to flow through the


This, of course,

shown

the positive signal

terminal 2 and

Another method of using

conduct,

CCW field.

would cause the motor to roThe polarity of

tate in the reverse direction.

the error voltage, therefore, determines the

relay 2 energize, the current

through the shunt


rotation of the

would be down

field of the

motor

in

motor, causing

the opposite direction.

The shunt motor used

in figure

8-3 could

be replaced with a permanent magnet motor.


1

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENTS ELECTRICA L A CTUA TORS

8-4

Fig.

The

relays

would be used to control the

Two-Phase Actuator

rotor of the motor.

direc-

tion of current through the armature.

control field current

The

known

AC

two-phase

induction

AC

type of

two

windings

field

figure 8-4.

The main

field

the main field current.

the phase of the voltage in the amplifier, shift-

is

ing the phase of the reference voltage in the

winding, referred

The

is

by a combination of
These three methods are

main

field windings, or

two methods.
shown in figure 8-5.
Figure 8-6 shows how a

ener-

these

control

input from the controller am-

Under conditions of zero error, there


no input to the control field and the motor

plifier.

field

is

phase.

When an

ings.

voltage.

produced by two currents 90 out of


Figure

8-6A shows

the graph of the

The arrows

in

the small circles above

the graphs indicate the direction of the result-

appears across the control field wind-

Since both fields are energized, the motor

rotates.

is

rotating magnetic

control voltage lagging 90 behind the fixed

error does occur,

however, the amplified output of the controller

two

Displacing the

the most

gized by the excitation supply.

does not rotate.

90 ahead of or behind

is

The motor has


angles as shown in

to as a fixed field or reference field,

field receives its

motor,

actuator.

at right

direction of rotation

currents by 90 can be achieved by shifting

as a split-phase motor,

common

The

of the magnetic field depends on whether the

ing

Speed and direction of rotation are

magnetic

in a

field.

The magnetic field

counterclockwise direction.

revolves

Figure

8-6B

dependent upon the amplitude and the phase

shows the graph of the control voltage leading

of the actuator driver signal.

the fixed field voltage.

Proper operation of the motor requires


that the two field currents be 90 out of phase

time the rotation of the

phase difference, the

with each other.

These currents produce

rotating magnetic field

which

direction.

Again, because of the

field revolves.

field

is

in a

But

this

clockwise

Thus, by changing the phase of the

control voltage (either leading or lagging), the

pulls along the

direction of the rotation

82

may be

controlled.

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENTS

ELECTRICAL ACTUATORS

CONTROL WINDING
ERROR

Tn X C

INPUT

AC AMPLIFIER

CONTROL WINDING

i>a

EXCITATION

AC AMP

vk

CONTROL WINDING

VOLTAGE

x c!

J
r

EXCITATION
(A)

CARRIER SHIFT
(B)

VOLTAGE
REFERENCE VOLTAGE
SHIFT

AC AMP
-in

xc

EXCITATION

VOLTAGE
(C)

Fig.

8-5

COMBINATION

Phase Shift Methods

FIXED FIELD VOLTAGE

CONTROL VOLTAGE

CONTROL VOLTAGE

FIXED FIELD VOLTAGE

Fig.

8-6

Rotation of Magnetic Field

83

EL ECTRICA L ACTUA TORS

EXPERIMENT 8

As the rotating magnetic


construction)

The

it

field cuts across

the load.

induces a current

in

minimum

mize tendencies toward

the rotor.

backlash to mini-

instability.

resulting current flow in the rotor gener-

ates a magnetic field.

now attempts

to align

posite field created

by

The magnetized rotor


itself with the comfield

Since the composite field rotates, the

rotor

pulled along.

is

The

is

time the rotor reaches the position

in

which

the motors are damped.

would have been aligned with the composite


field, the field has moved on. The rotational
is,

speed

is

pre-

Three methods used

are viscous dampers, inertial

dampers and

tach-

ometer dampers.

therefore, slower than

Viscous damping consists of a low-inertia

the speed of the composite field the differin

To

vent overshooting due to inertia or coasting,

it

speed of the rotor

Because of the high RPM,

overshoot the desired control value.

By the

field.

fully energized.

and the mass of the motor, the motor may

rotor never catches

up with the rotating magnetic

AC actuators generally opRPM when the control winding

Two-phase
erate at a high

windings of the

motor.

ence

Gear reductions must be designed

for low inertia and

rotor (squirrel-cage type

the short-circuited

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

drag cup rotating

called the slip of the motor.

in a

fixed magnetic field.

As the cup cuts the flux of the magnetic

The squirrel cage rotor of the two-phase


motor is made as small in diameter as practic-

drag

is

field,

added.

to run as a single-phase motor. Their relatively

damper consists of a drag cup


attached to the motor shaft extension. A permanent magnet and flywheel are bearingmounted separately from the motor shaft. As

make them capable

the motor accelerates or decelerates, the drag

of high accelerations to follow rapidly chang-

cup, by cutting the magnet's flux path, gen-

most cases the motor

eddy currents and creates a magnetic


field which causes the permanent magnet to
follow the drag cup rotation. The magnet on

able to

insure

low

inertia.

The

High-resistance

rotor bars are used to help determine the control characteristics

and to prevent the tendency

high torque and low inertia

ing error signals.

speed

is

In

much too

is

usually reduced

tion between the

The

erates

great for the requirements

of the driven load.

Consequently, the speed

the same shaft as the flywheel has considerable

by the use of a gear reducmotor shaft and the load.

inertia

and tends to

lag

behind the drag cup,

motor rotation. The inertial-type


diagrammed in figure 8-7.

retarding the

gear reduction, while reducing the speed,

also increases the

inertial

damper

torque available for driving

is

CONTROL
WINDING

FIXED

WINDING

TWO-PHASE MOTOR
Fig.

8-7

Inertial

DRAG-CUP

Damping of a Two-Phase Motor


84

FLYWHEEL

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENTS

ELECTRICAL ACTUATORS

FEEDBACK
POTENTIOMETER
OR SYNCHRO

<LOAD

ERROR
SIGNAL
INPUT

115V AC
60 OR 400

HERTZ
EXCITATION
WINDING

Fig.

8-8

Typical

SCR

Controlled Two-Phase Motor

Tachometer damping consists of a tachometer generator integrally connected to the


shaft of the actuator.

Such

a unit

produces

A
motor

is

typical
is

shown

SCR

controlled

two-phase

The

error signal

in figure

8-8.

coupled through a transformer to the SCRs.

voltage in the output winding which has the

The feedback device may be

same frequency as the excitation, but which


is proportional to the motor speed. The output

or a synchro arrangement.

voltage

chronous motors are used

is

fed back to the control actuator to

damp the

voltage input to the control winding.

The higher the

RPM

Many
systems.

of the two-phase motor,

of

its

types of

AC

in

automatic control

net control winding voltage.

speed applications.

is

MATERIALS

8W
8W

Resistor, 2fi
Resistor, 112

Capacitor, 5 juF

600W DC

Two-phase motor assembly with


follow-up potentiometer and 200
to

Variable transformer

Strip chart recorder

gear ratio or equivalent.

85

is

used because

extreme ruggedness and high efficiency.

The synchronous motor

potentiometer

induction and syn-

The induction motor

the greater the feedback voltage, reducing the

DC power supply, 0-40


VOMsor FEMs

used

in

critical

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

ELECTRICAL ACTUA TORS

EXPERIMENT 8

PROCEDURE
Measure the resistance between terminals

1.

and 3 of the two-phase motor. Record these

data as the resistance of the fixed phase winding, Rf.

Measure the resistance between terminals 2 and 4 of the two-phase motor. Record these

2.

data as the resistance of the control phase, R c

Construct the experimental circuit as shown

3.

in figure

8-9.

GEAR RATIO

Fig.

8-9

Vc

Experimental Test Circuit

measure and record

and V^.

4.

With the control voltage,

5.

Calculate

6.

Calculate

7.

Calculate P

8.

Calculate Pf =

9.

Set the speed of the strip chart recorder to about 10mm/second.

10.

Turn the

volts,

V-j

= V-|/22 and record these data.

= V^/lfi and record these data.

If

2
l

c
2

R C and record these

R f and record these

strip chart recorder

data.

data.

motor "on" and allow time for one complete revolution of

the wiper of the follow-up potentiometer.


1 1

12.

Turn the

From

3.

motor "off".

the strip chart recorder trace, determine the time for one revolution of the wiper

to occur,
1

strip chart recorder

= (no. of

Record these data

in

mm for one revolution)/ 10mm/sec.


the Data Table, figure 8-10, as

86

t.

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

v2

v1

vc

"c

EXPERIMENT 8

'c

'f

n
pf

EL ECTRICA L

Rotation

s1

ACTUA TORS

S2

Direction

10
15

20
25

30
35

40
Fig. 8-

10

Two-Phase Motor Data

Calculate the speed of the follow-up potentiometer wiper by

14.

S1

15.

Record these data

16.

Calculate the speed of the motor by

in

=^

RPM

the Data Table as Si.

S 2 = (gear reduction ratio) Si


1

Record these data

7.

the Data Table as S

Determine the direction of rotation of motor shaft and record

18.

for clockwise or
1

in

CCW for counterclockwise

Repeat steps 4 through

9.

8 for

V c of

0,

it

in

the Data Table as

CW

rotation.

5, 20, 25, 30,

35 and 40

volts.

Reverse the leads to terminals 2 and 4 of the two-phase


motor and repeat steps 4

20.

through 19.

ANALYSIS GUIDE.
(P

Plot the control current versus motor RPM.


Plot the total input power
+ P f versus motor RPM. Plot the follow-up potentiometer speed versus the motor speed.
)

PROBLEMS
1
.

capacitor

90 phase

are

in

the fixed field of a two-phase, 60 Hertz motor

between

shift

its fields.

Henry and 2 Henrys,

If

is to be used to provide
the control field and fixed field inductances

respectively, determine the value of the capacitor

required.
2.

Draw the schematic of


supermarket using a

welcome mat

is

a control circuit used to operate an entrance

split-field

DC

motor.

used to actuate the door.

door to

pressure microswitch under the

After the door

is

open 30 seconds,

it

automatically closes.
3.

Determine the gear

motor from 2000

ratio

RPM

to

required to reduce the speed of a two-phase control

50 RPM.

87

experimen

INTRODUCTION.
power.

In this

FLUID ACTUATORS

(J

Over 90 percent of

all

experiment, a fluid actuator

machine tools are controlled or operated by

will

fluid

be examined.

power provides flexible


and easy control of force, distance and speed.
Fluid power can be varied from a few ounces

actuator must provide an accurate output posi-

to vast forces above 50,000 tons.

forces caused by

DISCUSSION.

Fluid

tion proportional to the input signal.

Some

of

the forces acting on an actuator are inertial

moving masses,

static friction

and thrust forces caused by weight and un-

power has many advantages. It


provides an efficient method of multiplying

balanced fluid pressure.

Fluid

forces.

It

infinitely variable speeds in

with smooth reversals.


responding.

It is

is

transmitted and

either direction

accurate and fast

or gas.

Actuators using liquid pressure and

provides automatic

is

clean and safe from fire

actuators using gaseous pressure and flow are

power

economical, efficient

termed pneumatic actuators. Some types of


actuators combine electrical and gas or liquid

Hydraulic

Fluid

power

controlled through use of a pressurized liquid

flow are termed hydraulic actuators, while

lubrication while air

hazards.

Fluid actuator

can provide a constant torque at

oil

is

and dependable.

and are termed electropneumatic or

An

actuator

is

mechanism which

the value of a manipulated variable

in

two functions:

hydraulic actuators, respectively.

alters

response

to the output signal of a controller.


tuator, generally, has

An

Fluid actuators

ac-

First,

or they

it

translates the output signal of the controller

operated.

into the value of the manipulated variable.

is

Second,

it

provides power amplification.

An

shown

from the

may be

be cylinder, valve, or motor-

spring and diaphragm actuator

in figure
air

9-1

The actuator operates

pressure output signal of the con-

SPRING

DIAPHRAGM

OUTPUT

Spring and Diaphragm Actuator

88

spring-operated

may

input

Fig. 9-

electro-

EXPERIMENT 9

FL UID A CTUA TORS

9-2

Fig.

troller.

The input

Double Acting Cylinder with Cushioning

air pressure acts against

diaphragm and causes

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

the

The force

downward force which


At static balance, the

compresses the spring.

delivered

by the cylinder

Force = pressure X area

is

(9.2)

force of the air pressure acting against the dia-

phragm equals the spring compression


The output displacement or stroke is a

force.

To prevent
linear

function of the
acteristics

movement

air pressure, diaphragm charand spring constant. The output

of the actuator

is

cushion

figure

actuator

into linear mechanical force

consists of a piston

A, the piston
fluid

is

and motion.

When

within a cylindrical bore.

side

is

the output of the controller

movement

of a cylinder as

it

rate.
istics

is

to the

is

in

end of the

cyl-

the escaping fluid at a given

This allows the deceleration characterto be adjusted for different loads.

the cylinder

is

When

actuated, fluid enters the cyl-

inder port and flows through the small check

the output

valve so that the entire piston area can be


utilized to

produce force and motion.

exhausted back
Cylinders

When

left.

The

single acting,

are manufactured to produce forces

velocity

double

from

few ounces to many thousands of tons.


is

9-3 shows an electrohydraulic


The unit operates by applying the
output signal from the controller to

Figure

gal/min

area of piston in sq. in.

may be

acting or telescoping type. Hydraulic cylinders

applied to port

extends or retracts

_ fluid flow

at each

It

fluid to enter port

through the controller into the reservoir.

B, the

set to control

driven toward the right, and

from the opposite

employed

is

is

and piston rod operating

from the controller causes

stop-

As the cylinder piston approaches the


end of the stroke, exhaust fluid is forced
through an adjustable needle valve which is

usually between

shown in
9-2. This actuator converts fluid power
cylinder-type

due to

inder.

1/8 and 4 inches.

excessive shock

ping loads at the end of the piston stroke, a

(9.1)

actuator.
electrical

89

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

FL UID A CTUA TORS

EXPERIMENT 9

CONNECTING

PIVOT

SWING PLATE

ROD

RETURN PORT

LEADS

VALVE BODY

ARMATURE
TORQUE MOTOR
FLUID
SUPPLY

PORTC

rm

zm

zzzzzz

xzz^

OUTPUT

PISTON
Fig.

9-3

Servo Valve

The feedback loop helps to provide a good


dynamic response characteristic for servo-con-

the coils of the torque motor. As the armature

moves about the pivot

point,

it

shifts the

swing

plate to the right or to the left over the ports.

Should the torque motor


to

trolled systems.

shift the swing plate

the right, fluid flows from the supply

fluid

power

motor

is

a device that converts

mo-

into mechanical force and

through input port B and through port C. The

fluid

on the piston that causes


the piston to move to the left. As the piston
moves to the left, fluid flows through port A

tion, usually rotary.

Fluid motors operate

on the same principles

as a fluid

and through port D and

fixed displacement and variable displacement

fluid exerts a pressure

is

two

returned to the

sump. The maximum movement of the swing


plate from the null position is approximately
0.0175 inches.
plate

is

control

The movement of the swing

is

desired.

utilized

when

linear differential transformer, or other

is

The

displaces a

fixed

displacement

amount of

depends on

motor

fluid for each

its

available.

revolution.

displacement per revolution

and the amount of

variable displacement

type

fluid supplied to

motor

is

it.

designed with

a device that can adjust the displacement per

of transducer, to provide a feedback signal that


reflects the position of the

vari-

The speed of the fixed displacement motor

proportional

some contain

For

able displacement, the piston type

given

There are many variations

of electrohydraulic valves and

For fixed displacement, gear, vane and

piston type motors are available.

proportional to the current through

is

general classes of fluid motors are the

types.

the coils of the torque motor. Generally, this

type of actuator

pump. The

swing plate or spool.

revolution.

90

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT 9

FL UID ACTUA TORS

HYDRAULIC

SUMP

SUPPLY

Fig.

9-4

Gear Motor

Fluid motors often have a higher torque-

motor

application of a fluid

pumping

taining a

the rotating gears

than do electric motors. The

to-inertial ratio

unit

is

in a

used to prevent leakage

is

The

as pressure increases.

system con-

internal gear design

(Gerotor type) consists of a pair of rotating

called a hydrostatic

gears,

one

The Gerotor has

inside the other.

transmission system. As with an electrical sys-

a high starting torque characteristic

tem, there are two

erates at relatively high speeds.

the open loop sys-

classes:

tem and the closed loop system.

and op-

The open

loop system uses the conventional reservoir

and directional control valves for directional


control.

The closed loop system

reversible type

direction.

pump

Only

is

is

The

plate

needed,

dial

retained and circulates

design

porting.

within the system.

may

be of the axial

motor uses a valve


method of displacing fluid, and the ra-

or radial type.

to control the speed and

a small reservoir

because the fluid

Piston type motors

uses a variable

axial

uses the

arrangement of

pintle

type motors provide high

Piston

higher pressure than other types.


Fluid motors

or piston type.
figure 9-4.

The

may be
The

type piston motor

of the gear, vane,

is shown in
motor may operate

ber of pistons

up to approximately 5,000 RPM. The external


gear design consists of a set of
fitted

into a

The

is

shown

in

The

radial-

figure 9-5.

of pistons

tive starting torque.

gears

odd numor

five, seven, nine, eleven

more depending upon the

rotate together as the fluid enters the space

between the major and minor diameters.

An odd number

matched gears

machined housing.

much

Piston-type motors usually have an

gear type

gear type

and can operate at

starting torque

If

size of the unit.


is

used for a posi-

the fluid motor

is

variable displacement unit, the thrust ring

adjustable.

pressure plate or wear plate on either side of

If

the unit

type, the thrust ring

91

is

is

a fixed

a
is

displacement

stationary.

EXPERIMENT 9

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

FL UID A CTUA TORS

CYLINDER

SHAFT ASSEMBLY
PISTON

THRUST RING
Fig.

An

axial piston

motor

9-6. In the fixed unit the

is

shown

cam

plate

ary, whereas in the variable unit, the


is

adjustable.

In

Radial-Type Piston Motor

9-5

is

Flow

di-

rected to the opposite parts will reverse the

station-

cam angle

both the axial and the

types, a fluid pressure in the

rotor and shaft assembly to rotate.

in figure

shaft direction.

radial

motor forces the

variable-delivery

pump may

be used

pistpn outward, causing the shaft to rotate.

with a positive-displacement motor to pro-

The rate at which fluid is delivered to the


motor determines its speed.
A vane motor is shown in figure 9-7.
Fluid enters the motor at two points 180
apart, and the two exhaust parts are also lo-

duce an output position or speed that

cated 180 apart.

motor pushes

Fluid forced into the vane

against the vanes

is

pro-

The variable-delivery
pump is shown in figure 9-8A. The pump
consists of a disk driven by a constant speed
A number of pistons are atelectric motor.
tached to the disk and reciprocate in a cylinder body. When the disk and cylinder are
portional to the input.

and causes the

PISTON

PORTA (POWER)

VALVE PLATE
PISTON

E SHAFT
ASSEMBLY

SHOE

PISTON
Fig.

9-6

PORT

Axial-Type Piston Motor

92

B (EXHAUST)

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT 9

FL UID

ACTUA TORS

i^l ROTATION

INLET PORT

OUTLET PORT
SHAFT ASSEMBLY

VANES
INLET PORT

OUTLET PORT
Fig.

axial, the pistons


is

no

tilted,

fluid flow.

Vane-Type Motor

9-7

remain stationary and there

When

the cylinder

body

the pistons reciprocate and fluid

is

livered that

tilt.

is

shown

de-

in

is

proportional to the

system using this type of


figure

pump

of
is

9-8B.

CONSTANT SPEED
ELECTRIC MOTOR

AC VOLTAGE

PISTON

amount

I
CYLINDER

BODY
FLUID
SUPPLY

TILT
'

SUMP

y\

CONTROL
LEVER

ZERO DELIVERY
VARIABLE-DELIVERY
PUMP

OUTPUT

(A)

MAXIMUM DELIVERY
Fig.

9-8

(B)

Variable-Delivery

w
93

POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MOTOR

Pump System

EXPERIMENT 9

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

FL UID ACTUA TORS

MATERIALS
1

Hydraulic supply, 0-500

4 gal/min
Regulator, 0-500

Pressure gage, 0-500 psi

psi at

Flow meter, 0-3 gal/min


Hydraulic motor
Dynamometer, torque 0-2
speed 500-2000 RPM

1
1

psi

in. -lb,

PROCEDURE
1

Construct the experimental circuit as shown

in figure

9-9.

115V
60 Hz

FLOW
METER

TO SUMP

\^

HYDRAULIC
SOURCE

HYDRAULIC

MOTOR
ELECTRICAL

VALVE

DYNAMOMETER

Fig.

9-9

The Experimental Setup

dynamometer to provide 1/5 of the motor's

2.

Set the

3.

With S-1 closed, adjust the hydraulic regulator

4.

Measure and record the pressure,

5.

Calculate the power-in using the equation

psi,

the Data Table as

HP.

6.

Record this value

7.

Calculate the power-out using the equation

P-|

TS
HP =

5250

8.

Record

this value in the

until the

speed of the motor

and rate of flow, Q,

HP = QP 1
in

rated torque.

Data Table as P HP.


Q

94

in

is

500 RPM.

the Data Table, figure 9-10.

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS
9.

EXPERIMENT 9

FL UID

ACTUA TORS

Calculate the efficiency using the equation

p
eff

p^ X 100
Hn

10.

Record

1 1

Repeat steps 2 through 9 for 1000, 1500, 2000 RPM.

12.

this value in the Data

Repeat steps 2 through

1 1

Table as Eff.

for 2/5 rated

motor torque and 3/5 rated motor torque.

1/5 Rated Torque

Q
RPM

gal/min

P
psi

HP

HP

Eff

500
1000
1500

2000
2/5 Rated Torque

RPM

gal/min

psi

HP

psi

HP

HP

Eff

500
1000

1500

2000
3/5 Rated Torque

Q
RPM

gal/min

500
1000
1500

2000
Fig. 9-

10

The Data Tables

95

HP

Eff

ANALYSIS GUIDE.
graph of the rate

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

FL UID A CTUA TORS

EXPERIMENT 9

Plot a graph of the rate of flow versus speed for each torque load.

of flow versus the power output for each torque

Plot a

load.

PROBLEMS
1.

Calculate the velocity

in

lons of fluid per minute


2.

If

is

4 square inches,

if

gal-

being fed into the cylinder.


is

4 tons,

how much

pressure

be required by the system using a two-inch diameter cylinder to cause the

piston to

move?

How many
placement

motor

is

in. -lb
is 1 .0

of torque will a gear-type motor produce at 1000 psi

cubic inch of fluid per revolution?

the product of the pressure

cubic inches divided by


4.

is

the resisting force against a piston of a cylinder

will

3.

ft/min of a piston whose area

How much

in psi

its dis-

The torque produced by

a fluid

and the displacement per revolution

in

2ir.

horsepower would be produced by the gear motor

fluid input to the

if

motor

is

5 gallons per minute and the speed

96

is

in

problem 3

2000 RPM?

if

the

expert' men

SYNCHROMECHANISMS

10

INTRODUCTION. A synchromechanism

is a rotating component known generally as a rotary insome synchromechanisms and their applications will be investigated.

ductor. In this experiment,

DISCUSSION.
monly

com-

Synchromechanisms,

called synchros, are a large group of

com-

rotating electromechanical machines that

DG

rotors.

The rotor windings

are

Synchro motor or torque

mounted on

TDX

or

Differential generator or

torque differential transmitter

windings called stators and rotating windings,


a

DM

Like the transformer, one winding

shaft.

TR

or

Like the

set of stationary

Synchro generator or torque

receiver

the principle of the transformer.

motor, the synchro has

motor with

bine the principle of the electric

TX

or

transmitter

TDR

or

Differential receiver or

torque differential receiver

functions as a primary and the other as the

secondary.

The type of synchro and

determines which winding


primary.

When

large

may

its

use

CX

Control transmitter

CT

Control transformer

be used as the

mechanical driving forces

are required, the output of the synchro ar-

rangement

is

amplified and used to drive an

appropriate electric motor.

Some

cate physical size, type of unit,

other names

frequency.

for a synchro are selsyn, teletorque, autosyn,

23TDX6.

and diehlsyn.

case 23,

Systems

synchros

may

be

The
is

first

two

is

characters, in this

the diameter of the synchro in

The alphabetic

tenths of an inch.

class-

and excitation

typical synchro designation

characters,

con-

in

system uses the synchros to provide

elec-

torque differential transmitter. The frequency

ified as either

trol

utilizing

designations of synchros indi-

Military

trical

torque or control types.

A torque system uses synchros

to supply the mechanical

power to position

TDX,

resented by a 4 for

400 Hertz and,

is

rep-

as in this

6 for 60 Hertz. The synchros are frequently represented by symbols or schematic


case, a

light load. The various types of synchros that


you may encounter include:

diagrams as shown

TRANSMITTERS,
RECEIVERS OR

TRANSFORMERS

DIFFERENTIALS

Fig. 10-1

describe the synchro as a

of the excitation voltage of a synchro

information about angular position to a

controller unit.

this case

Synchro Schematic

97

in figure

10-1
o s

EXPERIMENT

10

SYNCHROMECHANISMS

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

STATOR
WINDINGS

COMMON TERMINAL

Fig. 10-2

The Synchro Transmitter


or Generator

The synchro generator or transmitter


shown in figure 10-2 is used as a position-tovoltage transducer.
The transmitter has a

lines of force

transformer,

as the

primary of

rotor

is

aligned

This condition occurs


at rotor positions of 60 and 240. At any

winding and a wye-connected stator


winding. The stator windings are spaced 120

The rotor functions

when the

cut

with the position of

rotor

apart.

maximum

For reference purposes, the

other

position

of

S-|

the

between the primary and

with the stator acting as the

the coupling

rotor,
this

secondary

will

be decreased; therefore, the voltage induced

The stator leads are identified as


and S3. The rotor windings are identi-

secondary.

will

S-j

to zero; therefore, the voltage induced into

and

fied as Ri

In

is

operation, the rotor

is

connected to

source of excitation. The voltage induced


stator secondary will
at

which the magnetic

its

turns,

synchro

is

rotor shaft.
at

As the

shaft

which the magnetic

rotor shaft

rotated, the angle

ative.

rotor and the voltage induced into Sj.

larity

phase of the stator voltage


respect

to

the

is

rotor voltage

The

to

is

rotated

in a

rotated

in a

is

positive.

If

the

clockwise direction,

is

increased, but the po-

of the voltage induced into

S-j

is

neg-

Therefore, the magnitude and the po-

of the voltage induced into the windings of the stator depends on the angular

measured with
(R-,

is

stator winding, S-j,

the relationship between the position of the

varied.

S-|

the coupling between the rotor winding and

lines of force cut the

larity

is

the rotor shaft

the voltage induced into

Figure 10-3 illustrates

secondaries

decreased

between the rotor winding and the stator


winding, S-j, is increased and the polarity of

connected to the
is

is

counterclockwise direction from 150, the coupling

of force cut across

The rotor winding of

mechanically

At 150, the coupling

zero.

If

and upon the magnitude of the rotor

winding voltage.

less.

in a

depend upon the angle


lines

be

R 2 ).

positions of the rotor windings.

98

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

Fig.

10-3

EXPERIMENT

10

SYNCH ROM ECHAN ISMS

Voltage Induced into Sj Winding at Different Rotor Displacements


EXPERIMENT

SYNCH ROM ECHAN ISMS

10

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

SHAFT POSITION

'S1

360?

Fig. 10-4

VS1

Versus Shaft Position

graph of the voltage induced into S-j,


versus the rotor shaft angle is shown in figure

From the

10-4.

graph, the voltage induced in

does not adequately identify rotor position.


For example, the induced voltage is the same
at 180 as 270 and the voltage at 150 is the
S-|

same

as 330.

Therefore, angular position

cannot, necessarily, be determined by knowing the voltage of a single winding.

The synchro contains three stato'r windings spaced 120 apart. As the coupling between the rotor winding and one stator winding

is

increasing,

stator winding

terminal

is

the coupling to another


decreasing.

is

The common

it

customary to

is

specify the stator output voltage,

S2, S2 to S3 and S3 to

RMS

of the

S-j.

i.e.,

Si to

representation

values of the induced stator volt-

ages versus rotor angles are

shown in figure
The portion of the curves above the

10-5.

horizontal

axis

indicate an

induced voltage

in-phase with the excitation voltage, and the


portion below indicates a phase shift of 180

out of phase with respect to the excitation.


The combination of three terminal-to-terminal
voltages

will

adequately identify the shaft

two positions of the shaft will


have the same voltage relationship. The trans-

angle, as no

mitter's

not accessible from the outside of


S

the synchro; therefore,

output

is

voltage and

its

input

is

mechanical displacement.

TO S 2

TO

Sn

,S

TOS

+E

<
Z
LU LU

0
1>
i

1-

120

6Cf

180

240

300

LU
v-

Fig.

10-5

Terminal-to-Terminal Voltage Versus Shaft Angle

100

360

SHAFT
ANGLE

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

Fig.

EXPERIMENT

10-6

do not exactly

line

is

S YNCHROMECHA NISMS

Resultant Magnetic Field due to Stator Voltage

The stator of the synchro transmitter is


made of laminated iron that contain slots that
jacent laminations.

10

The synchro

receiver or

age-to-position transducer.

motor

is

a volt-

For a given

set of

up with those of the ad-

stator voltages, the synchro receiver will posi-

This skewing of the slots

tion

used to prevent the tendency of the rotor to

lock in certain positions.

The

stator coils are

its

rotor to the corresponding angle.

ure 10-6 shows the magnetic


in a

field

Fig-

generated

synchro receiver stator with an external

The

divided into three groups which are spaced

source applied to the stator windings.

120 apart. The rotor windings are connected

resultant magnetic field strength and direction

to

shaft that

is

usually ball-bearing sup-

ported to reduce friction.

The rotor

lam-

is

inated and contains a small air gap between


rotor and stator.

The

excitation

is

transferred

to the rotor through slip rings and brushes.

EXCITATION

VOLTAGE

Fig.

10-7

are

determined by the applied terminal-toFigure 10-7 shows the

terminal voltages.

magnetic

field

generated

of a synchro receiver.
is

in

The

the rotor windings


field of the rotor

generated by the excitation current.

RESULTANT
ROTOR FIELD

Rotor Magnetic Field due to Excitation Voltage

Since

EXPERIMENT

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

SYNCH ROM ECHANISMS

10

VOLJAGE FROM
SYNCHRO

"

Clockwise Rotation of the Rotor of a Synchro Receiver

Fig. 10-8

the rms value of the excitation voltage applied


to the rotor winding is constant, the magni-

transmitter

the

torque and

tude of the magnetic


rotor winding

is

field

produced

in

in

clockwise direction.

lustrated in figure 10-8.

This action

is

il-

These polarities of

the magnetic field are shown for a half-cycle


of excitation voltage. During the other halfcycle,

all

polarities are reversed

sultant action

is still

in

and the

re-

the clockwise direction.

forces generated by the magnetic fields


produce a motor action with the rotor acting

The

as an

armature and the stator as the

The clockwise

rotation

field.

continues until the

ceiver

applied stator voltages.

input

is

is

a mechanical

a set of voltages.

physical structure of the synchro re-

synchro receiver

is

its

oscillation

and

pre-

synchro receiver can

be used as a synchro transmitter, but the op-

not true for 60 Hertz units. Generally, 400 Hertz receivers have little tendency
to run away; therefore, they are frequently not
posite

is

provided with dampers.

The synchro transmitter and

tem may be used


light loads

and

10-9 shows
synchros.

manner,

stator terminals.

provided with an os-

damps the

single-phase motor.

receiver sys-

for remote positioning of

remote indicators. Figure


remote indicator system using
as

The transmitter

rotor winding

in-

duces a voltage into the stator windings of the


transmitter. These stator voltages are applied

the rotor assumes a position determined by


the voltage applied to

damper.

is

flywheel near one end of

Run
vents the motor from running away.
away in a synchro is an inherent danger that
arises from the similarity of the synchro to a

Therefore, the synchro acts both as a


In this

similar to that of the transmitter ex-

the rotor shaft

Since the resultant

as a transformer.

is

cillation

stator voltage will then be zero, the stator no


longer produces a magnetic field and the rotor

motor and

its

cept that the receiver

voltage induced into the stator windings by


the rotor field exactly cancel the externally

stops.

receiver output

also constant.

For the magnetic field polarities shown


figures 10-6 and 10-7, the rotor will rotate
a

remote positioning applica-

for

The

tions.

The

in

TRANSMITTER

The

to the stator windings of the receiver.

usually used with a synchro

702

The

re-

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT

S YNCHROMECHA NISMS

10

INPUT

OUTPUT
EXCITATION

VOLTAGE

SYNCHRO
TRANSMITTER

SYNCHRO
RECEIVER

INPUT

TRANSMITTER

RECEIVER

Fig.

10-9

Remote

Indicator System

ceiver stator generates a magnetic field that

causes the receiver rotor to turn.


rotor turns until

it

The

The synchro

receiver

reaches an angular position

equivalent to that of the transmitter.

At

and opposite

by

its

is

only used for

exceed the torque capabilities and reduce the


accuracy of the system.

this

position, the voltages induced into the receiver


stator windings

receiver

positioning light loads, since heavy loads will

Where heavy

loads

are involved, a synchro control transformer

rotor are exactly equal

used.

Systems using

a control

is

transformer are

phase to the voltage applied


by the transmitter stator; therefore, the re-

termed servomechanisms.

sultant magnetic field

whose magnitude and phase represent the


amount and direction of error between the

in

rotor stops turning.

mitter

shaft

is

is

former

zero and the receiver

Any motion

duplicated

of the trans-

by the

receiver

position

shaft.

produces an

of

its

shaft

(transmitter shaft).

103

The control

electrical

error

transsignal

and the input shaft

The

error signal

is

fed to

EXPERIMENT

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

SYNCH ROM ECHAN ISMS

10

FOLLOW-UP
SHAFT

LOAD
7

feedback/"

/
/

MOTOR
AMPLIFIER

CONTROL TRANSFORMER
TRANSMITTER
INPUT

EXCITATION

VOLTAGE

LOAD

EXCITATION

VOLTAGE

TWO-PHASE

MOTOR
TRANSMITTER
OR

CONTROL
TRANSFORMER

RECEIVER
Fig.

Servomechanism Using Control Transformer

10-10

and the direction of the mag-

an amplifier that drives a motor which positions the load. The output of the motor is

gular position

connected to the load and the rotor of the


control transformer through a gear box. As

rection of the stator magnetic

netic field

trol

is

motor

stops.

is

servomechanism

zero and the


is

shown

control

in

transformer

is

kept to very small

values by the corrective action of the system

figure 10-10.

The induced

di-

upon the angular


difference of the transmitter shaft and control
transformer shaft. The angular difference be
tween the input shaft and the shaft of the

aligned with the rotor of

the input shaft, the error signal

The

depends

rotor (error voltage) depends

the shaft of the rotor of the con-

transformer

field

voltage induced into the control transformer

rotor of the control transformer approaches a


position corresponding to that of the input

When

stators.

on the shaft angle of the transmitter. The results are that the magnitude and phase of the

the load approaches the desired position, the

shaft.

produced by the

voltage

control transformer

is

in

For these small values the angular difference


the error voltage generated, is almost linear

the rotor of the

determined by

its

with respect to displacement.

an-

704

This

is

shown

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

VOLTAGE

IN

EXPERIMENT

S YNCHROME CHA NISMS

10

PHASE

CW
90

60

30

30

60

DEVIATION BETWEEN
CT AND TX SHAFT

90'

CCW

VOLTAGE OUT-OF
PHASE

Fig. 10- 1

in

CT Induced Rotor

figure 10-11.

the

CT

Voltage Versus Angular Difference of

There are two positions of

rotor at which zero voltage will be

duced.

When

nected

into

the control transformer

is

in-

con-

servomechanism, the correct

zero-output, null position must be determined

and used.

If

the correct null position

the system follow-up

used,

amount of

of determining which of

CT

the zero-output positions of the


correct
1

is

not

error to increase rather than de-

A method

crease.

is

cause the

will

rotor

is

as follows:

Differential synchros are

the zero-output positions. (Electrical

CT

defined as

is

the shaft angle at which the rotor

3.

If

the voltage induced into the

sum

represent the algebraic


sition of the rotor of

the transmitter and that

mitter rotor, the position


If

The

is

imposing

a correction (algebraic addition)

on

the signal from a synchro transmitter, or as a

sum (or
two separate

used for subtraction

is

differential

shown

in figure

synchro
10-12.

CT

the cor-

the voltage

differential

differential receiver for indicating the

excitation voltage applied to the trans-

rect null position.

of the angular po-

synchro can be used as a transmitter for super-

When

180 out of phase with the

is

its

from the stator of a


synchro transmitter. The rotor windings function as the secondary and has a voltage induced into it whose polarity and magnitude
current

synchro transmitters.
Rotate the shaft slightly clockwise.

stator wind-

primary which derives

ings function as the

magnetizing

is

perpendicular to stator S2).

rotor

The

phase, wye-connected rotor.

difference) of the rotation of

2.

wound with

three-phase, wye-connected stator and a three-

of the differential synchro.

Set the control transformer to one of

zero degrees of the

CT and TX Shafts

is in

differential

control a receiver,

it

is

synchro

is

used to

called a synchro dif-

The differential synchro


shown in figure 10-13.

ferential transmitter.

used for addition

is

phase, the incorrect null position was

When

selected.

a differential

the receiver,

The impedance of the

stator

and rotor

windings of a control transformer are considerably higher than those of the equivalent
size transmitter

or receiver.

A CT

should not

be used to feed a low-impedance load.

receiver.

it

is

called a

differential

synchro

is

used as

synchro differential

synchro controlled by

two transmitters is shown in figure 10-14.


The differential transmitter and the differential

receiver are similar except the receiver has

an oscillation damper.

EXPERIMENT

10

S YNCHROMECHA NISMS

TRANSMITTER
Fig.

10-12

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

DIFFERENTIAL

RECEIVER

Algebraic Subtractions with Differential Synchro

90 + 270 = 360

TRANSMITTER
Fig.

10-13

DIFFERENTIAL
Algebraic Addition with Differential Synchro

106

RECEIVER

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT

S YNCHR OM E CHA NISMS

10

EXCITATION VOLTAGE
Fig. 10-

In

14

Two-Transmitter Control of Differential Synchro

analog computers, voltages represent

numerical qualities.

Therefore, angular posi-

changed to the polar coordinate system.

also

tion

is

called resolving

for this purpose


resolver

is

solver has

is

and

wound

per-

pendicular to each other, function as trans-

Conversion from one coordinate system to

another

stator windings,

former primaries.

tion data in the rectangular coordinate system


is

The

windings.

wound
as

The two

rotor windings,

perpendicular to each other, func-

transformer

primaries.

Like

the

a device used

synchro control transformer, the resolver pro-

A synchro

duces an output voltage rather than rotation.

called a resolver.

shown in figure 10-15. The retwo stator windings and two rotor

Fig.

10-15

The voltage induced

in

rotor

E R i = Egi cos 0 E
s2

The Synchro Resolver

107

R-j is

sin 0

(10.1)

EXPERIMENT

SYNCH ROM ECHAN ISMS

10

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

ELECTRICAL

F 2

2
= V/ F
fc

OUTPUT

fc

MOTOR

MECHANICAL
OUTPUT =
E

0=

ARCTAN

AMPLIFIER
+
-6

/
s

A-

RESOLVER

z.
Fig. 10-

Resolving Rectangular Components into Polar Coordinates

16

and the voltage induced

in

rotor F?2

gular coordinates into polar coordinates or as

is

When

a vector adder.

Ep2 = Eg2

c s 0 Egi sin 6

the output

(10.2)

may

anical or both.

The

resolver

may

be used to resolve rectan-

outputs

is

used as a vector adder,

be either electrical or mech-

shown

resolver system having both

in figure

10-16.

MATERIALS
Synchro, control transmitter

23CX6

Isolation Transformer

or equivalent

Synchro, control transformer

115 volt

60-Hertz (1:1 turns ratio)

23CT6

or equivalent

2 Pointer assemblies
2 Dial assemblies, 0-360

Oscilloscope

VOM

Breadboard

PROCEDURE
1

Construct the experimental circuit shown

AC

in figure

0-1 7.

2.

Connect an

3.

Rotate the synchro rotor until the voltmeter reads approximately zero. The synchro
not be at 0 or 180 on the dial.

4.

Remove

voltmeter between terminals

and S3 of the control transmitter.

the voltmeter from the circuit, connect S3 to

may

R2 and connect the voltmeter

be-

tween S2 and Ri
5.

If

the voltmeter reads

2,

3 and

4.

If

more than the

the voltmeter reads

less

line voltage, rotate

than the

108

the rotor 180 and repeat steps

line voltage,

proceed with next step.

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT

10

S YNCHR OME CHA NISMS

PLASTIC TEST STAND

CT
POINTER
115 VOLT.
60 HERTZ

R.,

DIAL

VERTICAL

ASSEMBLY

GROUND

OSCILLOSCOPE

n r

-o
-O

1:1

-OS,

ISOLATION

TRANSFORMER

S3

CONTROL TRANSMITTER

Fig.

6.

Remove

CONTROL TRANSFORMER

10-17

Experimental Circuit

the voltmeter from the circuit, disconnect S3 from

R2 and connect

the volt-

meter between Si and S2.


7.

Very

carefully, rotate the synchro rotor until the voltmeter reads a

minimum on

the low-

est scale.

8.

Without disturbing the rotor position, adjust the

dial

to zero degrees and secure

it

to the

rotor shaft. This completes zeroing of the control transmitter.


9.

Connect the voltmeter from

R-j

to

of the control transformer and connect

S-j

10.

Connect Si and S2 to the

1 1

Rotate the rotor shaft until the voltmeter reads approximately zero.

12.

13.
14.

R-j

Connect

Very

to S2.

line voltage.

Remove the voltmeter from the


tween

R2

circuit,

connect Si to S3 and connect the voltmeter be-

and R2.

S-|

and S2 to the

line voltage.

carefully, rotate the synchro rotor until voltmeter reads a

minimum on

the lowest

scale.

15.

Without disturbing the rotor position, adjust the

dial

to zero degrees and secure

it

to the

rotor shaft. This completes zeroing the control transformer.


16.

Connect

S-j,

S2 and S3 of the control transmitter to S^, S2 and S3 of the control

transformer.
17.

Connect

18.

With
(R-j

CT

R-j

and R2 of the control transformer to the input of an oscilloscope.

set at zero degrees, set

to R2) with the oscilloscope.

CX

to zero degrees and measure the

Record the
109

results in figure 10-18.

CT

output voltage

EXPERIMENT

10

S YN CHR OME CHA NISMS

Control Transformer

Control Transmitter

Direction

Direction

Mechanical
nr\i
ipuitI

I
I I

of Shaft

n U Id L U
1

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

Mechanical
I

nni
ipUitL

I I

of Shaft

Voltage

nOldllun

uu tpui

cw

10

cw

15

\J

n
u

PW
I

CW

P\A/

P\A/

rw

ccw

10

ccw

PPW
V/U vv

n
u

15

ccw

ccw

15

ccw

10

ccw

15

ccw

15

ccw

ccw

cw

cw

ccw
wV

180

180

185

cw

180

185

cw

185

tj

180

cw

180

175

ccw

180

175

ccw

175

Fig.

10-18

ccw

The Data Table

110

Phase

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT

Determine the phase relationship of

19.

Take the data indicated

in figure

SYNCHROMECHANISMS

output voltage with respect to the

this

(R^ to R of the control transmitter rotor).


2
phase or 180 out of phase.
20.

10

Record the

10-18 with the

results in figure

CT and CX

line voltage

10-18

as in-

settings indicated in the

table.

ANALYSIS GUIDE.

Plot a graph, similar to figure 10-11, of the control transformer output

voltage versus the degree of deviation between the transmitter shaft angle

former shaft angle (CT shaft

and the control

at zero degrees).

PROBLEMS
.

What

is

the purpose of a synchro transmitter?

2.

What

is

the purpose of a synchro receiver?

3.

What

is

the purpose of a synchro control transformer?

4.

What condition determines whether

5.

What

is

CT

or

TR

is

used

in a

synchro system?

the purpose of a differential control transmitter? Receiver?

trans-

experimen

MONITORING DEVICES

11

INTRODUCTION. In order for a person driving an automobile down


an interstate highway to
know his speed, the automobile must possess a speedometer.
The speedometer is a monitoring
device that indicates the forward speed of the auto.
devices used in industry will be examined.

DISCUSSION. The effectiveness of a process


or control system can only be achieved when
each component of the system

To

properly.

experiment some of the monitoring

instrument reading from the true value of the


variable.

Static error

may be

expressed as

functioning

is

evaluate effectiveness a

method

The two methods used

Static

for moni-

toring are indicators and recorders.

An

Instrument reading for


value of the variable
X 100
Actual full scale value

of monitoring the controlled variables must


be

employed.

In this

full scale

error

ofthe variable

in-

dicator visually displays the value of a controlled variable and is used when no permanent

record

is

required.

(11.1)

Recorders are used when a

record of the value of the controlled variable


over a period of time

is

required.

The

indi-

cating and/or recording of the value of the


controlled variable at a distance by remote

transmission

is

called telemetry.

strumentation.

is

called in-

In order for the instrumenta-

tion system to monitor the controlled variable


satisfactorily,

the characteristics of the

strument must be known.

in-

These character-

istics

are generally divided

into

static

and dynamic.

static

The

two

characteristics pertain to the instru-

ment's ability to measure variables that are


changing.

Important
are:

ment to

in

the

indicate or record identical values of

the variable
is

in

when the conditions are repeated


The gradual change

called reproducibility.

the indicated or recorded value, during a

time

in

which the true value of the variable

does not change,

is

called drift.

Some important dynamic

character-

pertain to the instrument's ability to


measure variables that are not changing. The

strument

the smallest change

types:

istics

dynamic

is

the measuring instrument does not respond is


called the dead zone. The ability of an instru-

The use of an instrument to monitor the


value of the controlled variable

Sensitivity

value of the variable being measured to which


the instrument will respond.
The range of
values of the measured variable within which

of the instrument are


fidelity.

its

Responsiveness

characteristics

responsiveness and

the ability of the


instrument to respond to changes in value of
the variable being measured. The period of
is

time during which the instrument does not respond is called the dead time. The slowness
static characteristics of

an

accuracy, sensitivity and

in-

of the instrument to respond to a change

re-

the variable being measured

Accuracy is the ability of the


instrument to indicate or record the true value
of the variable being measured.
The static
producibility.

error of an instrument

is

delity

is

is

the ability of the

called

lag.

in

Fi-

instrument to

faithfully indicate or record a changing


value

of the variable.

the deviation of the

The dynamic

cator or recorder

112

is

error of an indi-

the deviation between the

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT

instrument's changing output and the changing input.

Change

% Dynamic

Error =

Reading for

in

Indicators

moving
11-1

from one point

remote location has become important.

mation and

level are

electrical,

optical

some of the values

Transmission systems

electronic,

expressed as

X 100

(11.2)

may

be constructed with a

stationary scale and a moving pointer, or a

sys-

scale

and

a stationary pointer.

is

improved by

ed pivots and precision gears are used

usually

may be

more expensive
hind the pointer

pneumatic, hydraulic,

units.
is

cal-

a scale

is

MOVING POINTER
Pointer

and Scale Arrangements

113

a pointer

on

used to position a pen of a recorder.

MOVING POINTER

the

used to correct for parallax.

ROTATING POINTER

ROTATING SCALE

in

mirror placed be-

The same means used to position

Some

The

ibrating the scale in smaller increments. Jewel-

or electromagnetic.

Fig. 11-1

Figure

shows the various arrangements.

accuracy of the indicator

Differential forces, flow rates, position infor-

transmitted.

may be

instrument's

tems, the transmission of data indicating the

to a

error

change in measured value


Actual change in the
given measured value

equipment and control

value of the controlled variable

The dynamic

a given

Because of the size and complexity of


industrial process

MONITORING DEVICES

1 1

EXPERIMENT

MONI TO RING DE VICES

1 1

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

POINTER

FIXED IRON

VANE
POINTER
FIELD

CORE

MOVING
COIL

COIL

MOVABLE
IRON

VANE
PERMANENT MAGNET

(A)

Fig.

electrical

In

(B)

11-2

IRON VANE

Electrical Indicator

(C)

Movements

Remote indicating systems using synchros


employ a synchro torque transmit-

indicators, there are three

types of movements used for indicating cur-

generally

rent or voltage:

the permanent-magnet

ter

movement, often

called the D'Arsonval

coil

move-

ment; the iron vane movement, and the

ELECTRODYNAMIC

and a synchro torque

of the receiver

is

receiver.

The

pointer that rotates about a calibrated

elec-

shaft

mechanically connected to a
dial.

trodynamic, often called the dynamometer,

movement. The permanent-magnet movement


is shown in figure 11-2A.
This movement is

vacuum indicators use


Bourdon tube, bellows or a diaphram
type movement.
The Bourdon tube movement is shown in figure 1 1-3A. The tube may
Fluid pressure or

either the

DC and rectified AC.


The permanent-magnet movement is rugged,
designed for measuring

sensitive

and

expensive than other types

less

be a flattened semicircle type, a

of movements.

type or

a helical spiral type.

semicircle type

The

vane movement

iron

ure 11-2B.

measuring

The movement

AC

is

shown

is

designed for

in fig-

medium

currents and voltages directly.

The movement

is

This

movement

is

shown
the same

permanent magnet type except the

magnet

is

replaced with an electromagnet


is

gage materials and

is

as the

DC

type

spiral

and the

helical

is

used for

type

is

used

The bellows movement is shown in figure 11-3B.


The bellows are made of light

The electrodynamic movement

or

flat

rugged, sensitive and used for

figure 11-2C.

The movement

flattened

used for low pressure ap-

is

pressure,

spiral

for higher ranges.

general purposes.

in

the

plication,

The

flat

designed for measuring

Because of

areas.

large forces

needed to

desired distance.

coil.

AC

relatively

may
this,

have large effective

they can develop the

strain

This gage

them through the


is

usually used for

low pressures.

voltages or currents without the use of

rectifiers.

One

ment

accuracy.

is its

of the advantages of this moveure

114

diaphragm movement

1-3C.

is shown in figThe diaphragm type movement is

EXPERIMENT

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

MONITORING DEVICES

1 1

POINTER

POINTER

POINTER

PIVOT

DIAPHRAGM

BOURDON
TUBE

(A)

GEAR
MECHANISM

GEAR
MECHANISM

BOURDON TUBE

(B)

Fig. 1 1-3

used where the


generally small.

movement
It is

used

pressure measurements.

many

is

DIAPHRAGM

Movements

during which the operation

is

and the type of

differential

This gage

(C)

Pressure Indicator

of the diaphragm
in

BELLOWS

signal to

is

to be monitored,

be monitored.

usually
All recorders consist basically of:

used with low pressures.

Many
used

in

ceiving

to be

industry,

of the

i.e.

monometers, thermom-

The type

determine some of

will

do the

job.

When

the variations

in

the

a recorder

recording

is

shown

is

the

medium

as a

figure

1-4.

The most common means of measuring

a recorder to

or

coil

galvonometer

de-

istics

of the signal.

RECORDING DEVICE

"J"
r J
I

AMPLIFIER

ATTENUATOR

ACTUATOR

MEASURING UNIT

Fig.

11-4

movement, the

RECORDING MEDIUM

Block Diagram of Recorder

115

null-

movement, and the force balance

movement. The type of measuring


employed depends on the type and

monitor a

on the

speed of response, the time

L_l

medium which

block diagram illustrating


in

INPUT

(3)

the input signal to a recorder are the moving

given process or system depends

PRECISION

act-

at a future

balance

sired accuracy,

An

The

process system for further operation.

The choice of

(2)

the control or

permanent record may be analyzed


in

(4)

function of time.

used to provide

permanent record of the change.

time and corrections made

use

recording device which records the desired

vancing or rotating the recording

rapid to read, or are extended over a long


is

may

means of storing the recorded signal. (5) A


chart drive which has a mechanism for ad-

controlled variable to be monitored are too

period of time, a recorder

It

uator which drives the recording device.

signal.

reflects the

drive a recording device actuator.

the responsiveness, and the fidelity

measurement

A
re-

the signal directly or amplify the signal to

of controlled variable

of the characteristics the indicator must possess to

which

value of the controlled variable.

measured, the accuracy required, the

sensitivity,

the input signal

(1)

means of

other indicating instruments are

lamps.

eters,

measuring unit which includes a

unit to be

character-

EXPERIMENT

MONITORING DEVICES

1 1

Fig.

A
figure

uring

moving
1

DC

and

through the

coil

type recorder

The recorder

1-5.

AC

coil,

is

voltages.
it

arm while the pen

Moving Coil Recorder

shown

capable of meas-

synchronous motor that is coupled to the


take-up and feed reels through a gear mech-

As current flows

anism.

is

rotates, deflecting the


spiral springs

rotation of the coil.

The

litude of the

signal,

incoming

in

pen

greater the

The gear mechanism allows the speed

of the chart paper

oppose the

(mc/sec)

to

Therefore, the resultant pen trace

amp-

is

be varied.
a function

of the incoming signal amplitude and chart

the greater the

resulting degree of rotation of the

When

11-5

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

speed (time).

pen arm.

The attenuator allows the oper-

ator to set the sensitivity (volts/cm) of the

the spiral spring forces are equal to the

recorder.

rotational force

produced by the signal current flowing through the moving coil, the pen
comes to a rest. The chart paper is moved by

A
in

76

force-balance type recorder

figure 11-6. With

no input

is

shown

signal, the posi-

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT

Fig. 1 1-6

tioning adjustment

through the

coil

is

produce

ances the

beam

magnetic

field

signal

is

is

suf-

torque motor drives the arm up, the force

bal-

the spring

When

at

is

DC

applied to the input, the current

amplified by the

DC

The

amplifier.

is

As

a result, the

arm moves

The torque motor produces


mechanical

gap of the position detector

As the

ductance of the
is

increased.

air

gap

coil of

decreased, the

is

The output of the


amplifier,

is

in-

the position detector

Since this coil

is

component of

the oscillator, the output current

AC

force

proportional

rent flowing through

The stronger the input signal, the more


arm is moved upward. As the beam is de-

decreased.

oscillator

which drives

is

is

in

mo-

ment produced by the spring is equal to the


produced by the magnetic unit,
the beam balance is restored.

armature

flected, the air

CCW

the

increase

upward.

the

When

increased.

is

CW moment

current through the magnetic unit unbal-

in

ances the beam.

As the

the upper end (100%) of the chart.

which

where the pen

at a point

the lowest end (0%) of the chart.

MONITORING DEVICES

Force-Balance Recorder

set so that the current

of the magnetic unit

ficient to

1 1

increased.

horseshoe-shaped frame.
the frame.

coil.

rotary

soft-iron

pivoted within the air gap of the

is

coil

is

wound on

As the current through the

increased, the magnetic field

is

coil

is

increased and

tends to force the armature to line up across

The

the air gap.

rotation caused

crease in the magnetic field


spring attached to

the arm

its

by the

in-

opposed by

arm. Thus, the position

of

torque motor.

strength.

The

limited to a

few degrees.

is

is

dependent upon the

coupled to an

The torque moves the arm and pen up toward

its

to the cur-

signal

rotation of the armature

is

EXPERIMENT

MONI TORING DE VICES

1 1

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

AC

SERVOMOTOR

Fr*=?

AC
LINE

AC

chopper
,

AMPLIFIER

u
V X- - u
^
"

><

>t

DC

INPUT

ARM

SLIDER

115V
60

HERTZ

CHART
MOTOR

REFERENCE VOLTAGE
Fig. 1 1-7

The null-balance type recorder


in

figure 11-7.

This recorder

is

shown

DC

may

input signal,

chopper

may

be

The

other channel

a dif-

vertical

resistance bridge, or a

signal voltage

the input of the recorder,

it is

the reference voltage and a


is

shown)

is

positioning

used to set the pen trace

use this type recorder as a

is

corder

shown

To

recorder, anin

the

The chart paper remains


type operation. An X-Y re-

in figure

1-8.

applied to

compared with

DC

direction.

is

X-Y

added to drive the pen

is

stationary for this

potentiometer circuit with chopper and ampli-

DC

zero (null-balance).

to zero or a convenient reference point.

input signal, resistance

ferential transformer,

is

circuit (not

AC

measuring unit of the amplifier

When

GEAR MECHANISM

be designed to respond to a

input or a combination of the three.

fier.

and^the slider arm until the error voltage to the

an automatic

is

Null Balance Type Recorder

control system used to position an arm. This

type recorder

o-

Where the input

error voltage

recorder used

signal

called a

is

is

pneumatic, the

pneumatic recorder.

generated.

The

measuring

unit

pressure-to-motion

This error voltage


per which converts
error signal.

The

it

AC

is

applied to the chop-

to a corresponding
error signal

is

ducer

AC

amplified

may

The

by

in

change

to a sufficient level to drive the servomotor.

arm through

The shaft of this motor is coupled to the slider


arm of the balancing mechanism and to the
pen arm. The servomotor drives the pen arm

mechanical

75

is

resulting

pressure

gears,

shown

is

The

is

trans-

motion produced
linked to the pen

and other
pneumatic recorder

belts,

devices.

using the spiral


ing unit

recorder

this

be a Bourdon tube, a bellows or a

diaphragm.
a

of

transducer.

springs

Bourdon tube
in

as the measur-

figure 11-9.

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMEN T

1 1

MONI TO RING DE VICES

AC SERVOMOTOR
CHOPPER
X CHANNEL

AC AMP

'J
REFERENCE

AC

AC AMPLIFIER
CHOPPER

Y CHANNEL
)
|

REFERENCE

fifor.

11-8

X-Y Recorder

CIRCULAR CHART PAPER

TUBE

\
.

GEAR
MECHANISM
115V
60 Hz

SYNCHRONOUS
MOTOR
Fig. 1 1-9

Pneumatic Recorder
119

EXPERIMENT

1 1

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

MONITORING DEVICES

STRIP

CIRCULAR CHART
Fig.

11-10

Chart Forms

The type of recording medium depends


on the recording device used.

reel

stylus

oscillographs,

the paper or by the reel

in

is

industry.

the edge of

itself.

Counters generally are divided


mechanical, electrical and

into three types:

photosensitive paper or films, paper coated

with zinc or aluminum, paper coated with

wax

electronic.

The mechanical counter or

gister consists of a set of

thermal sensitive, and

gether through a 10 to

magnetic tape, respectively.

edge of each wheel

The recording medium may be

in

roller paper, called a strip chart, or

is

is

wheels coupled

divided into ten equal

numbered 0 to

9.

The circular chart and the


shown in figure 1 1-10.

The

strip

electrical

counter

resembles

charts are synchronous motors, spring motors

stroke register except the unit's wheel

uated by an electromagnet.

Chart speed

accomplished by heat mech-

more complicated than

they must include a supply

wheel

for

each

pulse

through the magnet

circular charts as
reel

If

and a take-up

coil,

of

current

act-

unit's

flowing

the unit would be

considered an electrical counter.

120

is

the

solenoid

mechanism were used to actuate the

anisms and variable speed motors. Strip charts


are

These

at a window in the face of a


The count mechanism is actuated
either by a stroke arm or a rotary shaft. A
mechanical counter is shown in figure 11-11.

and motor-driven wound


variations are

to-

The

reducing gear.

counter.

tape or drum.

springs.

re-

numbers appear

magnetic

Chart drives for circular charts and

and each part

parts

cir-

cular form, called a circular chart, a strip of

strip chart are

in

Counting indicators are often employed

recording devices are paper charts,

or special oxide that

be driven by a

electric stylus, thermal

and magnetic heads. The mediums used

for the

may

Strip charts

drive.

sprocket meshing with holes

Generally, the

recording devices are pen and ink, light beams


called

CHART

Mechanical

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

10:1

EXPERIMENT

GEAR RATIO

10:1

1 1

MONI TO RING DEVICES

GEAR RATIO

HUNDREDTH
RESET

STROKE ARM

Fig.

and

electrical

11-11

Mechanical Counter

counters are available that count

For time measurement, clock timers and

up to about 10,000 counts per minute.

electronic timers are used as the measuring

The clock timer may be a mechanical


device much like a windup alarm clock. Electrical timers usually use a synchronous motor.
Electronic timers operate on a principle inunit.

Where very

electronic counter

and

decade

used.

is

counters

vibrators (flip-flops)
are

counting

fast

employed

in

using

desired, the

is

Binary counters
bistable

multi-

and glow transfer tubes

volving the

electronic counters.

time constant of a resistance-

capacitance circuit.

MATERIALS
1

Torque

receiver,

type

23TR6

or equivalent

Torque transmitter, type 23TX6 or equivalent


Pointer and dial assembly

Test stand

AC

Oscilloscope

Variable transformer

voltmeter

PROCEDURE
1.

Construct the experimental circuit shown

2.

Connect an

3.

Remove

If

and S3 of the torque transmitter.

The synchro

si

the voltmeter from the circuit, connect

S3 to R2 and connect the voltmeter

R-j.

the meter reads more than the line voltage, rotate the rotor 180 and repeat steps 2, 3

and
6.

S-|

0 or 180.

between S2 and
5.

between terminals

11-12.

Rotate the synchro rotor until the voltmeter reads approximately zero.

now
4.

AC voltmeter

in figure

4.

If

Remove

the meter reads

less

than the

line voltage,

proceed with the next step.

the voltmeter from the circuit, disconnect

meter between

S-j

and S2

121

S3 from R2 and connect the

volt-

EXPERIMENT

7.

Very

MONITORING DEVICES

1 1

carefully, rotate the synchro

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

rotor until the voltmeter reads zero on the lower

scale.

8.

Without disturbing the rotor position, adjust the pointer to zero degrees on the dial assembly, and secure the pointer to the rotor shaft. This completes zeroing of the torque
transmitter.

9.

10.
1

1.

Connect S2 of the synchro torque receiver to

The

Very

carefully,

line longer
2.

13.

5.

Do not

leave the synchro connected to the

than necessary.

Connect the stator leads of the transmitter to the stator leads of the
Rotate the rotor of the torque transmitter

Connect

S-|

receiver to
1

and S3 to R2-

without disturbing the synchro rotor position, adjust the pointer to zero.

the torque receiver.


14.

and connect jumper

receiver will set itself to electrical zero.

This completes zeroing the torque receiver.

R-|

Repeat step

S3 of the torque

of the torque transmitter.


3.

observe the operation of

Record the observed operation.

of the torque receiver to

S-|

(CW and CCW) and

receiver.

transmitter, and

S3 of the torque

EXPERIMENT

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS
Connect

16.

17.

of the torque receiver to

R.|

R2

R2

of the torque transmitter, and

receiver to Ri of the torque transmitter

and connect the rotors to 115

Connect

of the torque transmitter, and

of the torque receiver to

receiver to

S3

S<\

of the torque

volts,

S3

60

Hertz.

of the torque

of the torque transmitter.

Repeat step 13.

18.

ANALYSIS GUIDE.
vation

made

in

Discuss the operation of the remote indicator system based on the obser-

the experiment.

Relate

how you

synchro transmitter or receiver were reversed.


S-|

MONITORING DEVICES

1 1

and S3 are connected

Step 13:

in reverse.

Why

is it

could determine

Relate

how you

if

the rotor leads of either the

could determine

if

the stator leads

necessary to perform the zeroing operation?

Receiver Action

Step 15:

Step 18:

Fig.

11-13

The Observed Results

PROBLEMS
1.

Define a telemetry system.

2.

Discuss each of the static and

3.

Draw

dynamic

a diagram of a test setup using the strip chart recorder to

led variable of a

temperature chamber

thermocouple detector whose output


a

characteristics of an instrument.

gain of

1000

is

is

(at

212F) over

rated a

mV

monitor the control-

a period of

per 50C.

4 hours.

A DC amplifier

Use

with

used between the moving coil recorder and the thermocouple

detector.
4.

What type

of recorder could you use to automatically plot voltage versus current?

Show how the

test circuit

would be

set up.

experiment

INTRODUCTION. The

12

frequency response of

YS

TEM

a control

ESPONSE

system

very important

is

in

any

practical

situation. In this experiment, the system response of automatic control systems will be examined.

DISCUSSION.

An

block diagram.

is

it

The

12-1C

helpful to use a

is

output function of a system to

The

E
E

in

its

input

may

figure

R2

+ R
2

The output of a summing device or point


sum of its input. The block
diagram of a summing circuit is shown in figure 12-2. The output of the circuit may be

is

is

transfer func-

tion of the amplifier in the figure

in

C=R

between the

relationship

called a transfer function.

shown

in

is

open-loop, single-stage

voltage amplifier block diagram


figure 12-1 A.

the series resistance circuit shown

order to analyze an auto-

In

matic control system,

be

given as

the algebraic

determined as

Transfer function =

2^ ^=
=

input

-A

gain of the amplifier

For a two-stage amplifier, such as the


in figure

fer function will

Thus,

tem

if

two blocks

transfer function

ical, electrical, fluid

transfer function.

negative

The

be

A A2
1

are in series, the sys-

(12.2)

and B

is

the feedback (B

positive

feedback

is

is

used, and

employed).

transfer function of this system will be

o = < E in

0E o )(-A)

AE jn

A0E Q = -AE in

(1

+ A/3E
Q

- A/3)

= -AEj
n

Every mechanTransfer function

or thermal system has a

The

E2

negative feedback

if

if

the product of the

is

individual transfer functions.

(A)

is

positive

12-1 B, the system trans-

-out =
Transfer function =
in

=E 1

The block diagram of an amplifier with


feedback is shown in figure 12-3. A is the

in
(12.1)

one shown

in

(1 - A/3)

(12.3)

transfer function of

AMPLIFIER, SINGLE STAGE

(B)

AMPLIFIER, TWO STAGE


Fig. 12- 1

Block Diagram

124

(C)

SERIES RESISTANCE

NETWORK

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT

Fig.

12-2

12

SYSTEM RESPONSE

=E +E 2
1

Summing

Devices

m, E

Fig.

One problem

12-3

out

Feedback Amplifier Block Diagram

of process control

the performance of the complete system.

orig-

To

inates with the necessity of minimizing the

determine the characteristics (transfer func-

effect of changes in the controlled variable.

tion) of a

The process or system and the

determine the transfer function of each block

ing together,

controller, act-

comprise the controlled system,

contained

complete system,

in

it

is

necessary to

the system block diagram.

and the characteristics of the process as well

automatic control system block diagram

as the characteristics of the controller affect

shown
126

in figure

12-4.

An
is

EXPERIMENT

SYSTEM RESPONSE

12

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

PROCESS

*-

OUTPUT

ACTUATOR
TRANSDUCER
CONTROLLER

C -

CONTROLLED VARIABLE
M - MANIPULATED VARIABLE
- TRANSDUCER OUTPUT
f
REFERENCE INPUT
ERROR OR DEVIATION
- CONTROLLER OUTPUT

Fig. 12-4

The output
on

its

Automatic Control System Block Diagram


and we can determine the transducer output

of the transducer depends

(f)

when the

input (C) and the sensitivity (Ky) of the

The

transducer.

gain of a transducer

may

be
f

determined by dividing the change

by the amount of change


the gain

may be

in

in

output

- Af
~ AC

is

1000 RPM.

= K C = 0.02 volt/RPM X 1000

RPM

= 20 volts

the input. Then

stated mathematically as

\e

controlled variable

A control system usually requires a steady


value set-point that

(12.4)

ence input

and

r,

identical to the refer-

is
is

expressed

in

the same

units as the transducer output.

Therefore, the output of the transducer will be

The

error signal (e) applied to the input

of a controller amplifier
f

Let's

= K C
T

(12.5)

at

consider a tachometer generator

which produces an output voltage of 100

We

5,000 RPM.

volts

For example,

can determine the trans-

is

ducer sensitivity,

100

AC

may be determined

using

20

volts

if

- f

(12.6)

the transducer output above

and the reference voltage input

19 volts, the error signal voltage


volts

5000 RPM

= 0.02 volts/RPM

126

= r-f

19-20

will

-1 volts

be

is

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT

12

SYSTEM RESPONSE

Fig.

The output of

12-5

linear

Linear Automatic Control System

Now we

controller de-

pends on the error voltage input and the gain,

Kc

The

of the controller.

AE

we determine

The system

(12.7)

found

K ce

is

that the output of a con-

The

10(3) = 30 lbs

actuator of a control system

ly a linear

element.

linear

element

is

is

an

ele-

EK a

= (r-f) (-K ) (K
c
a

= E(K
a

= e(-K
c

Ka

= -K K r+K K f
c a
c a

= -K

K a r+ K c K a Kt M

K c K a Kt M = -K c K a r

K c Ka r

M
r

K c Ka

1-K t (K c K a

is

.AM
a ~ AE~

is:

M(1 - K c K a K t =

the controller, and the sensitivity of the actu-

System transfer function =

Kc Ka
[

(12.9)

(k

Compare

may be determined by
12.3.

= K E
a

(12.11)

Consequently, the output of the actuator (the

manipulated variable)

be

usual-

ment whose output is proportional to its input.


The actuator output (the manipulated
variable M) is proportional to the output of
ator

C =

The system equation

K c e=

may

function

transfer

10 and an input

is

E =

in fig-

as follows:

(12.8)

troller that has a sensitivity of

of 3 lbs

shown

ure 12-5.

Therefore, the output of the controller

So,

of figure 12-4 can be redrawn as

gain of the con-

c~Ae

E =

can determine the transfer func-

whole system. The block diagram

tion of the

be

troller amplifier will

^OUTPUT

gain and

(12.10)

27

this

Notice that

Kt

is

equation with equation

K c Kg

is

the open-loop

the feedback constant.

EXPERIMENT

SYSTEM RESPONSE

12

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

MAXIMUM ON

ON
M
ui-i-

<o

OFF

MINIMUM
(A)

Fig.

The

RESPONSE OF MANIPULA TED


VARIABLE TO A STEP IN ERROR

(B)

BLOCK DIAGRAM

12-6

Two-Position Control

C = M = Kg E

transfer function of a two-position

control system, on-off control, must be de-

two equations, each applying in a


certain region of operation. The block diagram may be constructed as shown in figure
12-6. The equations for the two positions are
scribed by

Maximum

(on) e

>

System
equation

= K (-K e)
g
c

= K [-K (r
a
c

= K [-K r+ K K M]
a
c
c t

= -K K r +
a c

f)]

(12.13)

Ka [-K c (r-K t M)]

K a K c Kt M

M-K g K c K t M = -Ka K cr
M

Minimum

(off) e

<0

(12.12)

Transfer function =

= ^
r

From equation 12.13,

From equation
or

less,

imum

ror

12.12,

if

the error

the manipulated variable

(off),

and

the error

is

is

at a maxi-

(on).

In

proportional

controller amplifier gain

control
is

system, the

a linear function of

iable

The block diagram of


shown in figure 12-7. The

system

is

system's transfer function

the deviation or er-

Ka [-K c (r-f)]

Ka [-K c (0)]

= 0

the set -point value

transducer output

input error signal.

this

if

the controlled variable

is

at

zero.

greater than
is

f),

the desired value and the manipulated vari-

at a min-

If

its

(r

(12.14)

Ka K c K t

zero
able

if

zero, the manipulated variable

mum

is

is

zero

is

-KLK
N
a c
-

is

less

(r

>

f),

is

greater than the

the controlled var-

than the desired value, and the

manipulated variable must be increased by


the actuator.

may be determined

The actuator

manipulated variable

as follows:

iable

725

is

will

drive the

until the controlled var-

at the desired operating value.

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT

12

SYSTEM RESPONSE

K K e
a e

(A)

(B)

BLOCK DIAGRAM

TO STEP CHANGE IN ERROR

Fig.

= K [-K (r -f)]
c
g

= -K K (+e)
a c

the set-point value

If

transducer
variable

is

output

(f

>

r),

Proportional Control System

12-7

the set-point
trolled

than the

less

is

the controlled

The actuator

manipulated variable
is

= -K K (-e)
a c

= K K e
a c

will drive

Kc
Ka K c Kt

- rK

C= M=
1

the

C=

= 5

in

control

of the controller.
is

automatic control

is

Since

the actuator a

directly proportional to the mag-

nitude of the signal from the transducer, the

value of

depends on the proportional

the sensitivity of the controller

in

simplest

the

is

controller transmits to

signal that

derivation with

The

10) volts/RPM

RPM

Proportional

the manipulated variable

in

-5 volts 100 RPM/volt (-10)

1-100 RPM/volt

closed-loop system

a given value of amplification.

to manipulated

Ka K c K t

K a [-K c (r-f)]

corresponds to the change

(K c

identical

is

and

the

sensitivity

Assume the con-

until the controlled vari-

amplification

volts.

Ka K c

at the desired operating value.

The change

variable

the manipulated variable must be decreased

able

is

variable

greater than the desired value,

by the actuator.

RESPONSE OF MANIPULATED VARIABLE

ratio of the percentage of full scale

output of

the transducer to the percentage of

full scale

output from the controller

Generally,

portional band.

adjustable.

is

called the pro-

The smaller the proportional

band, the greater the proportional sensitivity,

For example,

and the more precise the control of the proc-

certain control system

has an amplifier with a gain of -10, a trans-

ducer sensitivity of
tor gain of

ess.

volt/RPM, and an actua-

100 RPM/volt.

Let's

tional

control

will

by

propor-

have a small difference

between the controller set-point and the con-

determine the

desired value of the controlled variable

Processes controlled only

when

trolled variable.

29
12

This difference

is

called off-

EXPERIMENT

SYSTEM RESPONSE

12

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

(A)

BLOCK DIAGRAM

Fig.

12-8

(B)

Integral Control

Reducing the proportional band can reduce the offset, but this increases the sensitivity, and if carried too far, the system will

RESPONSE OF MANIPULATED VARIABLE


TO A STEP CHANGE IN ERROR

System

C = M = Ka E

set.

become unstable and

O-

But for integral control,

The oscillations cause continuous movement of the


actuator (hunting). To reduce the offset resulting

oscillate.

from proportional control,

(integral action)

reset action

where T:

can be added to the system.

The effect of dead time,


between two related actions,

is

the integral time. Therefore,

a definite delay
in

proportional

control requires the sensitivity to be reduced


(increasing the proportional band) in order to

Differentiating,

maintain stability. Even a small dead time can


cause serious consequences
control.

To reduce the

in a

proportional

dM

effect of dead time,

rate action (derivative action) can be

-f

e dt

(12.15)

added to

the system.
or
In

pulated variable

is

changed

tional to the deviation.


this

an integral control system, the mani-

type of system

is

dM

a
^(r-f)

dt

at a rate propor-

The block diagram for


shown in figure 12-8.

The system transfer function may be


mined as follows:

System equation:

deter-

dM
130

yMr-K t M)dt

(12.16)

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT

under the error curve. The integral time

For a step input:

is

dM

K t M)

(r

ulated

(Tj)

defined as the time of change of the manip-

by

variable caused

unit change

in

error.

dM
-

(r

SYSTEM RESPONSE

12

K t M)

As an example,

Tj

let's

consider an integral

pneumatic control system.

zero deviation

causes the actuator piston to be at the middle

= j7-2n
^t
Tj
K
1

K ti M

(r-

of

7-Cnr- 17-en
Kt
Kt

Tj

K
t

- n

fin r

(r

(r

K tt M)

inch

integral

time

if

dM

K t M)

by

deviation changes suddenly

the actuator gain (K

-dT

Ka

0.2

is

motion

Let's calculate the rate of piston

when the

Ka

^p-t =

sec.

The

10-inch stroke.

its

10.

is

edt+
,

TT
i

dM_

Kt K a
t

= n

(r

K t M)

10

in.

0.2 sec

dt

= 50

in. /sec

Notice that the actuator gain (K


a

Taking the anti logarithm of each side,

in

t=a t

example.

j^jyjjj

integral

the system to return to the

when

there

system

will

set-point

Kt M

usually

is

control help reduce offset, because the integral action forces

K t K a t/ti _

is

change

Kt M

in load.

The

not operate satisfactorily

with any dead time present.

-K t K a t/ti

included

is

employed for
control of fluid flow, liquid level and pressure,
as well as in processes having little or no energy storage. The characteristics of integral

= antilogarithm n \r
_

in this

Integral control

K K

antilogarithm

dM/dt

present, the system will

If

dead time

is

become unstable and


The integral time

begin to oscillate severely.

of the controller must be selected to provide


Transfer function for step input:

the proper damping with

and without excessive


r

Kt

minimum

deviation

oscillation.

proportional-integral

the integral control system, the actu-

In

ator

is

moved twice

or error

When

is

when

bility of the proportional control

doubled over a previous value.

tion of offset by integral control.

the controlled variable

is

at the set-

point (zero error), the actuator element


tionary.

Thus,

the

manipulated

is

sta-

variable

changes with time and integrates the area

integral

control action to obtain the advantage of sta-

the deviation

as fast

system

control

combines proportional action with

of control

is

the most widely

types of control.

The

and reducThis type

used of

proportional-integral control system


in figure

12-9.

all

block diagram for a


is

shown

EXPERIMENT

SYSTEM RESPONSE

12

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

|-VNA^-|(-

te

PROPORTIONAL &
INTEGRAL

PROPORTIONAL

BLOCK DIAGRAM

(A)

(B)

12-9

Fig.

Integral Control

The system equation may be determined


as follows:

combined

for

Proportional-integral control usually has

two adjustments:

C
But,

RESPONSE OF MANIPULATED VARIABLE


TO STEP CHANGE IN ERROR

Kc

the sensitivity, and

j(

the integral time.

Ka E

proportional

integral

control,

For a step change in deviation, the integral time is the time


required to
add an increment of response equal to the
original step

change of response. Reset-rate


defined as the number of times per minute
that the proportional part of the response
is
repeated.
Reset-rate is expressed in "repeats
is

where

Tj

is

per minute" and

the integral time. Therefore,

K K

~rf-

f
/edt+K a K c e

the inverse of integral time.

Proportional-integral control

(12.19)

either

-!^e + Ka Kc g

Derivative control action can be added to

proportional control

dM^(r-f)

uti-

advantages of this type control are the


excessive stabilization time required
when the
process has many energy storage elements.

System equations
=

may be

any process that requires the use of


of its two types of response. The dis-

lized for

Differentiating,

dM

is

+ K K
a c

^L)

large
trol

(12.20)

in

systems having a very

number of storage elements, and

for consystems having troublesome dead time.

Derivative action allows the proportional


sen-

132

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT

12

SYSTEM RESPONSE

M
PROPORTIONAI &
DERIVATIVE

'

'
1

PROPORTIONAL ONLY

Fig. 12-

sitivity to

lation.
set.

10

Derivative

be increased without excessive

The increased

When

Time for a Step Input

oscil-

sensitivity reduces off-

the derivative control

is

used with

in Deviation

sponse. The dead band is a function of the


actuator sensitivity and the amplifier gain. As
an example, consider a TX and TR connected

proportional-integral action, the integral time

as a

can be reduced.

on both sides of

The system equations

for a

system containing derivative action are:


For proportional plus derivative action:

= K K e + K K T de/dt
a c
a c d

position)

K K

= K K e + K K T +
a c
a c d

(12.21)

rivative

time

is

is

the derivative time. De-

amount of

lead

that the control action

is given, and it is the


time integral by which the rate action advances the effect of proportional control.

This effect

is

shown

in figure

that the control transmitter shaft

is

shown

in figure

2-1

After the system moves out of the dead


band, the primary response factor is a function
of the actuator speed. The first speed response

-^edt

defined as the

any other

output of the control receiver is called the


dead band. A dead band of 2 for such a
system

(12.22)

The time, T^,

electrical zero (or

can be rotated without initiating a response

For proportional plus derivative plus integral:

remote indicator. The number of degrees

factor

is

the set-point

is

Velocity error results

when

a steadily changing quantity,

and the controlled variable,

in an attempt to
follow the input, lags behind with a steady de-

viation.

12-10.

the velocity error coefficient or ve-

locity lag error.

is

the

The second speed of response factor


time. The rise time is the time it

rise

The transfer function or system equation


can be used to obtain the response time and
the frequency response of an automatic control system.
The response time

is the time it takes the


system to correct the controlled variable when
an error is initiated. The response time of a

system

is

ccw

a function of the actuator speed,

dead time, offset, the storage elements


system and of the dead band.

in

the

ccw

The dead band

is

the range through which

an input can be varied without initiating a

re-

Fig.

133

12-11

Dead Band of a Synchro System

EXPERIMENT

12

SYSTEM RESPONSE

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

A UNDERDAMPED
C OVERDAMPED

CONTROLLED VARIABLE

NEW SET-POINT
POSITION

PREVIOUS
SET-POINT
POSITION

TIME

Fig.

12-12

Damping on Response Time

Effect of

takes the controlled variable to travel from


10% to 90% of its final value. The third factor

is

the settling time. In any process control

system, the controlled variable

may

signal

may

down.

be reduced by employing a

damping device, decreasing the gain of the controller amplifier, or

compensating for the time

delay within the controlling device.


of mechanical dampers requires

and increases the velocity

error.

the velocity error increases the

error signal

is

large.

is

Figure 12-12 represents the response of


the system with three different types of damping.

Hunting

when the

and positive feedback when the error

overshoot

the desired value and oscillate (hunt) about


this value before settling

negative feedback
small,

The use
more power
Increasing
lag

between

Curve

damped,

In this

tem

is

under-

is

pro-

case the speed of response of the sys-

reduced by reducing the gain of the


controller. Curve B is a critically damped system. The value of damping applied is the
is

shoot.
tic

Decreasing the controller sensitivity to


reduce the overshoot causes the system re-

shows a system when it


which case overshoot

nounced, but the oscillations finally cease.


Curve C shows a system that is overdamped.

smallest

the set-point and the controlled variable.

in

amount necessary to eliminate overThe frequency response of an automa-

control system

may

be obtained by plot-

ting the transfer function of the system using


a

sponse to be sluggish and increases the veloc-

of

ity error.

Bode diagram, or by plotting the


data

obtained

experimentally

results
in

the

laboratory.

Compensating for the time delay


controlling device to prevent hunting

with an anti-hunt device.


for

damping

are

hunt devices are

many and

The Bode diagram was developed by

the

done

H.W. Bode. These diagrams are approximate

Anti-hunt devices
varied.

Some

responses using asymptotic straight

lines. The
two graphs: one of gain and versus
frequency, and one of phase shift versus frequency. The gains are usually plotted in logarithmic or db values.

diagram

anti-

dampers and some incomplex electronic sys-

inertia

volve elaborate and

tems.

in

is

A satisfactory anti-hunt

device provides

134

is

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT

12

SYSTEM RESPONSE

R = 100k

db

gain =

20

log

(12.23)

in

The frequency is often converted into radians/


The Bode diagram is generally plotted
sec.
on

= o.i

mF

out

3- or 4-cycle semilog paper.

tion, the

shown in
The first
gram

The

As an illustraBode diagram of the R-C network


figure 12-13 will be constructed.
step in constructing the

Bode

dia-

Fig.

transfer function of the

% HX

e =

network

An

is

equal the input voltage. At co =


is

of co(co

j_

xc

R-jX,

jn

jx c

dL +

ix

-jx r

jx r

'in

frequency,

1+jcoRC

+ jco(0.01)

larger values

20 db per frequency decade

(10).

quency portion of the Bode diagram for this


network can be made with one asymptotic
line drawn from co = 1 radian/sec to the corner

-R

At

100), the output voltage decreases

Therefore, a sketch of the gain versus fre-

1+jR/X c

>

at a rate of

-jx r

-ix,

1 00, the phase


45 and the output voltage is 0.707

(-3 db) of the input voltage.

R-jX r
~i

inspection of the network in figure

values of co(co

R-jX c

'in

'in

R-C Network

12-13 and equation 12.24 reveals that at low


< 100) the output voltage will

C)

angle

-in

12-13

to determine the transfer function.

is

+ jco/100

(12.24)

co

= 100 radian/sec, at 0 db gain.

Then another asymptotic line is drawn from


co = 100 radians/sec and 0 db gain to 1000
radians/sec (1 decade higher) and -20 db gain.
This construction is shown in figure 12-14.
The maximum error occurs at the corner frequency where the response is actually -3 db
down.
FIRST ASYMPTOTE

APPROXIMATE GAIN CURVE

a
-o
z
2

-3db
-5

<

-10

SECOND ASYMPTOTE

-15

SEMILOG PAPER

-20

oj

Fig. 12-

14

IN

RADIANS PER SECOND

Bode Diagram Showing Gain Versus Frequency

EXPERIMENT

12

SYSTEM RESPONSE

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

FIRST POINT

10

100
lj

Fig. 12-

To

IN

1000

RADIANS PER SECOND

Bode Diagram Showing Phase

15

10,000

plot the phase shift of the network,

Shift Versus Frequency

input and output voltage

From

waves simultane-

mark the
point 0 phase shift at 1/10 of the corner
frequency.
Second, mark the point -45

the phase shift

phase shift at the corner frequency. Third,


mark the point -90 at 10 times the corner

quency response showing gain and phase lead


or lag is plotted on semilog paper. A typical

three points are identified.

frequency.

This construction

figure 12-15.

The maximum

1/10 the corner frequency

(a>

is

n 0 wc

shown

in

oscillograph

error

the transfer function

is

cm

_ No. of

frequency

curve using data obtained


a two-channel oscillograph

cycle

oscillograph speed

involved.

4 cm

the

for

To construct

12-16.

F = 1/t

the same; however,

much more

in figure

Frequency

transfer function of an autois

in

response

in

the laboratory,

is

used to record

db and

obtained and

re-

the data recorded, the fre-

shown

is

is

be obtained:

matic control system

degrees

is

The method of constructing the Bode


diagram for

in

From

the oscillograph the following information can

and 10 times
c
)

The amount of
+6
and
at 1 0 co
c

these traces, the gain

From

corded.

error occurs at

the corner frequency.


-6 at

ously.

First,

F =

= 2 sec

= = = 0.5 cycles/sec
t

136

cm /sec

2.

sec

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

2.

Input voltage
ej

= (No. of

EXPERIMENT

(ej)

cm

5.

ej

3.

cm

(0.1

A db

= (No. of

cm

(e

= 2

cm

in

A db

= 20 log^| = 20log 50

A db

= 20(1.7) = 34.0 db

6.

for peak-to-peak

(5 volts/cm) =

Phase shift
6 = (No. of

cm

of shift)(No. of

degrees/cm)

0 volts

6 = 1/2

4.

output) (voltage/cm setting)


e

= 20 log

volts/cm) = 0.2 volts

Output voltage
e

SYSTEM RESPONSE

Gain (db)

for peak-to-peak in

input) (voltage/cm setting)

= 2

12

cm

(90 /cm)

=45

It should be pointed out that the elements of an analog computer are so similar in

Gain (Av )

their action to elements of a control

"

jn

~ 0.2

system

that they are frequently used in the design

50

and analysis of automatic control systems.


137

EXPERIMENT

12

SYSTEM RESPONSE

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

MATERIALS
Transistor,

2N 1304

Resistor,

kft

Resistor,

Resistor,

Resistor,

or equivalent

2 Capacitor, 100 mF, 15 VDC


1
Capacitor 10 juF, 15 VDC

1/2W
100J2 1/2W
68 k2 1/2W
12 kfi 1/2W
1

Potentiometer, 0-20k 1/2 watt (10 turns)

DC Power

supply, 0-40V at 30

mA

2 Strip chart recorder, 0-10 cm/sec


1

Generator, function

Oscilloscope

Hertz to 100 Hertz

PROCEDURE
1
.

Construct the experimental circuit shown

in figure

12-17.

CHANNEL
2

STRIP

Fig.

2.

3.

4.

12-17

Experimental Test Circuit

With S, open and the frequency of


the audio oscillator set at
of the oscillator to 0.5 volts
peak-to-peak.
Set the channel

sensitivity

CHART

Hertz, adjust the output


P

(volts/cm) of the strip chart


recorder to a convenient

pos.fon (peak-to-peak swing of about


2 cm). Leave the chart drive motor
Record the value in figure 12-18 as

off.

Vj/cm.

5.

Set the channel


2 sensitivity (volts/cm) of the strip chart recorder
to a ""ivement
convenient posi
position (peak-to-peak swing of
about 2 cm).

6.

Record

this value in figure

2-1 8 as

V 2 /cm.
755

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

Freq.

EXPERIMENT

V-j/cm

Fig.

12-18

V2

V2/cm

SYSTEM RESPONSE

12

Av

Hertz

3 Hertz
5 Hertz

10 Hertz
15 Hertz

25 Hertz

40 Hertz
60 Hertz

7.

Open Loop Data

Set the strip chart recorder speed to 10

cm

(or

Table

maximum)

per second.

Do not

engage

chart drive motor.


8.

9.

Record the speed

in figure

2-1 8 as cm/sec.

Engage the chart motor and obtain 3 or 4 cycles of

signal voltage.

Note:

Do

not take

longer time than really necessary.


10.

From the

chart trace, calculate

V^

using

= (No. of
1 1

12.

Record

it

From the

in

the Data Table as

13.

Record

14.

Calculate the gain using

15.

16.

it

in

Record the

From the

of swing)

X V-j/cm

cm

of swing)

X V^/cm

chart trace, calculate

V2

cm

V2

using

= (No. of

the Data Table as V2.

result in the

Data Table as

chart trace, determine the

Ay

v2

number of degrees per cm,

using successive positive

peaks.
17.

Determine the number of


age cross-over point.

cm

of lead or lag of

V2

with respect to

V-j

using the zero volt-


EXPBRMEHTn SYSTEM RESPONSE
18.

Calculate the phase angle using


6

vr/t'"
20

552S.

'

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

= (No. of degrees/cm) (No.

cm

**

3 Her,Z 5 Hert2
' Her,Z ' 16 Hertz ' 26
'

isx^jr"*

the va,ue recorded in

Repeat steps 3 through 20 and record


the results

22.

Freq.

Vj/cm

V1

fVl

ags

Hertz, adjust R, until the


outout

12 ,or

in figure

V2/cm

Hertz

'

With S, closed and the frequency


of the oscillator at

21.

lag)

"VWUn^.

in,heDataTableaSe

a ,hr U9h 19

of lead or

Her

t,

vi

12-19.

V2

Hertz

3 Hertz
5 Hertz
10 Hertz
15 Hertz

25 Hertz
40 Hertz

60 Hertz

Fig. 12-

GU, E

P 0t 3 B

19

Closed Loop Data Table

de dia9ram
aTr?,
and closed loop data on the same
graph, plot
'

,?

a written

Omental

the

(1, gain versus

the

PROBLEMS
1.

Draw the block diagram of the system


shown
140

in figure

~ ~-

results.

frequency

12-17.

Using both open loop

(in

radians per sec) and

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

2.

of

test

EXPERIMENT

pneumatic transducer

the

in

laboratory

12

SYSTEM RESPONSE

provides the following

information:

E Out

psi In

7.5

1.5 volts

10

volt

1.75 volts

Calculate the gain of the transducer and determine the range of linear operation.
Discuss the dead band of a process control.

Calculate the transfer function and sketch the

shown

in

c=

Bode diagram of the

electrical circuit

figure 12-20.

0.1

mF

Fig.

1(

12-20

Circuit for

Problem 4

INTRODUCTION. A servomechanism
is

POSITION CONTROL
SYSTEMS

13

experiment

is

an automatic control system

in

mechanical position or rotation. In this experiment a servomechanism

which the controlled


be examined.

will

DISCUSSION. Servomechanisms have been

be classified as a transducer, since

used to aim large guns, control the rudders of

mechanical

ships, guide missiles


trol milling

and space

shown

13-1.

in figure

system

of

load that

is

in

is

in

will be generated.

exact correspondence with the

is

equal to the control voltage,

voltage, e, (the deviation)

is

is

at

is

standstill.

f,

position

reference.

and/or

rate)

or

be

The

error voltage

new

is

ampli-

The motor

shaft

angular position of

exact correspondence with d-y At this

position, voltage c will be equal to voltage

and the error voltage

is

reduced to zero. With

damping, the motor shaft would

Therefore,

overshoot and generate an error signal of the

zero and the

opposite polarity. This would cause the motor

The

control

shaft to reverse direction. This time the shaft

potentiometer could be a gyro (device that


senses

in

insufficient

and the error

zero.

the output of the amplifier

DC motor

c,

voltage,

is

new

exact correspondence with the input

The feedback

hydraulic

and an error voltage +

and fed to the motor.

fied

that the output angular position,

angular position, d-

greater than voltage f

will rotate until the

be

signal.

ing a step input in 6- , the voltage c will

The objective of the

angular position of the input shaft.

Assume

converts

is

to produce an angular position of the

is

could

it

electrical

suddenly moves up to a new position simulat-

servomechanism

to an

pneumatic actuator.
If the wiper of the control potentiometer

tion of a pen of a plotter instrument.

An example

DC motor

The

vehicles, to con-

machines, and to control the posi-

position

may undershoot the desired value but by a


amount and the process is repeated.

or a set-point

smaller

The follow-up potentiometer may

This hunting (oscillation)

is

caused by the

/a

DC
AMPLIFIER

CONTROL
POTENTIOMETER

FOLLOW-UP
POTENTIOMETER

Fig.

13-1

Simple Servomechanism

142

DC

MOTOR

in-

EXPERIMENT

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

POSI TION

13

CONTROL SYSTEMS

WITH UNDERDAMPING

$2 WITH

_8

OVERDAMPING

WITH OPTIMUM OR

CRITICAL DAMPING

TIME
13-2

Fig.

ertia of

rapidity with
is

Effects

the rotating mass, but due to frictional

resistance, the oscillations will die

exist

Damping

which the

creased, so
a greater

Damping may be achieved without

away. The

oscillations cease to

As the amplifier

is

gain

tachgenerator, or

placed

in-

is

itself.

the tendency to overshoot, and

amount

of damping

satisfactory transient response.

is

by an

The network shown

network

is

network.

usually tested using a step function input.

action

is

network

electrical

the feedback path of the amplifier

the input voltage plus

transient

response of an automatic control system

in

is

its

is

13-3 pro-

proportional to

rate of change.

sometimes called

figure

in

vides an output voltage that

required for

The

a great

expenditure of energy by the addition of a

measure of the damping required for

damping.

critical

on Output

a phase

The

advance

system using this type of control

termed

a proportional plus derivative

system.

Viscous friction

may

be introduced

in

samll servo systems to reduce oscillations.

Vis-

cous damping increases the energy losses

the

in

The network shown


satisfactory for

the load on the motor

system and also increases the time required for


the output shaft to

move

to the

new

in

figure

low-power systems
is

13-3
in

is

which

small and constant.

But for varying actuator loads, misalignment

position.

TO CONTROL
POTENTIOMETER
WIPER

TO FOLLOW-UP
POTENTIOMETER
WIPER

TO MOTOR

O
Fig.

13-3

Proportional Plus Derivative (rate) Network

143

EXPERIMENT

POSITION CONTROL SYSTEMS

13

TO CONTROL
POTENTIOMETER

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

WIPER

TO MOTOR

TO FOLLOW-UP
POTENTIOMETER

WIPER

Fig.

13-4

Proportional Plus Integral (reset)


Network

will increase as

the power required increases


This steady-state error may
be eliminated by
adding integral control action.
The network

Besides the inertia of the


moving masses
there are time delays due to
inductance, backlash in gear trains, resilence
of shafts, etc. that
cause the output to lag behind
the input. All
of these factors tend to
reduce the stability of
the control system. Should
the output delay
the input by 180 degrees,
the error voltage

shown

in figure 13-4
provides an output that
proportional to the time integral
of the
deviation.
As long as there is a deviation
between the desired value and
the actual
controlled variable, the amplifier
is

output

generated

will

continue to increase until


the deviation is
reduced to zero.
The optimum network
would provide an output that is
proportional
to the deviation, an output
that is proportional
to the rate of change of
deviation, and an output that is proportional to the
time integral of

ramp function

is

also

deviation

is

greater than the original


change of

become

self-oscilla-

Nyquist showed that, for systems


are stable under open-loop
conditions,
locus of the tip of the

Such a network is shown in


13-5 and the response curve
of the

error signal to a

If

deviation, the system will


tory.

the deviation.
figure

be increased instead of
dethe increase in output for
a given

will

creased.

which

if the
response vector passes
through or encloses the point -1
+ j0 the sys-

shown

AMPLITUDE
DEVIATION

CONTROL
POTENTIOMETER
WIPER

RAMP INPUT

COMMAND

TO MOTOR
FOLLOW-UP
POTENTIOMETER
WIPER
Q.

TIME
(A)

NETWORK
(B)

Fig.

13-5

RESPONSE TO RAMP

Proportional-Plus- Reset-Plus- Rate

144

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

(A)

EXPERIMENT

If

(B)

13-6

when

the loop

is

loop

is

system

closed.

Nyquistdiagram

will

be stable

This value

closed.

shown

in

vo

figure 13-6.

The response vector may be obtained with


shown in figure 13-1. The feedback
loop is opened and a sinusoidal voltage of con-

Data

the circuit

is

error generator.

The

system

is

linear,

zero.

the output

VQ

tor,

is

will

be a

and

It

sin-

phase

(13.2)

obtained for various frequencies, and

Hence, the Nyquist diagram

with an oscillograph or oscilloscope.

ing the response of the

The

system to various types

The most commonly used

inputs are:

re-

A)

recorded as

The

step or square

wave

for

transient response testing


B)

Ld

is

should be emphasized that the testing

of input signals.

and the phase difference may be measured

is

sin 6

of a servomechanism usually involves measur-

the length of the response vec-

sponse of the amplifier

obtained from frequency response analysis.

depending on the elements of the system. The

V Q /e

vo
j

Providing the

usoidal voltage with a magnitude

ratio of

is

cos 6

dinate graph.

control voltage input c


is

converted to

is

these values are plotted on a rectangular coor-

applied to the input of the

to the error generator

equation 13-1

when the

stant magnitude e

in

the form

harmonic response locus or

is

UNSTABLE

Nyquist Diagrams

the locus does not pass through or enclose

this point, the

POSITION CONTROL SYSTEMS

STABLE

Fig.

tern will be unstable

13

(13.1)

The

sine

wave for frequency

response testing

145

EXPERIMENT

POSITION CONTROL SYSTEMS

13

Fig.

A
shown

AC

simple
in

AC Position

position control system

The system

figure 13-7.

trol transmitter

13-7

and

a control

error

amplified by an

signal.

AC

error

signal

is

mechanism.

high power-to-

obtained from a servomotor

running at high speed, and therefore, a gear


device

becomes necessary when the speed of

the final drive shaft

is

is

lower than that for

which the servomotor can conveniently be


designed.
The gear box adds friction, resilence and inertia to the system, but the most

The output of the

mechanically connected to the

is

a gear

weight ratio

transformer to

amplifier which drives a

two-phase servomotor.

servomotor

The

Control System

through

is

uses a con-

convert the mechanical angular position to an


electrical

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

load and the rotor of the control transformer

serious problem

is

that of backlash.

MATERIALS
Function generator, sine and square wave

Amplifier, DC with variable gain and


damping
Permanent magnet, DC gearhead motor
DC power supply, 0-40V
Capacitor, 100 juF

2 Strip chart recorder


2 Potentiometers, 10 kilohm, 4 watt,

continuous rotation

PROCEDURE
1.

2.

Connect the experiment

circuit

With the damping adjustment

shown

set to zero

ally rotate the shaft of the control

3.

mon

is

With

a differential

4.

13-8.

and the

sensitivity (gain) set to

minimum, manu-

potentiometer until the voltage from the wiper to com-

3 volts DC.

common, very
motor

in figure

voltmeter connected from the wiper of the control potentiometer to


carefully rotate the control potentiometer shaft clockwise until the servo-

just responds.

Record the

differential voltmeter reading.

146

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT

13

POSITION CONTROL SYSTEMS

CHART
RECORDER

STRIP

FUNCTION

CHANNEL

GENERATOR

ONE

CHANNEL
TWO
115

100 mF

VOLTS 60 Hz
DC SERVO

MOTOR
lOkn

} .\
f

CONTROL
POTENTIOMETER

GEAR BOX

VOLTS,
DC

FOLLOW-UP
POTENTIOMETER

\
,

LOAD
Fig.

5.

13-8

The Experimental Circuit

Very carefully rotate the control potentiometer shaft counterclockwise

motor
6.

Record the

7.

Determine the dead band by subtracting the voltage measured

measured
8.

until the servo

just responds.

in

differential voltmeter reading.


in

step 4

from the voltage

step 6.

Repeat steps 2 through 7 with the sensitivity adjustment set at 1/2 and the

maximum

position.
9.

10.

Set the sensitivity to the

With the

minimum and

strip chart recorder on,

the damping adjustment to zero.

quickly rotate the control potentiometer

(CW

or

CCW)

out of the dead band. This simulates a step input.


11.

From the strip-chart recorder trace


number of overshoots of the motor.

12.

Repeat steps 9 through

13.

Repeat steps 9 through 12 with the sensitivity setting at 1/2 and the

1 1

for the

of the follow-up potentiometer wiper, determine the

damping adjustment

147

at 1/4, 1/2,

3/4 and at maximum.

maximum

position.

EXPERIMENT

13

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

POSITION CONTROL SYSTEMS

Set the frequency of the function generator for a 0.1 Hertz sine wave and set its
amplitude to a value sufficient to cause the servomotor to rotate in one
direction, then in the

14.

other.

Set the

15.

damping adjustment to approximate critical damping (no overshoots)


with the
approximately a minimum.

sensitivity setting at
16.

Switch the

Repeat steps

strip chart recorder on and obtain 2 or 3 cycles of


the motion of the motor
Label the strip chart record with sufficient information to
identify the test conditions!

7.

4 through

6 for 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8,

18.

Repeat steps 14 through 17 for

19.

Prepare a neat Data Table and enter

.0,

.5, 2.0,

a sensitivity setting at 1/2 the


all

your data

in

4.0 and 6.0 Hertz.

maximum

position.

it.

ANALYSIS GUIDE.
band.

Discuss the effect of increasing or decreasing the


sensitivity on the dead
Discuss the effect of the damping control on oscillation or
hunting. Discuss overdamped

underdamped and
frequency (Bode

critical

damped system

control.

Plot graphs of gain and phase shift versus


the

plots).

PROBLEMS
1.

Discuss the advantages of critical damping over underdamping


and overdamping.

2.

A DC

servomechanism is to be tested for its steady-state frequency


response.
the schematic of the test circuit showing all instruments
and connections.

3.

Repeat problem 2 for an

4.

Construct a simplified Nyquist diagram for the circuit shown

AC

servomechanism.

C=

in figure

0.1 juF

ft
e.

= 6 SIN

u>t

R - 10Okn

Fig.

13-9

Circuit

148

For Problem 4

13-9.

Draw

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT

e
CO

e
i

POSITION CONTROL SYSTEMS

o
e

13

Data for Problem 4

_o
e

o
e

sin d

cos 6

experiment

INTRODUCTION. Many

times

Frequently, manual control

14
industry

in

it is

necessary to control the speed of a rotating shaft.

therefore, automatic control

inadequate:

is

VELOCITY CONTROL
S YS TEMS

and pneumatic motors are often used, but the vast majority are

electric.

is

essential.

Hydraulic

In this experiment,

some

velocity control systems will be examined.

DISCUSSION. With

slight

A simple system

modification, the

servo mechanism position control system can

phase motor

be used to control the speed of an output

for the

shaft.

in figure

14-1.

To

solve

system equation relating the speed of

command

Such systems, known

the output shaft to the

employ

a tach generator.

with the actuator equation and proceed as

tach generator produces a voltage that

proportional to
is

shown

is

as rate or velocity

systems, generally

The

for the control of a two-

its

follows:

is

s 1 = Ka E

speed. This output voltage

The

applied to an error generator.

error

generator compares the tach generator output

with the reference input voltage.


difference between the
signal results.

The

two

is

there

is

But

voltages, an error

error signal

correct the speed of the motor.

the output shaft

If

E=K c e

amplified to

is

voltage, start

The speed

of

Therefore

determined by the magni-

tude of the reference input and the feedback


voltage from the tach generator.

value of reference input, there


ing value of

motor speed.

is

Si =

For each

K a (-K c e)

a correspond-

Speed variations

under conditions of varying loads

may

But

be con-

siderably reduced by this type of the feedback.

C-f
LOAD

COMMAN

Fig. 14-1

Automatic Speed Control


150

GENERATOR

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT

Therefore

VEL OCI TY CONTROL SYSTEMS

14

The accuracy of

may be

Sl=-K a K c

(C-f)

defined as the deviation from the de-

sired speed caused

load torque.

trol gain of
f

by the application of

This accuracy

maximum

percentage of the

But

speed control system

the system

is

is

full-

expressed as a

speed.

The con-

defined as the tach-

ometer output per volt of amplifier input when


the feedback path is open.

= K S
T 2

Therefore

G-I-J^SJ
Ka K c

Si = -

KT S 2

(C -

(14.2)

When

the loop

is

closed,

But
e

= C

KyKgSi

S 2 = KgS^

Then
Therefore

G_

S^-KgK^C-KjKgS!)

KT K S 1
g

- K-|-KgS-|

Expanding,

K TK
S-j

=- K K C+ K K KjKgS-|
a c
g c

S! =

(14.3)

Thus, the greater the control gain, the closer

s 1 " K a Kc K T K S 1 = " K a K C
c

will

For high accuracy,

K-pKgS-j be to C.

high gain

is

required.

Control systems that must deliver several

hundred horsepower are sometimes controlled

by the Ward- Leonard system shown


Examining equation 14.1 and the system
diagram

Ka K c

KjKg

is

is

figure

in

14-1,

can be seen that

it

properties of the separately-excited

generator.

the feedback constant. Thus the per-

trollable

rep-

same equations derived

for

resented by the
amplifier

Kg K c KjKg
so that the

the

ing

with

will

be

feedback.

much

motor speed

command

practice,

DC

by an
AC induction motor. The speed of the motor
is controlled by adjusting the generator field
motor.

is

usually driven

current, which, in turn, varies the armature

voltage supplied to the motor, or by adjusting

setting voltage

and

voltage to the armature of a

The generator

DC

supplies a con-

depend only on

Cand

the gain of

The output speed

of the system can be virtually independent of


load changes

The DC generator

greater than one,

will

the controller and actuator.

In

in figure

This system makes use of the amplify-

the open loop gain of the system and

formance of speed control systems can be


an

14-2.

line voltages.

the motor field current.


field

called

is

In general, the

produced by a small

an exciter.

The

exciter

DC
is

DC

generator

mounted on

the shaft of the motor-generator set. Although

EXPERIMENT

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

VELOCITY CONTROL SYSTEMS

14

CONTROLLED MOTOR

GENERATOR
INDUCTION

MOTOR

SET-POINT

Fig.

such a system requires a large

14-2

Ward- Leonard Speed Control

initial

invest-

when

large quan-

ment,

it is

tities

of power must be controlled over an

particularly useful

extensive speed range.


are located in the

motor shaft speed is at the desired value, the


deviation between the tach generator feedback
voltage and the

The control elements

low-power

control.

When

input

is

zero. Should

the load on the motor suddenly increase, de-

motor speed, the output of the


tach generator is decreased.
The deviation
between tach generator output and the comcreasing the

circuits.

Figure 14-3 shows a Ward- Leonard sys-

tem used for closed joop

command

mand

the

input causes an error signal to be genera-

GENERATOR

TACHOMETER

MOTOR

>v

LOAD
REFERENCE

nnnn

AC CONSTANT

EXCITER

SPEED MOTOR

GENERATOR

Fig.

14-3

Ward-Leonard System for Closed Loop Control


152

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT

VELOCITY CONTROL SYSTEMS

14

nm^
COMPENSATING FIELD

14-4

Fig.

The Amplidyne

The amplidyne is a two-stage rotary amcombined in a single machine using one


armature. The basic amplidyne is shown in

This error signal causes the field current

ted.

of the
crease.

DC

separately-excited generator to

This increase

more flux that

in field

plifier

in-

current produces

figure 14-4.

increases the output voltage of

the generator.

Since the generator output

A DC voltage to the

control field

establishes a flux through

is

which the armature


The armature of the amplidyne is

the armature supply voltage for the motor, the

rotates.

armature voltage of the motor

driven by a constant-speed induction motor.


The voltage generated due to the control field

increased,

is

increasing the speed of the motor.

The motor

speed will continue to increase until the devia-

the

current appears between brushes

between the tach generator output and

tion

command

reference

sudden decrease

in

is

again balanced.

torque load on the motor

voltage

is

brushes

the output of the

and

andl'. This

first stage.

But,

are shorted together.

This

short circuit causes a relatively large current

causes the motor speed to increase. This causes

to flow.

the tach generator output to increase, and an

tense magnetic field. This field induces a volt-

error signal of the opposite polarity

age into the rotating armature.

rent of the generator.

genera-

With decreased

current, the voltage generated


tor

is

This error signal decreases the field cur-

ted.

is

The

large current establishes

between 2 and
stage.

field

2'

When an

is

The

an

in-

voltage

the output of the second

external

load

is

connected

by the genera-

across the output of the amplidyne, the load

decreased, decreasing the armature volt-

current flows through the armature winding.

age of the motor.

The motor's speed

crease until the deviation

The magnetic

will de-

between the tach

generator output and the reference

is

field

produced by the load

cur-

rent partially cancels the input control field.

To compensate

again

balanced.

for this cancellation effect, a

compensating winding

153

is

added and connected

EXPERIMENT

14-5

Fig.

in

series

with the load.

An

Amplidyne Speed Control System


ing of the separately-excited generator. There-

increase in load

current will increase the strength of the com-

pensating field.
field aids
in

The

greater change

in

field.

input will

Power

load current.

the

much

gains

increases,

increasing the excitation to the armature of

small increase

produce

output of the generator

fore, the

increase in compensating

the control

the control

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

VELOCITY CONTROL SYSTEMS

14

DC

As

motor.

increases to

a result, the

motor speed

original value.

its

up

Another type of amplifier that

to 10,000 are typical of an amplidyne gen-

control circuits

erator.

is

is

used

the magnetic amplifier. The

magnetic amplifier

is

shown

in figure

14-6.

Figure 14-5 shows a speed control system using an amplidyne generator. The refer-

The core

material

variety in

which the flux density changes

ence field establishes the output

bruptly

amplidyne, while the control

feedback winding.

level

of the

field

and the

is

of the rectangular-loop

is

comparable to that of

current through

the control winding deter-

mines the time at which the core


If

the torque load on the

creases, the

motor speed

will

DC motor

(fire)

in-

The current through the control

half-cycle

field decreases.

the net input to the amplidyne


it

was.

during the supply voltage cycle.

In figure 14-6,

Since the control field opposes the reference

more than

will saturate

decrease and the

tach generator output voltage will decrease.

field,

The value of the

silicon-controlled rectifier.

reference field have opposing polarities.

a-

current reaches a critical value.

This characteristic

field serves as a

The control

when

in

is

and diode

half-cycle.

now

current

With more input, the am-

the flux

plidyne supplies more output to the field wind-

is

in

diode

D-j

conducts on one

D2 conducts on

the other

During the half-cycle when the


cut off, the control current resets
that part of the circuit to a value

predetermined by the amount of control

154

cur-

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT

VELOCITY CONTROL SYSTEMS

14

LOAD
WINDING

o o

CORE

CONTROL WINDING
14-6

Fig.

rent
coil.

Magnetic Amplifier

and the number of turns on the control


With this value of flux as the

initial

point, the load current during the following


half-cycle drives the core to
tion.

The point

at

rent fires or saturates the core and, therefore,

reduces the inductive reactance

which saturation occurs,

If

the control current

is

large,

the

core remains at complete saturation during the

nonconducting half-cycle
Since the core

is

in

the load circuit.

already saturated, the

full

half-cycle of supply appears across the load.


If

the control current

is

decreased

in

known

third coil,

as a bias winding,

is

generally used to reset the value of the flux

in

the core to negative saturation (opposite

therefore, depends

current.

direction

from that

in

bias current

which the load current

The combination of the

saturates the core).

and control current can, there-

fore, cause resetting to

tween the

limits

of

any value of flux

negative and

saturation.

feedback winding

may

be included on

during the nonconducting half-cycle. The con-

the magnetic amplifier (saturable reactor).

ducting half-cycle must then drive the core

winding

partial to

complete saturation before the

supply voltage will appear across the load.

Still

smaller values of control current will reset the


flux

to lesser values and will require

more

time lapse before the core saturates.

There-

may be

used to

fore, a small control current

control large load currents.

be-

positive

value,

the core will reset to a lower level of flux

from

with

the load.

complete satura-

upon the value to which


the flux was previously reset by the control

in series

The control

cur-

it

is

The

connected so that current through

produces a magnetic

field that either aids

or opposes the effect of the control current.


If

the field aids,

it is

a positive or regenerative

feedback, and a small input will produce an

extremely large increase


the connection

is

in

load current.

If

reversed, the feedback will

be negative or degenerative.

magnetic am-

O
EXPERIMENT

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

VELOCITY CONTROL SYSTEMS

14

MAGNETIC.
AMPLIFIER

DC

CONTROL
INPUT

LINE

_L7

FEEDBACK*

>f
TACHOMETER
GAIN

Fig.

plifier using

14-7

Magnetic Amplifier Speed Control System

When

negative feedback to control the

speed of a motor

is

shown

in figure

the controlled variable

voltage proportional to

14-7.

its

is

in

volocity

motion, a
is

fed back

and subtracted from the voltage obtained be-

Another use of velocity feedback


provide damping

in

damping

is

energy.

The system

servomechanisms.

achieved with
is

little

shown

is

tween the

to

in

two potentiometers.

the tachogenerator to

prevent overshoot and the probability of os-

expenditure of
in figure

sliders of the

The method used

The
14-8.

cillations

is

shown

graphically in figure 14-9.

AMPLIFIER

MOTOR

LOAD

INPUT
C

TACHOMETER

TACHOMETER

Fig.

14-8

Velocity

156

Damping System

EXPERIMENT

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

VEL OCITY CONTROL SYSTEMS

14

TIME

Fig.

14-9

Velocity

Damping

MATERIALS
1

Audio

Generator

oscillator

Potentiometer, 0-100 kft

VOM

Switch,

Motor-generator unit

1W

volts,

imately 3 volts/1000

SPST

Motor -

32

1
1

2 phase, 60 Hertz, 115/115

2 pole, 3350 RPM, 7 - 7 oz.

AC, 60 Hertz

separately excited output approx-

FEM

or

in stall

RPM

Dynamometer
Amplifier, gain of

5000 with

gain

control and velocity feedback pro-

volts,

torque

visions, input

impedance 100

kf2,

output impedance 400 ohms, output

power 20 watts

into rated load

PROCEDURE
1.

Construct the experimental circuit shown

14-10.

in figure

DYNAMOMETER

AC AMPLIFIER

MOTOR-GENERATOR
UNIT

G>-~
AAAH
WATTS

250fl 4

VOLTS
HERTZ

115

60

Fig.

14-10

Experimental Setup

157

EXPERIMENT

e1

14

VEL OCI TY CON TROL

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS
s

ef

500

500

1000

1000

1500

1500

2000

2000

2500

2500

3000

3000

eo

e1

(A)

eo

(B)

Au

ef

500

500

1000

1000

1500

1500

2000

2000

2500

2500

3000

3000

e
1

fC)

eo

ef

ef

(D)

ef

500

500

1000

1000

1500

1500

2000

2000

2500

2500

3000

3000

e1

(E)

(F)

Fig.

14-11

Data Tables

158

ef

Au

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT
AC

2.

Adjust the gain control of the

3.

Set the dynanometer to apply zero torque.

4.

With switch S-1 open, adjust

5.

Measure the input voltage,

until the

R-j

e-|,

amplifier to a

VELOCITY CONTROL SYSTEMS

14

minimum.

speed of the motor

is

500 RPM.

output voltage, e
2 and generator output voltage, e f and
,

record these values


6.

7.

in

the Data Table, figure 14-1

A.

Calculate the open loop gain of the amplifier fo/ej) and record

it

in

the Data Table as

Au

Repeat steps 2 through 6 for 1000 RPM, 1500 RPM, 2000 RPM, 2500 RPM, and 3000

RPM.
8.

Repeat steps 2 through 7 for the

9.

Record these

results in the

maximum

amplifier gain setting.

Data Table, figure 14-1 1B.

10.

Close switch S-1 and repeat steps 2 through

11.

Record your

12.

Repeat step 8 with switch closed and record the

13.

Set the gain control adjustment to one-half the

4.

results in the

7.

Data Table, figure 14-11C.


results in figure 14-1

maximum

1D.

gain.

Adjust the dynanometer to provide one-half the rated torque load of the motor.

15.

Repeat steps 2 through 7 and record the results

in figure

16.

Repeat step 10 for the conditions given

steps 13 and

in

4-1

E.

Record these data

14.

in

figure 14-1 1F.

ANALYSIS GUIDE.
loop gain

open loop gain (minimum gain setting) with no torque


plot the open loop gain (maximum gain setting), closed

Plot a graph of the

RPM. On the same graph,


(minimum gain setting), and

load versus

closed loop gain

(maximum

gain setting) versus

Plot a graph of the

load versus

RPM.

RPM.

open loop gain (one-half maximum gain setting) with one-half rated torque
On the same graph, plot the closed loop gain (one-half maximum gain setting)

with one-half rated torque load versus

RPM.

PROBLEMS
1.

Calculate the output speed of a velocity control system that

is similar to the one in


and has a gain of 50. The actuator has a rating
of 200 RPM/volt and the tachometer generator, 2 volts/100 RPM. The gear box
between the motor and tachogenerator has a ratio of 2 to 1.

figure 14-1.

The amplifier

is

linear

2.

Calculate the control gain of the system

3.

How would you

4.

How could

in

problem

increase the accuracy of the system in

you use two separately-excited

159

DC

problem

generators as a two-stage amplifier?

CONTROL

PR OCESS

experiment

YS TEMS

INTRODUCTION. A

process

solid materials during

which the materials are placed

an operation or series of operations on fluid (liquid and

is

more

in a

useful state.

In this

gas) or

experiment,

the methods of process control will be investigated.

DISCUSSION. The development

As with

of process

servomechanism or velocity control

controls and servomechanisms proceeded, with

system, the control action

time, along quite separate routes using differ-

deviation of the controlled variable from the

ent terminology.

As

result,

it

was some

desired value.

time before the various technological personnel

they were

realized

things

all

The

mechanical

of today

technician

is

trolled variable to

able to

as possible following a

change.

to

all.

When working

matic control system, whether

servomechanism, the

first

step

may

or a load

have an adverse effect on the

is

The controlled

process or a

indicates the desired


uct.

step

form or state of the prod-

Direct control of the controlled varaible

would most likely insure satisfactory performance and maintain the process closer to the

or amplifier, and the actuator that controls

The second

variable of the process

should be that variable which most directly

to identify

error generation, the controller

the manipulated variable.

command

with an auto-

measuring element, the reference or set-point,

method of

to return the con-

desired value as quickly

performance of the system.

the variable to be controlled, the sensing or

the

its

Over-sensitivity, delayed response, or

instability

that the general properties or concepts are

common

minimum and

viation to a

general with a full realization

in

the function of the auto-

electro-

study the theory and applications of closed


loop systems

dependent on the

matic process control system to keep the de-

saying the same

different languages.

in

It is

is

desired value.

is

to determine the type of control action (on-

off, proportional, proportional-plus-reset, pro-

The third step


is to study the system until you understand
its overall function or operation.
The last
step, before

What

self:

you

start to

work,

is

to ask your-

ables, in this case, are

taining the
level.

figure 15-1.

The manipulated

all

the other variables

in

of these load variables are

the incoming water temperature and the outrate.

concerned with main-

controlled variable at a desired

The controlled variable

In

may
liquid-level, pH

of a process

be temperature, pressure, flow,


factor, density or

Two

the system.

put flow
is

in

relatively easy to manipulate.

Process control

shown

would be the heat flow, because it is


The load vari-

variable

test?

is

water at the tank outlet.

significant properties of the system

Which of these properties should


test and in what sequence? How do
test
these properties and what type of measuring
equipment is required?
can

hot water tank

The purpose of the hot water tank is to supply heated water. The controlled variable, in
this case, would be the temperature of the

portional-plus-reset-plus-rate).

some systems,

it is

difficult to control

the actual process variable directly: therefore,


a secondary variable of the process

any other physical quantity.

controlled.

WO

This form of control

is

may

be

termed

EXPERIMENT

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

indirect control.
in

For example,

furnace used

the preparation of sand castings

to produce properly

baked sand

PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS

15

coo L WATER

designed

is

castings,

and

therefore, the controlled variable should be

However,

the baked condition of the sand.


the baked condition of the casting

TEMPERATURE

not easily

is

determined without destroying the casting and


it

is

more convenient

to select furnace tem-

The baked

perature as the controlled variable.

condition of the sand casting

directly re-

is

lated to the furnace temperature.

HEAT

system

will require a definite

change the controlled variable when

manded

mum

step change

rate of

is

com-

GAS

The maxi-

initiated.

change of the controlled variable

following a specified step change


the process reaction rate.
cess,

time to

is

termed

Whatever the pro-

Fig. 15-1

The

effect of delaying process reaction rate.

reciprocal of the reaction rate

is

ment of

the capacitive

the

pump

time

The dead time or distance


it

figure

15-2 has

its

pump

with the pressure

outlet pressure

is

increased, a short

This delay

dead time of a chemical reaction


that

in

is

is

called

lag.

the time

TEN STORY BUILDING


PRESSURE AT PUMP

TENTH FLOORPROCESS

TRANSDUCER
TIME

PRESSURE ON TENTH FLOOR

TIME

MOTOR.
BASEMENT

CONTROLLER

PUMP

Fig.

15-2

Pressure System

161

The

must elapse before the reaction begins

to occur.

installed in the base-

If

have elapsed before the pressure on

the dead time or distance velocity

takes for the process to begin.

For example, the pneumatic system shown

will

the tenth floor changes.

velocity lag

the delay due to the transmission distance,

or to the time

a 10-story building

transducer mounted on the tenth floor.

lag.

is

Thermal Process

the capacitance of the system has the

TIME

Dead Time

EXPERIMENT

LINE

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS

15

VOLTAGE
SWITCH

TANK

HYDRAULIC
SUPPLY

LINE

VOLTAGE

^UM^

-^OTO R^

VARIABLE

ELECTRICAL
SOLENOID

RESTRICTION

SWITCH CLOSED
INPUT PRESSURE
0

TANK PRESSURE
0

RATE OF FLUID FLOW

TIME-

Fig.

transfer lag occurs

transferred to or

through a

restriction.

the transfer lag


is

from

is

Hydraulic System Transfer Lag

15-3

whenever energy

angle.

the angle between the input and

resistance

its

inability

to

accommodate

causes a sustained deviation

It

For

to vary the output over

its full

range.

with a total range of 0 - 500C has


(sensitivity) set so that its full

Figure 15-3 shows a hydraulic system and

5-25

may

a controller

is

For ex-

ample, a pneumatic temperature controller

the process in a temperature control system.


its

psi;

is

covered for

its

gain

output range,

temperature devia-

tion about the set-point of 50C. Therefore,

lag.

a process

as offset.

that percentage of the controller scale required

from the thermal

between the heating element and

The control action of

load changes

known

The proportional band of

the process combined with the capacitance of

response illustrating transfer

As

output

and mech-

anical systems also exhibit transfer lags.


a transfer lag results

or a combination of these actions.

with other systems using proportional control,

In electrical circuits,

termed the phase

quantities. Similarly, thermal, fluid,

example,

tive

is

element

a capacitive

the controller's proportional band

system

X 100= 20%.

be on-off, proportional, integral, deriva-

162

is

1007500

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT

PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS

15

OUTPUT

INPUT

OUTPUT

INPUT

PIVOT

TO PNEUMATIC

TO SUMP

SUPPLY

TO HYDRAULIC
SUPPLY

HYDRAULIC

OUTPUT

INPUT

OUTPUT

INPUT

MECHANICAL (FORCE)

ELECTRONIC

Fig.

The
in

figure

gain of the process controllers

15-4

of the change

change

15-4

Process Controllers

shown

as easy to recognize,

for example,
in a

is

usually measured as the ratio

and nozzle amplifier

in

output to the corresponding

has an

in input.

Expressed mathematically

In

inches, while the

output

therefore,
In

its

gain

is

may be

in

pressure

in

psi;

psi/inch.

Another method of determining the gain


which avoids the use of dimensions is to express the change in both the input and output

in

the same units,

dimensionless number.

as percentages.

other processes, the controller's input and

output

is

may be

in

(15.1)

the case of an electronic amplifier, the out-

put and input quantities are

pneumatic system

input flapper-to-nozzle clearance

therefore, the gain units

A output _ AE
K _
c
A input
Ae

a flapper

different units

Consider the pneumatic tem-

perature controller cited previously.

and are not

centage of

163

full

range outpot,

5-25

The

psi,

per-

to the

EXPERIMENT

PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS

15

5-25

range available for use,

full

psi, is

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

100%,

Below 0.01 Hz,

a mechanical generator

while the controller's proportional band (input

consisting of a variable speed drive and a suit-

expressed as a percentage) was calculated as

able pneumatic, electrical, or hydraulic trans-

20%.

ducer

Therefore, the gain of this pneumatic

controller

is

a percentage
corresponding change in input
expressed as a percentage

_ 100%
K c-20%~" 5

The actuator

gain of a process system

actuator

is

Hz an audio
is employed

The recording of
usually done with

(15l2),

whose

range

full

is

and the output of the controller

psi

0.01

a chart recorder.

also be determined using equation 15.2.

Consider an

5-25

Above

input and output signals

Stability of operation of the process

achieved

may

employed.

with a suitable transducer.

_ output expressed as
c

is

oscillator or function generator

when the

deviation

within predetermined limits.


transient response

The

input.

is

maintained

Stability and/or

usually tested using a step

is

offset

is

is

determined using

ramp

function.

changes the pressure output of the actuator

from

5-25

percentage
controller

psi.

is

The output expressed as a


The full output of the

100%.

is

required to produce the

out-

full

Figure 15-5 shows a pressure-controlled


roller for pressing

wood

into a thin sheet.

put of the actuator, and the input (output of

roll

the controller) to the actuator expressed as a

load cell to a strain gage.

percentage

load

100%.

is

the actuator

with

5-25

psi

10 - 15

100%/100% =

is

actuator

Therefore, the gain of

the

same output

requires an

psi to

is

different

range

full

output.

100%/25% =

as testing for a

control.

The

may

in

resistance.

The change

is

re-

The

much the

in

resistance will

controller amplifies this deviation and

drives the directional valve.

valve

input of obtaining

be

electrical

in

cause a deviation to exist between the setpoint and the input from the strain gage.

the

direction

The

directional

amount

of pressure and

of the fulid

pressure within

controls the

the cylinder.

should be reasonable free from harmonics.


signal

of the

which

The

the frequency response of a process system

The sinusoidal

electrical

its

4.

servomechanism or speed

sinusoidal

Movement

deflects the strain gage,

changes

turn,

The

transmitted through a

of

Testing process systems for frequency

sponse and transient response

same

cell

is

input pressure of

produce the

gain of this actuator

1.

bearing pressure

the form of a

mechanical, pneumatic, thermal or electrical


variation.
is

The frequency

The cylinder will increase or decrease


the force exerted by the roller until the output

of such test signals

usually approximately as follows:

of the strain gage

Fluid processes 0.005 to 10.0

When

Hz

this

balance

is

equal to the set-point.


is

attained,

the

force

by the cylinder on the roller is


maintained.
If more or less pressure on the

exerted

Thermal processes 0.001 to 1.0 Hz


Process control mechanisms 0.01 to 100

wood

Hz

sheet

be changed.

164

is

desired,

the set-point must

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

EXPERIMENT

ELECTRICALLY

15-5

PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS

TO HYDRAULIC SUPPLY

TO SUMP

CONTROLLED

Fig.

15

Control of Pressure on a Pressed-Wood Sheet

MATERIALS
1

SCR, GE type 106B or equivalent

2 UJT,

GE

type 2N2646 or equivalent

Capacitor, 0.02 fiF

Thermocouple

Circular chart recorder,

Zener diode, 12 volts

Diode,

Thermistor, 5 kft at 25

Heater,

Switch SPST

Resistor, 6.8 kfi,

VOM

Resistor,

AC

Resistor,

1N4148

or equivalent

150 watts,

revolution,

15 volts, 60 Hz

2W
kfi, 1W
47ft, 1W
1

165

1W

Potentiometer, 10 kft,

or

50

bridge,

ammeter,

200

96 min/

200 F

FEM

0-2 amps

Container, 5 gal
'*

EXPERIMENT

15

PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS

15-6

Fig.

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

Experimental Circuit

PROCEDURE
shown

1.

Connect the

2.

Pour one-half gallon of water

3.

Measure the temperature of the water with the termocouple bridge.

4.

Record the value as

5.

With

R-|

circuit as

in

in figure

in

15-6.

container.

the Data Table, figure 15-7A.

set at 2.5 kft, close the switch

line voltage,
6.

Record these values

7.

Measure and record the values

8.

Calculate the product El for each case.


heater.

9.

Record

it

Suddenly change

in

figure

15-7A
in

as T,

I,

step 5 for

C, ei

and

respectively.

two or three

This quantity

cycles of temperature variation.


is

proportional to the heat of the

as h in the Data Table.


R-j

to 5 kft (simulating a step input

10.

Repeat steps 5 through

1 1

Record these data

and measure the temperature, heater current,

thermistor voltage, and time as the temperature increases.

7.

in figure

5-7B.

166

in

command).

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

12.

EXPERIMENT

15

PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS

Pour another one-half gallon of cool water into the container (simulating

a step input

in load).

13.

Repeat steps 5 through

14.

Record the data

7.

in figure

15-7C.

<B)

(A)

Fig.

ANALYSIS GUIDE.
time.

15-7

(C)

The Data Tables

Plot a graph of temperature versus time, heat (h) versus time, and

The graph should show the response due to a command


Compare the plotted data with the data contained on the

e-j

versus

change and also the response to a

load change.

fa

circular chart.

EXPERIMENT

PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS

15

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS

PROBLEMS
automatic control,

and

1.

Define

2.

Draw

3.

Calculate the proportional band of a hydraulic controller that has a total range of

4.

5.

the

terms,

a general

2000

psi

block diagram of

with

its

set-point at

process

500

psi.

deviation of 100 psi will cause the


psi.

Determine the gain of the controller

3.

in

problem

schematic of an automatic control system that

temperature of

a refrigerator at

servomechanism.

process control system and a servomechanism.

output of the controller to vary from 0 to 1000

Draw

control

any desired

system's operation.

168

setting

is

capable of maintaining the

from 0 to 30 F. Explain your

EXPERIMENT

Name

Instructor

Class

Date:

R
i

nrhp<i

RPM
1000

So

RPM

T
in
III.

-o
\J c

1000

1.50

Change
S
in Og
0

1.50

Fig. 1-7

The Data Table

Change
in

S
o
Q

EXPERIMENT

Name

Date:

Class

Position

Voltage

Position

Resistance

in

Degrees

Instructor

in

A to

to

B to C

Degrees

A to

A to C

B to C

Steps 4-6 Results

Fig. 2-1

4A

The Data Table

Step 9 Results
Fig. 2-1

4B

The Data Table

Position

Voltage

in

Degrees

V BC

V ED

V DC

Step 11 Results

Fig.

2-1 4C

The Data Table

EXPERIMENT

Name

Date:

Temp.

Class

(F)

Instructor

90 F Setting

90 F Setting

Pressure

Pressure

(psi)

Time

Temp.

79

89

80

90

81

91

82

92

83

93

84

92

85

91

86

90

87

89

88

88

89

89

90

90

91

91

92

92

93

93

92

92

91

91

90

90

89

89

88

88
Fig.

3-5

(F)

The Data Table 90

(psi)

Time

80 F Setting

Temp.

(F)

Pressure

Time

79
80
81

80
79

80
81

80
79

80
81

80
79

Fig.

3-6

The Data Table 80 F

EXPERIMENT

Name

Date:

Class

Instructor

Deflection
Pressure

in

Fr

FL

psi

cm

in lbs

in lbs

U
1
I

n
u

10

on
"in
OU

/in

en
bU

70

80
90
Fig. 4- 1 1

The Data Table

EXPERIMENT

Name

Date:

Input Voltage

Class

+2

DC

+1

DC

+0.5

Instructor

DC

DC

-0.5

Impedance Matching
Stage Gain
Preamplifier Stage

Gain

System Gain

Fig.

5-13

The Data Table

DC

-1.5

DC

-2

DC

+2 PK

Procedure step

A TO GROUND

TO GROUND

(DC input = + 2V)

4:

mm" j

C TO

GROUND

D TO

GROUND

-H-H-

III)

M M Mil

Fig.

Mil

5-14

"mm

mm" j

mm" "mm

The Results

4+++-

1
1

++++

1
1

II

-H-H-

II II

EXPERIMENT

Name

Date:

Class

Instructor

Procedure step 5: (DC input of 1.0V)

A TO GROUND

tilt

TO GROUND

till

IMI

II

IMI

CTO GROUND

D TO

GROUND

IMI

II

Hit" 'l

till

MM

F/'fir.

MM

5-

14

II II

1
1

Mil

Mil] JIM

llll"

"mm

II

The Results (Cont'd)

II

IMI

MM MM

II

MM

II

II

MM MM

llll

llll

Procedure step

A TO GROUND

TO GROUND

mi

H-H

'MM

CTO GROUND

MM MM

HI

D TO GROUND

IMI

nn

II

Fig. 5-

14

(DC input = 0.5V)

5:

Mil" 4-HH

Mil "H-H;

H-H H-H

M nil MM MM

MM MM" "mm MM

Mil

lilt

nn" 'nn

mi MM

The Results (Cont'd)

MM

ii

MM

EXPERIMENT

Name

Date:

Class

Instructor

Procedure step

A TO GROUND

TO GROUND

CTO GROUND

D TO

GROUND

II

Mil

MM MM

II II

II It

II

Fig.

II

II

5-14

(DC input = OV)

5:

II II

Mil" j

till"

II

H Mil

MM MM

MM MM" j

II

mm" "mm

MM MM MM

II

MM MM

The Results (Cont'd)

It II

MM

II

II

MM

Procedure step

A TO GROUND

TO GROUND

Mil H-H

MM MM MM

C TO

GROUND

MM MM

D TO

GROUND

IMI

II

Fig.

II

5-14

(DC input = -0.5V)

5:

r "tin

Mil

Mil" lilt

Mil" 'imi

II

mm"

MM

MM MM MM MM

II

II II

The Results (Cont'd)

Mil

II II

MM

Mil

II

II

II

II II

II

EXPERIMENT

Name

Date:

Instructor

Class

Procedure step

A TO GROUND

TO GROUND

CTO GROUND

D TO

GROUND

H-H H-H tin

Mil

II

H-H

II

MM

II

IIII

5-74

(DC input =

5:

II

-1 .5V)

mm" "mm

IIII

Mil]

II

Mil" iiii

JIM

ii ii

MM

The Results (Cont'd)

MM

MM MM

Mil

II

ii

MM

IIII

IIII

MM

IIII

Procedure step

A TO GROUND

TO GROUND

-H-H-

Mil

C TO

GROUND

-H-H-

D TO

GROUND

IM

(DC

5:

il

input = -2.0V)

. .

mi] "mm

-H-H- -H-H- -++++ -H-H

tin

MM MM MM MM MM MM

MM

F/fli

5-14

MM mm" JIM

The Results (Cont'd)

MM

-H-M- -H-H- -H-t-4

till

Mil

II

EXPERIMENT

Name

Date:

Class

Procedure step

A TO GROUND

TO GROUND

C TO

GROUND

D TO GROUND

tilt

II

-H-H-

1 1

Instructor

(AC input = 2

II

II

Fig. 5-

II

14

peak at 20 Hz)

mm" Jill

till"

MM MM

volts

JIM

Mil" "ll

mm"

II

1
1

The Results (Cont'd)

MM

MM

II

II II

MM

II

II

1
1

II

EXPERIMENT

Name

Date:

Class

fl

Instructor

out

in

\j

y a
i

io

/%

\j

5-5

ui

77?e

Pi

Dafa Table

1l

R
nci
-J pal

15

psi

15

psi

psi

psi

r\c\

R nQi

15

psi

15

psi

15

psi

n
u

EXPERIMENT

Name

Date:

Class

Instructor

inrlc
puunob
u nm
II

0 inch
U. ZD

U.bU
U.

/b

.UU
.

zo

1.50
1.75

2.00

Fig.

7-8

P2

Spring Data

AP

p3

in.

psi

+0.5

+1.0
+1.5

+2.0
-0.5

-1.0
-1.5

-2.0

Fig.

7-9

Data Table

II

20 psi

lbs

EXPERIMENT

Name

Date:

Class

Rf
1

v_c

Vi
1

Instructor

1,
1

p
c

p.

Rotation
t

10
15

20
25

30
35
40
Fig. 8-

70

Two-Phase Motor Data

Direction

EXPERIMENT

Name

Date:

Class

Instructor

1/5 Rated Torque

RPM

gal/min

p
p
psi

p
p
o

HP

HP

Eff

500
1000
1500

2000
2/5 Rated Torque

RPM

gal/min

psi

HP

HP

P1

HP

HP

Eff

500
1000
1500

2000
3/5 Rated Torque

Q
RPM

gal/min

psi

500
1000
1500

2000
Fig. 9-

JO

The Data Tables

o
Eff

EXPERIMENT

Name

10

Instructor

Class

Date:

Control Transformer

Control Transmitter

Direction

Direction

Mechanical

of Shaft

Mechanical

Input

Rotation

Input

of Shaft

Voltage

Rotation

Output

CW

10

cw

15

CW

15

cw

CW

15

cw

10

CW

15

cw

15

cw

ccw

10

ccw

15

ccw

15

crw

ccw

15

ccw

10

ccw

15

ccw

15

ccw

i-O

ccw

cw

cw

ccw

180

180

185

cw

180

185

cw

185

y
cw

180

180
175

ccw

180

175

ccw

175

Fig.

10-18

ccw

The Data Table

Phase

EXPERIMENT

Name

11

Date:

Step 13:

Class

Instructor

Receiver Action

Step 15:

Step 18:

Fig.

11-13

The Observed Results

EXPERIMENT

Name

12

Date:

Class

V1

Vi/cm

Freq.

Instructor

V2/cm

v2

Hertz

t
neriz
o Uort-7
R neriz
Wort-7
o

1U Hertz
1R Hprt7

25 Hertz

40 Hertz
60 Hertz

F/g.

Freq.

Vi/cm

72-75

Vl

Ope/7 /_oop Dafa Table

V2/CIT1

v2

Hertz

3 Hertz
5 Hertz

10 Hertz
15 Hertz

25 Hertz
40 Hertz

60 Hertz

Fig.

12-19

Closed Loop Data Table

Av

EXPERIMENT
Date:

13

Name
Class

Instructor

EXPERIMENT

Name

14

Date:

Instructor

Class

e1

500

500

1000

1000

1500

1500

2000

2000

2500

2500

3000

3000

eo

e
1

(A)

(B)

500

500

1000

1000

1500

1500

2000

2000

2500

2500

3000

3000

(C)

ef

ef

(D)

ef

Au

e
1

500

500

1000

1000

1500

1500

2000

2000

2500

2500

3000

3000

(E)

(F)
Fig. 14- 1 1

The Data Tables

ef

Au

EXPERIMENT

15

Name

Date:

Class

Instructor

e
1

(A)

(B)

Fig.

15-7

The Data Tables

.4