Anda di halaman 1dari 22

APA Referencing (6th Edition)

APA quick guide

APA quick guide (2 page printable PDF)

Tutorials

The Library's APA referencing tutorial timetable is available online (APA Referencing and APA for
Electronic Resources).

Face-to-face and online self-paced workshops are also available from Student Learning.

Tutorials can also be found on the American Psychological Association website.

What is APA style?

The American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style is the most commonly used
referencing style at the University of Waikato.

The latest edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010) is now
available in the Library.

Corrections to the first printing can be found on the APA website: Corrections to the first printing
(PDF) and Corrected sample paper (PDF).

Changes to the 5th edition are highlighted with the word (NEW).

How to use the APA referencing style


1. In text citation
2. References list
3. Key points
How to reference / cite material
1. Books,

2. Journal articles (academic / scholarly)


3. Magazines (popular / trade)
4. Newspapers
5. Informally published work (webpages / online communities)
6. Audio visual
7. Others (Conference papers, reports, legal citations, personal communications, etc.)
8. Images / tables / figures

How to use the APA referencing style

When quoting directly or indirectly from a source, the source must be acknowledged in the text by
author name and year of publication.

If quoting directly, a location reference such as the page number or paragraph number is also required.

1. In text citation (Quotes/Paraphrasing)


a. Direct quotation

Use quotation marks and include page numbers.

Samovar and Porter (1997) point out that "language involves attaching meaning to symbols" (p.188).
Alternatively: "Language involves attaching meaning to symbols" (Samovar & Porter, 1997, p.188).

A quotation of 40 or more words should be formatted as a freestanding, indented block of text without
quotation marks. Note the location of the final full stop.

Weston (1948) argues that:


One of the most important phases of our special guests was to get information that would throw light on
degeneration of the facial pattern that occurs so often in our modern civilization. This has its expression in the
narrowing and lengthening of the face and the development of crooked teeth. (p. 174)

If you quote from online material and there are no page numbers (e.g. HTML based document), use
the paragraph number (para.) instead.

"Prevalence rates of antenatal major and minor depression have been estimated in community-based studies to
range from 7% to 15% of all pregnancies" (Grote, Swartz, Geibel & Zuckoff, 2009, para. 2).
b. Indirect quotation/paraphrasing
Attaching meaning to symbols is considered to be the origin of written language (Samovar & Porter, 1997).
N.B. Page numbers are optional when paraphrasing, although authors are encouraged to include them,
especially when it assists the reader to locate the reference in long pieces of text (Publication Manual, p.
171).
c. Citations from a secondary source
Arnett (as cited in Claiborne & Drewery, 2010) suggests there is an emerging adult stage in the lifespan of
humans, covering young people between the ages of 18 and 25 years.
N.B. List Claiborne & Drewery in your reference list, not Arnett.

2. References list

At the end of your assignment, you are required to provide the full bibliographic information for each
source cited in text.

Start the list of References on a new page at the end of your assignment - do not use footnotes
(Publication Manual, p. 37)

References must be listed in alphabetical order by author.

References should use the hanging indent format

a. Books / Reports / DVDs

Each reference should include four elements:

(1) Author/Editor/Producer (2) Date (3) Title (4) Publication Information


e.g. King, M. (2000). Wrestling with the angel: A life of Janet Frame. Auckland, New Zealand: Viking.
N.B. If the book is available online, a retrieval statement or DOI is required after (3) Title. Exclude (4)
Publication Information. See example.

b. Periodicals

Items published on a regular basis, such as journals, magazines and newspapers, are known as serials
or periodicals. Include the same elements as for a book, but exclude the publication information and
add the volume, issue and page number(s) instead:

(1) Author(s) (2) Date (3) Title of article (4) Title of Periodical (5) Volume, Issue and Page numbers
e.g. Sainaghi, R. (2008). Strategic position and performance of winter destinations. Tourism Review, 63(4),
40-57.
N.B. If the article is available online, a retrieval statement or DOI is required after the page numbers. See
example.

c. Webpages (unpublished and informally published work)

Include the same elements as for a book, but exclude the publication information and add a retrieval
statement in its place.

(1) Author (2) Date (3) Title (4) Retrieval statement


e.g. Statistics New Zealand. (2007). New Zealand in profile 2007. Retrieved from http://www.stats.govt.nz
N.B. Include a retrieval date if the source material is likely to change over time (Publication Manual, p.
192). See example.

3. Key points
(1)Author(s):

Invert the author(s) name(s), and use initial(s) of first name(s).

Use the ampersand (&) between the last two authors' names (also note the full stop and comma after
each author's name).

Eight or more authors: List first six authors, then insert three elipses (...), followed by the last author
(NEW).

Corporate / group author: i.e. an organisation, association or government department.

If the author's first name is hyphenated, include the hyphen with a full stop after each initial.

One author
Brown, W. P.
Two authors
Samovar, L. A., & Porter, R. E.
Three to five authors Krause, K.-L., Bochner, S., & Duchesne, S.

Six or seven authors


(NEW)
Eight or more
authors (NEW)
Corporate / group
author
No author

Shepherd, R., Barnett, J., Cooper, H., Coyle, A., Moran-Ellis, J.,
Senior, V., & Walton, C. See example
Chiappini, E., Principi, N., Longhi, R., Tovo, P. A., Becherucci, P.,
Bonsignori, F., ... de Martino, M. See example
Ministry of Education. See example
Use Anonymous only if this is used in the publication.
See example Book with no author / Article with no author

(2) Date:

The year of publication goes in parentheses ( ) after the author(s).

Books and academic journals


Magazines and newspapers
Monthly
Daily, weekly
No date
In press

(1993)
(1993, June)
(1993, June 12)
(n.d.)
(in press)

If an author has published more than one item in the same year, add alphabetical characters a, b etc.
immediately after the year.

In text:
As discussed by Lohan (2009b), it is ... Moreover, Lohan (2009a) concludes ...
In the References list:
Lohan, L. (2009a). New management...
Lohan, L. (2009b). Organizational culture...

(3) Title of the work:

Book titles are italicised, with the first letter of the first word of the main title and the subtitle in capital
letters. Proper nouns also begin with a capital letter.

e.g. Wrestling with the angel: A life of Janet Frame

Journal titles (including magazines and newspapers) are italicised and all key words in the journal
title begin with a capital letter.

e.g. Journal of Marketing Communications

Chapters in books and journal article titles are in lowercase except for the first letter of the first word
of the title, subtitle, and any proper nouns (Publication Manual, pp. 102-103).

The book or journal title is italicised, not the chapter or article.

Additional information:

Information such as edition or report number goes in parentheses ( ) immediately after the
title (Publication Manual, p. 186).

e.g. Educational psychology for learning and teaching (2nd ed.)

A description of the work goes in square brackets [ ] after the title. e.g. [DVD], [PowerPoint slides],
[Poster], [Letter to the editor]

e.g. Christchurch Methodist Central Mission. (1984). Durham Street Church: 120 years anniversary
brochure: 1864-1984 [Brochure]. Christchurch, New Zealand: Author.

(4) Publication Information


Place of publication: Used for books only, not journal, magazine or newspaper articles.

Give the location (city) of the publisher - give the first city listed only.

All publishing cities now require the state or province, if applicable, and country (NEW).

For the United States, use the city name, then the 2-letter postal code instead of the United States
(Publication Manual, p. 187).

American cities
Non-American cities
Non-American cities with a state

Thousand Oaks, CA
Hamilton, New Zealand
London, England
Sydney, NSW, Australia

Publisher: Used for books only, not journal, magazine or newspaper articles.

Do not include words like Publishers, Co., or Inc. However, keep words like Books or Press.

Use the first publisher listed if multiple publishers are given.

When the author is the publisher of the work, use the word 'Author' in the publisher field.
See example.

N.B. Using a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is the preferred method of identifying online
material such as journal articles, books and reports. For researchers, when a DOI is
available, no matter whether electronic or print, include it (Publication Manual, p. 189).
See example.

How to reference/cite material


Books
Book - one author
In Reference List

In Text Citation
(King, 2000) or

King, M. (2000). Wrestling with the angel: A life of Janet Frame.


Auckland, New Zealand: Viking.

King (2000) compares Frame with


"..." (p. 34).

Book - two authors


In Reference List

In Text Citation

Trevino, L. K., & Nelson. K. A. (2007). Managing business ethics: Straight talk
about how to do it right. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

(Trevino & Nelson, 2007)


or

N.B. Use the ampersand (&) between the two authors' names, except when
paraphrasing in text where and is used (Publication Manual, p. 175).

Trevino and Nelson (2007)


illustrate this ...

Book - three to five authors (NEW)


In Reference List

In Text Citation

Krause, K.-L., Bochner, S., & Duchesne, S. (2006). (Krause, Bochner, & Duchesne, 2006) or
Educational psychology for learning and teaching
(2nd ed.). South Melbourne, Vic., Australia:
Krause, Bochner and Duchesne (2006) recommend "..."

(p. 32).
Thomson.

In subsequent citations:
According to Krause et al. (2006)

N.B. For six or seven authors, see example (Journal


article with DOI or eight or more (Magazine - print N.B: Cite all authors the first time, and in subsequent
version).
citations include only the first author followed by et al.
(short for et alii. - Latin for 'and others'). Do not
italicise et al.

Book or report by a corporate / group author


In Reference List
World Health Organization. (2008). WHO global report on falls
prevention in older age. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.
N.B. When the author and the publisher are the same, use Author in the
publisher field. List in the References list by the first significant word of
the organisation. For group authors, the parent body precedes a
subdivision (Publication Manual, p. 183).

In Text Citation
(World Health Organization
[WHO], 2008)
In subsequent citations:
WHO (2008) highlight the ...
N.B. Some group authors may be
abbreviated in subsequent citations
if they are readily recognisable.

Book - no author (Anonymous)


In Reference List

In Text Citation

Anonymous. (1999). Courage and grace: One womans journey of recovery from food
addiction and obesity. Taupo, New Zealand: Avalon.
N.B. If the author's name is given as Anonymous, use Anonymous in the author field. If no
author is stated, see next example.

Book - no author
In Reference List

In Text Citation

(Anonymous,
1999)

Joint investigations of child abuse. (1993). Washington,


DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice
In the book, Joint Investigations of Child Abuse, ...
Programs.
N.B. The key words of the book title are capitalised
N.B. If no author is stated, the title takes the author
when used in text, but not in the References list. See
position, but check to see whether it should be a
the Publication Manual, pp. 101-103, 176 about
corporate / group author as above. See dictionary /
capitalisation protocols in the APA style.
encyclopedia or newspaper for further examples.

Book - edited
In Reference List

In Text Citation

Samovar, L. A., & Porter, R. E. (Eds.). (1997). Intercultural communication: A reader


(8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
N.B. Include (Ed.) or (Eds.) after their name(s). However, a number of authors may
contribute to an edited book. See next example for referencing a chapter in an edited
book.

See Book - Chapter


in edited book.

Book - Chapter in edited book


In Reference List

In Text Citation

Helber, L. E. (1995). Redeveloping mature resorts for new markets. In M. V. Conlin & T.
Baum (Eds.), Island tourism: Management principles and practice (pp. 105-113).
(Helber, 1995) or
Chichester, England: Wiley.
Helber (1995)
N.B. The author and chapter title come first, followed by the editor(s) and book title. Note
concludes by ...
the editor's initials come before the family name. The page numbers of the chapter are
also required.

Book - Electronic (NEW)


In Reference List
Will, R. J. (2002). The characteristic symphony in the age of Haydn and Beethoven [Ebrary

In Text
Citation
(Will, 2002) or

Reader version]. Retrieved from Ebrary database.


N.B. If you are submitting work to a publisher and there is no DOI, you are now required to
give the URL of the Ebook's homepage (in this example, http://www.ebrary.com/corp/).
For undergraduate students, give the name of the database, as in the example above (do not
include the URL).

Will (2002)
attributes ...

Book - Translated
In Reference List

In Text Citation
(Sartre, 1962) or

Sartre, J.-P. (1962). Imagination: A psychological critique (F. Williams, Trans.). Ann
Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Sartre (1962) is an
example of ...

Dictionary or Encyclopedia - Entry


In Reference List

In Text Citation

Hwang, E.-G. (2002). North Korea: Economic system. In D. Levinson & K.


(Hwang, 2002) or
Christenson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of modern Asia (Vol. 4, pp. 350-353). New York,
NY: Charles Scribner's Sons.
Hwang (2002) identifies
the hurdles North
N.B. If there is a volume number or edition (not 1st edition) include this in
Korea ...
parentheses after the title along with page number(s).

Dictionary or Encyclopedia - Entry with no author


In Reference List

In Text Citation

Social constructionism. (2009.) In J. Scott & G. Marshall


("Social Constructionism," 2009)
(Eds.), A dictionary of sociology (3rd rev. ed.). Retrieved from
Oxford Reference Online Premium database.
N.B. Use capital letters for the first letter of
key words and double quotation marks
N.B. For online dictionaries and encyclopedia, a retrieval
(Publication Manual, p. 176).
statement takes the place of publisher location and name.

Note the editors' initials precede the family name.


For undergraduate students, if using a library subscription
database, give the name of the database, as in the example
above (do not include the database URL).

Thesis (except from the US) - print version (NEW)


In Reference List
Dewstow, R. A. (2006). Using the Internet to enhance teaching at the University of
Waikato (Unpublished master's thesis). University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.
N.B. For PhD use: Unpublished doctoral dissertation after the title or Unpublished
master's thesis for Master's degree (Publication Manual, p. 207).

In Text Citation
(Dewstow, 2006) or
Dewstow (2006)
recommends ...

Thesis (except from the US) - electronic version (NEW)


In Reference List

In Text Citation
(Dewstow, 2006)
or

Dewstow, R. A. (2006). Using the Internet to enhance teaching at the University of


Waikato (Master's thesis, The University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand). Retrieved
from http://hdl.handle.net/10289/2241
Dewstow (2006)
recommends ...

Thesis from US - electronic version (NEW)


In Reference List

In Text Citation

Rose, S. L. (2006). Essays on almost common value auctions (Doctoral dissertation, Ohio (Rose, 2006) or
State University). Retrieved from http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd
According to Rose
N.B. For further examples, see the Publication Manual, pp.207-208.
(2006) ...

Journals (Academic Scholarly)


Journal article - print version
In Reference List

In Text Citation

Sainaghi, R. (2008). Strategic position and performance of winter


destinations.Tourism Review, 63(4), 40-57.
N.B. A capital letter is used for key words in the journal title. The journal title and
volume number are italicised, followed by the issue number in parentheses (not
(Sainaghi, 2008) or
italicised).
Sainaghi (2008) suggests
If each issue begins with page 1, give the issue number in the parentheses
"..." (p. 47).
immediately after the volume number.
For researchers, the issue number is not required for journals with continuous
pagination.

Journal article - electronic version


with a DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
In Reference List
Shepherd, R., Barnett, J., Cooper, H., Coyle, A., Moran-Ellis, J.,
Senior, V., & Walton, C. (2007). Towards an understanding of British
public attitudes concerning human cloning. Social Science &
Medicine, 65(2), 377-392. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.03.018

N.B. A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a


registration agency to identify content and provide a
persistent link to its location on the Internet.

In Text Citation
(Shepherd et al., 2007) or
Shepherd et al. (2007) highlight the ...
N.B. If there are six or seven authors,
list all authors in the reference list.
From the first citation in text, use et
al. after the first author (NEW). See
magazine example for eight or more
authors.

Journal article - electronic version


with no DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
In Reference List
Harrison, B., & Papa, R. (2005). The development of an indigenous knowledge

In Text Citation
(Harrison & Papa, 2005)

program in a New Zealand Maori-language immersion school. Anthropology and


Education Quarterly, 36(1), 57-72. Retrieved from Academic Research Library
database.
or
N.B. For undergraduate students, give the name of the database, as in the example
above (do not include the database URL). It is no longer necessary to include the
In their research,
date of retrieval.
Harrison and Papa
(2005) established ...

If you are submitting work to a publisher and there is no DOI, you are
now required to give the URL of the journal homepage (Publication
Manual, p. 199).

Journal article - Internet only


In Reference List

In Text Citation

Snell, D., & Hodgetts, D. (n.d.). The psychology of heavy metal communities and
white supremacy. Te Kura Kete Aronui, 1. Retrieved from
http://www.waikato.ac.nz/wfass/tkka

(Snell & Hodgetts,


n.d.) or

N.B. (n.d.)= no date. As there are no page numbers, cite the paragraph number in
text.

Snell and Hodgetts


(n.d.) identified "..."
(para. 3)

Magazines
Magazine - print version
In Reference List

In Text Citation

von Drehle, D., Ghosh, B., Scherer, M., Zaidi, S. H., Baker, A.,
James, R., Peters, G. (2009, October 12). An enemy within. (von Drehle et al., 2009) or
Time South Pacific [Australia/New Zealand editon], 174(14),
12-17.
Von Drehle et al. (2009) assert ...
N.B. Full date is used for weekly magazines; month and year for N.B. If an author's name which usually
monthly magazines.
begins with a lower case letter appears at
the beginning of a sentence, it must be
If there are eight or more authors, list the first six, then three
capitalised.
elipses () and finish with the last author (NEW).

Magazine - electronic version


In Reference List

In Text Citation

Robison, J. (2008, January). On the waka wave. North and South, 262, 80-87. Retrieved
from Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre database
N.B. If you are submitting work to a publisher, you are now required to give the URL of the
journal homepage (Publication Manual, p. 199).
For undergraduate students, give the name of the database, as in the example above (do
not include the database URL). It is no longer necessary to include the date of retrieval.

(Robison, 2008)
or
Robison (2008)
considers ...

Newspaper
Print version
In Reference List
Cumming, G. (2003, April 5). Cough that shook the world. The New Zealand Herald,
p. B4.

In Text Citation

(Cumming, 2003) or

N.B. Include p. or pp. before the page number. This is used for newspapers only, not
Cumming (2003)
magazines or journals.
p = 1 page, pp. more than one page. If page numbers are discontinous, separate page reports ...
numbers with a comma. e.g. pp. A1, A4-5.

Electronic version
In Reference List

In Text Citation

Cumming, G. (2003, April 5). Cough that shook the world. The New Zealand Herald.
Retrieved from http://www.nzherald.co.nz

(Cumming, 2003)
or

N.B. Use the URL of the homepage of the newspaper to avoid non-working URLs. It is
no longer necessary to include the date of retrieval.

Cumming (2003)
reports ...

Newspaper article with no author


In Reference List

In Text Citation

Drivers reject fuel prices driven by war threat. (2003, March 7). The Timaru
Herald, p.1.

("Drivers Reject Fuel


Prices," 2003)

N.B. If there is no author, the article title comes first. In the in text citation,
N.B. Use capital letters and
abbreviate the title, use double quotation marks and capital letters (Publication
double quotation marks.
Manual, p. 176).

Audiovisual
Film - Motion Picture
In Reference List

In Text Citation

Vasile, T. (Producer), Fellini, F. (Director). (2001). Roma [Motion picture]. United States:
MGM Home Entertainment.
N.B.
1. In the Author field, identify the primary contributors (i.e. the director or producer
(Vasile & Fellini,
or both) but not the presenters.
2001)
2. For publication information, give the motion picture's country of origin and the
name of the motion picture studio
3. A description of the form of the work goes in square brackets [ ] after the title. It
is not italicised.

Music Recording - a song in an album (NEW)


In Reference List

In Text Citation
(The Beatles, 2003, track 10)

The Beatles. (2003). Across the universe. On Let it be... naked [CD].
Hollywood, CA: Capital Records.

N.B. Include side and band or


track numbers.

Television programme
In Text
Citation

In Reference List
Slater, K. (Producer). (2002). Gene in a bottle [Television series episode]. In 60 minutes.
Auckland, New Zealand: TV3 Network Services.

(Slater, 2002)

N.B. Put television series episode or motion picture in [ ] after the title.

Audio podcast (NEW)


In Reference List
Noonan, D. (Producer). (2008, January 9). The whistle from the blunder: Part 5 [Audio
podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.radionz.co.nz
N.B. Include as much information as possible, e.g. date, title and identifier

In Text
Citation

(Noonan,
2008)

Unpublished and Informally published works


Webpage (Informally published work)
In Reference List
Statistics New Zealand. (2007). New Zealand in profile 2007. Retrieved from
http://www.stats.govt.nz
N.B. A personal or institutional webpage is considered an informally published work
(Publication Manual, p. 212). See also online report examples.
It is no longer necessary to include the date of retrieval, unless webpage content is
likely to be updated (e.g. Wiki).(NEW)

In Text Citation

(Statistics New
Zealand, 2007)
N.B. Do not write
URLs in the text

Wiki
In Reference List

In Text Citation

University of Waikato, Law Library. (n.d.). Commentary. Retrieved July 19, 2009, from
http://law.waikato.ac.nz:8080/lrs/index.php/Commentaries
N.B. Do not italicise titles of unpublished works. Include the date of retrieval since the
contents of a wiki are likely to change over time. For group authors, the parent body
precedes a subdivision (Publication Manual, p. 183).

(University of
Waikato, Law
Library, n.d.)

Online discussion (NEW)


In Reference List
Chalmers, D. (2000, November 17). Seeing with sound [Online forum comment]. Retrieved
from http://groups.google.com/group/sci.psychology.consciousness/
N.B. Do not italicise titles of unpublished works.

In Text
Citation

(Chalmers,
2000)

Blog post (NEW)


In Reference List

In Text
Citation

Wadard. (2009, June 15). Australia's climate bill may be scuttled [Web log message]. Retrieved
from http://globalwarmingwatch.blogspot.com/
(Wadard,
2009)
N.B. Do not italicise titles of unpublished works.

Video blog post (NEW)


In Reference List
Leelefever. (2007, May 29). Wiki in plain English [Video file]. Retrieved from
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-dnL00TdmLY
N.B. Do not italicise titles of unpublished works.

In Text
Citation

(Leelefever,
2007)

Others (Course handouts / Legal Material / Conference / report / Personal


Communications)
Course handout / Lecture notes - print version (Unpublished work)
In Text
Citation

In Reference List
Brown, P. (2004). Marketing: MKTG200-04B [Lecture notes]. Hamilton, New Zealand:
University of Waikato, Department of Marketing.

N.B. Course handouts and lecture notes belong to the group "unpublished papers, lectures from (Brown,
an archive or personal collections" (Publication Manual, p. 213). In the publication information 2004)
field, list the organisation's name (e.g. university, department), city, and country. Put the format in
square brackets after the title. e.g. [Lecture notes].

Course handout / Lecture notes - electronic version


In Text
Citation

In Reference List
Brown, P. (2004). Lecture 3: MKTG200-04B [Powerpoint slides]. Retrieved from...
N.B. Put the format in square brackets after the title, and add retrieval statement (URL or
MyWeb or Moodle or EdLink etc.).

(Brown, 2004)

Legal Material
APA recommends the use of The Bluebook: A uniform system of citation (18th ed. 2005) for referencing
legal material - see NZ section at p. 297
In Reference List

In Text Citation
(Children's Commissioner Act 2003) or

Children's Commissioner Act 2003, 2003 It is regulated by the Children's Commissioner Act 2003
S.N.Z. No. 121.
N.B. Italicise the name of legal material when it is cited in text
(Publication Manual, p. 177).

Personal Communications (Letters, Telephone conversations, Emails, Personal Interviews, Lecture


notes etc.)
In Reference List

In Text Citation

N.B. No information is required in the reference list as


the data is not retrievable.

(H. Clarke, personal communication, March 19, 2004)


or
Professor Clarke (personal communication, March 19,
2004) commented that...

Conference paper as part of a book of proceedings


In Reference List

In Text Citation

Shobhadevi, Y. J., & Bidarakoppa, G. S. (1994). Possession phenomena: As a


(Shobhadevi &
coping behaviour. In G. Davidson (Ed.), Applying Psychology: Lessons from AsiaBidarakoppa, 1994) or
Oceania (pp. 83-95). Carlton, Vic., Australia: Australian Psychological Society.
Shobhadevi and
N.B. To cite published proceedings from a book, use the same format as for a book
Bidarakoppa (1994)
or book chapter (Publication Manual, p. 206). To cite proceedings published
published their ...
regularly use the same format as a periodical.

Contribution to Conference or Symposium not formally published - electronic version


In Reference List

In Text
Citation

(Bochner,
Bochner, S. (1996, November). Mentoring in higher education: Issues to be addressed in
1996) or
developing a mentoring program. Paper presented at the Australian Association for Research
in Education Conference. Retrieved from http://www.aare.edu.au/96pap/bochs96018.txt;
Bochner
(1996)
N.B. A capital letter is used for all key words in the conference name. Give the month of the
addressed
conference (NEW) (Publication Manual, pp. 206-208).
this ...

Report - print version


In Reference List

In Text Citation

University of Waikato. (1967). First hall of residence (Information series No. 3).
Hamilton, New Zealand: Author.

(University of
N.B. If the report has a number, give the number in parentheses immediately after the Waikato, 1967)
title. If it is an annual report, reference it as a book.

Annual Report - electronic version


In Reference List

In Text
Citation

Telecom New Zealand. (2007). Ready to compete, connect, communicate: Annual report
2007. Retrieved from http://annualreport07.telecom.co.nz/download/telecom-annual-report- (Telecom New
Zealand, 2007)
2007.pdf

Report - electronic version


In Reference List

In Text
Citation

Caygill, R. (2009). Science: Trends in year 5 science achievement 1994 to 2006. Retrieved from (Caygill,
Ministry of Education, Education Counts website:
2009) or
http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/34413/914_TIMSS06_Science2.pdf
Caygill
(2009)
N.B. If a report is available online, add the publisher as part of the retrieval statement if it has
concludes .
not been identified as the author (Publication Manual, p. 205). See next example.
..

Report - technical or research


In Reference List

In Text Citation

Holmes, P. (2000). The intercultural communication experiences of ethnic Chinese


(Holmes, 2000) or
students in a Western tertiary institution: Implications for education providers (Working
paper 2000-14). Hamilton, New Zealand: University of Waikato, Department of
Holmes (2000)
Management Communication.
highlights the
importance ...
N.B. If there is a report number, give this in parentheses after the title. If the name of the

state, province, or country is included in the name of the university, this does not need to
be repeated in the publisher location.
Give the name of the university first, followed by the department that produced the
document (Publication Manual, p. 206).

Images, tables and figures


Illustrations, maps and photographs, etc (excluding tables) are referred to as figures. If it is not your own
work, the source must be acknowledged in full below the figure or table as a figure caption or table note. The
full citation also goes in the References list.

Figures
The caption goes beneath the image with the source credited at the end of the caption (Publication Manual,
pp. 158-167).
Example:
From a journal:
Figure 2. The Tongan social hierarchy. From [Adapted from] Title of Article, by A. N. Author and B. D.
Author, year, Title of Journal, Volume, p. xx.
From a book:
Figure 2. The Tongan social hierarchy. From [Adapted from] Title of Book (p. xx), by A T. Author and T. P.
Author, year, Place of Publication: Publisher.

Tables
The caption goes above the table, with the source included as a note below the table beginning with the word
Note (Publication Manual, pp. 138-141).
Note. From [Adapted from] Title of Article, by A. N. Author and B. D. Author, year, Title of Journal,
Volume, p. XX.
Note. From [Adapted from] Title of Book (p. xx), by A T. Author and T. P. Author, year, Place of Publication:
Publisher.
Note. For PhD candidates (and students submitting a four-paper master's thesis), permission to reproduce

copyright material must be obtained. If you are reproducing a graphic, chart, or table, you must provide a note
at the bottom of the item that includes copyright information and a permissions statement.
Copyright permissions are done as a footnote with the information as above, concluding with: Copyright
[year] by the Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted [or adapted] with permission.
e.g.
Figure 2. The Tongan social hierarchy. From [Adapted from] Title of Book (p. xx), by A T. Author and T. P.
Author, year, Place of Publication: Publisher. Copyright 2001 by Publisher. Reprinted with permission.
If you photograph a person, a signed release from that person is required giving permission for the photo to be
used (Publication Manual, p. 166).
For detailed information on copyright and permissions, see Publication Manual, pp. 38, 173. See also
Copyright Guidelines for Research Students and the University of Waikato's Copyright Information web
pages.