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Review by: G. A. Clark

American Antiquity, Vol. 43, No. 1 (Jan., 1978), pp. 132-135

Published by: Society for American Archaeology

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132

AMERICAN ANTIQUITY

analysis yields toward the reconstruction of the

paleoecological environment of man and his influence

on the vegetation. Of greatest interest here is the comparison of the results obtained by different approaches

to the same problem, such as pollen, animal, and wood

remains. It is encouraging to see that the wood remains

and the pollen counts support each other, with the local

vegetation component more strongly represented by

the wood remains, and the extralocal environment by

the pollen analysis.

The final chapter describes the wood content of 60

prehistoric sites in its archaeological context, thus giving a picture of current studies in central Europe, especially in Switzerland.

The literature list given in this volume is short because the author recently published a complete bibliography of all work on wood and fossil wood remains that

has been done (Courier of the Research Institute,

Senckenberg, 1976).

The study concludes with several pages of excellent

microphotographs of the main European wood types in

their fossil state.

Everyone dealing with prehistoric wood remains,

especially in an archaeological context, will find this

compendium of great value for teaching and for research.

VERA MARKGRAF

University of Arizona

Tucson, AZ

CLIVE ORTON. Cambridge University Press,

New York and London, 1976. ix + 270 pp., illus.

$19.50.

This volume, the first in the "New Studies in Archaeology" series, is a combined effort by Ian Hodder, a lecturer in archaeology at the University of

Leeds, and Clive Orton, a Ministry of Agriculture

statistician only recently encouraged to turn his expertise to things archaeological. It consists of a survey of

statistical methods for the analysis of distribution

maps, and is an argument by example that archaeologists have been slow to realize the potential for

making inferences about prehistoric behavior which

use systematic and replicable procedures for describing and interpreting spatial patterning in archaeological

remains. The book can be divided into four parts,

which deal respectively with (1) the nature of spatial

data in general, (2) point-pattern analysis, synchronic

and diachronic models for settlement pattern analysis,

and for the analysis of artifact type distributions, (3)

measures of association between distributions, and (4)

the current status of spatial studies in archaeology.

Part I comprises two chapters which introduce basic

spatial analysis concepts (Chapter 1) and which discuss problems associated with the analysis of archaeological distribution maps (Chapter 2). An historical survey of archaeological attempts to cope with distribution maps reveals the inadequacies of the "traditional" approach, which relied upon subjective and at

times impressionistic assessments of the degree and

significance of spatial clustering (e.g. Fox, The Per-

sonality of Britain, 1943). Subjectivity in map interpretation was a general problem in political and economic

geography, as well as in a number of other fields but

one which was recognized and corrected at a comparatively early stage in the development of these disciplines (Harvey: Transactions of the Institute of British

Geographers 44:85-95). Consequently, the authors

argue that we have a methodological repertoire developed in other disciplines which can, to varying degrees, be adapted to spatial problems of concern to

archaeologists. A short introduction to statistical concepts germane to spatial analysis is appended to Chapter 1, for a quantified approach is deemed essential if

objectivity and replicability are major research objectives, and if large amounts of data are to be processed.

Chapter 2 delineates problems related to the interpretation of distribution maps of settlement systems

and of isolated artifact types. Distortion of original

configurations by erosion and site destruction, and a

differential in fieldwork intensity are identified as principle causes of sampling error in studies of regional

scope, regardless of whether site or artifact distributions are being evaluated. Reliability of map distributions is also seen to be influenced by the scale upon

which data are recorded; the effect that varying quadrat sizes has on statistical assessments of randomness

and/or aggregation is a well-known example. Once factors of distortion are taken into account, analysis can

proceed either inductively, through pattern search

procedures, or deductively, through the formulation of

hypotheses about what Schiffer (Behavioral Archaeology, 1976) has called "cultural formation processes."

The latter can be modeled mathematically, in many

cases, and some of these models are considered in detail in Part II.

Part II is the longest and certainly the most valuable

section of the book; it comprises three chapters which

treat point and block pattern analyses in general terms,

and then evaluate statistical methods for assessing the

departure from randomness in models for settlement

systems and for the regional distributions of single artifact types. Only by vitiating the randomness assumption can patterning which may be interpretable in behavioral terms be demonstrated to exist. Tests for randomness can be divided into quadrat methods and distance methods, and these are surveyed in Chapter 3.

Data recorded by quadrats (blocks) are analyzed by

comparing the observed frequency distributions of

point counts per unit with that of the Poisson function

adjusted for density using the variance/mean ratio

statistic, and the X2 distributed index of dispersion

(Greig-Smith, Quantitative Plant Ecology, 1964). An

approach which allows the search for structured pattern to be carried out at different scales (block sizes),

and which tests for goodness of fit at each scale is what

Whallon has called "dimensional analysis of variance"

(Pielou, An Introduction to Mathematical Ecology,

1969). If a graph of the variance between blocks for

each block size is drawn, block sizes which approximate a clustered pattern will appear as peaks in the

graph, which can then be tested by the variance/mean

ratio test, or interpreted subjectively. Applications

most familiar to American readers include Dacey's

analysis of the Sde Divshon lithic data (American Antiquity 38:320-28), Whallon's DANOVA paper (American Antiquity 38:266-78), and Thomas' simula-

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REVIEWS

tion of Great Basin Shoshonean settlement subsistence

systems (Models in Archaeology, D. Clarke, ed., 671704, 1972).

The main advantage to quadrat based methods is

that much archaeological data is, and has been collected in the form of counts by grid units. However,

results are seriously affected by quadrat size (and it is

not always possible to vary quadrat size unless pointprovenienced data are available to begin with), the

variance/mean ratio statistic is unstable when the

mean is small, the X2 goodness of fit test cannot be

applied if the number of quadrats is small and if overall

density is low, and, finally, DANOVA is constrained

by the use of a rectangular grid of contiguous quadrats

in which the number of units along each side must be a

power of 2-a feature which limits its usefulness to

situations where the scale and shape of the excavated

(or collected) archaeological surface can be manipulated to form a grid of the required dimensions.

Because of these limitations, tests based upon distance measures are considered more appropriate for

archaeological research if point-provenienced data are

available. This means nearest neighbor analysis (Clark

and Evans: Ecology 35:445-53), or some variation on

it; the basic method and rationale are outlined and illustrated with an examination of Iron Age hillforts in

Wiltshire. Nearest neighbor analyses are perhaps more

familiar to archaeologists than are quadrat approaches.

On a regional scale they have been applied to surface

survey data from Pueblo sites on the Rio Puerco

(Washburn: American Antiquity 39:315-35), Peebles

on mound sites in Alabama (Moundville: The Organisation of a Prehistoric Community and Culture, 1974)

and by Hodder and his colleagues to analyze the distributions of Iron Age and Romano-British walled

towns in S. England. On the intrasite level, Whallon

(American Antiquity 39:16-34) has used the method to

describe the distributions of four major artifact

categories on a "Protomagdalenian' (Periogordian

VII) occupation floor at the Abri Pataud, in the Dordogne.

In Chapter 4, an effort is made to articulate theoretical models for interpreting observed spatial patterns

with the pattern search approaches outlined in Chapter

3. Aggregate random patterns are regarded as

anomalies seen to arise from random resource distributions, and more commonly from post-depositional factors, which may have distorted the original configuration. The point here is that the identification of a random pattern does not preclude the possibility that the

pattern may have been generated by randomizing disturbances of some other, original spatial pattern. Models for the horizontal and hierarchical organization of

settlement systems developed in classical locational

analysis in economic geography are reviewed and

found applicable in some instances to archaeological

data. Even as iconic models, they are theory-laden

formulations because ideal configurations are linked

with, or held to be directly attributable to explicit,

usually economic causal factors (e.g. resource distributions, population density gradients, subsistence

activities, marketing and productivity principles,

transport media and the like). The result is a package

of theoretical relationships which are derived from the

analysis of, and which have been tested against contemporary data from agrarian societies (cf. Smith: Re-

133

gional Analysis I, II, 1976), and which offer the potential for testing against the archaeological record. The

bulk of Chapter 4 consists of just such a series of tests

where hypotheses formulated on the basis of idealized

locational models are evaluated. The mechanics of

analyzing sites arranged into hierarchies on various

criteria are examined in the Midwest (Struever and

Houart: Anthropological Papers, University of Michigan 46: 47-79), in Mesoamerica (Hammond: Models in

Archaeology, D. Clarke, ed., 757-800, 1972) and in late

pre-Roman Iron Age Britain (Hodder: New Directions

in Archaeology, D. L. Clark, ed., 1975). The wellknown rank-size rule (Vining: Journal of the American

Statistical Association 18:44-64; Haggett: Locational

Analysis in Human Geography, pp. 101-107, 1965), an

alternative model for examining hierarchical situations

in which intralevel variability obscures interlevel distinctiveness, is also discussed at some length. Methods

for examining observed variation in the rank-size relationship are illustrated using British Iron Age data,

where centers are ranked using a path ordering algorithm. A potential difficulty is the necessity for tight

temporal control, and the remainder of Chapter 4 is an

attenuated discussion of the chronological significance

of site density and regularity relationships. Uniform

patterns are seen to develop through time as a consequence of the marketing and competition principles

first outlined by economic geographers. Clustered patterns emerge from resource localization and from the

process of contagion-the attraction of population to a

higher order center to take advantage of a broader

spectrum of services and activities than would be

available at a lower order center. Statistical models

using the probability distribution of the negative binomial are used to distinguish between "true contagion"

(where the distribution of points is assumed

homogeneous and the probability of the occurrence of

a point (settlement) directly increases the probability

of occurrence of other points nearby) and apparent or

"spurious contagion" (where random inhomogeneity

in population density is present and where the probability of the occurrence of a point is a function of a

differential in the availability of information). Observed frequency data based on quadrat counts from

Polish Bandkeramik, Lengyel, and TRB sites is tested

for goodness of fit against true and spurious contagion

models using maximum likelihood estimates. As these

data are ordered in time, a model for the pattern of

settlement development is outlined which entails an

initial stage of contagious growth, the expansion of

settlement clusters and finally the development of a

more dispersed pattern characterized by local variation in site density.

Regression analysis, the simulation of artifact dispersal patterns, trend surface analysis and spatial autocorrelation are considered in Chapter 5 with respect

to the distributions of single artifact types considered

in isolation. Regression analysis is discussed in general

and at some length; it is used to describe spatial trends

in the distributions of single artifact types from known

sources by analysis of residuals from fitted regression

lines (e.g. Iron Age/Roman pottery types from New

Forest, Savernake, Oxford kilns). Plots of positive and

negative residuals identify density fall-off patterns

which are interpreted subjectively-a drawback because sets of residuals patterned alike can result from a

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134

AMERICAN ANTIQUITY

from known sources are also interpreted using simulations based upon random walk processes. Random

walk processes are stochastic models in which the distances and directions moved by points progressing

from a central source are chosen at random within

specified limits. Like any simulation, random walk

models permit the researcher to specify multiple variables, define interactions of varying complexity among

them, and set the resultant system in motion through a

large number of cycles to determine what the probabilities of different system variables are likely to be at

any stage in the process. In the present case, the effects of varying the direction and length of steps and

the total number of steps per walk are examined, and

the models are tested for goodness of fit by comparing

the observed and expected point densities in a series of

annular distance bands around the origin. Reciprocal

and redistributive exchange processes of some complexity can sometimes be distinguished from one

another, but a host of survival and recovery factors

intervene to make certain identification in archaeological contexts difficult. These problems also plague

trend surface and auto-correlation analyses, and even

the use of simple gravity models, which are also discussed. Basically, there is a question about the level of

detail at which spatial trends are likely to be detected,

and the suggestion of an answer that that level is not

always sufficiently precise to allow for significant correlation between spatial form and spatial process. It

should be kept in mind that the book is about methods

for objectifying pattern search approaches. It could be

argued that a consideration of ethnoarchaeologicallygrounded "cultural formation processes" (Schiffer op.

cit.) is logically prior to the use of pattern search approaches, but it is also and equally apparent that

ethnographic models are wholly inadequate by themselves to cope with the behavioral complexities of the

processes modeled here. Instead, the authors think it

more profitable to look for abstract theoretical principles developed in economics or in economic geography which might be linked in turn to trade, marketing principles, and other regional social and economic

phenomena of interest to archaeologists (cf. Smith op.

cit.). Certainly much of what is "explained" by Hodder and Orton is explained by deriving test implications from economic theory, rather than in terms of

test implications based upon the traditional ethnographic models with which archaeologists have been

accustomed to deal.

Part III is concerned with measures of association

between site and artifact distributions (Chapter 6) and

between sites and features of the natural environment

(Chapter 7). As was the case with the statistical procedures outlined in Chapter 3, methods for the analysis

of spatial association depend upon the type of data

being examined. The objective is usually to assess the

extent or departure from randomness, and, if either

significant clustering or dispersion are present, to determine whether or not two or more superimposed distributions are intermingled in such a way that behaviorally meaningful inferences can be drawn from

the study of the joint distribution. Methods suitable for

data recorded in quadrats usually entail the construction of contingency tables, which are then analyzed by

variance/mean ratio to determine whether types occur

in space independently of each other (Dacey: American Antiqiuity 38:320-28). Coefficients which measure

the degree of strength of association are also reviewed,

following Pielou (op. cit.). Most of these measures

vary from + 1 indicative of maximum positive association between point distributions to - 1 where negative

association (segregation) between distributions is as

great as possible. a value of zero indicates an absence

of association of any kind; observed and expected frequencies are equal. A discussion of spatial equivalents

of the common measures of central tendency and dispersion (e.g. arithmetic mean center, median center,

standard distance deviation) rounds out this useful

chapter. These descriptive statistics can also serve as a

basis for comparison if more than one distribution is

under consideration (Neft: Statistical AnalYsis for

Areal Distributions, 1966).

Chapter 7 comprises an attenuated discussion of two

related topics: (1) latterday manifestations of von Thiinen's concentric ring model for land use, (Des Isolierte

Staut, 1826), and (2) approaches to archaeological site

catchment analysis. Little methodology is presented

here. Instead these models for assessing the relationship between point scatters and environmental variables (e.g. soil type, altitude, vegetation cover, features of the landscape) are evaluated and found wanting. In the first case, the assumptions built into the ring

model are, by present standards, unrealistically simple. Von ThUinenacknowledged that his model was an

idealization, created only to be distorted by the manipulation of his variables to improve goodness of fit

with the empirical reality of his Baltic Coast estates.

However, modern attempts to use it in the same way

appear to encounter insurmountable difficulties

(Jackson: Area 4, 258-61). Site catchment analysis is

regarded as a distant lineal relative of the concentric

ring model which focuses attention upon the immediate microenvironment of a site, from whence actual or potential resources are assumed to be derived.

The analysis of subsistence activities is the principle

objective. While concentration on resources available

in the localized area around a site lends a precision to

the study of exploitation lacking in studies of regional

scope, there are disadvantages when catchment

analysis is applied to prehistoric situations. Probably

the most important objection is that prehistoric land

potential is often assessed in terms of modern land use

patterns (Vita-Finzi and Higgs: Proceediings of the

Prehistoric Society 36:1-37), an unrealistic assumption

to make if millenia have elapsed and if the impact of

man and of geological agencies on the locale have been

severe. Also, it is assumed that the proportion of land

use types in the catchment circle should directly reflect the relative importance of land use in that area,

which is probably unrealistic since the catchment circle radius is usually chosen arbitrarily. Finally, there is

seldom any attempt to relate site catchment areas to

regional land use patterns. While these criticisms of

the state of the art are perhaps valid through 1974, they

can probably be corrected to a considerable degree on

the technical level, as progressively more realistic

statements of relationship between past and present

environments can incorporated into any given model.

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REVIEWS

The book ends with a brief synopsis of problems

with archaeological spatial analysis. Problems resulting from the nature of archaeological data, problems

arising from the constraints of the statistical methods

employed, and problems of the relationship between

spatial form and process are considered. Sampling

error due to a differential in site survival, fieldwork

intensity and a failure to control for temporal variation

are critical factors in the first case, whereas the statistical procedures surveyed here have sets of assumptions which at times limit their usefulness with recalcitrant archaeological data, in the second.

The major limitation at present is, of course, that

different spatial processes can produce the same spatial form. So, while it may be possible to describe and

to measure the strength of association between spatial

patterns using rigorous and replicable techniques, and

to test for goodness of fit with abstract theoretical

models, the fact remains that there is no 1:1 correlation

between spatial form and spatial process. Schiffer

(American Antiquity 37:156-65) has suggested that the

extraction of behavioral patterns from archaeological

remains is by no means the simple and straightforward

task which it is sometimes imagined to be since there is

no reason to assume that distributions recoverable

from the archaeological record are replications of distributions which are meaningful in behavioral terms.

From this perspective, archaeological residues are regarded as static representations of dynamic behavioral

and natural systems; consequently the distributional

aspects of archaeological remains must be carefully

scrutinized so that a host of cultural and natural processes which might influence the appearance of archaeological remains on the ground can be taken into

account. At present, we seem to be in a situation

where some fairly sophisticated theoretical statements

about spatial process have been made, usually in the

context of economic or locational geography. This

book presents some ideas about how these hypotheses

about spatial process can be assessed archaeologically, and that is its major contribution. Although archaeology (and other disciplines) clearly lack a comprehensive model which relates spatial process in general terms to spatial form, it is argued that the methods

outlined by Hodder and Orton are sorely needed if

explicit "systems for indirect observation of the past"

are ultimately to be developed (Fritz: Conternporarv

Archaeology, M. Leone, ed., pp. 135-37, 1972). Archaeological theory building is at a point when implementation of quantitative spatial measures is critical to the resolution of many, perhaps most of its

hypotheses. This book has been prepared with that

goal in mind. It is not a compendium of "answers' to

abstract questions about archaeological theory pertinent to spatial variables in general, but is instead a

necessary methodological bridge designed to span the

chasm between the purely abstract and the empirical

aspects of spatial behavior.

G. A. CLARK

Arizona State University

Tempe, AZ

135

Mirror of History in the Ica Vallev, 1350-1570.

DOROTHY MENZEL. University of California

Press, Berkeley, 1976. xiii + 288 pp., illus. $25.00

Menzel's book is an attempt to reconstruct changing

social attitudes, values, and interests through stylistic

analysis of pottery. The subject matter of her study is

the burial furniture of thirty-eight Late Ica tombs from

the Ica Valley on the south coast of Peru that were

excavated by Max Uhle in 1900 and 1901. The grave

goods are now in the Robert H. Lowie Museum of

Anthropology, Berkeley, California. Supplementary

data were provided through John H. Rowe's surveys

and excavations in the Ica Valley carried out between

1954 and 1969, and by unprovenienced vessels from

collectors and hutaqlueros.The time-span covered by

those burials and other data is the last part of the Late

Intermediate period, A. D. 1350 to 1570, a turbulent

era in the Ica Valley encompassing the Inca conquest

in 1476, and then later the Spanish conquest in 1534.

Menzel's objective is to record the impact of these

historically documented upheavals as they are reflected in local art styles. As I am not a Peruvianist by

training, I am not competent to evaluate the specifics

of her cultural historical reconstructions. However,

she claims her study to be a methodological and

theoretical contribution to the understanding of the relationship of ceramics and society, and it is to these

aspects of the book that this review is addressed.

The methodological and theoretical directions Menzel has given her work may be most succinctly related

by citing two brief passages from her introduction

(p. 2):

This study is therefore, an exercise in historic archaeology, and the fact gives it some special

theoretical importance. We are in a position to

study the rate and kind of changes in style associated with a series of known events, and we can

ask what archaeological evidence can contribute to

an understanding of cultural processes in a situation when some historical evidence is also available.

This study attempts to . .. bring to bear on an

American problem the rigorous standards of the

best Classical archaeology . . . to make the fullest

possible use of archaeological associations in relating style changes to historic events. The methods

developed could be profitably applied to many

other problems in American archaeology.

These are worthwhile objectives, and much could be

learned by similarly rigorous analysis of other localized

highland Peruvian pottery styles. However, while

Menzel has largely delivered what she promises in her

introduction, she has not necessarily done so in the

most effective manner.

The problem of presentation does not appear to be

one of analytical perception or method (although

whatever methods and techniques are involved or developed in applying the "rigorous standards of the best

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