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10/1/15

Proses SOLIDIFIKASI

Bagaimana material membeku?


Apabila material (logam atau
bukan logam) dalam kondisi cair
diturunkan temperaturnya, maka
energi kinetik rata-ratanya
turun dan akan menyebabkan
membekunya material tersebut.
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Pembentukan nuklei (bibit)


! Molekul (atom) umumnya dapat bergerak
bebas, tapi kadang kala ada yang saling
bersatu (lengket)
! Pada energi kinetik yang lebih rendah, molekul
akan lebih banyak bersatu lagi (bertempelan)
satu dengan lainnya

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SEBUAH INTERFACE TERBENTUK KETIKA


PADATAN MEMBEKU DARI CAIRAN

10/1/15

Artinya ..
Besarnya perubahan energi bebas untuk
sistem adalah jumlah dari 2 faktor, yaitu
volume dan luas permukaan.
G = 4/3 r 3Gv + 4 r 2

Energi bebas volume naik jika radius/jari
jari pangkat tiga bertambah
Energi bebas permukaan meningkat jika
jari jari kwadrat bertambah
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MEKANISME PENGUATAN LOGAM


o Penghalusan Butir - Penambahan nukleus/bibit
pembekuan secara heterogen dan terkendali dapat
meningkatkan jumlah butir yang terbentuk dalam
pembekuan pada proses pengecoran.
o Penyebaran Kekuatan peningkatan kekuatan tarik
dengan membuat dislokasi sulit bergerak, yaitu dengan
memberikan cluster kecil dengan paduan elmen lain
o Transformasi Fasa dalam Kondisi Padat- perubahan
fasa yang terjadi pada kondisi padat
o Proses Pembekuan Secara Cepat menghasilkan
struktur material yang unik dengan memberikan
kecepatan pendinginan yang sangat tinggi selama
pembekuan
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10/1/15

ISTILAH DALAM PEMBEKUAN


o Specific heat panas yang dibutuhkan
untuk mengubah temperatur dari unit berat
material satu derajat
o Solidification front - Interface antara solid
dan liquid.
o Planar growth pertumbuhan halus dari
solid-liquid interface selama pembekuan
o Dendrite struktur padatan seperti pohon
cemara yang tumbuh ketika cairan
membeku
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Mengapa terjadi proses


pembekuan?
Energi dari phasa kristal (padat) < energi dari
phasa cair
Beda energi tersebut disebut energi volume
bebas (Gv)
Dengan berkembang tumbuhnya phasa padat
tersebut, jumlah energi volume bebas akan
bertambah .
Tetapi nilainya negatif
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10/1/15

Tetapi
Saat pembentukan phasa padat tersebut,
terbentuk suatu batas antar
permukaan (interface) antar kedua phasa
tersebut
Energi bebas permukaan, berhubungan
dengan interface ini
Ketika fasa padat tumbuh, jumlah energi
bebas permukaan naik dan.
Nilainya positive.
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Jumlah energi bebas dari sistim solid-liquid berubah dengan


ukuran padatan. Padatan menjadi embrio jika radius lebih
kecil dari radius kritis, dan jadi bibit (nucleus) jika radiusnya
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lebih
besar dari radius kritis.

10/1/15

Apa artinya .
" JIKA HANYA BEBERAPA MOLEKUL
YANG SALING MELEKAT (JUMLAH
INTI KURANG) MAKA MEREKA
AKAN LARUT KEMBALI
" JIKA JUMLAH MOLEKUL YANG
SALING MELEKAT CUKUP, EMBRIO
AKAN TUMBUH
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Nukleasi Homogen
vThis process is called homogeneous
nucleation
vHanya terjadi jika material very pure
vUkuran jari-jari kritis dari inti:
r* = 2 Tm / (Hf * T)
v T undercooling
vUndercooling material umumnya 50 - 500
degrees C.
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10/1/15

Nukleasi Heterogen
Nukleasi homogen umumnya terjadi di
lab.
Impurities provide a seed for nucleation
Solidification can start on a wall.
Its like cloud seeding, or water condensing
on the side of a glass.
Adding impurities on purpose is called
inoculation
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Ukuran Butir
Solidification caused by homogeneous
nucleation occurs suddenly and only
produces a few grains
In heterogeneous nucleation,
solidification occurs on many seeds,
so the grains are smaller, and more
uniform
Which will be stronger?
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10/1/15

Pertumbuhan Butir & Solidifikasi


If a melt is cooled slowly, and the
temperature is the same throughout,
solidification occurs with equal
probability everywhere in the melt.
However.
Metals are usually cooled from the
container walls so solidification starts
on the walls
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Panas Peleburan
When the liquid solidifies,
energy must be removed.
In planar growth the energy is
conducted into the solid and out
through the walls of the
container.
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10/1/15

Apa yang terjadi jika logam cor


tidak diberi inokulasi?
Solidification starts on the walls.
The surrounding liquid is supercooled,
so the solid quickly grows, but
All that heat that is evolved is hard to
conduct away.
Some of it is absorbed by the
surrounding liquidwhich then heats
up.
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Pembentukan Dendrit
All that heat raises the melt temperature near the
wall above the freezing point.
The solid grows out away from the wall,
looking for cooler metal.
Solid

Liquid

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Dendrit
Dendrites form as the metal solidifies
out into the melt, leaving molten metal
behind, that has been reheated from
the heat evolved in the solidification
process.
Dendrite formation is common, even
in inoculated melts, however the better
a melt is inoculated, the fewer
dendrites

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Casting: Solidification
Grains perpendicular to
wall shut-off other grains, so
columnar structure naturally
develops perpendicular to
mold wall.
Grain boundaries tend to
be weak columnar
castings tend to be brittle
(unless loaded parallel to the
column direction, as in
turbine blades).
Equiaxed structure usually
preferred for strength, can
be achieved with
innoculating agents and/or
fast cool.

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Segregasi

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2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under
license.

(a) Shrinkage can occur between the dendrite arms. (b) Small
secondary dendrite arm spacings result in smaller, more evenly
distributed shrinkage porosity. (c) Short primary arms can help
avoid shrinkage. (d) Interdendritic shrinkage in an aluminum
alloy is shown (x 80)
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(a) The secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS).


(b) (b) Dendrites in an aluminum alloy (x 50). (From ASM
Handbook, Vol. 9, Metallography and Microstructure (1985),
ASM International, Materials Park, OH 44073-0002.)
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Secondary Dendrite
Arm Spacing
The faster cooled off the liquid, the
shorter the spacing between the arms
Small SDAS results in higher tensile
strength and yield strength (Why?)
Very fine SDAS can be produced by
cooling the metal as droplets
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Cooling Curves
o Recalescence - The increase in temperature of an
undercooled liquid metal as a result of the liberation
of heat during nucleation.
o Thermal arrest - A plateau on the cooling curve
during the solidification of a material caused by the
evolution of the latent heat of fusion during
solidification.
o Total solidification time - The time required for the
casting to solidify completely after the casting has been
poured.
o Local solidification time - The time required for a
particular location in a casting to solidify once
nucleation has begun.
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2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

10/1/15

(a) Cooling curve for a pure metal


that has not been well inoculated.
Liquid cools as specific heat is
removed (betweens points A and
B). Undercooling is thus necessary
(between points B and C). As the
nucleation begins (point C), latent
heat of fusion is released causing
an increase in the temperature of
the liquid. This process is known
as recalescence (point C to point
D). Metal continues to solidify at a
constant temperature (T melting).
At point E, solidification is
complete. Solid casting continues
to cool from the point.
(b) Cooling curve for a well
inoculated, but otherwise pure
metal. No undercooling is needed.
Recalescence is not observed.
Solidification begins at the melting
temperature
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Kurva Pendinginan Logam Murni

A pure metal solidifies at a constant


temperature equal to its freezing point (same as
melting point)

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10/1/15

Pembekuan Paduan
Most alloys freeze over a temperature range
rather than at a single temperature

(a) Phase diagram for a coppernickel alloy system and (b) associated cooling curve
for a 50%Ni50%Cu composition during casting.

Three Cast Structures of Solidified Metals


FIGURE 5.8
Schematic
illustration of three
cast structures of
metals solidified in a
square mold:
(a) pure metals;
(b) solid-solution
alloys; and
(c) the structure
obtained by
heterogeneous
nucleation of grains,
using nucleating
agents.

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10/1/15

Struktur Coran
o Chill zone - A region of small, randomly oriented
grains that forms at the surface of a casting as a
result of heterogeneous nucleation.
o Columnar zone - A region of elongated grains
having a preferred orientation that forms as a result
of competitive growth during the solidification of a
casting.
o Equiaxed zone - A region of randomly oriented
grains in the center of a casting produced as a result
of widespread nucleation.

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Cacat Solidifikasi
Shrinkage
Cavities
Pipes
Control with a riser

Gas Porosity
Gas may be dissolved in the melt,
then trapped in the solid

Interdendritic Shrinkage
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2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Several types of macroshrinkage can occur, including


cavities and pipes. Risers can be used to help compensate
for shrinkage
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10/1/15

Waktu Solidikasi
SolidicaIon takes Ime
Total solidicaIon Ime TTS = Ime required for
casIng to solidify aMer pouring
TTS depends on size and shape of casIng by
relaIonship known as Chvorinov's Rule
n

V
TST = Cm
A

where TST = total solidicaIon Ime; V = volume
of the casIng; A = surface area of casIng; n =
exponent with typical value = 2; and Cm is mold
constant.

Konstanta Cetakan dalam


Chvorinov's Rule
Konstanta Cetakan Cm tergantung pada:
Mold material
Thermal properties of casting metal
Pouring temperature relative to melting point

Value of Cm for a given casting operation can


be based on experimental data from
previous operations carried out using same
mold material, metal, and pouring
temperature, even though the shape of the
part may be quite different

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