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for lubrication simulation

Qianqian Yang, Ping Huang, Yanfei Fang

www.elsevier.com/locate/jtri

PII:

DOI:

Reference:

S0301-679X(15)00460-0

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2015.10.011

JTRI3885

Received date: 23 June 2015

Revised date: 27 August 2015

Accepted date: 11 October 2015

Cite this article as: Qianqian Yang, Ping Huang and Yanfei Fang, A novel

Reynolds equation of non-Newtonian fluid for lubrication simulation, Tribiology

International, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2015.10.011

This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for

publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of

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could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.

Qianqian Yang, Ping Huang, Yanfei Fang

School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology,

Guangzhou 510640, China

ABSTRACT

The non-Newtonian phenomenon is significant in hydrodynamic lubrication of some special

lubricants, or elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL). However, the conventional methods to solve

the non-Newtonian lubrication problem are either too complicated or inaccurate. This paper puts

forward a Reynolds equation for general lubrication problem of the non-Newtonian fluid by treating

the lubricant flow as the superposition of the Poiseuille flow and Couette flow. Then, as examples, a

set of simulations for EHL in the line contact are presented to investigate the feasibility of the

method. Finally, comparisons with the conventional methods establish the validity and simplicity of

the method.

Keywords: Reynolds equation; Non-Newtonian; Lubrication; Simulation

1

1. Introduction

After the disc machine has been used to study the elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) since 1960s,

it is found that the lubricant films were much weaker than that the theories predict from the

Newtonian behavior [1]. It was realized that the lubricants behave in a highly non-Newtonian fashion

when they pass through an EHL contact region [2]. The conditions in the EHL contact region are

severe for extremely high pressure, usually above 0.5 GPa, and very high shear rate, typically

106-108 s-1 [3]. These conditions result in the lubricant experiencing a very large increase in the

lubricant viscosity and a very high shear stress which produce the non-Newtonian behavior of the

lubricant. The non-Newtonian behavior may exhibit shear-thinning/thickening, limiting shear stress,

viscoelastic, or Maxwell behavior [4-6]. And some widely accepted constitutive equations have been

proposed to describe the behavior [7-9].

With the development of the computer technology and numerical analysis, it is now possible to

numerically simulate a variety of lubrication phenomena with different constitutive equations that

have reasonable agreement with the experiments and the practice [10-12]. The main methods to solve

the non-Newtonian lubrication problem are: (1) to obtain the Reynolds equation[13,14] by

integrating their constitutive equations and other related equations directly [15], (2) to derive the

Reynolds equation from the simplified Navier-Stokes equation and the continuity equations [16], and

(3) to deduce the generalized Reynolds equation from a non-Newtonian constitutive equation [17].

The difficulty to theoretically obtain the modified Reynolds equation due to the complicated

relationship between the shear stress and shear rate greatly limits the application of the first method.

The Navier-Stokes equation is derived through the Cauchy equation and by specifying the stress

tensor in terms of the viscosity and fluid velocity through the constitutive equation. The solution of it

is flow velocities with the assumption of constant density and viscosity. The assumptions bring about

significant errors to the velocity so that limit its application, not to mention the difficulty of

calculation.

Therefore, the generalized Reynolds equation method maybe is the only suitable one to solve the

general non-Newtonian lubrication problem. This method is based on the generalized Newtonian

fluid model. And the generalized viscosity of it is simplified to a non-linear function of the shear rate

or shear stress , = / . Although it is applicable, it uses an average Newtonian constitutive

equation by integrating the generalized viscosity across the film thickness instead of the real

non-Newtonian one. Besides, the generalized Newtonian fluid model is useful for steady simple

shear flows, while the time dependent effects, the elongational effects, and the normal stress

differences are not considered [3]. And, this method is not valid to captures the mechanics of fluids

in all situations [18,19].

Many other available methods for non-Newtonian fluid lubrication problem have also been raised,

such as the Reynolds equation put forward by Najii et al. [20], the homotopy analysis method (HAM)

[21] and etc, but the complication and simplifications during the derivation greatly limit their

applications.

2

This paper presents a unified Reynolds equation of general non-Newtonian fluid. Similar to the

Navier-Stokes method, the flow velocity is focused on. The main idea is to take the viscous flow as

the sum of the Poiseuille flow and Couette flow. And based on their special characteristics, the

velocity is obtained easily. Then, the Reynolds equation can be deduced so that the other quantities,

such as the pressure, load, elastic deformation and the lubricant film thickness can be found as a

usual Newtonian lubrication problem. Finally, comparisons with the conventional methods are

carried out, which have established the validity of the present method.

2. Unified Reynolds equation

2.1. Velocity field equation

A general lubrication system in the Cartesian coordinate system shown in Fig. 1 is studied. The

assumptions during the following derivation are: the inertial and body forces of fluids are negligible,

the flow is laminar flow, the pressure of lubricant does not vary in the film thickness direction, and

no sliding occurs at the top and bottom surfaces. The assumptions are valid for most fluid lubrication

applications.

The relationship between the shear stress and shear rate is nonlinear for the non-Newtonian fluid, and

the general form can be written as:

du

x =f

dz

dv

y =f

dz

(1)

where f() represents a non-linear function, is the shear stress, is the shear rate, and u and v are

the velocities of the fluid in the x and y direction.

The x direction is taken as an example to illustrate the method. Based on the balanced force of

arbitrary control volume in the x direction, the equilibrium equation is [22]

x p

z x

where p is the pressure.

Substitute Eq.(1) into Eq. (2) yields

3

(2)

p x du

=

f

x z z dz

(3)

z

p

u f 1 z C1 dz F z C1 C2

0

x

(4)

where C1 and C2 are the constants of integration, f -1() is the inverse function of f (), F() is the

integral function of f -1().

It is obvious that the analytical expression of Eq.(4) is not easy to get, and the analytical form of C1

and C2 are even harder to obtain with nonzero boundary velocities. Bird [23] found that the solution

of the Newtonian fluid can be seen to be a sum of the solutions of the two separate problems of the

Poiseuille flow and Couette flow. Therefore, we try to use it to the non-Newtonian fluid, and treat the

viscous flow as the sum of the Poiseuille flow and Couette flow. The results show great agreement

with the conventional methods which have established the feasibility of this treatment.

2.1.1. Velocity of the Couette flow

The Couette flow is the wall driven laminar flow, and the velocity distribution of it is shown in Fig. 2.

The Couette flow is driven by the viscous drag force acting on the fluid and the applied pressure

gradient parallel to the flow direction. Since the pressure vertical to the flow direction has no effect

on the Couette flow, then the equilibrium equation, Eq.(2), of it is

x p

=0

z x

(5)

Therefore, the shear stress here is a constant. By using Eq.(4), Eq.(5) together with the boundary

conditions of the velocity of the Couette flow, uC 0 U 0 , uC h U h , it gives:

uC

Uh U0

z U0

h

2.1.2. Velocity of the Poiseuille flow

(6)

The Poiseuille flow is the pressure driven flow, and the velocity distribution of it is shown in Fig. 3.

Unlike the Couette flow, it is significantly affected by the rheological properties of the fluid. And the

two main features of the Poiseuille flow are:

4

duP

dz

z h /2

0.

According to feature (a) and Eq.(3)

h p

du

0 f P

C1

dz z h /2 2 x

Therefore, C1

(7)

h p

, and then rearrange Eq.(7) as:

2 x

duP

h p

p

f 1 z

dz

2 x

x

(8)

z

h p

p

uP f 1 z

dz C2

0

2 x

x

(9)

According to feature (b), we have C2=0. Then, the velocity of the Poiseuille flow in the x direction of

arbitrary non-Newtonian fluid can be expressed as

p

h

h

z 0, , uP F z

2

2

x

p

h

h

z , h , uP F1 z

2

2

x

(10)

2.1.3. Velocity equation

Based on Eq.(6) and Eq.(10), the velocity in the x direction is

p

h U U0

h

z 0, , u F z h

z U0

2

h

2

x

p

h U U0

h

z , h , u F1 z h

z U0

2

h

2

x

(11)

The x-component of the mass flow rate is achieved by integrating the velocity, Eq.(11), with respect

to z. And the y-component of the mass flow rate can be obtained in the same way.

h

h /2

qx = udz =2

h

h /2

q y = vdz =2

p

h

1

z dz + h U 0 U h

2

2

x

p

h

1

F z dz h V0 Vh

2

2

y

5

(12)

qx q y h

0

x

y

t

(13)

Then the general Reynolds equation of arbitrary non-Newtonian fluid is obtained based on Eq.(12)

and Eq.(13).

p

h2

p

h

h2

h

F

z

dz

2

0 F z dz

0

x

2

y

2

x

y

h

1

1

0

Uh

Vh

2 x

2 y

t

(14)

where U U h U 0 , V Vh V0 .

3. Results and discussion

In order to investigate the validity of the method, the isothermal EHL in the line contact, as shown in

Fig. 4, has been studied. The power law model is chosen since its simplicity and realism over a

range of shear rates [25]. Besides, it can be both shear thinning (n<1) and shear thickening (n>1) as

long as the Newtonian fluid (n=1).

(15)

where is a dimensional constant, whose dimension depends on the power law index n.

3.1. Basic Equations

3.1.1. Velocity equations

The velocity distribution obtained from this method is compared to the conventional analytical one,

which integrated directly from the constitutive equation. The velocity expression of the power-law

model obtained from this method, Eq.(11), is

1

1

1

1

1

h n h n Uh U0

h

1 p n n

z 0, , u

z U0

z

2

h

2

x n 1

2

1

1

1

1

n

h n h n Uh U0

h

1 p

z , h , u

z U0

z

2

h

2

x n 1

2

1

n

(16)

And the velocity expression of the power-law model of the conventional method is

1

1

n 1 p n

1

u

z c1 n c2

n 1 x

(17)

where c1 and c2 are constants that can be obtained by iteration with the boundary condition of the

velocity, u(0)=U0,u(h)=Uh.

It should be noted that when the power law index n equals to 1, the power law model is identical

with the Newtonian fluid model. Then the velocity of Newtonian fluid is also studied, and the

analytical velocity of the Newtonian fluid is [22]

1 p 2

z

z zh U h U 0 U 0

2 x

h

(18)

Based on Eq.(14), the Reynolds equation of the power law model in the line contact is

1

d h

d 2 1n 1 dp n 2 n (2n 1)

h

U h U 0

dx

n

dx

dx

(19)

equation, Eq.(19), is valid for arbitrary n.

The film thickness in and near the contact region is [22]

x2

h( x) h0

v( x)

2R

(20)

2 xe

2

v( x)

p( s) ln( s x) ds c

E x0

where R is the equivalent radius, v(x) is the elastic deformation of surfaces introduced by pressure, E

is the equivalent elastic modulus.

The value of dimensional constant is set the same as the viscosity , and the equation for the

viscosity variation with the pressure is given by Roelands [22]

0 exp ln 0 9.67 1 1 p / p0

0.6 p

0 1

1 1.7 p

The following dimensionless parameters are introduced:

0.68

(21)

(22)

p

u

x

w

hR

z

*

, = , P=

, X= , H= 2 , W

,U 0 , Z

0

0

pH

b

ER

ER

b

h

where 0 and 0 are the ambient density and viscosity, pH is the maximum Hertzian contact pressure,

b is the semi-width of the Hertzian contact region, and w is the load capacity per unit length.

The calculation condition of the simulation is w=1105N, E=2.21011 Pa, R=0.05 m, 0=0.05 Pas,

7

U0=1 m/s, Uh=0 m/s. The solution domain for the line contact simulation ranges from X=-4 to X=1.5,

which is discretized using a uniform mesh of 130 nodes. The Reynolds equation is discretized using

a mixed second order central and first order forward differencing scheme and solved along with the

equilibrium condition with a relative accuracy of 110-5.

3.2. Numerical simulation

3.2.1. Velocity distribution

The velocity distribution shown in Fig. 5 is given at X=-1,0,1 under the calculation condition shown

in Table 1.

Fig. 5. Velocity distribution of different n (U1 is the velocity of the proposed method, U2 the

conventional one, U0 the Newtonian fluid)

8

As expected, the velocities are exactly the same when n=1, which demonstrate the feasibility of the

proposed method. However, the two velocities have some deviation when n1. According to Eq.(13),

the mass flow rate should be identical through the contact region. But due to the existence of

calculation error, they are not. Since the average mass flow rate is the same for both methods, it

makes the standard deviation a good way to study the calculation error. The data listed in Table 1

show that the standard deviations of the mass flow rate of the proposed method are all lower than the

conventional one. It is because the calculation of the constants c1 and c2 in Eq.(17) introduces more

error though its expression is accurate. It makes the proposed method a more accurate way to

calculate the velocity distribution.

Table 1 Calculation condition and the standard deviation of the dimensionless mass flow rate

n

0.8

1.1

1.2

1.0

-1

P

-2

-1

7.1110

2.2310

3.708341

1.031922

5.3410-2

9.9210-1

184.7567

1.107842

-2

-2

0.823779

1.002892

-1

5.054857

1.038969

-1

174.8376

1.106950

-2

-1

0.9

5.5610

-1

2.1410

-1

1.6710

-1

1.8510

2.7910

9.8010

1.5810

2.0910

1.135737

1.003250

-1

1.17100

4.1710-1

10.67764

1.055207

-1

184.6575

1.107833

-2

1.156975

1.003720

1.0010

-1

9.9110

9.1710

2.3910

-1

2.24100

5.0410-1

16.83787

1.064575

1.9410

1.1310

342.1098

1.117491

1.83100

2.6910-2

1.17793

1.004175

-1

5.4010-1

3.4410-1

7.217006

1.046836

4.0410

-1

-1

9.6410

162.7575

1.105786

4.0410-1

2.1610-2

1.140725

1.003361

(Q1)

(Q2)

(Q0)

3.8410-2

5.9910-2

--

1.5110-2

4.5410-2

--

3.6810-2

1.5910-1

--

8.6810-2

4.7010-1

--

3.1610-3

3.1610-3

3.1610-3

The film thickness and pressure distribution derived from this method are compared to that of the

generalized Reynolds equation method [17, 24]. As mentioned above, the power law model is the

same with the Newtonian fluid when n=1. And the corresponding Reynolds equation, Eq.(19), is

identical with the Reynolds equation of the Newtonian fluid. So is the generalized Reynolds equation.

Then, we can expect that the results of the two methods should be the same with the results of the

Newtonian Reynolds equation when n=1. However, Fig. 6 shows obvious difference between them.

The mean value and standard deviation of the results of the two methods obtained by taking the

results of the Newtonian fluid as a standard are shown in Table 2. The difference of the present

method is so small that the error can be negligible, while the difference of the generalized Reynolds

equation cannot. More intermediate variables and iterations needed result in the big calculation error

of the generalized Reynolds equation method. It demonstrates the accuracy of the present method.

9

Fig. 6. Pressure and film thickness distribution with n=1 (H1 and P1 are the results of the present

method, H2 and P2 the generalized Reynolds equation, H0 and P0 the Reynolds equation of

Newtonian fluid (since it is identical with H1 or P1, its line is covered up and cannot be seen))

Table 2 The mean value and standard deviation of difference of pressure or film thickness with n=1

Mean value

P0-P1

P0-P2

H0-H1

H0-H2

-7

-3.9410

1.6810-6

2.6710-6

1.3510-1

Standard deviation

9.2510-7

3.8010-2

3.1310-6

1.5110-2

A constant load is given, and the difference of the pressure distributions is quite small so they are not

studied then. Fig. 7 gives the film thickness distribution with various n, and it tells that the smaller

the power law index n, the smaller the film thickness. It is in accordance with the generally known

theory that shear-thinning results in a diminished film thickness [3].

Fig. 7. Film thickness distribution (H1 is the result of the present method, H2 the generalized

Reynolds equation)

However, difference still exists between the results of the two methods. The mean value and standard

deviation of the difference of the film thickness between the two methods are given in Table 3.

Compared to the difference when n=1, the difference of the results is acceptable. Since the presence

of the calculation error for the generalized Reynolds equation, it is true that the present method is a

10

Table 3 The mean value and standard deviation of the difference of the film thickness

n

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

-2

2.2910-3

6.4510-3

1.5110-2

2.9710-2

4.7810-2

2.2810

6.1810-2

1.3510-1

2.3910-1

3.2910-1

4. Conclusion

A unified Reynolds equation of the general non-Newtonian fluid is put forward in the present paper

by treating the total flow as the sum of the Couette flow and Poiseuille flow. An extensive set of the

full EHL line contact simulations have been presented to investigate the method. The comparisons of

the velocities and film thickness between the present method and the conventional ones not only

establish the feasibility and validity of the method, but also illustrate its simplicity in calculation and

simulation.

Acknowledgment

This research was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China

(Grant No. 51575190 and 51175182).

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12

Figure captions

Fig. 1. General lubrication system

Fig. 2. Velocity distribution of the Couette flow

Fig. 3. Velocity distribution of the Poiseuille flow

Fig. 4. Coordinate system of the line contact

Fig. 5. Velocity distribution of different n (U1 is the velocity of the proposed method, U2 the

conventional one, U0 the Newtonian fluid)

Fig. 6. Pressure and film thickness distribution with n=1 (H1 and P1 are the results of the present

method, H2 and P2 the generalized Reynolds equation, H0 and P0 the Reynolds equation of

Newtonian fluid (since it is identical with H1 or P1, its line is covered up and cannot be seen))

Fig. 7. Film thickness distribution (H1 is the result of the present method, H2 the generalized

Reynolds equation)

Highlights

A Reynolds equation of general non-Newtonian fluid is put forward.

The method show great agreement with the conventional method.

The method can converge easily, contains less calculation error and has wider application.

The method is a better way to solve general non-Newtonian fluid lubrication problem.

13

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