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U.S.

Practices for
Concrete Containment
Design and Evaluation

Presented by

Jorma Arros, PhD


Senior Manager
Advanced Engineering Analysis
Stockholm
2015-01-28

Presentation Outline
U.S. Nuclear Power Trivia
Power generation statistics
New plants

U.S. Concrete Containment Design Codes


Load Characterization
Design basis loads
Beyond design basis loads

Beyond Design Basis Event (BDBE) Modeling/Analysis Examples


ANSYS
LS-DYNA

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U.S. Nuclear Power Trivia Generation Statistics

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U.S. Nuclear Power Trivia Planned New Plants

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U.S. Nuclear Power Trivia Planned New Plants, contd

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Design Codes
The main design code for concrete containment design in the U.S. is ASME
Section III, Division 2, Code for Concrete Containments, 2007 Edition
formerly also known as ACI-359
Key concepts in this code:
Service loads vs factored loads (severe environmental, extreme environmental, abnormal
loads)
Primary force and secondary force
Essentially an allowable stress approach
Allowable stress:
Detailed elaborate allowables for factored loads
Simpler straightforward allowables for service loads

Supporting codes include:


ASCE 4-98 (4-09) and ASCE 43-05 for seismic design
NEI 07-13, Revision 8 for aircraft impact
ASME/ANS RA-S-2009 for external events PRA

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Load Charaterization
Design basis events are defined as conditions of normal operation, including anticipated
operational occurrences, design basis accidents, external events, and natural phenomena
for which the plant must be designed to ensure the following functions:

(1) The integrity of the reactor coolant pressure boundary


(2) The capability to shut down the reactor and maintain it in a safe shutdown condition; or
(3) The capability to prevent or mitigate the consequences of accidents which could result in potential offsite
exposures comparable to the applicable guideline exposures set forth in 50.34(a)(1) or 100.11 of this chapter,
as applicable.

Beyond design basis accidents refer to accident sequences that are possible but were not
fully considered in the design process because they were judged to be too unlikely. (In that
sense, they are considered beyond the scope of design basis accidents that a nuclear
facility must be designed and built to withstand.) As the regulatory process strives to be as
thorough as possible, "beyond design-basis" accident sequences are analyzed to fully
understand the capability of a design. [ from http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/basicref/glossary/beyond-design-basis-accidents.html ]

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On Evaluation of BDBEs
Severe accidents should be evaluated to identify reasonable
measures for prevention or mitigation, based on realistic or bestestimate assumptions, methods, and analytical criteria regarding
specific severe accidents.
Chapter 19 of Regulatory Guide 1.206, Combined License
Applications for Nuclear Power Plants, requires licensees of future
nuclear power reactors to perform a probabilistic risk assessment that
includes analysis of BDBEs
Also addressed in Section 19 of the Standard Review Plan, NUREG-800,
Probabilistic Risk Assessment and Severe Accident Evaluation for New
Reactors

BDBEs most often evaluated as a PRA acceptance criteria is true


best estimate failure

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BDBE Example Containment Overpressure


Containment Pressure exceeding design as a result of beyond design
basis event prestressed containment
Ultimate pressure capacity, for varying thermal conditions, evaluated
in support of Level 2 internal events PRA
Nonlinear FE analysis both material and geometric nonlinearity
Global nonlinear response analysis with ANSYS Wedge Model
Solid65 elements for concrete with smeared rebar
Local analysis of Equipment hatch, personnel access airlock, piping
and electrical penetrations, etc. with nonlinear local ANSYS models
Liner analysis with a hand calculation methods

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BDBE Example Containment Overpressure

Section of a large dry PWR containment structure designed to about 60 psi


design basis accident pressure per the applicable the code requirements
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Wedge model for Global Response Analysis

Nonlinear ANSYS wedge model SOLID65 concrete elements smeared rebar


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Wedge model for Global Response Analysis

Radial wall displacement (inches) at initial condition dead weight + post-tension


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Wedge model for Global Response Analysis

Radial wall displacement at cylinder mid-height vs pressure


Liner tearing at 175 psi
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Local 3D Nonlinear Analysis of Equipment Hatch Cover

Equipment hatch displacement contour during snap-through buckling at a


pressure of 0.215*800=172 psi, significantly lower than the peak of 620 psi.
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BDBE Example Aircraft Impact


Aircraft impact analysis with LS-DYNA
Both missile/target interaction method and the Riera force history
method
Nuclear Island modeled in full detail
Winfrith material model with both discrete beam and smeared rebar
Typically eight to twelve elements through the thickness in the impacted area
and vicinity
Areas removed from the impact area modeled with linear shell elements

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Beyond Design Basis Aircraft Impact

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Beyond Design Basis Aircraft Impact

Also addressed in Standard Review Plan, NUREG-0800, Section 19.5


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Beyond Design Basis Aircraft Impact Modeling Verification

LS-DYNA FE modeling and Winfrith concrete material model


verification utilizing VTT IMPACT test results - by comparing LS-DYNA
results vs those observed in the IMPACT laboratory tests

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VTT Impact Tests Utilized for Material Model Verification

LS-DYNA model of the VTT IMPACT test set-up hard punching missile
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VTT Impact Tests Utilized for Material Model Verification

Hard missile punch through of the reinforced concrete target plate


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VTT Impact Tests Utilized for Material Model Verification

Deceleration of the missile during punch through


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Discrete rebar and Steel Member modeling in a Fictitious


Nuclear Building Impact Area used for LS-DYNA FEA tests

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Impact to PWR Nuclear Island Structure

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Impact to PWR Nuclear Island Structure

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Impact In-Structure Acceleration Response Spectra Computed


throughout the Buildings

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BWR Containment Model for Design Basis Earthquake,


Wetwell Oscillations, and Steam Line Break Analyses

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BWR Containment Model for Design Basis Earthquake,


Wetwell Oscillations, and Steam Line Break Analyses

Major piping and supports included in detailed modeling


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