STANDARD SIX
TERM II
VOLUME 2
MATHEMATICS
SCIENCE
SOCIAL SCIENCE
A Publication Under
Free Textbook Programme of
Government of Tamilnadu
Government of Tamilnadu
First Edition
 2012
Revised Edition  2013
 2014
Reprint
(Published under Uniform System of School Education Scheme in Trimester Pattern)
Textbook Printing
Price : Rs.
Textbook available at
www.textbooksonline.tn.nic.in
ii
CONTENTS
UNIT
TOPIC
MATHEMATICS
PAGE No.
(1  44)
Everyday Arithmetic
1.
Algebra
2.
16
Measurements
3.
Measures of Time
23
Geometry
4.
Angles
34
Practical Geometry
5.
40
Answers
42
SCIENCE
(45  82)
Biology
1.
Cell Structure
47
Chemistry
2.
Separation of Subtances
59
Physics
3.
Types of Energy
iii
70
UNIT
TOPIC
PAGE No.
SOCIAL SCIENCE
(83  112)
Civics
1.
84
2.
Republic
87
Geography
1.
91
History
1.
2.
iv
99
105
MATHEMATICS
STANDARD SIX
TERM II
Chapter 1
1. EVERYDAY ARITHMETIC
1.1 Introduction
We buy a pen say for 10 rupees and a pencil for 2 rupees. We say that the cost
of a pen is 5 times the cost of a pencil.
Divya is 5 years old while her sister is ten years old. Her sisters age is 2 times
that of divya or divya s age is 1 th the age of her sister.
2
In the above cases we are comparing 2 quantities of the same kind (i.e.,) cost
in rupees and age in years respectively. The comparison of 2 quantities of the same
kind by means of division is termed as Ratio.
1.2 Ratio
a and b are called as the terms of the ratio. a is called as the antecedent and
b is called as the consequent
The ratio is represented in numbers and it does not have any unit.
When two quantities a and b are compared they must be in the same unit .
For example: If a = 1m 20 cm and b = 90 cm then a must be written as 120 cm
and b = 90 cm
and the ratio a : b is 120 : 90
2
Everyday Arithmetic
Example : 1
The following table gives us information about Ishwarya and krithika.
S.No.
Information
Ishwarya
krithika
1.
Age
17 years
15 years
2.
Height
1 m 36 cm
123 cm
3.
Weight
31 kg
29 kg
4.
Studying Time
4 hours
180 min
5.
Speed of cycling
10 km/hr
15 km/hr
6.
Playing Time
2 hours
1 hour
From the table we compare the ratios of the same kind and write the ratios as
1. The ratio of the age of Ishwarya to the age of Krithika is 17 : 15
2. The ratio of the age of Krithika to the age of Ishwarya is 15: 17
3. The ratio of the weight of krithika to Ishwarya is 29 : 31
4. The raio of studying time of Ishwarya to Krithika is 4 : 3
From the above table we see that the playing time of krithika is half of that of
Ishwarya.
We write the ratio of playing time of krithika to that of Ishwarya as 1 : 2 or
it can be expressed as a fraction 1 .
2
If the terms of a ratio have common factors we can reduce it to its lowest
terms by cancelling the common factors.
For example from the table the ratio of speed of cycling of Ishwarya to Krithika
is 10 :15 .
The common factor is 5 and we can re write it as 2 : 3
Example : 2
S.No.
Quantity
Ratio form
Fraction
form
Reduced
form
15 : 10
15
10
3:2
1.
2.
500 : 1000
500
1000
1:2
3.
Ratio of 1 m 25 cm and 2m
125 : 200
125
200
5:8
MATHEMATICS
Chapter 1
Example : 3
1. A student has 11 note books and 7 textbooks. Find the ratio of the notebooks
to that of the text books.
Solution :
Number of note books
= 11
Number of text books
= 7
Ratio of the notebooks to the text books
= 11 : 7
Example : 4
The cost of a pen is `8 and the cost of a pencil is `2.50
S.No.
Quantity
Ratio
form
Fraction Reduced
form
form
1.
800 : 250
800
250
16 : 5
2.
250 : 800
250
800
5 : 16
Example : 5
In a Village of 10,000 people, 4,000 are Government Employees and the remaining
are selfemployed. Find the ratio of
i) Government employees to people of the village.
ii) Self employed to people of the village.
iii) Government employees to selfemployed.
Solution :
Number of people in the village
= 10,000
Number of Government employees = 4,000
` Self employed
S.No.
Quantity
Ratio form
Fraction
form
Lowest
form of
the Ratio
1.
Government employees to
people of the village.
4000 : 10000
4000
10000
2:5
2.
6000 : 10000
6000
10000
3:5
3.
4000 : 6000
4000
6000
2:3
Everyday Arithmetic
Do These
1. Express the following ratios in the lowest form:
(i) 3:5 (ii) 15:25
(iii) 22:55 (iv) 24:48
2. Express the following ratios in the lowest form:
(i) 1kg to 500g
(ii) 24cm to 4m
(iv) 45min to 2hrs
(v) 30paise to `3
3. Sundar is 50 years old, his son is 10 years old. Write down the ratio between their
ages.
(i) 5 years ago
(ii) At present
(iii) After 5 years
4. Match the following ratios:
Column A Column B
3:4
5:15
1:3
9:12
4:5
20:30
2:7
14:49
2:3
12:15
Solution :
Given ratio = 5 : 7
The ratio in fractional form = 5
7
5
The equivalent fractions of are 10 , 15 , 20 , 25 , 55
7
14 21 28 35 77
` The equivalent ratios of 5 : 7 are 10 : 14, 15 : 21, 20 : 28, 25 : 35 and 55 : 77
5
MATHEMATICS
Example : 6
Write any 5 equivalent ratios for 5 : 7
Chapter 1
Exercise : 1.1
1) Say whether the following are true or false
i) The ratios of 4 pens to 6 pens is 4 : 6
ii) In a class of 50 students, the ratio between 30 girls and 20 boys is 20 : 30
iii) 3 : 2 and 2 : 3 are equivalent ratios
iv) 10 : 14 is a equivalent ratio of 5 : 2
2) Choose the correct answer :
i) The fractional form of 3 : 4 is ________
(1) 4 (2) 3 (3) 1
3
(4) 3.4
ii) The equivalent ratio of 7 : 8 is ________
(1) 14 : 16 (2) 8 : 9 (3) 6 : 7
(4) 8 : 7
iii) Simplified form of 16 : 32 ________
(1) 16 (2) 32 (3) 1:2
(4) 2:1
32
16
iv) If 2 : 3, 4 : _ are equivalent ratios, then the missing term is
(1) 2 (2) 3 (3) 4
(4) 6
v) The ratio of 1 cm to 2mm is
(1) 1:20 (2) 20:1 (3) 10:2
(4) 2:10
3) Simplify the following ratios :
(i) 20:45 (ii) 100:180 (iii) 144:216
4) Write 4 equivalent ratios for the following :
(i) 3:5 (ii) 3:7 (iii) 5:9
5) Write the ratio of the following and simplify :
(i) The ratio of 81 to 108 (ii) The ratio of 30 minutes to 1 hour and 30 minutes
(iii) The ratio of 60 cm to 1.2 m.
6)
7)
8)
Seemas monthly income is `20,000 and her savings is `500. Find the ratio of
i) the monthly income to the savings
ii) the monthly income to the expenses
iii) savings to the expenses.
Out of 50 students in a class, 30 are boys. Find the ratio of
i) Boys to the total number of students
ii) Girls to the total number of students
iii) Boys to the Girls
From the given figure, find the ratio of
i) Number of triangles to Number of circles
ii) Number of circles to Number of squares
iii) Number of triangles to Number of squares
iv) Number of circles to total number of figures
v) Number of triangles to total number of figures
vi) Number of squares to total number of figures
6
Everyday Arithmetic
9)
10) Out of 30 students in a class, 6 like football, 12 like cricket and remaining
like tennis. Find the ratio of
11) There are 102 teachers in a school of 3300 students. Find the ratio of the
number of teachers to the number of students.
Example : 7
35
MATHEMATICS
Example : 8
Chapter 1
Example : 9
The length and breadth of a rectangle are in the ratio 4:7. If the breadth is
77cm, find the length?
Breadth = 77cm
Parts Measurements
The ratio of length to breadth is 4:7
7
77
Breadth = 7 parts
1
?
7parts = 77cm
4
?
77
1part =
cm = 11cm
7
length = 4 parts
4parts = 4 # 11 cm = 44cm
` Length of the rectangle = 44cm.
Example : 10
In a village of 1,21,000 people, the ratio of men to women is 6 : 5
Find the number of men and women?
Solution : Number of people in the village = 1,21,000
Ratio of men to women
=6:5
Total number of parts
= 6 + 5 = 11
11 parts = 1,21,000
` 1 part =
1, 21, 000
= 11, 000
11
= 6 # 11,000 = 66,000
Parts
11
6
5
No. of people
121000
?
?
Exercise 1.2
1.
Which is greater (i) 2:3 (or) 3:4 (ii) 4:5 (or) 5:7
2.
Which is smaller (i) 3:4 (or) 4:5 (ii) 3:7 (or) 7:9
3.
4.
5.
Everyday Arithmetic
6.
7.
Rahim and Bhashir decides to share the gift money of competition in the
ratio 7 : 8. If they receive `7,500. Find the share of each.
There are 1,00,000 voters in the city. If the ratio of male to female voters is
11 : 9, find the number of men and women voters in the city.
8.
1.5 Proportion
When two ratios expressed in its simplest form are equal they are said to be in
proportion.
Proportion is represented by the symbol = or ::
If the ratio a: b is equal to the ratio c : d then a,b,c,d are said to be in proportion.
1. Show that the ratios (i) 2 : 3, 8 : 12, (ii) 25 : 45, 35 : 63 are in proportion.
Solution :
Ratio form
Fraction form
Simplified form
i)
2:3
2:3
8:12
2
3
8 = 2
12 3
25 = 5
45 9
35 = 5
63 9
5:9
ii)
25:45
35:63
2:3
5:9
We get 25 # 63 = 45 # 35 = 1575
Example : 12
Show that 12 : 9, 4 : 3 are in proportion.
Solution : The product of the extremes = 12 # 3 = 36
The product of the means
= 9 # 4 = 36
` 12 : 9, 4 : 3 are in proportion
(i.e.) 12 : 9 :: 4 : 3
9
MATHEMATICS
Chapter 1
Example : 13
Find the missing term in 3 : 4 = 12 : ____
Solution :
Example : 14
So, __:3 = 12 : __
` 2:3=12:18
4:3=12:9
Do These
If the cost of a book is `12, find the ratio of 2, 5, 7 books to their cost.
What do you observe from this?
No. of
books
Total Cost
Ratio
Fraction
form
Simplified
form
2 # 12 = 24
2 : 24
2
24
1 : 12
5 # 12 = 60
5 : 60
5
60
1 : 12
7 # 12 = 84
7 : 84
7
84
1 : 12
From the above table, we find that the ratio of the number of books to the cost of
books are in proportion.
10
Everyday Arithmetic
1.6 Direct Variation
Two quantities are said to be in direct variation if an increase (or decrease) in one
quantity results in increase (or decrease) in the other quantity. (i.e.) If two quantities
vary always in the same ratio then they are in direct variation.
Example : 16
Shabhana takes 2 hours to travel 35 km. How much distance she will travel in 6
hours?
Solution : When time increases the distance also increases.
2 : 6 = 35 :
Time (hrs)
Time (hrs)
2
2
6
6
Distance (km)
Distance (km)
35
35
?
?
Example : 17
The cost of uniforms for twelve students is `3,000. How many students
can get uniform for `1250.
Solution :
No. of students
12
?
3,000
1,250
12 : = 3000 : 1250
3000
10
25
8
20
20
50
4
10
8
20
10
25
20
50
4
10
11
MATHEMATICS
Example : 18
Chapter 1
Here the ratios are 4 = 2 , 8 = 2 , 10 = 2 , 20 = 2
10
5 20 5 25 5 50
` 4 = 8 = 10 = 20
10 20 25 25
i)
1:5
and
ii) 2:7
and
iii) 2:9
and
v) 30:40 and
(4) 40
(4) 40, 60
2
80
ii)
2
3.5
6
10.75
4
15
8
23
300
18
450
27
250
15
600
36
5
200
12
4
160
3
120
Everyday Arithmetic
4) Complete the table if they are in direct variation.
i)
8
10
15
4
2
16
ii)
5

28
12
48
15

10

iii)
45
20

60
15

10
15
5) Sarath buys 9 cricket bats for `1,350. How much will Manoj spend to buy
13 cricket bats at the same rate.
6) If a person reads 20 pages from a book in 2 hours, how many pages will he
read in 8 hours at the same speed?
7) If 15 people can repair a road of length 150 metres, how many people are
needed to repair a road of length 420 metres.
8) The rent for a room for 2 months is `9200 what will be the rent for one year
for that room.
9) The cost of 15 chairs is `7500. Find the numbers of such chairs that can be
purchased for `12,000?
10) The cost of 10 kg rice is `400. Find the cost of 3 kg rice?
11) A car needs 12 litres of petrol to cover a distance of 156 km
How much petrol will be required for the car to cover a distance of 1300 km?
Take your atlas and look at the map of India showing railway route or
look at the road map of Chennai. We see that in the corner of the map it is written
scale : 1 cm = 200 km. What does this mean? It means if the distance between
Chennai and Delhi is say 11 cm the actual distance between the two cities is 11 x
200 = 2200 km.
We see that Ratio and proportion have a number of applications. you can
find many more examples of applications of ratio and proportion. Try to find a
few more.
13
MATHEMATICS
You would have seen models of cars , aircrafts, houses etc. We see that
their dimensions have been suitably reduced and they look exactly like the actual
cars or aircrafts or buildings. How are the dimensions of these models calculated?
Chapter 1
Let the actual length of a rectangular garden be a metres. and let b be
the length of the garden in a diagram. Then ratio between the actual length and
the length in the diagram be a : b
Example : 19
A map is drawn to the scale of 1cm to 200km.
(ii) If the distance between Nellai and Chennai is 3cm on this map, what is the
actual distance between the two places?
Note the drawn length and the actual length are not in the same unit.
(ii) The distance between Nellai and Chennai (on the map) = 3 cm
[ a 1km = 100000cm]
= 2,00,00,000cm
1
20000000
Scale
1 cm = 200m
1 cm = 250m
1 cm =_____m
Actual Length
1750m
3700m
Drawn Length
4cm
5cm
4. The scale of a graph is 1 cm = 200 km. (The distance 1 cm in the graph denotes
200 km in actual length). What would be the length of 3600 km on the graph?
14
Everyday Arithmetic
Activity
,, Draw a rough sketch of a rectangular field of length 400m and breadth 250m
by taking a suitable scale.
,,
Project
,, Collect recipes of 2 dishes and find out how you can use them to explain
ratio and proportion.
,,
ollect information about the height ,weight, study hours and play time of
C
two of your friends and express your data as ratios.
,,
ollect data regarding number of students in your school and in your class ,
C
number of boys and girls in your class and in your school. Find out as many
ratios as possible from your data.
Points to remember
The comparison of two quantities of the same kind is called a ratio.
When the terms of ratio are multiplied by the same number, we get
equivalent ratios.
The equality of two ratios is called a proportion.
In a proportion, the product of extremes = product of means.
MATHEMATICS
If two quantities vary in the same ratio, then they are in direct variation.
15
Chapter 2
2. ALGEBRA
Check
1. 38 # 2 = 76
2. 76 + 4 = 80
3. 80 # 5 = 400
4. 400 20 = 380
Algebra
Do it Yourself
Think of a 3 digit number (All the three digits should not be same).
Keep repeating the step till you get the same number in 2 succesive steps.
Exercise : 2.1
1) Find the missing number in the sequence. 5, 10, 15, _, 25, 30.
(i) 20 (ii) 2 (iii) 22
(iv) 23
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
3.
First number
Second number
2
20
3 4 5 6
30 40 50 60
17
MATHEMATICS
1
10
Chapter 2
2.2 Introduction of constants and variables through patterns
Latha made the following triangular patterns with the match sticks she had.
1.
To find out the total match sticks used for the above formation she prepared
2.
3.
4.
....
12
....
3 # 1 3 # 2 3 # 3 3 # 4 ....
From the table we observe that the number of match sticks required changes
with the number of triangles formed.In each case the value of the number of
matchsticks is dependent on the number of triangles. If we represent the number of
triangles by the letter x we can write the relation as
The above relation is a rule to find the number of matchsticks when x takes
values 1,2,3 .
x is an example of a variable.
When x = 2, number of matchsticks = 3 2 = 6
When x = 3 , number of match sticks = 3 3 = 9.
triangles, we need not draw the pattern or a table. We can take x = 15. Then number
of matchsticks = 3 15 = 45.
variable. variable does not have a fixed value , its value keeps changing.
x,y,z.
18
Algebra
From the pattern on triangles we see that the number of match sticks used to
1.
2. 3.
4.
Number of E
formation
Number of
match sticks
used
5.
....
10
15
20
25
....
5 #1
5 #2
5 #3 5 #4
5 #5
Note :
Step 4 of the game at the beginning can now be written as
Result = 10 y where y is the 2 digit number initially taken.
19
MATHEMATICS
Chapter 2
Example : 2
Look at the pattern of the Asoka tree given. The base is always formed with
two match sticks. The top portion of the tree differs in multiples of 3.
Number of
top portions
Number of
3
6
9
12
15
match sticks
needed for
the top
3#2
3#3
3#4
3#5
3#1
portion
Number of
match sticks
2
2
2
2
2
needed for
the base
Total
number
(3 # 1) + 2 (3 # 2) + 2 (3 # 3) + 2 (3 # 4) + 2 (3 # 5) + 2
of match
sticks used
....
....
....
....
20
Algebra
Exercise 2.2
1. Choose the correct answer:
a)
First
number
Second
number
16
26
36
46
56
66
10
20
30
40
50
60
Choose the law in which the above pairs are based on?
i) Second number = first number + 6
ii) Second number = first number 6
iii) Second number = first number ' 6
iv) Second number = first number # 6
First number
Second number
10
11
12
13
Choose the law in which the above pairs are based on?
i) Second number = first number ' 8 ii) Second number = first number  8
iii) Second number = first number + 8 iv) Second number = first number # 8
21
MATHEMATICS
b)
Chapter 2
4.
ii)
iii)
Project
,,
Make one square, two squares, three squares ... ten squares using match sticks
and listout how many match sticks are required for each squares.
Points to remember
variable denotes the quantity that can take different numerical value.
A
The result changes in a rule when the variable changes its value.
Variables are denoted by small letters a, b, c, ... x, y, z...
Expressions can be related using variables.
In arithmetic and geometry, formulae are obtained using variables.
22
Measurements
3. MEASUREMENTS
Measures of Time
Introduction
The measurement of time began when people started to observe that certain
events like rising and setting of sun, change of seasons, waxing and waning of the
moon etc. happened at regular intervals. You have learnt in your geography lessons
that the earth rotates about its axis and this rotation causes day and night. This regular
change was most obvious and was observed by astronomers. This led to the invention
of variety of devices to measure the duration of events and the intervals between
them based on the regular changes. The time interval between successive rising of
the sun was called a day.
Study of devices measuring time is called horology
Variety of devices have been designed to measure time from early civilisations.
Egyptians and Indians have used shadow clock and water clock, Chinese have used
rope clocks and oil clocks, and Europeans have used oil, candle and sand clock. In
course of time more clocks to measure time accurately have been invented.
Rope Clock
Water Clock
Sand Clock
The division of the day into 24 hours, an hour into 60 minutes and a minute into 60
seconds, probably came from the Babylonians. They divided the circular path of the
sun across the day sky, into 12 equal parts, awarded the night cycle 12 hours and
concluded a 24 hour day.
MATHEMATICS
Chapter 3
1 minute
1 hour
1 day
60 seconds
= 60 seconds
= 60 minutes = 60 # 60 seconds
= 3600 seconds
= 24 hours = 1440 minutes (24 # 60)
= 86,400 seconds (24 # 60 # 60)
Example : 1
Convert 120 Seconds into minutes
Solution:
120 seconds = 120 # 1 = 120 = 2 minutes
60
60
120 seconds = 2 minutes
1 sec
= 1 minute
60 minutes
= 1 hour
1 minute
= 1 minute
60
= 1 hour
60
a 60 seconds = 1 minute
1 second = 1 minute
60
Example : 2
Convert 360 minutes into hours
60 minutes = 1 hour
Solution :
` 1 minute = 1 hour
360 minutes = 360 # 1 = 360/60 = 6 hours
60
60
360 minutes = 6 hours.
Example : 3
Convert 3 hours 45 minutes into minutes
Solution : 1 hour = 60 minutes
3 hours = 3 # 60 = 180 minutes
3 hours and 45 minutes = 180 minutes + 45 minutes
= 225 minutes.
Example : 4
Convert 5400 seconds into hours
Solution :
5400 Seconds = 5400 # 1 hour
3600
9 = 3 = 1 1 hours.
=
6
2
2
5400 seconds = 1 1 hours.
2
1 hour
3600
Do it yourself
1) Convert the duration of the lunch break into seconds.
2) Convert play time in the evening into hours.
Example : 5
Convert 2 hours 30 minutes 15 seconds into seconds.
Solution : 1 hour = 3600 seconds & 2 hours = 2 # 3600 = 7200 seconds
1 minute = 60 seconds & 30 minutes = 30 # 60 = 1800 seconds
2 hours 3 minutes 15 seconds = 7200 + 1800 +15 = 9015 seconds.
24
Measurements
We normally denote time from 12 midnight to 12 noon as a.m. (Ante meridiem) and
the time from 12 noon to 12 midnight is noted as p.m. (post meridiem).
Note : We denote 4 hours and 30 minutes as 4 : 30 (or) 4 . 30. Even though we are
using the decimal point it is not a usual decimal number.
9.00 hours in the
morning
is
denoted
as 9.00 a.m. and 4.30
hours in the evening is
denoted as 4.30 p.m.
Exercise 3.1
1. Fill in the blanks
i) 1 hour
minutes
ii) 24 hours
day
iii) 1 minute
seconds
i) 15 minutes
i) 8 hours
i) 525 minutes
MATHEMATICS
Chapter 3
Sl.No.
Train
Number
1.
2633
2.
2693
3.
6123
4.
2637
5.
6177
6.
2635
7.
2605
Name of the
Train
Kanyakumari
Express
Muthunagar
Express
Nellai
Express
Pandian
Express
Rock Fort
Express
Vaigai
Express
Pallavan
Express
Place of
Destination
Departure
Departure
Time
Arrival
Time
Egmore
Kanyakumari
17.25 hrs.
6.30 hrs.
Egmore
Tuticorin
19.45 hrs.
6.15 hrs.
Egmore
Nellai
19.00 hrs.
8.10 hrs.
Egmore
Madurai
Junction
21.30 hrs.
6.15 hrs.
Egmore
Trichirappalli
22.30 hrs.
5.25 hrs.
Egmore
Madurai
Egmore
Trichirappalli
We see that in the departure and arrival time we see time written as 21.30
hours, 17.25 hours etc. It is different from what we generally use like 5.30 a.m. or
5.30 p.m. The railways follow a 24 hour clock to avoid any confusion between am
and pm.
In a 24 hour clock, 12 o clock midnight is taken as zero hour. 1 o clock in the
afternoon will be 13 hours , 2 o clock as 14 hours ,.. and 11 o clock
as 23 hours.
In the following examples you will learn how to convert time in 12 hour
format to a 24 hour format and vice versa.
Example : 6
Convert the following into 24 hour format.
i) 8 a.m. ii) 12 noon
iii) 5.30 p.m.
i) In this case when the time is before noon the time is same in the 12 hour
and 24 hour format. ` 8 a.m. = 8.00 hours
ii) 12 noon = 12 hours
iii)
for time in the afternoon add 12 to the given time
` 5.30 pm will become 5.30 + 12 = 17.30 hours.
Example : 7
Convert the following into 12 hour format
i) 6.00 hours
iii) 24 hours
Measurements
i) If the number is less than 12 it will be taken as am and the time remains same
ii) If it is greater than 12, 12 will be subtracted from the given time and it will be
taken as p.m.
23.10 12 = 11.10 p.m.
iii) 24 hours = 24 12 = 12 midnight
Exercise 3.2
1. Express in 24 hour format.
4.00 pm = 4 + 12 = 16 hours.
4.00 am = 4 hours
Example : 9
Cheran Express departs from Chennai at 22.10 hours and reaches Salem at 02.50
hours the next day. Find the jouney time.
Solution :
Arrival at Salem
= 02.50 hrs.
Departure time form Chennai = 22.10 hrs.
(previous day)
Journey time
= (24.00 22.10) + 2.50 = 1.50 + 2.50 = 4.40
` Journey time = 4 hours 40 minutes.
Example : 10
A boy went to school at 9.00 a.m. After school, he went to his friends house and
played. If he reached back home at 5.30 p.m. find the duration of time he spent out
of his house.
27
MATHEMATICS
Chapter 3
Solution :
Starting time from home
Duration between starting
time and 12.00 noon
= 9.00 a.m.
= 12.00 9.00
= 3.00 hours
Reaching time (home)
= 5.30 p.m
` Duration of time he spent out of his house = 3.00 + 5.30 = 8.30 hours.
Exercise 3.3
2. Nellai Express departs from Tirunelvelli at 18.30 hours and reaches Chennai
Egmore at 06.10 hours. Find the running time of the train.
3. Sangavi starts from her uncles house at 10.00 hours and reaches her house at 1.15
p.m. What is the duration of time to reach her house?
3.4 Leap Year
Rama was celebrating his birth day happily. His friend Dilip was sitting aloof
at a corner. Rama asked Dilip why are you sad?. Dilip replied I cant invite you
every year for my birthday. When Rama asked why, Dilip said I can celebrate
my birth day only once in 4 years. Rama exclaimed why is that so?
Because my birthday falls on 29th February replied Dilip.
Satish asked 29 February! what are you talking Dilip? But February has only
28 days. Yes Satish, generally it is 28 days. But once in 4 years February has 29
days. We call that year as a leap year. There are 366 days in a leap year and 365 days
in an ordinary year Dilip said.
Why do we have an extra day in a leap year?
I dont know. Let us ask our teacher replied Dilip.
Both went to meet their teacher and expressed their doubt. The teacher explained
the reason as follows:
You know that the earth takes one year to make one complete revolution around
the sun and 365 days make 1 year. But in fact the earth takes 365.25 days to make one
revolution.
This extra 0.25 day x 4 gives one full day. This extra one day is added to the month
of February once in 4 years. Every year that has 366 days it is called a leap year. Therefore
in a leap year February will have 29 days.
28
Measurements
1day
1 week
1 year
1 year
1 leap year
10 years
100 years
1000 years
Know yourself
1. Which century are we in?
2. Which is a millennium year?
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
24 hours
7 days
12 months
365 days
366 days
1 decade
1 century
1 millennium
A year which is divisible by 4 is a leap year. For example the years 1980, 2012,
and 2016 are all leap years.
100, 200 are divisible by 4. Are they leap years?
No. We have a second rule which states that years which are multiples of 100
though they are divisible by 4 have to be divisible by 400 then only the years will be
leap years.
100, 200, 300 are not leaping years while 1200, 1600, 2000 are all leap years.
Example : 11
(i) 1400
(ii) 1993
(iii) 2800
(iv) 2008
MATHEMATICS
Chapter 3
Example : 12
Find the number of days from 15th August to 27th October.
Solution :
Note :
There are 31 days in August.
Since it is given from 15th
Number of days in August = 31 14 = 17 days
August Substract 14 days
Number of days in September
= 30 days
(Prior to 15th) from 31 (The
Number of days in October
= 27 days
total number of days of the
Total = 74 days
month)
Example : 13
Convert 298 days into weeks.
Solution :
298 days = 298 weeks
7
` 298 days = 42 weeks and 4 days.
1 week = 7 days.
1 day = 1 week.
7
Example : 14
Find the number of days between 12th January 2004 and 7th March 2004.
Solution :
Find whether the given year is a leap year or not.
2004 ' 4
Quotient = 501, remainder = 0.
` 2004 is a leap year and has 29 days in February.
Number of days in January
= 3112 = 19 days
= 29 days
= 6 days
= 54 days
` Number of days between 12th January 2004 and 7th March 2004 are 54 days.
Exercise 3.4
1. Fill in the blanks.
Measurements
2. Which of the following are leap years?
(i) 1992
(ii) 1978
(iii) 2003
(iv) 1200
(v) 1997
3. Find the number of days from 4th January 1996 to 8th April 1996.
4. Find the number of days from 5th January 2001 to 28th April 2001.
5. Find the number of days between 26th February 2000 and 7th June 2000.
6. Find the number of days between 20th February 2004 and 27th May 2004.
7. Convert into weeks.
Example : 15
An office functions from 10 in the morning till 5.45 in the evening with a
lunch break in the afternoon from 12.45 to 1.30. If the office works for 6
days a week, find the total duration of working hours in a week.
Solution :
hrs.
min.
The closing time of the office =
17 45 5.45 p.m. = 17.45 hrs
The opening time of the office =
10 00
1.30 p.m. = 13.30 hrs.
Hrs. Min.
Time in between
=
07 45
Lunch break [13:3012:45]
=
00 45 12 90
30
 13
45
Working hours for 1 day
=
07 00 12
 0
45
= 42 hrs.
` Total duration of working hours in a week = 42 hrs.
A clock is fast by 5 seconds per hour find the time that it will show at 4 p.m.
if it was adjusted to correct time at 6 a.m.
Solution :
6 a.m . = 06.00 hrs.
Duration of time = 10.00 hrs.
31
MATHEMATICS
Example : 16
Chapter 3
1. A bank functions from 9 in the morning till 3.30 in the afternoon with a
lunch break in the afternoon from 12.30 to 1.15. If the bank works for 6
days in a week, find the total duration of working hours in a week.
2. A clock is slow by 6 seconds. per hour. If it was adjusted to correct time at
5.a.m. find the time the clock will show at 3.00.p.m.
Activity
,, List your daily routines in 24 hour timings and convert them into 12 hour
timings.
,,
Make them to find out the leap years between 1980 to 2012.
,,
Divide the class into different groups. Ask them to compare their ages and
find out the eldest. Compare all the groups and find the eldest and youngest
in the class.
Find out the years of your birthday and family members as ordinary year or
a leap year.
,,
Do These
1.
i)
2 minutes
sec
ii)
5 minutes 7 seconds =
sec
sec
sec
32
Measurements
2.
i)
30 seconds
min.
ii)
2.4 hrs
min.
min.
min.
3.
i)
90 minutes
hrs.
ii)
2.25 days
hrs.
hrs.
hrs.
4.
i)
Ans :
hrs.
mins.
ii)
Ans :
hrs.
mins.
Ans :
hrs.
mins.
Ans :
hrs.
mins.
Points to remember
Seconds, minutes, hours, day, week, month and year are the units of time.
12.00 midnight to 12.00 noon is forenoon.
12.00 noon to 12.00 midnight is afternoon.
railway timings.
An ordinary year has 365 days. But a leap year has 366 days.
33
MATHEMATICS
Chapter 4
4. GEOMETRY
Angles
4.1 Introduction
Mark a point O on a sheet of paper. From O
draw two rays OA, OB as shown in the figure.
In this figure both the rays start from a single point
O. An angle is formed at O. Two rays OA, OB are
called as arms (or sides) of the angle. The common
point O is called as the vertex of the angle. The angle
is represented by a small curve as shown in the figure 1.
The figure formed by two rays with the same
initial point is called an angle.
The angle shown in fig. 1 is represented as +AOB
or +BOA . We read it as angle AOB or angle BOA.
Vertex of the angle is always written in the middle.
Sometimes the angle is represented as +O .
Observe the adjacent figure (fig.2)
We know that rays are named by two
points  one at its start and one on the remaining portion.
So, OA, OB represent the same ray. Likewise OC, OD
also represent the same ray. Therefore, the angles can
be represented by the following ways.
fig.2
fig.3
Geometry
Right angle
Straight angle
An angle whose measure is 180o is
called a striaght angle.
Measure of the angle
at 6 o clock = 180o.
An angle whose measure is greater than
0o but less than 90o is called an acute angle
Example : 2o, 10o, 37o, 80o, 89o.
Measure of the
angle at 11.55.
35
MATHEMATICS
Acute angle
Chapter 4
Obtuse angle
An angle whose measure is greater than 90o and less
than 180o is called an obtuse angle
Example : 91o, 96o, 142o, 160o, 178o.
Measure of the
angle at 8 o clock.
Zero angle
If both the rays coincide, the angle formed is 0o.
Measure of the
angle at 12 o clock.
The angle traced out by the minute hand in one hour or 60 minutes = 360 degree
Hence angle traced out by the minute hand in one minute = 360 = 6 degree
60
Let number of minutes = m then the rule for calculating the angle traced in
m minutes = 6m
If m = 5 minutes then angle traced by the minute hand in 5 minutes = 6 5 = 30
degree
Exercise 4.1
1. State whether the given angles are acute, right or obtuse angle.
(i) 45o
(ii) 138o
(iii) 100o
(iv) 175o
2. Classify the type of the angle formed by the hour hand and minute hand of a clock
for the following timings:
(i) 12.10
(ii) 4.00
(iii) 9.00
(iv) 7.45
(ii)
36
Geometry
Activity
1. Through how many degrees does the minute  hand turn in 15 minutes?
is 90o.
(i.e) 30o + 60o = 90o
30o and 60o are complementary angles.
If the sum of the measures of two angles is 90o then they
are called complementary angles.
For Example :
Example : 1
MATHEMATICS
Chapter 4
If the sum of measures of two angles is 180o then they
are called supplementary angles.
Example : The angles formed at the centre point of a
seesaw are always supplementary angles.
supplement of 40o = 180o 40o = 140o
supplement of 110o = 180o 110o = 70o
Exercise 4.2
1. Find the complementary angles for the following.
(i) 37o
(ii) 42o
(iii) 88o
(iv) 0o
(iv) 16o
(iv) 104o
(v) 116o
+BOC = ______
(ii) If the sum of the measure of two angles is 90o, then they are called
complementary angles.
(iv) ;If the sum of the measures of two angles is 180o, then it is called a right
angle.
6.
Geometry
Project
,,
Use paper folding method to form different angles and list them.
,,
,,
1.
State the type of angle (acute, right, obtuse or straight) for the following:
2.
degrees
degrees
degrees
3.
a=
4.
x=
5.
degrees
degrees
degrees
6.
a=
7.
x=
degrees
degrees
degrees, b =
degrees, y =
degrees
degrees
39
MATHEMATICS
degrees, y =
Chapter 5
5. PRACTICAL GEOMETRY
Example : 1
Example : 2
Practical Geometry
Exercise 5.1
1. Draw and name the following angles.
(i) 65o
(ii) 35o
(iii) 110o
(iv) 155o
(v) 69o
2. Draw and measure the angle formed by the hour and minute hand of a clock at
MATHEMATICS
ANSWERS
Exercise 1.1
1.
2.
3.
5.
7.
8.
9.
(i) True
(ii) False
(iii) False
(iv) False
(i) 2
(ii) 1
(iii) 3
(iv) 4
(v) 3
(i) 4 : 9
(ii) 5 : 9
(iii) 2 : 3
4. (i) 6 : 10, 9 : 15, 12 : 20, 24 : 40
(ii) 6 : 14, 12 : 28, 15 : 35, 30 : 70
(iii) 10 : 18, 15 : 27, 30 : 54, 40 : 72
(i) 3 : 4 (ii) 1 : 3 (iii) 1 : 2 6. (i) 40 : 1 (ii) 40 : 39 (iii) 1 : 39
(i) 3 : 5 (ii) 2 : 5 (iii) 3 : 2
(i) 1 : 2 (ii) 4 : 3 (iii) 2 : 3 (iv) 4 : 9 (v) 2 : 9 (vi) 1 : 3
12. 5, 12, 25 yes
10 : 3
10. (i) 1 : 2 (i) 2 : 5
11. 17 : 550
Exercise 1.2
1.
3.
4.
5.
8.
(i) 3 : 4
(ii) 4 : 5
2. (i) 3 : 4
(ii) 3 : 7
(i) 150, 250 (ii) 2k.g 500g, 3kg. (iii) 1m 25c.m, 1m.
Arun got Rs. 600 more than Anand
14c.m,
6. `2,100
7. `3,500, `4,000
55,000, 45,000
Exercise 1.3
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
(i) yes
(ii) No
(iii) Yes
(iv) No
(v) Yes
(i) 1
(ii) 2
(iii) 4
(iv) 4
(v) 2
(i) yes
(ii) No
(iii) No
(i) 20, 30, 8, 4
(ii) 20, 7, 60, 40
(iii) 30, 30, 40, 22.5
`1950 6) 80
7) 42
8) `55,200 9) 24
10) 120 11) 100
Exercise 1.4
1
10, 00, 00, 000
1
2) (i)
50, 000
1) (i)
3)
(i) 800 m.
(iii) 740 m
4) 18 c.m.
Exercise 2.1
1)
(i) 20
2) (ii)
Exercise 2.2
1)
4)
a) (ii)
(i) 6x
b) (iii)
(ii) 6y
2) 40x
(iii) 7z
3) 12b
Exercise 3.1
1)
2)
3)
4)
(i) 60
(ii) 1
(i) 900 seconds
(i) 480 minutes
(i) 8 hours 45 minutes
(iii) 60
(ii) 1812 seconds
(ii) 710 minutes
(ii) 2 hours
Exercise 3.2
1)
2)
(ii) 0 hour
(ii) 12 noon
Exercise 3.3
1)
2)
Exercise 3.4
1)
2)
7)
(i) 7
(ii) 29
(iii) 72
(iv) 12
(i), (iv)
5) 101
3) 96
4) 114
(i) 46 weeks and 6 days
(ii) 25 weeks
(v) 3600
6) 96
Exercise 4.1
1. (i) Acute angle
(ii) Obtuse angle
(iii) Obtuse angle
(iv) Obtuse angle
2. (i) Acute angle
(ii) Obtuse angle
(iii) Right angle
(iv) Acute angle
3. (i) +AOB Straight angle
+DOB Obtuse angle +BOA Straight angle
+AOD Acute angle +DOC Acute angle +AOC Right angle
(ii) +AOB Acute angle +AOC Acute angle +AOD Right angle
+BOC Acute angle +COD Acute angle
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
MATHEMATICS
Exercise 4.2
Date
Lesson
No.
Topic of the
Lesson
44
Activities
Remarks
SCIENCE
STANDARD SIX
TERM II
45
yy We Do
46
sciencetextbook@gmail.com
Cell structure
Cell Structure
Activity 2
We Observe
Stage
Mirror
wall of a building
Base
Compound microscope
Not only human beings, but other
organisms like plants and animals are
also made up of cells.
SCIENCE
Unit 1
48
((
((
((
((
((
((
((
49
Mitochondrion
Golgi bodies
(Dictyosomes)
Endoplasmic reticulum
Ribosome
Lysosome
Vacuole
Plastids
Cytoplasm
Nuclear membrane
Chromatin reticulum
Nuclear sap
Nucleolus
((
((
((
((
((
((
((
((
((
((
((
Animal cell
Mitochondrion
Golgi bodies
Endoplasmic reticulum
Ribosome
Lysosome
Vacuole
Centrosome
Cytoplasm
Plasma membrane
Eukaryotic cell
((
((
((
((
Nucleus
Protoplasm
SCIENCE
Plant cell
(( Cell wall
(( Plasma membrane
Prokaryotic cell
Cell
Nuclear membrane
Chromatin reticulum
Nuclear sap
Nucleolus
Nucleus
Protoplasm
Cell structure
Unit 1
Cytoplasm :
"Hello!
I
am
cytoplasm,
found in between the plasma
membrane and
the nucleus.
I am made up of carbohydrates
and
proteins.
Organelles
and
lipid droplets are present in me.
Plasma membrane :
"Hi! Animal cell welcomes you.
I am the plasma membrane,
enveloping the cell. I give shape to
the cell. I act as a guard. I control the
entry and exit of materials.Come on
my friends, come and introduce
yourselves".
Nucleus :
"I am the controlling centre of the
cell. But I need not be present at the
centre.
Protoplasm:
"I am a colloid, found inside
the plasma membrane. I have two
components
namely
cytoplasm
and nucleus of the cell. My name is
protoplasm".
Fat cell
Muscle cell
Neuron
50
Cell structure
Nuclear membrane
Chromatin reticulum
Nuclear sap
Nucleolus
Nucleus
Mitochondria singular :
Mitochondrion :
Outer membrane
Inner membrane
Cristae
Mitochondrion
Golgi bodies:
Endoplasmic reticulum
Ribosomes :
"Come, Look at us! We are
granular structures. We are called
Protein factories of the cell. We help
in protein synthesis".
51
SCIENCE
Endoplasmic reticulum :
Unit 1
Lysosomes :
"Are you interested in learning
about us? We are spherical yellow
coloured bodies. We help in cell
protection. We destroy the pathogens
entering into the cell. We are called
Suicidal bags of the cell. In addition
to this we also help in cell digestion".
centrosome
Vacuoles :
"Wait! Don't neglect us. We are
vacuoles. We are light blue in colour
and appear like bubbles. We store
cell sap. We maintain intracellular
pressure. Oh! this work is very difficult.
Plasma, my friend, good bye to all".
Did you meet the workers of the
animal cell factory? Now, let us learn
about the plant cell.
Lysosome
Centrosome :
"Let me introduce myself. I am
centrosome.I'm found only in the
animal cell. I look like a stick and I am
a microtubule. I am near the nucleus.
I have centrioles in me.. Cell division
is my function i.e., formation of new
cells."
Plant cell :
Have you ever wondered about
the different features of a plant cell?
Let us examine a plant cell and see
how it differs from an animal cell.
We see that,
Chloroplast
Plasma membrane
lysosome
Vacuole
Nucleus
Endoplasmic
reticulum
Ribosome
Mitochondrion
52
Cell structure
yy T
he Centrosome is absent in plant
cells.
yy The plants are more rigid than an
animals due to the presence of
the cell wall.
yy They have plastids.
yy They have larger vacuoles.
Plastids :
These organelles are found only
in plant cells. They contain pigments.
Based on the pigments, they are
classified into three types.
Cell wall :
It is an outer layer which gives
shape to the cell. It is made up of
Type
Chloroplast
Pigment
Chlorophyll
Functions
 green pigment
Chromoplast Carotene
 orange pigment
Xanthophyll  yellow pigment
Leucoplast
No pigments  Colourless
Activity :3
3
Activity
We Do
Sl.No.
Plant cell
Animal Cell
1.
2.
Presence of plastids
Absence of plastids
3.
Centrosome is absent
Centrosome is present
4.
All activities like eating, drinking of water, jumping, playing, and breathing,
thinking and even sleeping are due to the functioning of the cells. Each cell is
a small factory. The brain has several million cells.
When the cells, the so called small factories are affected and injured,
diseases are caused and we visit a doctor.
e.g. cancer, hereditary diseases, diabetes, etc.
53
SCIENCE
Let us now list the differences between a plant cell and an animal cell.
Unit 1
Activity 4
Making a cell model
We divide ourselves into groups and
make the structure of a plant cell using
easily available materials. We build the
model of a cell and learn about the cell
organelles.
Materials required :
A thick cardboard from any old
notebook, a white sheet, paste, broom
sticks, coloured thread, sand, bangle
pieces, bindhi, groundnut shells, green
gram, cow peas, broken chickpeas,
pepper, peas, mustard, cardamom,
colour papers.
Method we follow:
yy We take a thick cardboard and paste
a white sheet over it.
yy We draw the outline of the
plant cell from the textbook on
the white sheet.
yy We draw the nucleus at the centre
of the plant cell.
yy We make the organelles by pasting
the materials as listed in the table.
We Do
Organelles
Nucleolus
Chromatin
reticulum
Nuclear
membrane
Cytoplasm
Endoplasmic
reticulum
Ribosome
Lysosome
Golgi bodies
(dictyosomes)
Mitochondria
Plastids
Vacuoles
Plasma
membrane
Cell wall
Materials we use
bindhi
coloured thread
bangle pieces
paste, sand
coloured thread
mustard
broken chickpeas
bangle pieces,
pepper
groundnut shells
green gram/peas/
cardamom
bits of paper
thread
broomstick
By sticking black threads, We label the parts one below the other.
We have learnt
The structure of a plant cell and we can tell the difference between a
plant cell and an animal cell.
Facts at a glance
1. There are about 6,50,00,000 cells
in the human body.
2. B
ones are made up of special type
of dry cells.
3. Anton Van Leeuwenhoek (1675)
discovered that blood contains
RBC (Red Blood Cells).
54
Cell structure
Activity:55
Activity
We Do
Cell components
Functions
1.
Plasma membrane
2.
Cytoplasm
3.
Nucleus
4.
Mitochondria
Golgi bodies
6.
Endoplasmic
reticulum
7.
Ribosomes
8.
Lysosome
9.
Centrosome
10.
Vacuoles
11.
Plastids
12.
Cell wall
SCIENCE
5.
Unit 1
EVALUATION
I. Choose the correct answer
1. The structural and functional unit of living organisms is ________.
a) nucleus
b) cell
c) mitochondria d) ribosome
b) microscope
c) binocular
d) periscope
(a)
(c)
(b)
(d)
b) ribosome c) lysosome
d) nucleus
b) ribosome c) centrosome
d) lysosome
6.The spherical organelle which controls the activities of the cell is ________.
a) golgi bodies
b) ribosome
c) nucleus
d) lysosome
7. The organelle that involves in destroying the germs which enters into the cell
is ______.
a) dictyosome
b) ribosome
c) centrosome
d) lysosome.
a) mitochondria
d) chloroplast
b) centrosome
c) plasma membrane
b) bacteria
c) nerve cell
d) cell of muscle
b) nerve cell
c) cell of a muscle
d) blood cell
II. Who am I?
1. I'm a tiny organelle. Cell respiration occurs in me. I'm otherwise called "Power
house of the cell". Who am I?
56
Cell structure
2. I help in Photosynthesis. I am found only in plants. Who am I?
3.I give shape and protection to the plants. I'm made up of cellulose. I'm found
only in plants. Who am I?
4. I help in cell division. I'm seen only in animal cell. Who am I?
5. Im a colloid, found inbetween the plasma membrane and the nucleus.
I distribute the nutrients within the cell. Who am I ?
Van
Leeuwenhoek,
Schleiden
and
Schwann,
IV. Match:
Cell Organelle
Other names
Functions
Mitochondria
Suicidal bag
protein synthesis
Ribosome
transfer of hereditary
character
Lysosome
production of energy
Nucleus
cell destruction
VI. Colour the following diagram of the animal cell and label the parts
57
SCIENCE
Unit 1
IX. Fill in
Lysosome
Cytoplasm
Nucleus
Nuclear
membrane
Vacuole
Plant cell
Further reference
Websites :
www.enchanted learning.com
www.biology4 kids.com
www.teacher vision.fen.com
www.diffen .com
www.wiki.answers.com
58
Separation of Substances
Separation of Substances
Then, Ibrahim was asked to separate the mixture. How did Ibrahim
separate the mixture? First he poured out the water slowly from the bucket,
and spread the wet sand and gravel mixture on a newspaper and dried it.
Then he poured the mixture of gravel and sand on the sieve. The sand fell
through and the gravel remained on the mesh. Thus he separated all three
components.
Discuss and give reasons why the others lost to Ibrahim.
In the above competition Ibrahim
used methods of separation like
decantation and filtration.
ff
to
remove
substances
the
unwanted
SCIENCE
First he put the gravel in the bucket, then he put the sand gently over it
and poured water slowly over it. The bucket became full and did not overflow.
He used his knowledge of science to fill the bucket with the given materials.
Unit 2
Handpicking
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
Winnowing
Farmers allow the mixture of grain
and husk to fall from a height. Grains,
being heavier fall down and form a
heap. Husk, being lighter is carried
away by wind and forms a separate
heap.
Separation of Substances
Sieving:
Magnetic separation :
Activity 1
I Do
My inference:
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
61
SCIENCE
Unit 2
Method of
separation
Mixture
Paddy and chaff
Ragi and pulses
Sand and stone
Rava and Iron particles
Methods of separation
insoluble solids from liquids
of
Decantation
Transferring the clear liquid
(super natant liquid) into another
container using a glass rod is called
decantation.
glass rod
Sedimentation
The mixture of insoluble solids
and liquid is taken in a beaker and the
beaker
Filtration
water
(super natant
liquid)
Sedimentation
Decantation
sand
(sediment)
62
Separation of Substances
Activity 2
We Observe
______________________________
______________________________
Evaporation
cone
first
fold
second
fold
Do you know?
One litre of sea water contains about
3.5 grams of salt. Sea water contains
not only common salt but also more
than 50 other mineral salts. These
salts are industrially important.
stand
filtrate
63
SCIENCE
filter
paper
Unit 2
Condensation
Take a mixture of sand and salt in
a beaker. Add water to this mixture
and stir. Salt gets dissolved. How
can we separate the components
from this mixture? Filter this solution
using a filter paper. The sand can be
separated from the salt solution by
filtration.
I want to get back
both salt and water.
What should I do for
this?
Salt water
Condensation
Ice cubes
water
Method of separation
Separation of Substances
Activity 3
We Do
We are going to separate iron filings, salt and chalk powder from the
given mixture.
We need: bar magnet, beaker, water, filter paper, funnel, tripod stand, glass
rod, watch glass, matchbox, wire gauze, bunsen burner.
1. We take the mixture in a watch glass and stir it using a bar magnet.
Our observation
Substance separated
2. W
e take the remaining portion of the mixture containing salt and chalk
powder in a beaker. Then we add water and stir it well using a glass
rod. We allow the liquid to remain undisturbed.
Our observation :
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
Our observation
Substance separated
6. We take the beaker containing the salt water and place it over a
wire gauze on a tripod stand. We heat the solution strongly using
a bunsen burner.
Our observation
Substance separated
65
SCIENCE
3. We fold the filter paper into a cone shape and keep it inside a funnel.
4. We keep the funnel on a tripod stand and place a beaker below it.
5. We transfer the liquid mixture slowly into the funnel using a glass rod.
Unit 2
Our inference:
S.No.
Separated substance
Facts at a glance:
1. Crude oil is a mixture from which nearly eighty six substances like
petrol, kerosene and naphtha are obtained.
2. Air is a mixture of gases.
Evaluation
I. Choose the correct answer
1. Suitable method to separate lighter impurities from a mixture
a) winnowing
b) handpicking
c) evaporation
d) magnetic separation
2. In a mixture, solids of different size can be separated by
a) magnetic separation
b) winnowing
c) sieving d) evaporation
3. The method used to separate the seeds from the fruit juice is
a) filtration
b) sieving
c) crystallization
d) winnowing
4.Separation of common salt from the sea water is by
a) sieving b) evaporation
c) magnetic separation
d) winnowing
5. The method used to separate substances differing in colour, size and
shape from a solid mixture
a) magnetic separation
b) decantation
c) handpicking d) sieving
II. Encircle the odd one and give reason:
1. handpicking, evaporation, winnowing, sieving
2. filtration, sedimentation ,decantation, condensation
66
Separation of Substances
67
SCIENCE
Unit 2
9. Can we separate tiny white stones from 100kg of rice by the method of
hand picking? Give reason for your answer.
Filtration
Separation
of dissolved
solids from
liquids
Separation
of insoluble
solids from
liquids
Separation of
substances
Separation of
solid mixture
Sieving
VII. Spot out the different methods of separation in this word puzzle
P
Q
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68
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Separation of Substances
Sowing
Cooking
Ploughing
Thrashing
Winnowing
Handpicking
Eating
Harvesting
1. _____________________________
2. _____________________________
3. _____________________________
4. _____________________________
5. _____________________________
6. _____________________________
7. _____________________________
8. _____________________________
Projects:
1. L
ist the various methods of separation used in our daytoday life. Describe
the method and places they are used in. Mention their significance.
2. Discuss in groups how salt is obtained from sea water. Collect relevant
pictures and stick them in your scrapbook. Find out the places of salt pans
in Tamil Nadu.
.
Further reference
Web sites:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/separation_process
http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761574279_2/evaporation.html.
69
SCIENCE
VIII. Observe the pictures given and arrange them in proper order based on
the activities given in them. Encircle the methods of separation found in
them.
Unit 3
Types of Energy
70
((
Few students rode a bicycle to
reach.
((
Some took a bus to reach the
building.
Some students used the lift to reach
the terrace while others climbed the
stairs.
In each case different types of
energy were used. Before we discuss
the different types of energy, let us
learn what energy is.
Types Of Energy
In the given pictures, we see people involved in various activities and the
machines used by them.
We need energy to perform activities like running, walking, cycling, climbing
and jumping. When we are tired and hungry we lack energy to do our work.How
do they perform these activities? Don't they need energy to do these activities?
Where does this energy come from? We get energy from the food we eat.
The bus and the boat get energy to run from fuel while a parachute uses
wind energy and gravitation. Have you seen ants and bees working busily?
They need energy to do work and they get the energy from the food they eat.
SCIENCE
Activity
Activity1
1(Teacher)
We Observe
Take a pinch of baking soda in a small bottle and add a few drops of
lime juice or vinegar. Close the bottle loosely with a cork. What do you see?
What happens to the cork after sometime?
We see bubbles in the bottle and the cork is ejected from the mouth of the
bottle. Why does this happen? It is because of the bubbles which indicate that
a gas has evolved. The gas pushes the cork out.
71
Unit 3
Activity 2
I Do
List out a few sources from which we get energy to carry out our daily
activities?
My list
Sl.No
Activity
Required energy
1
To dry clothes
To run a bus
3
4
I have inferred
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
From the above activity, we learn
that energy is defined as the capacity
or ability to do work. The unit of energy
is joule.
stretched
rubber band
compressed
spring
1. Mechanical energy:
Mechanical energy is the energy
possessed by an object due to its
movement or position. There are
two types of mechanical energy.
i) potential energy ii) Kinetic energy.
i) Potential energy: Water stored in
a dam, a rock on top of a mountain
and water stored in a tank possess
potential energy due to its position.
Similarly things like a compressed
spring or a stretched rubber band
72
Types Of Energy
Mechanical energy
Potential
and
kinetic
energy
are
inter
convertible.
In hydroelectric power stations this
property is used to generate electricity.
When water is stored in a dam the
stored water has potential energy.
When this water is allowed to flow
down, it changes into kinetic energy.
This kinetic energy of water is used
to rotate the turbines and generate
electricity.
Uses:
2. Chemical energy
i)
Mechanical energy can bring
a moving body to rest or can make
a body at rest move.
ii) Using wind energy we can generate
electricity through wind mills.
The energy released during
a chemical reaction is called chemical
energy. For example, chemical energy
is released due to the chemical
reaction that takes place when wood,
charcoal, petrol etc., are burnt.
SCIENCE
Chemical energy
"Heat is a form of
energy"  James Joule.
The unit of energy (joule)
is named after him.
73
Unit 3
Uses:
1. The chemical energy stored in the
food of plants and animals is used
for their growth and function.
2. A battery or a cell converts chemical
energy into electrical energy.
3.While using fuels, chemical energy
is converted into heat energy and
light energy.
3. Electrical energy
Do you know why a fan rotates or
an electric bulb glows when we switch
them on? In an electric bulb, electrical
energy is converted into light energy
and in an electric fan, electrical energy
is converted into mechanical energy.
In a wind mill, the wind energy (kinetic
energy) is converted into electrical
energy.
Uses:
1. In industries, electrical energy is
used to operate machines and is
also used in telecommunication.
2. In cities, electrical energy is used
to run electric trains.
Electrical energy
Heat energy
4. Heat energy
Activity 3
We Observe
Types Of Energy
Uses:
1. We get rain due to the evaporation
of water from water bodies due to
the heat energy from the sun.
2. In a thermal power station electricity
is generated from the heat energy
obtained by burning coal.
3.
In an electric stove, electric iron
etc., electrical energy is converted
into heat energy.
5. Solar energy
The energy obtained from the sun
is called solar energy. What are the
types of energy obtained directly from
the sun? Can you list that?
Uses:
3.
Solar energy is used to operate
solar vehicles.
Activity 4
We Do
SCIENCE
Do you know?
ln 212 BC, Archimedes the Greek
scientist, used magnifying glasses
to burn Roman warships with solar
energy.
Unit 3
76
5.
During
photosynthesis
plants
convert light energy from the sun
into chemical energy and store it.
6.
In electric bells and horns of
automobiles electrical energy is
converted into sound energy.
7. In a torch light, the chemical energy
of the cell is first converted into
electrical energy and then into light
energy.
From the above examples, we
learn that one type of energy can be
converted into another type of energy.
We have learnt that when one type
of energy is used, an equal amount
of another energy is released.Thus
in any conversion of energy the total
amount of energy will not change.
Therefore, we say that energy can
neither be created nor destroyed, but
can be transformed from one form
into another. This is called the Law of
Conservation of Energy.
Types Of Energy
Moreover
in any conversion of energy the total amount of energy
will
not be
Activity
5
We
Do
changed.
We discuss in small groups the various uses of solar energy in our daily
life and list them out.
My list
1. To get salt from sea water 2. For rain
3. ____________________
4 . ___________________
5 . ____________________
6. ___________________
Activity
Activity6
6
We Do
Activity 7
We Do
77
SCIENCE
Unit 3
We answer
Shall we discuss and answer the following questions related to this event?
Our answers
1 . ___________________________________________________
2 . ___________________________________________________
3 . ___________________________________________________
4 . ___________________________________________________
5 . ___________________________________________________
6 . ___________________________________________________
We have learnt
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
Evaluation
I. Choose the correct answer :
1. Energy required to dry clothes quickly ______
a) solar energy
b) sound energy
c) kinetic energy
d) potential energy
b) James Joule
d) Galileo
b) industry
c) bicycle
d) parachute
b) chemical energy
c) electrical energy
d) sound energy
78
Types Of Energy
b) sound energy
c) mechanical energy
d) solar energy
: Electrical energy
Solar cooker
: ______________
: ______________
: potential energy
2) charcoal
3) water in a lake
4) solar cell
5) waterfalls
6) compressed spring
7) fuel
8) moving cloud
9) firewood
79
SCIENCE
To run vehicles
Unit 3
VI. Find out the change in energy that takes place in the following
1. Torchlight
_________
_________
Radio _________
2.
_________
3. Iron (box)
_________
_________
4. Generator
_________
_________
2. ______________
3. ______________
3. What type of energy is stored in the abject shown in the pictures given
below? In which way this energy is useful to us?
Diesel can
Gas cylinder
(1)
(2)
Plant
(3)
1.__________________________________________________
2.__________________________________________________
3.__________________________________________________
4. We know that water stored in dams like Mettur, Bhavanisagar etc is used
to generate electricity. List the conversion of energy in the hydro electric
power stations.
80
Types Of Energy
5. Observe the given pictures below and write down the energy possessed
by the stone at each level.
a stone is thrown upwards....
energy stored
in the muscles
the stone at
a particular
height
stone moves
up
Chemical energy
_________
_________
_________
Heat energy
Name of the
gadget
Electric bulb
Change in energy
Electric energy into light
energy
Uses
to get light
SCIENCE
2.
3.
4.
5.
FURTHER REFERENCE
Websites
http://www.tutorvista.com
http://www.arvindguptatoys.com
http://www.wikipedia.org
81
Date
Lesson
No.
Topic of the
Lesson
82
Activities
Remarks