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STANDARD SIX
TERM II
VOLUME 2

MATHEMATICS
SCIENCE
SOCIAL SCIENCE

## Untouchability is Inhuman and a Crime

A Publication Under
Free Textbook Programme of

## Department of School Education

First Edition
- 2012
Revised Edition - 2013
- 2014
Reprint
(Published under Uniform System of School Education Scheme in Trimester Pattern)

## State Council of Educational Research and Training

College Road, Chennai - 600 006.

Textbook Printing

Price : Rs.

## Printed by Web Offset at :

Textbook available at

www.textbooksonline.tn.nic.in

ii

CONTENTS
UNIT

TOPIC
MATHEMATICS

PAGE No.

(1 - 44)

Everyday Arithmetic
1.

Algebra
2.

## Constants, Variables and Expressions

16

Measurements
3.

Measures of Time

23

Geometry
4.

Angles

34
Practical Geometry

5.

## Constructing and Measuring Angles

40

42

SCIENCE

(45 - 82)

Biology
1.

Cell Structure

47

Chemistry
2.

Separation of Subtances

59

Physics
3.

Types of Energy

iii

70

UNIT

TOPIC

PAGE No.

SOCIAL SCIENCE

(83 - 112)

Civics
1.

84

2.

Republic

87
Geography

1.

91

History
1.

2.

## Jainism and Buddhism

iv

99
105

MATHEMATICS
STANDARD SIX
TERM II

Chapter 1

1. EVERYDAY ARITHMETIC

## Ratio, Proportion and Direct Variation

In this chapter we are going to learn about arithmetical concepts like ratio,
proportion and variation which we consciously or unknowingly use in our daily
activities.

1.1 Introduction
We buy a pen say for 10 rupees and a pencil for 2 rupees. We say that the cost
of a pen is 5 times the cost of a pencil.
Divya is 5 years old while her sister is ten years old. Her sisters age is 2 times
that of divya or divya s age is 1 th the age of her sister.
2

In the above cases we are comparing 2 quantities of the same kind (i.e.,) cost
in rupees and age in years respectively. The comparison of 2 quantities of the same
kind by means of division is termed as Ratio.
1.2 Ratio

a is to b

## The ratio is represented by the symbol :

a and b are called as the terms of the ratio. a is called as the antecedent and
b is called as the consequent

The ratio is represented in numbers and it does not have any unit.

## For example : there are 15 boys and 12 girls in a class.

The ratio of boys to girls is 15 : 12 while the ratio of girls to boys is 12 : 15.

When two quantities a and b are compared they must be in the same unit .
For example: If a = 1m 20 cm and b = 90 cm then a must be written as 120 cm
and b = 90 cm
and the ratio a : b is 120 : 90
2

Everyday Arithmetic
Example : 1
The following table gives us information about Ishwarya and krithika.
S.No.

Information

Ishwarya

krithika

1.

Age

17 years

15 years

2.

Height

1 m 36 cm

123 cm

3.

Weight

31 kg

29 kg

4.

Studying Time

4 hours

180 min

5.

Speed of cycling

10 km/hr

15 km/hr

6.

Playing Time

2 hours

1 hour

From the table we compare the ratios of the same kind and write the ratios as
1. The ratio of the age of Ishwarya to the age of Krithika is 17 : 15
2. The ratio of the age of Krithika to the age of Ishwarya is 15: 17
3. The ratio of the weight of krithika to Ishwarya is 29 : 31
4. The raio of studying time of Ishwarya to Krithika is 4 : 3
From the above table we see that the playing time of krithika is half of that of
Ishwarya.
We write the ratio of playing time of krithika to that of Ishwarya as 1 : 2 or
it can be expressed as a fraction 1 .
2

If the terms of a ratio have common factors we can reduce it to its lowest
terms by cancelling the common factors.
For example from the table the ratio of speed of cycling of Ishwarya to Krithika
is 10 :15 .
The common factor is 5 and we can re write it as 2 : 3
Example : 2
S.No.

Quantity

Ratio form

Fraction
form

Reduced
form

15 : 10

15
10

3:2

1.

2.

## Ratio of 500 gm and 1 kg

500 : 1000

500
1000

1:2

3.

Ratio of 1 m 25 cm and 2m

125 : 200

125
200

5:8

MATHEMATICS

Chapter 1

Example : 3
1. A student has 11 note books and 7 textbooks. Find the ratio of the notebooks
to that of the text books.
Solution :
Number of note books
= 11

Number of text books
= 7

Ratio of the notebooks to the text books
= 11 : 7

Example : 4
The cost of a pen is `8 and the cost of a pencil is `2.50

S.No.

Quantity

Ratio
form

Fraction Reduced
form
form

1.

800 : 250

800
250

16 : 5

2.

## Ratio of the cost of pencil to that of a pen

250 : 800

250
800

5 : 16

Example : 5
In a Village of 10,000 people, 4,000 are Government Employees and the remaining
are self-employed. Find the ratio of
i) Government employees to people of the village.
ii) Self employed to people of the village.
iii) Government employees to self-employed.
Solution :
Number of people in the village
= 10,000
Number of Government employees = 4,000
` Self employed
S.No.

Quantity

## 10,000 4,000 = 6,000

Ratio form

Fraction
form

Lowest
form of
the Ratio

1.

Government employees to
people of the village.

4000 : 10000

4000
10000

2:5

2.

village.

6000 : 10000

6000
10000

3:5

3.

## Government employees to self

employed.

4000 : 6000

4000
6000

2:3

Everyday Arithmetic
Do These
1. Express the following ratios in the lowest form:
(i) 3:5 (ii) 15:25
(iii) 22:55 (iv) 24:48
2. Express the following ratios in the lowest form:
(i) 1kg to 500g
(ii) 24cm to 4m
(iv) 45min to 2hrs
(v) 30paise to `3

## (iii) 250ml to 3litres

(vi) 70students to 2teachers

3. Sundar is 50 years old, his son is 10 years old. Write down the ratio between their
ages.
(i) 5 years ago
(ii) At present
(iii) After 5 years
4. Match the following ratios:
Column A Column B

3:4

5:15

1:3

9:12

4:5

20:30

2:7

14:49

2:3

12:15

## 1.3 Equivalent Ratios

Let us divide an apple into 8 equal parts and share it between Raja and Vinod in
the ratio 2: 6
The ratio 2 : 6 can be written as 2 ; 2 = 1 . We know that 2 and 1 are called as
6

## equivalent fractions. Similarly we call the ratios 2: 6 and 1: 3 as equivalent ratios.

From a given ratio a : b , we can get equivalent ratios by multiplying the terms a
and b by the same non-zero number.
For example
1: 2 = 2 : 4 = 3: 6
3: 5 = 9 : 15 = 12: 20

Solution :
Given ratio = 5 : 7
The ratio in fractional form = 5

7
5
The equivalent fractions of are 10 , 15 , 20 , 25 , 55
7
14 21 28 35 77
` The equivalent ratios of 5 : 7 are 10 : 14, 15 : 21, 20 : 28, 25 : 35 and 55 : 77
5

MATHEMATICS

Example : 6
Write any 5 equivalent ratios for 5 : 7

Chapter 1
Exercise : 1.1
1) Say whether the following are true or false

i) The ratios of 4 pens to 6 pens is 4 : 6

ii) In a class of 50 students, the ratio between 30 girls and 20 boys is 20 : 30

iii) 3 : 2 and 2 : 3 are equivalent ratios

iv) 10 : 14 is a equivalent ratio of 5 : 2
2) Choose the correct answer :

i) The fractional form of 3 : 4 is ________
(1) 4 (2) 3 (3) 1
3

(4) 3.4

ii) The equivalent ratio of 7 : 8 is ________
(1) 14 : 16 (2) 8 : 9 (3) 6 : 7
(4) 8 : 7

iii) Simplified form of 16 : 32 ________
(1) 16 (2) 32 (3) 1:2
(4) 2:1
32
16

iv) If 2 : 3, 4 : _ are equivalent ratios, then the missing term is
(1) 2 (2) 3 (3) 4
(4) 6

v) The ratio of 1 cm to 2mm is
(1) 1:20 (2) 20:1 (3) 10:2
(4) 2:10
3) Simplify the following ratios :
(i) 20:45 (ii) 100:180 (iii) 144:216
4) Write 4 equivalent ratios for the following :
(i) 3:5 (ii) 3:7 (iii) 5:9
5) Write the ratio of the following and simplify :

(i) The ratio of 81 to 108 (ii) The ratio of 30 minutes to 1 hour and 30 minutes

(iii) The ratio of 60 cm to 1.2 m.
6)

7)

8)

Seemas monthly income is `20,000 and her savings is `500. Find the ratio of
i) the monthly income to the savings
ii) the monthly income to the expenses
iii) savings to the expenses.
Out of 50 students in a class, 30 are boys. Find the ratio of
i) Boys to the total number of students
ii) Girls to the total number of students
iii) Boys to the Girls
From the given figure, find the ratio of
i) Number of triangles to Number of circles
ii) Number of circles to Number of squares
iii) Number of triangles to Number of squares
iv) Number of circles to total number of figures
v) Number of triangles to total number of figures
vi) Number of squares to total number of figures
6

Everyday Arithmetic

9)

## Length and breadth of a rectangular field are 50 m and 15 m respectively.

Find the ratio of the length to the breadth of the field.

10) Out of 30 students in a class, 6 like football, 12 like cricket and remaining
like tennis. Find the ratio of

## ii) Number of students liking cricket to number of students.

11) There are 102 teachers in a school of 3300 students. Find the ratio of the
number of teachers to the number of students.

## (Are theses equivalent

12) Fill in the following blanks : 15 =
= 10 =
18
6
30
ratios?)

## 1.4 Comparison of Ratios

Since we can express ratios as a fraction, so any given ratios can be
compared by the method used for fractions.
Let us recall when we had to compare fractions we converted the fractions to
have the same denominator.

Example : 7

## Compare 3:5 and 4:7

We have to compare 3 and 4

## The L.C.M of denominator 5 and 7 is 35.

3 = 3 # 7 = 21 4 = 4 # 5 = 20
5 5 7 35
21 is greater than 20
35
35
` 3 is greater than 4
5
7

35

## Divide `280 in the ratio 3:5

3:5 means the first quantity is 3 parts and the second quantity in 5 parts.

The Total number of parts = 3 + 5 = 8
Parts
Amount

8 parts = `280
8
280
` 1part = 280 =35
3
?
8
Rs.
105
105

` 3 parts = 3 # 35 = `
5
?

and 5 parts =5 # 35 = `175
7

MATHEMATICS

Example : 8

Chapter 1
Example : 9

The length and breadth of a rectangle are in the ratio 4:7. If the breadth is
77cm, find the length?

Parts Measurements
The ratio of length to breadth is 4:7
7
77

1
?

7parts = 77cm
4
?
77

1part =
cm = 11cm
7

length = 4 parts

4parts = 4 # 11 cm = 44cm
` Length of the rectangle = 44cm.
Example : 10
In a village of 1,21,000 people, the ratio of men to women is 6 : 5
Find the number of men and women?
Solution : Number of people in the village = 1,21,000

Ratio of men to women
=6:5

Total number of parts
= 6 + 5 = 11
11 parts = 1,21,000
` 1 part =

1, 21, 000
= 11, 000
11

## ` Number of men in the village

= 6 # 11,000 = 66,000

Parts
11
6
5

No. of people
121000
?
?

## ` Number of women in the village = 5 # 11,000 = 55,000

Exercise 1.2
1.

Which is greater (i) 2:3 (or) 3:4 (ii) 4:5 (or) 5:7

2.

Which is smaller (i) 3:4 (or) 4:5 (ii) 3:7 (or) 7:9

3.

4.

## (i) Divide `400 in the ratio 3:5

(ii) Divide 5kg 500gm in the ratio 5:6
(iii) Divide 2m 25cm in the ratio 5:4
(iv) Divide 5hours in the ratio 1:5
If `6,600 is divided between Arun and Anand in the ratio 6:5, who will
get more and how much more?
The length and breadth of a rectangle are in the ratio 7:2. If the length is

5.

Everyday Arithmetic
6.

## The ratio of expenditure and savings in a family is 5:3. If the expenditure

is `3,500. What is the savings?

7.

Rahim and Bhashir decides to share the gift money of competition in the
ratio 7 : 8. If they receive `7,500. Find the share of each.
There are 1,00,000 voters in the city. If the ratio of male to female voters is
11 : 9, find the number of men and women voters in the city.

8.

1.5 Proportion
When two ratios expressed in its simplest form are equal they are said to be in
proportion.
Proportion is represented by the symbol = or ::
If the ratio a: b is equal to the ratio c : d then a,b,c,d are said to be in proportion.

## Using symbols we write as a: b = c: d or a: b :: c: d

Example : 11

1. Show that the ratios (i) 2 : 3, 8 : 12, (ii) 25 : 45, 35 : 63 are in proportion.
Solution :

Ratio form

Fraction form

Simplified form

i)

2:3

2:3

8:12

2
3
8 = 2
12 3

25 = 5
45 9
35 = 5
63 9

5:9

ii)

25:45

35:63

2:3

5:9

## Note : In the above example (ii), multiply 45 by 35 and 25 by 63

We get 25 # 63 = 45 # 35 = 1575

## If a : b and c : d are in proportion then a # d = b # c

In a proportion, the product of extremes is equal to the product of means.

Example : 12
Show that 12 : 9, 4 : 3 are in proportion.

Solution : The product of the extremes = 12 # 3 = 36

The product of the means
= 9 # 4 = 36
` 12 : 9, 4 : 3 are in proportion

(i.e.) 12 : 9 :: 4 : 3
9

MATHEMATICS

## The proportion is written as a : b :: c : d

Chapter 1
Example : 13
Find the missing term in 3 : 4 = 12 : ____
Solution :

Example : 14

## Given 3 and 12 are means

So, __:3 = 12 : __

` 2:3=12:18

4:3=12:9

Do These

## 1. Using 4 and 20 as means, write two proportions.

2. Using 6 and 15 as means, write two proportions.
Example : 15

If the cost of a book is `12, find the ratio of 2, 5, 7 books to their cost.
What do you observe from this?

No. of
books

Total Cost

Ratio

Fraction
form

Simplified
form

2 # 12 = 24

2 : 24

2
24

1 : 12

5 # 12 = 60

5 : 60

5
60

1 : 12

7 # 12 = 84

7 : 84

7
84

1 : 12

From the above table, we find that the ratio of the number of books to the cost of
books are in proportion.
10

Everyday Arithmetic
1.6 Direct Variation

Two quantities are said to be in direct variation if an increase (or decrease) in one
quantity results in increase (or decrease) in the other quantity. (i.e.) If two quantities
vary always in the same ratio then they are in direct variation.
Example : 16
Shabhana takes 2 hours to travel 35 km. How much distance she will travel in 6
hours?
Solution : When time increases the distance also increases.

2 : 6 = 35 :

Time (hrs)
Time (hrs)
2
2
6
6

Distance (km)
Distance (km)
35
35
?
?

## Shabana has travelled 105 km in 6 hours.

Example : 17
The cost of uniforms for twelve students is `3,000. How many students
can get uniform for `1250.
Solution :
No. of students

12
?

3,000
1,250

## They are in direct variation

12 : = 3000 : 1250

3000

Numbers of books
Cost `

10
25

8
20

20
50

4
10

8
20

10
25

20
50

## Arrange the data in ascending order.

Numbers of books
Cost `

4
10
11

MATHEMATICS

Example : 18

Chapter 1
Here the ratios are 4 = 2 , 8 = 2 , 10 = 2 , 20 = 2

10

5 20 5 25 5 50
` 4 = 8 = 10 = 20
10 20 25 25

## Here all the ratios are equal.

` They are in direct variation.
Exercise : 1.3
1) State whether the following ratios are in proportion.

i)

1:5

and

ii) 2:7

and

iii) 2:9

and

v) 30:40 and

(4) 40

## (1) `5 (2) `10 (3) `15 (4) `20

iv) If 5,6,10 _____ form a proportion (in the same order), the missing term is
(1) 60 (2) 50 (3) 30
(4) 12

(4) 40, 60

i)

## Time (in hrs)

Distance (in kms)

2
80

ii)

Weight (in kg)

2
3.5

6
10.75

4
15

8
23

300
18

450
27

250
15

600
36

## iii) Principal (in `)

Interest (in `)

5
200

12

4
160

3
120

Everyday Arithmetic
4) Complete the table if they are in direct variation.
i)
8
10
15
4
2
16
ii)

5
-

28

12
48

15
-

10
-

iii)

45

20
-

60

15
-

10
15

5) Sarath buys 9 cricket bats for `1,350. How much will Manoj spend to buy
13 cricket bats at the same rate.
6) If a person reads 20 pages from a book in 2 hours, how many pages will he
read in 8 hours at the same speed?
7) If 15 people can repair a road of length 150 metres, how many people are
needed to repair a road of length 420 metres.
8) The rent for a room for 2 months is `9200 what will be the rent for one year
for that room.
9) The cost of 15 chairs is `7500. Find the numbers of such chairs that can be
purchased for `12,000?
10) The cost of 10 kg rice is `400. Find the cost of 3 kg rice?
11) A car needs 12 litres of petrol to cover a distance of 156 km

How much petrol will be required for the car to cover a distance of 1300 km?

## 1.7 Proportion - Application.

Take your atlas and look at the map of India showing railway route or
look at the road map of Chennai. We see that in the corner of the map it is written
scale : 1 cm = 200 km. What does this mean? It means if the distance between
Chennai and Delhi is say 11 cm the actual distance between the two cities is 11 x
200 = 2200 km.

We see that Ratio and proportion have a number of applications. you can
find many more examples of applications of ratio and proportion. Try to find a
few more.
13

MATHEMATICS

You would have seen models of cars , aircrafts, houses etc. We see that
their dimensions have been suitably reduced and they look exactly like the actual
cars or aircrafts or buildings. How are the dimensions of these models calculated?

Chapter 1

Let the actual length of a rectangular garden be a metres. and let b be
the length of the garden in a diagram. Then ratio between the actual length and
the length in the diagram be a : b
Example : 19
A map is drawn to the scale of 1cm to 200km.

## (i) What is the representive fraction.

(ii) If the distance between Nellai and Chennai is 3cm on this map, what is the
actual distance between the two places?

Note the drawn length and the actual length are not in the same unit.

## (i) The representive fraction =

(ii) The distance between Nellai and Chennai (on the map) = 3 cm

[ a 1km = 100000cm]

= 2,00,00,000cm
1
20000000

## The actual distance between Nellai and Chennai = 3 # 200 = 600 km

Exercise 1.4
1. A map is drawn in the scale 1cm to 1000km

## c) What distance on the map will represent an actual distance of 2100km?

2. A scale used in a map is 1cm to 500m.

## iii)What distance on the map will represent an actual length of 2500m?

3. Fill in the blanks .
i)
ii)
iii)

Scale
1 cm = 200m
1 cm = 250m
1 cm =_____m

Actual Length
1750m
3700m

Drawn Length
4cm
5cm

4. The scale of a graph is 1 cm = 200 km. (The distance 1 cm in the graph denotes
200 km in actual length). What would be the length of 3600 km on the graph?
14

Everyday Arithmetic
Activity
,, Draw a rough sketch of a rectangular field of length 400m and breadth 250m
by taking a suitable scale.
,,

## Look at the India map showing railway routes.

Note the scale on the map and find the actual distance between
1. Chennai and Calcutta 2. Chennai and Mumbai 3. Chennai and Delhi

Project
,, Collect recipes of 2 dishes and find out how you can use them to explain
ratio and proportion.
,,

ollect information about the height ,weight, study hours and play time of
C

,,

ollect data regarding number of students in your school and in your class ,
C
number of boys and girls in your class and in your school. Find out as many
ratios as possible from your data.

Points to remember
The comparison of two quantities of the same kind is called a ratio.
When the terms of ratio are multiplied by the same number, we get
equivalent ratios.
The equality of two ratios is called a proportion.
In a proportion, the product of extremes = product of means.

MATHEMATICS

If two quantities vary in the same ratio, then they are in direct variation.

15

Chapter 2

2. ALGEBRA

## Constants, Variables and Expressions

2.1 Introduction
We have so far dealt with numbers and shapes. We have learnt the fundamental
operations on numbers and have learnt to apply them in real life situations. The study
of numbers, their operations, properties and application is a branch of mathematics
called Arithmetic. In this chapter we are going to start learning about another branch
of mathematics called Algebra. It is an interesting branch of mathematics and one
which provides us with a powerful tool to solve puzzles and problems that occur in
science and social sciences.
Let us have a small game on numbers and learn to identify patterns .
The class may be divided into small groups and each group is asked to think of
a 2 digit number. Then the groups execute the following steps.
Step 1 : Multiply the two digit number by 2.
Step 2 : Add 4 to the result
Step 3 : Multiply the result by 5
Step 4: then subtract 20 from the result

Check
1. 38 # 2 = 76
2. 76 + 4 = 80
3. 80 # 5 = 400
4. 400 20 = 380

## Step 5: divide the result by 10.

All the groups will find that the final result they get is the same number they
Let all the groups compare the number they get in step 4 .
For example if there are 5 groups and the result they get are 230, 420, 380,
370,180.
They should observe the pattern that had resulted and should be able to conclude
that the result in the fourth step is always the product of the number they had taken
and 10.
16

Algebra

Do it Yourself
Think of a 3 digit number (All the three digits should not be same).

## Subtract the smaller number from the larger number.

Keep repeating the step till you get the same number in 2 succesive steps.

## The constant number you get is called as Kaprekar constant.

Exercise : 2.1
1) Find the missing number in the sequence. 5, 10, 15, _, 25, 30.
(i) 20 (ii) 2 (iii) 22

(iv) 23

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)
3.
First number
Second number

2
20

3 4 5 6
30 40 50 60

## (iv) Second number = 10 # first number.

17

MATHEMATICS

1
10

Chapter 2
2.2 Introduction of constants and variables through patterns

Latha made the following triangular patterns with the match sticks she had.

1.

To find out the total match sticks used for the above formation she prepared

2.

3.

4.

## the following table.

Numbers of
triangles
Number of match
sticks used.

....

12

....

3 # 1 3 # 2 3 # 3 3 # 4 ....

From the table we observe that the number of match sticks required changes

with the number of triangles formed.In each case the value of the number of
matchsticks is dependent on the number of triangles. If we represent the number of
triangles by the letter x we can write the relation as

## Number of matchsticks required = 3 x x which is written as 3x

The above relation is a rule to find the number of matchsticks when x takes

values 1,2,3 .
x is an example of a variable.
When x = 2, number of matchsticks = 3 2 = 6
When x = 3 , number of match sticks = 3 3 = 9.

## Hence if we need to know the number of matchsticks needed to form say 15

triangles, we need not draw the pattern or a table. We can take x = 15. Then number
of matchsticks = 3 15 = 45.

## Therefore the quantity that takes different numerical values is called a

variable. variable does not have a fixed value , its value keeps changing.

## We represent variables using small case letters of the alphabet, ,b,c

x,y,z.

18

Algebra

From the pattern on triangles we see that the number of match sticks used to

## form a triangle remains same irrespective of the number of triangles formed.

Such a quantity which takes a fixed numerical value is called a constant.
Example : 1

1.

2. 3.

4.

Number of E
formation
Number of
match sticks
used

5.

....

10

15

20

25

....

5 #1

5 #2

5 #3 5 #4

5 #5

## Law obtained from the above table.

Number of match sticks used = 5 # (Number of E formation)
Number of E formation is denoted as the variable x.

Note :
Step 4 of the game at the beginning can now be written as
Result = 10 y where y is the 2 digit number initially taken.

19

MATHEMATICS

## Therefore, number of match sticks used = (5 # x ) = 5 x

Chapter 2
Example : 2
Look at the pattern of the Asoka tree given. The base is always formed with
two match sticks. The top portion of the tree differs in multiples of 3.

Number of
top portions

Number of
3
6
9
12
15
match sticks
needed for
the top
3#2
3#3
3#4
3#5
3#1
portion
Number of
match sticks
2
2
2
2
2
needed for
the base
Total
number
(3 # 1) + 2 (3 # 2) + 2 (3 # 3) + 2 (3 # 4) + 2 (3 # 5) + 2
of match
sticks used

....
....
....

....

## Number of match sticks used = ( 3 # Number of top portions) + Number of

match sticks used for the base
If the number of triangular formations is denoted as the variable x,
Number of match sticks used = (3 # x) + 2 = 3x + 2

20

Algebra
Exercise 2.2

a)
First
number
Second
number

16

26

36

46

56

66

10

20

30

40

50

60

Choose the law in which the above pairs are based on?
i) Second number = first number + 6
ii) Second number = first number 6
iii) Second number = first number ' 6
iv) Second number = first number # 6

First number

Second number

10

11

12

13

Choose the law in which the above pairs are based on?

i) Second number = first number ' 8 ii) Second number = first number - 8

iii) Second number = first number + 8 iv) Second number = first number # 8

## 2. If a box contains 40 apples, the total number of apples depends on the

number of boxes given. Form an algebraic term (Consider the number of
boxes as x).

## 3. If there are 12 pencils in a bundle, the total number of pencils depends

on the number of boxes given . Form an algebraic term (Consider the
number of bundles as b).

21

MATHEMATICS

b)

Chapter 2

4.

## From the following patterns given below, form an algebraic term.

i)

ii)

iii)

Project

,,

Make one square, two squares, three squares ... ten squares using match sticks
and listout how many match sticks are required for each squares.

Points to remember
variable denotes the quantity that can take different numerical value.
A
The result changes in a rule when the variable changes its value.
Variables are denoted by small letters a, b, c, ... x, y, z...
Expressions can be related using variables.
In arithmetic and geometry, formulae are obtained using variables.

22

Measurements

3. MEASUREMENTS
Measures of Time

Introduction

The measurement of time began when people started to observe that certain
events like rising and setting of sun, change of seasons, waxing and waning of the
moon etc. happened at regular intervals. You have learnt in your geography lessons
that the earth rotates about its axis and this rotation causes day and night. This regular
change was most obvious and was observed by astronomers. This led to the invention
of variety of devices to measure the duration of events and the intervals between
them based on the regular changes. The time interval between successive rising of
the sun was called a day.
Study of devices measuring time is called horology

Variety of devices have been designed to measure time from early civilisations.
Egyptians and Indians have used shadow clock and water clock, Chinese have used
rope clocks and oil clocks, and Europeans have used oil, candle and sand clock. In
course of time more clocks to measure time accurately have been invented.

Rope Clock

Water Clock

Sand Clock

The division of the day into 24 hours, an hour into 60 minutes and a minute into 60
seconds, probably came from the Babylonians. They divided the circular path of the
sun across the day sky, into 12 equal parts, awarded the night cycle 12 hours and
concluded a 24 hour day.

## 3.1 Units of time

Second, minute, hour, day, week, month and year are all units of time. Let us
learn the relationship between the units.
23

MATHEMATICS

Chapter 3

1 minute
1 hour

1 day

60 seconds

= 60 seconds
= 60 minutes = 60 # 60 seconds
= 3600 seconds
= 24 hours = 1440 minutes (24 # 60)
= 86,400 seconds (24 # 60 # 60)

Example : 1
Convert 120 Seconds into minutes
Solution:
120 seconds = 120 # 1 = 120 = 2 minutes
60
60
120 seconds = 2 minutes

1 sec

= 1 minute

60 minutes

= 1 hour

1 minute

= 1 minute

60

= 1 hour

60

a 60 seconds = 1 minute
1 second = 1 minute
60

Example : 2
Convert 360 minutes into hours
60 minutes = 1 hour
Solution :
` 1 minute = 1 hour
360 minutes = 360 # 1 = 360/60 = 6 hours
60
60
360 minutes = 6 hours.
Example : 3
Convert 3 hours 45 minutes into minutes
Solution : 1 hour = 60 minutes
3 hours = 3 # 60 = 180 minutes
3 hours and 45 minutes = 180 minutes + 45 minutes
= 225 minutes.
Example : 4
Convert 5400 seconds into hours
Solution :
5400 Seconds = 5400 # 1 hour

## 3600 seconds = 1 hour

` 1 second =

3600
9 = 3 = 1 1 hours.

=
6
2
2
5400 seconds = 1 1 hours.
2

1 hour
3600

Do it yourself
1) Convert the duration of the lunch break into seconds.
2) Convert play time in the evening into hours.
Example : 5
Convert 2 hours 30 minutes 15 seconds into seconds.
Solution : 1 hour = 3600 seconds & 2 hours = 2 # 3600 = 7200 seconds
1 minute = 60 seconds & 30 minutes = 30 # 60 = 1800 seconds
2 hours 3 minutes 15 seconds = 7200 + 1800 +15 = 9015 seconds.
24

Measurements
We normally denote time from 12 mid-night to 12 noon as a.m. (Ante meridiem) and
the time from 12 noon to 12 mid-night is noted as p.m. (post meridiem).
Note : We denote 4 hours and 30 minutes as 4 : 30 (or) 4 . 30. Even though we are
using the decimal point it is not a usual decimal number.
9.00 hours in the
morning
is
denoted
as 9.00 a.m. and 4.30
hours in the evening is
denoted as 4.30 p.m.
Exercise 3.1
1. Fill in the blanks

i) 1 hour

-----------------minutes

ii) 24 hours

-----------------day

iii) 1 minute

-----------------seconds

i) 15 minutes

i) 8 hours

i) 525 minutes

25

MATHEMATICS

Chapter 3
Sl.No.

Train
Number

1.

2633

2.

2693

3.

6123

4.

2637

5.

6177

6.

2635

7.

2605

Name of the
Train
Kanyakumari
Express
Muthunagar
Express
Nellai
Express
Pandian
Express
Rock Fort
Express
Vaigai
Express
Pallavan
Express

Place of
Destination
Departure

Departure
Time

Arrival
Time

Egmore

Kanyakumari

17.25 hrs.

6.30 hrs.

Egmore

Tuticorin

19.45 hrs.

6.15 hrs.

Egmore

Nellai

19.00 hrs.

8.10 hrs.

Egmore

Junction

21.30 hrs.

6.15 hrs.

Egmore

Trichirappalli

22.30 hrs.

5.25 hrs.

Egmore

Egmore

Trichirappalli

## 15.30 hrs. 20.50 hrs.

We see that in the departure and arrival time we see time written as 21.30
hours, 17.25 hours etc. It is different from what we generally use like 5.30 a.m. or
5.30 p.m. The railways follow a 24 hour clock to avoid any confusion between am
and pm.

In a 24 hour clock, 12 o clock midnight is taken as zero hour. 1 o clock in the
afternoon will be 13 hours , 2 o clock as 14 hours ,.. and 11 o clock
as 23 hours.

In the following examples you will learn how to convert time in 12 hour
format to a 24 hour format and vice versa.
Example : 6
Convert the following into 24 hour format.
i) 8 a.m. ii) 12 noon
iii) 5.30 p.m.

i) In this case when the time is before noon the time is same in the 12 hour
and 24 hour format. ` 8 a.m. = 8.00 hours
ii) 12 noon = 12 hours
iii)
for time in the afternoon add 12 to the given time
` 5.30 pm will become 5.30 + 12 = 17.30 hours.
Example : 7
Convert the following into 12 hour format
i) 6.00 hours

## ii) 23.10 hours

26

iii) 24 hours

Measurements
i) If the number is less than 12 it will be taken as am and the time remains same

## ` 6.00 hours = 6 .00 a.m.

ii) If it is greater than 12, 12 will be subtracted from the given time and it will be
taken as p.m.
23.10 12 = 11.10 p.m.
iii) 24 hours = 24 12 = 12 midnight
Exercise 3.2
1. Express in 24 hour format.

## 3.3 Calculating time interval

Deepa said to her friend Jancy that she studied for 3 hours from 8.00 a.m. to
11.00 a.m. How did Deepa calculate the duration of time as 3 hours?
Example : 8
Find the duration of time from 4.00 a.m. to 4.00 p.m.
Solution :

4.00 pm = 4 + 12 = 16 hours.

4.00 am = 4 hours

## ` Duration of time interval = 16 4 = 12 hours

Example : 9
Cheran Express departs from Chennai at 22.10 hours and reaches Salem at 02.50
hours the next day. Find the jouney time.
Solution :

Arrival at Salem
= 02.50 hrs.

Departure time form Chennai = 22.10 hrs.

(previous day)

Journey time
= (24.00 22.10) + 2.50 = 1.50 + 2.50 = 4.40

` Journey time = 4 hours 40 minutes.
Example : 10
A boy went to school at 9.00 a.m. After school, he went to his friends house and
played. If he reached back home at 5.30 p.m. find the duration of time he spent out
of his house.
27

MATHEMATICS

Chapter 3
Solution :
Starting time from home
Duration between starting
time and 12.00 noon

= 9.00 a.m.

= 12.00 9.00
= 3.00 hours
Reaching time (home)
= 5.30 p.m
` Duration of time he spent out of his house = 3.00 + 5.30 = 8.30 hours.
Exercise 3.3

## 1. Calculate the duration of time

(i) from 3.30 a.m to 2.15 p.m.

## (ii) from 6.45 a.m. to 5.30 p.m.

2. Nellai Express departs from Tirunelvelli at 18.30 hours and reaches Chennai
Egmore at 06.10 hours. Find the running time of the train.
3. Sangavi starts from her uncles house at 10.00 hours and reaches her house at 1.15
p.m. What is the duration of time to reach her house?
3.4 Leap Year
Rama was celebrating his birth day happily. His friend Dilip was sitting aloof
at a corner. Rama asked Dilip why are you sad?. Dilip replied I cant invite you
every year for my birthday. When Rama asked why, Dilip said I can celebrate
my birth day only once in 4 years. Rama exclaimed why is that so?
Because my birthday falls on 29th February replied Dilip.
Satish asked 29 February! what are you talking Dilip? But February has only
28 days. Yes Satish, generally it is 28 days. But once in 4 years February has 29
days. We call that year as a leap year. There are 366 days in a leap year and 365 days
in an ordinary year Dilip said.
Why do we have an extra day in a leap year?
I dont know. Let us ask our teacher replied Dilip.
Both went to meet their teacher and expressed their doubt. The teacher explained
the reason as follows:
You know that the earth takes one year to make one complete revolution around
the sun and 365 days make 1 year. But in fact the earth takes 365.25 days to make one
revolution.
This extra 0.25 day x 4 gives one full day. This extra one day is added to the month
of February once in 4 years. Every year that has 366 days it is called a leap year. Therefore
in a leap year February will have 29 days.
28

Measurements
1day
1 week
1 year
1 year
1 leap year
10 years
100 years
1000 years

Know yourself
1. Which century are we in?
2. Which is a millennium year?

## How will you identify a leap year?

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

24 hours
7 days
12 months
365 days
366 days
1 century
1 millennium

A year which is divisible by 4 is a leap year. For example the years 1980, 2012,
and 2016 are all leap years.
100, 200 are divisible by 4. Are they leap years?

No. We have a second rule which states that years which are multiples of 100
though they are divisible by 4 have to be divisible by 400 then only the years will be
leap years.

100, 200, 300 are not leaping years while 1200, 1600, 2000 are all leap years.
Example : 11

(i) 1400

(ii) 1993

(iii) 2800

(iv) 2008

1400 ' 400 gives

## (iii) Divide 2800 by 400

2800 ' 400 gives Quotient = 7, Remainder = 0

` 2800 is leap year.
(iv) Divide 2008 by 4
2008 ' 4 gives Quotient = 502, Remainder = 0

` 2008 is leap year.
29

MATHEMATICS

## (ii) Divide 1993 by 4

Chapter 3
Example : 12
Find the number of days from 15th August to 27th October.
Solution :
Note :
There are 31 days in August.
Since it is given from 15th
Number of days in August = 31 14 = 17 days
August Substract 14 days
Number of days in September
= 30 days
(Prior to 15th) from 31 (The
Number of days in October
= 27 days
total number of days of the

Total = 74 days
month)
Example : 13
Convert 298 days into weeks.
Solution :

298 days = 298 weeks
7

` 298 days = 42 weeks and 4 days.

1 week = 7 days.
1 day = 1 week.
7

Example : 14
Find the number of days between 12th January 2004 and 7th March 2004.
Solution :

Find whether the given year is a leap year or not.
2004 ' 4

Quotient = 501, remainder = 0.

` 2004 is a leap year and has 29 days in February.
Number of days in January

= 3112 = 19 days

= 29 days

= 6 days

## Total Number of days

= 54 days

` Number of days between 12th January 2004 and 7th March 2004 are 54 days.

Exercise 3.4
1. Fill in the blanks.

## (v) 1 hour = _________ seconds.

30

Measurements
2. Which of the following are leap years?

(i) 1992

(ii) 1978

(iii) 2003

(iv) 1200

(v) 1997

3. Find the number of days from 4th January 1996 to 8th April 1996.
4. Find the number of days from 5th January 2001 to 28th April 2001.
5. Find the number of days between 26th February 2000 and 7th June 2000.
6. Find the number of days between 20th February 2004 and 27th May 2004.
7. Convert into weeks.

## (ii) 175 days

Example : 15

An office functions from 10 in the morning till 5.45 in the evening with a
lunch break in the afternoon from 12.45 to 1.30. If the office works for 6
days a week, find the total duration of working hours in a week.
Solution :

hrs.
min.

The closing time of the office =
17 45 5.45 p.m. = 17.45 hrs

The opening time of the office =
10 00
1.30 p.m. = 13.30 hrs.

----------Hrs. Min.

Time in between

=
07 45

Lunch break [13:30-12:45]
=
00 45 12 90
30

----------- 13
45

Working hours for 1 day
=
07 00 12

----------- 0
45

## ` Total working hours for 6 days = 7 # 6 hrs.

= 42 hrs.
` Total duration of working hours in a week = 42 hrs.

A clock is fast by 5 seconds per hour find the time that it will show at 4 p.m.
if it was adjusted to correct time at 6 a.m.
Solution :

## 4 p.m. = 16.00 hrs.

6 a.m . = 06.00 hrs.

----------Duration of time = 10.00 hrs.

----------31

MATHEMATICS

Example : 16

Chapter 3

## In 10 hrs, it runs fast by 10 # 5sec. = 50sec.

Hence, the clock will show 50sec more than the correct time at 4 p.m.
(i.e.) at 4 p.m., the clock will show 4 hrs 00 Min 50 sec in the afternoon.
Do These

1. A bank functions from 9 in the morning till 3.30 in the afternoon with a
lunch break in the afternoon from 12.30 to 1.15. If the bank works for 6
days in a week, find the total duration of working hours in a week.
2. A clock is slow by 6 seconds. per hour. If it was adjusted to correct time at
5.a.m. find the time the clock will show at 3.00.p.m.
Activity
,, List your daily routines in 24 hour timings and convert them into 12 hour
timings.

,,

Make them to find out the leap years between 1980 to 2012.

,,

Divide the class into different groups. Ask them to compare their ages and
find out the eldest. Compare all the groups and find the eldest and youngest
in the class.
Find out the years of your birthday and family members as ordinary year or
a leap year.

,,

Do These
1.

## Convert the following into seconds:

i)

2 minutes

sec

ii)

5 minutes 7 seconds =

sec

sec

sec

32

Measurements

2.

i)

30 seconds

min.

ii)

2.4 hrs

min.

min.

min.

3.

i)

90 minutes

hrs.

ii)

2.25 days

hrs.

hrs.

hrs.

4.

i)

Ans :

hrs.

mins.

ii)

Ans :

hrs.

mins.

Ans :

hrs.

mins.

## iv) 5.36 a.m. yesterday to 9.38 p.m. today.

Ans :

hrs.

mins.

Points to remember
Seconds, minutes, hours, day, week, month and year are the units of time.
12.00 midnight to 12.00 noon is forenoon.
12.00 noon to 12.00 midnight is afternoon.
railway timings.
An ordinary year has 365 days. But a leap year has 366 days.

33

MATHEMATICS

## 12 hours in forenoon and 12 hours in afternoon together gives 24 hours of

Chapter 4

4. GEOMETRY
Angles

4.1 Introduction

Mark a point O on a sheet of paper. From O
draw two rays OA, OB as shown in the figure.

In this figure both the rays start from a single point
O. An angle is formed at O. Two rays OA, OB are
called as arms (or sides) of the angle. The common
point O is called as the vertex of the angle. The angle
is represented by a small curve as shown in the figure 1.

The figure formed by two rays with the same
initial point is called an angle.

The angle shown in fig. 1 is represented as +AOB
or +BOA . We read it as angle AOB or angle BOA.
Vertex of the angle is always written in the middle.
Sometimes the angle is represented as +O .
We know that rays are named by two
points - one at its start and one on the remaining portion.
So, OA, OB represent the same ray. Likewise OC, OD
also represent the same ray. Therefore, the angles can
be represented by the following ways.

fig.2

## In fig.3, with O as the centre, OA rotates in the

anticlockwise direction and reaches OB .
The rotation made by the ray is called the measure of
that angle.
34

fig.3

Geometry
Right angle

## figure and unfold it. We get two intersecting

line segments. Name these as AB and CD.
These line segments make four angles at
the point of intersection O. We see that
the four angles

## The measure of the

angle at 3 o clock = 90o.

## Each of them is called a right angle.

Right angle measures 90o.

## In the fig. +XOY is a right angle

Straight angle

An angle whose measure is 180o is
called a striaght angle.
Measure of the angle
at 6 o clock = 180o.

An angle whose measure is greater than
0o but less than 90o is called an acute angle
Example : 2o, 10o, 37o, 80o, 89o.
Measure of the
angle at 11.55.
35

MATHEMATICS

Acute angle

Chapter 4
Obtuse angle

An angle whose measure is greater than 90o and less
than 180o is called an obtuse angle
Example : 91o, 96o, 142o, 160o, 178o.
Measure of the
angle at 8 o clock.
Zero angle
If both the rays coincide, the angle formed is 0o.

Measure of the
angle at 12 o clock.
The angle traced out by the minute hand in one hour or 60 minutes = 360 degree
Hence angle traced out by the minute hand in one minute = 360 = 6 degree
60

Let number of minutes = m then the rule for calculating the angle traced in
m minutes = 6m
If m = 5 minutes then angle traced by the minute hand in 5 minutes = 6 5 = 30
degree
Exercise 4.1
1. State whether the given angles are acute, right or obtuse angle.

(i) 45o

(ii) 138o

(iii) 100o

(iv) 175o

2. Classify the type of the angle formed by the hour hand and minute hand of a clock
for the following timings:

(i) 12.10

(ii) 4.00

(iii) 9.00

(iv) 7.45

## 3. Name the angles and write its kind.

(i)

(ii)

36

Geometry
Activity

1. Through how many degrees does the minute - hand turn in 15 minutes?

## 6. Give some examples for right angle from your environment?

4.2 Complementary angles and Supplementary angles
Complementary angles
In the figure given +AOB = 90c, we know that it is a
right angle. The other angles are
+AOC = 30c, +COB = 60c. Sum of +AOC and +COB

is 90o.
(i.e) 30o + 60o = 90o
30o and 60o are complementary angles.
If the sum of the measures of two angles is 90o then they
are called complementary angles.
For Example :

## The complement of 40o = 90o 40o = 50o

The complement of 66o = 90o 66o = 24o
The complement of 35o = 90o 35o = 55o
Supplementary angles
In the given figure the angle formed by AB with O is a
straight angle (ie) 180o.
Here +AOC = 50c, +COB = 130c.
Moreover the sum of these two is 180o.
(i.e.) 130o + 50o = 180o
130o and 50o are supplementary angles.
37

Example : 1

MATHEMATICS

## When a ladder is leaning on a wall, the angles made by

the ladder with the floor and the wall are always complementary.

Chapter 4
If the sum of measures of two angles is 180o then they
are called supplementary angles.
Example : The angles formed at the centre point of a
see-saw are always supplementary angles.
supplement of 40o = 180o 40o = 140o
supplement of 110o = 180o 110o = 70o

## supplement of 78o = 180o 78o = 102o

supplement of 66o = 180o 66o = 114o

Exercise 4.2
1. Find the complementary angles for the following.

(i) 37o

(ii) 42o

(iii) 88o

(iv) 0o

(iv) 16o

(iv) 104o

(v) 116o

+BOC = ______

## (i) Measure of a striaght angle is 180o.

(ii) If the sum of the measure of two angles is 90o, then they are called
complementary angles.

## (iii) Complement of 26o is 84o.

(iv) ;If the sum of the measures of two angles is 180o, then it is called a right
angle.

6.

## 7. Fill in the blanks

(i) Supplement of a right angle is ................

## (iv) Complement of an acute angle is ................

38

Geometry
Project
,,

Use paper folding method to form different angles and list them.

,,

## From your home or school environment identify different angles and

classify as acute, obtuse or right angle. For example angle formed at the
corner of a room = 90 degree.

,,

## Make a model of a clock and trace different angles of your choice.

Try These

1.

State the type of angle (acute, right, obtuse or straight) for the following:

2.

degrees

degrees

degrees

3.

a=

4.

x=

5.

degrees

degrees

degrees

6.

a=

7.

## x and y are supplementary angles. If x = 5y find the values of x and y.

x=

degrees
degrees

degrees, b =
degrees, y =

degrees
degrees

39

MATHEMATICS

degrees, y =

Chapter 5

5. PRACTICAL GEOMETRY

## Constructing and Measuring Angles

5.1 Constructing and Measuring Angles

We have studied the concept of an angle and the different kinds of angle in the
previous chapter. We shall now learn how to measure and draw the given angle.

The unit for measurement of an angle is degree and an angle is measured with
the help of the protractor.

Example : 1

## Construct an acute angle of 60o.

Sept 1 : Draw a line segment PA.
Sept 2 : (i) Place the protractor on the line
segment PA

## (ii) Place the mid point of the protractor

at point P as shown in the figure.

## Sept 3 : (i) On PA from the right start counting

from 0o in the ascending order
(anticlock wise direction and
finally mark a point Q using a
sharp pencil at the point showing
60o on the semi-circular edge of
the protractor.

## Construct an obtuse angle 125o

Follow the procedure given in example 1 for

step 1 and step 2
Sept 3 : (i) On PA from the right start counting from
0o in the ascending order (anticlock wise
direction ) and finally mark a point Q
using a sharp pencil at the point between
120o and 130o showing 120o on the semicircular edge of the protractor.

(ii) Remove the protractor and join PQ

(iii) We get the required angle m+APQ = 125c
40

Example : 2

Practical Geometry
Exercise 5.1
1. Draw and name the following angles.
(i) 65o
(ii) 35o
(iii) 110o
(iv) 155o
(v) 69o
2. Draw and measure the angle formed by the hour and minute hand of a clock at

## (i) 9 o clock (ii) 4 o clock (iii) 7 o clock (iv) 2 o clock

3. Measure and name the angles for the following figures.

## 4. From the given figure measure and

write m+ABC, m+BCD, m+CDE

## 5. Measure the following six angles

in the figure given below.
1. m+AOB
2. m+AOC
3. m+AOD
4. m+BOC
5. m+BOD
6. m+COD

Do These
1.
2.

## Draw different angles and measure them.

Draw angles for different measures as you like.
41

MATHEMATICS

Exercise 1.1
1.
2.
3.

5.
7.
8.
9.

(i) True
(ii) False
(iii) False
(iv) False
(i) 2
(ii) 1
(iii) 3
(iv) 4
(v) 3
(i) 4 : 9
(ii) 5 : 9
(iii) 2 : 3
4. (i) 6 : 10, 9 : 15, 12 : 20, 24 : 40
(ii) 6 : 14, 12 : 28, 15 : 35, 30 : 70
(iii) 10 : 18, 15 : 27, 30 : 54, 40 : 72
(i) 3 : 4 (ii) 1 : 3 (iii) 1 : 2 6. (i) 40 : 1 (ii) 40 : 39 (iii) 1 : 39
(i) 3 : 5 (ii) 2 : 5 (iii) 3 : 2
(i) 1 : 2 (ii) 4 : 3 (iii) 2 : 3 (iv) 4 : 9 (v) 2 : 9 (vi) 1 : 3
12. 5, 12, 25 yes
10 : 3
10. (i) 1 : 2 (i) 2 : 5
11. 17 : 550

Exercise 1.2
1.
3.
4.
5.
8.

(i) 3 : 4
(ii) 4 : 5
2. (i) 3 : 4
(ii) 3 : 7
(i) 150, 250 (ii) 2k.g 500g, 3kg. (iii) 1m 25c.m, 1m.
Arun got Rs. 600 more than Anand
14c.m,
6. `2,100
7. `3,500, `4,000
55,000, 45,000

## (iv) 50 min, 6hr 10min.

Exercise 1.3
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

(i) yes
(ii) No
(iii) Yes
(iv) No
(v) Yes
(i) 1
(ii) 2
(iii) 4
(iv) 4
(v) 2
(i) yes
(ii) No
(iii) No
(i) 20, 30, 8, 4
(ii) 20, 7, 60, 40
(iii) 30, 30, 40, 22.5
`1950 6) 80
7) 42
8) `55,200 9) 24
10) 120 11) 100

Exercise 1.4
1

10, 00, 00, 000
1

2) (i)
50, 000

1) (i)

3)

(i) 800 m.

## (ii) 3,500 k.m. (iii) 2.1 c.m.

(ii) 2,750 k.m. (iii) 5 c.m.
(ii) 7 c.m.

(iii) 740 m

4) 18 c.m.

Exercise 2.1
1)

(i) 20

2) (ii)

## 3) (iv) Second number = 10 x First number

42

Exercise 2.2
1)
4)

a) (ii)
(i) 6x

b) (iii)
(ii) 6y

2) 40x
(iii) 7z

3) 12b

Exercise 3.1
1)
2)
3)
4)

(i) 60
(ii) 1
(i) 900 seconds
(i) 480 minutes
(i) 8 hours 45 minutes

(iii) 60
(ii) 1812 seconds
(ii) 710 minutes
(ii) 2 hours

## (iv) 07.15 a.m.

(v) 3.45 p.m.
(iii) 11,405 seconds (iv) 2720 seconds
(iii) 575 minutes
(iv) 175 minutes
(iii) 3 hours 18 minutes (iv) 1 hour

Exercise 3.2
1)
2)

(i) 10.30 a.m.

(ii) 0 hour
(ii) 12 noon

## (iii) 21.15 hours

(iii) Midnight 12

(iv) 11.35 p.m.

Exercise 3.3
1)
2)

## (i) 10 hours 45 minutes

11 hours 40 minutes

## (ii) 10 hours 45 minutes

3) 3 hours 15 minutes

Exercise 3.4
1)
2)
7)

(i) 7
(ii) 29
(iii) 72
(iv) 12
(i), (iv)
5) 101
3) 96
4) 114
(i) 46 weeks and 6 days
(ii) 25 weeks

(v) 3600
6) 96

Exercise 4.1
1. (i) Acute angle
(ii) Obtuse angle
(iii) Obtuse angle
(iv) Obtuse angle
2. (i) Acute angle
(ii) Obtuse angle
(iii) Right angle
(iv) Acute angle
3. (i) +AOB Straight angle
+DOB Obtuse angle +BOA Straight angle

+AOD Acute angle +DOC Acute angle +AOC Right angle
(ii) +AOB Acute angle +AOC Acute angle +AOD Right angle
+BOC Acute angle +COD Acute angle

1)
2)

3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

## (i) 53o (ii) 48o

(iii) 2o
(iv) 90o
(v) 74o
(i) 174o (ii) 153o
(iii) 92o
(iv) 76o
(v) 64o
(vi) 34o (vii) 122o
(viii) 1o
50o
(i) True
(ii) True
(iii) False
(iv) False
(v) True
(vi) True
(i) Complementary (ii) Supplementary (iii) Complementary (iv) Supplementary
(i) 45o (ii) 90o
(i) Right angle (ii) Obtuse angle
(iii) Acute angle (iv) Acute angle
43

MATHEMATICS

Exercise 4.2

## 'I can, I did'

Student's Activity Record
Subject:
Sl.No

Date

Lesson
No.

Topic of the
Lesson

44

Activities

Remarks

SCIENCE
STANDARD SIX
TERM II

45

## Note to the teacher

As we present this revised edition of the Science Textbook, we would like to
express our deepest gratitude to the learners and the teaching community for
their enthusiastic responses.
In science some concepts could be subject to change from time to time as
new theories and principles are constantly being evolved.
We have tried to present facts and concepts of science (both concrete and
abstract) in a visually appealing manner without detracting from the content.
Activity based learning is now accepted as the basis of science education.
These activities should be regarded as a means for open-ended investigation
rather than for verification of principles/content given in the textbook are
designed to facilitate low cost activities and experiments using locally available
materials. With a view to streamlining the activities, we have now segregated
them into three groups:
yy I Do

yy We Do

## yy We Observe - activities to be demonstrated by the teacher.

The third group of activities have a higher degree of difficulty or require
careful handling as it may involve dealing with chemicals, electricity etc.,
The More to know snippets in the text represents some unusual and
interesting facts or information in which the students need not be examined.
The evaluation section is nothing but another space for learning in a different
manner. As the focus is on understanding, rote learning is to be discouraged
thoroughly. Application of learnt ideas, problem solving skills and critical thinking
is to be encouraged. There could be scope for more than one answer to a
question, which should be acknowledged always.
To facilitate further reference, books and websites have been suggested
at the end of each lesson. Suggestions and constructive criticism are most
welcome. Valuable suggestions will be duly incorporated.
- Authors

46

sciencetextbook@gmail.com

Cell structure

Cell Structure

Activity 2

We Observe

## What is our human body made up of?

Just as a building is made up of
many bricks, the human body is also
made up of several small units called
cells. Cell is the basic structural and
functional unit of all living organisms.

## If there is a microscope in your

school laboratory, observe the
cells of an onion peel under it with

## Do you know who saw the cell first?

It was Robert Hooke, an optic seller. In
those days glass bottles were closed
sections of the cork and observed
them through his hand-made lens and
Activity 1 saw many small identical hexagonal
chambers. In Latin the word 'cellula'

We Observe
means "a small chamber". So Robert
To show the parts of a compound Hooke named this chamber as cell in
1665. He became a famous scientist
microscope.
by showing the cell magic through his
Eyepiece lens
lens.
When we observe the cells in
an onion peel and the bricks on the
wall, we find that they are similar in
structure.
knob
Objective lens
Arm

Stage
Mirror

wall of a building

Base

Compound microscope
Not only human beings, but other
organisms like plants and animals are

47

SCIENCE

## Can you see a cell with naked

eyes? No, cells are very minute
and cannot be seen with our naked
eyes. They can be observed only
through a scientific instrument called
microscope

Unit 1

## Can we see the inner parts of a cell?

The same thought arose in the
mind of Robert Hooke and the biologist
Robert Brown. Robert Brown was
a school teacher and he was studying
the structure of a cell. He invented an
degree of magnification by which very
small objects could be viewed with
greater clarity. With the help of the
microscope he could observe the cell.
He found that there is a different world
within a cell.
The cell is like a small factory
with nearly twelve to thirteen cell
organelles which are involved in
Classification of cells :
Cells of plants and animals are not
similar. Bacteria and some algae are
made up of a single cell. They lack
membrane bound organelles.

## A cell that does not contain

membrane bound organelles and
a well defined nucleus is called a
Prokaryotic cell. i.e., simple cell.
e.g: Bacteria.

## A cell that contains a well-defined

nucleus, nuclear membrane and
membrane bound cell organelles is
called Eukaryotic cell, i.e., complete
cell. e.g., cells of plants and animals.
The plant and animal cells are
not alike. They vary in their size and
structure according to their function,
but both the cells are similar in their
basic organisation.
Now, let us observe an animal cell.

## Structure of an Animal cell

Plasma membrane
Mitochondrion
Centriole
Endoplasmic reticulum
Nucleolus
Ribosome
Nucleus
Lysosome
Golgi bodies
Cytoplasm
Vacuole

48

((
((

((
((
((
((
((

49

Mitochondrion
Golgi bodies
(Dictyosomes)
Endoplasmic reticulum
Ribosome
Lysosome
Vacuole
Plastids

Cytoplasm

Nuclear membrane
Chromatin reticulum
Nuclear sap
Nucleolus

((
((
((
((
((
((
((

((
((
((
((

Animal cell

Mitochondrion
Golgi bodies
Endoplasmic reticulum
Ribosome
Lysosome
Vacuole
Centrosome

Cytoplasm

Plasma membrane

Eukaryotic cell

## Cell and its components

((
((
((
((

Nucleus

Protoplasm

SCIENCE

Plant cell

(( Cell wall
(( Plasma membrane

Prokaryotic cell

Cell

Nuclear membrane
Chromatin reticulum
Nuclear sap
Nucleolus

Nucleus

Protoplasm

Cell structure

Unit 1

## Cell is a small factory. Let us

learn the specific function of each
component of an animal cell.

## J.E. Purkinjee coined the term

protoplasm. 'Proto' means 'first' and
'plasma' means 'colloid'.

## Shall we enter the cell factory and

view it?

Cytoplasm :
"Hello!
I
am
cytoplasm,
found in between the plasma
membrane and
the nucleus.
I am made up of carbohydrates
and
proteins.
Organelles
and
lipid droplets are present in me.

## I can hear someone calling me........

Plasma membrane :
"Hi! Animal cell welcomes you.
I am the plasma membrane,
enveloping the cell. I give shape to
the cell. I act as a guard. I control the
entry and exit of materials.Come on
my friends, come and introduce
yourselves".

Nucleus :
"I am the controlling centre of the
cell. But I need not be present at the
centre.

is waiting for you."

## I am called nucleus. I am spherical in

shape. I have nucleoplasm, nucleolus
and chromatin reticulum and I am
enclosed by the nuclear membrane.
I carry the genetic characters from
generation to generation.

Protoplasm:
"I am a colloid, found inside
the plasma membrane. I have two
components
namely
cytoplasm
and nucleus of the cell. My name is
protoplasm".

## White Blood cell

Fat cell

Muscle cell

Neuron
50

Cell structure
Nuclear membrane
Chromatin reticulum

Nuclear sap
Nucleolus

Nucleus
Mitochondria- singular :

Mitochondrion :

## "We are involved in cell respiration.

We help in the oxidation of food
materials that you eat and provide
energy. We do not rest. We are also
known as Power houses of the cell".
Golgi bodies

Outer membrane

## "Hello! I am the endoplasmic

reticulum. I help in transportation of
materials from one part of the cell to
another".

Inner membrane
Cristae

Mitochondrion

Golgi bodies:
Endoplasmic reticulum

## "Hi, come on! We are tubular

structures, involved in the secretion
of digestive enzymes and formation of
lysosomes.We separate proteins from
the ingested food and give strength to
the cells and the body. In plant cells
we are known as Dictyosomes"

Ribosomes :
"Come, Look at us! We are
granular structures. We are called
Protein factories of the cell. We help
in protein synthesis".
51

SCIENCE

Endoplasmic reticulum :

Unit 1

Lysosomes :
"Are you interested in learning
about us? We are spherical yellow
coloured bodies. We help in cell
protection. We destroy the pathogens
entering into the cell. We are called
Suicidal bags of the cell. In addition
to this we also help in cell digestion".

centrosome

Vacuoles :
"Wait! Don't neglect us. We are
vacuoles. We are light blue in colour
and appear like bubbles. We store
cell sap. We maintain intracellular
pressure. Oh! this work is very difficult.
Plasma, my friend, good bye to all".
Did you meet the workers of the
animal cell factory? Now, let us learn

Lysosome

Centrosome :
"Let me introduce myself. I am
centrosome.I'm found only in the
animal cell. I look like a stick and I am
a microtubule. I am near the nucleus.
I have centrioles in me.. Cell division
is my function i.e., formation of new
cells."

Plant cell :
the different features of a plant cell?
Let us examine a plant cell and see
how it differs from an animal cell.
We see that,

Cell Wall

Chloroplast

Plasma membrane

lysosome
Vacuole
Nucleus

Endoplasmic
reticulum

Ribosome
Mitochondrion

52

Cell structure

## cellulose. Its function is to protect the

inner organelles and to give shape to
the cell.

yy T
 he Centrosome is absent in plant
cells.
yy The plants are more rigid than an
animals due to the presence of
the cell wall.
yy They have plastids.
yy They have larger vacuoles.

Plastids :
These organelles are found only
in plant cells. They contain pigments.
Based on the pigments, they are
classified into three types.

Cell wall :
It is an outer layer which gives
shape to the cell. It is made up of
Type
Chloroplast

Pigment
Chlorophyll

Functions

- green pigment

## gives green colour to

the stem and leaves

Chromoplast Carotene
- orange pigment
Xanthophyll - yellow pigment

## gives colour to the

flowers and fruits

Leucoplast

## found in roots and

underground stems

No pigments - Colourless

Activity :3
3
Activity

We Do

their functions.

Sl.No.

Plant cell

Animal Cell

1.

## Absence of cell wall

2.

Presence of plastids

Absence of plastids

3.

Centrosome is absent

Centrosome is present

4.

## Vacuoles are smaller in size

All activities like eating, drinking of water, jumping, playing, and breathing,
thinking and even sleeping are due to the functioning of the cells. Each cell is
a small factory. The brain has several million cells.
When the cells, the so called small factories are affected and injured,
diseases are caused and we visit a doctor.
e.g. cancer, hereditary diseases, diabetes, etc.

53

SCIENCE

Let us now list the differences between a plant cell and an animal cell.

Unit 1

Activity 4
Making a cell model
We divide ourselves into groups and
make the structure of a plant cell using
easily available materials. We build the
model of a cell and learn about the cell
organelles.
Materials required :
A thick cardboard from any old
notebook, a white sheet, paste, broom
pieces, bindhi, groundnut shells, green
gram, cow peas, broken chickpeas,
pepper, peas, mustard, cardamom,
colour papers.
Method we follow:
yy We take a thick cardboard and paste
a white sheet over it.
yy We draw the outline of the
plant cell from the textbook on
the white sheet.
yy We draw the nucleus at the centre
of the plant cell.
yy We make the organelles by pasting
the materials as listed in the table.

We Do
Organelles
Nucleolus
Chromatin
reticulum
Nuclear
membrane
Cytoplasm
Endoplasmic
reticulum
Ribosome
Lysosome
Golgi bodies
(dictyosomes)
Mitochondria
Plastids
Vacuoles
Plasma
membrane
Cell wall

Materials we use
bindhi
bangle pieces
paste, sand
mustard
broken chickpeas
bangle pieces,
pepper
groundnut shells
green gram/peas/
cardamom
bits of paper
broomstick

By sticking black threads, We label the parts one below the other.

We have learnt
The structure of a plant cell and we can tell the difference between a
plant cell and an animal cell.

Facts at a glance
1. There are about 6,50,00,000 cells
in the human body.
2. B
 ones are made up of special type
of dry cells.
3. Anton Van Leeuwenhoek (1675)
discovered that blood contains
RBC (Red Blood Cells).
54

## 4. In animals the nerve cell is the

longest cell.
5. In animals the bone cell is the
toughest cell.
6. 
Mature Red Blood Cells of
mammals do not contain nucleus.

Cell structure

Activity:55
Activity

We Do

## We divide ourselves into groups. We discuss and present the structure

and function of the cell components and their names with the help of the
Having learnt the various components of the cell, shall we now learn their
functions too?

S.
No

Cell components

Functions

1.

Plasma membrane

## yy It gives shape to the cell

yy It selects the substances required by the cell
and transports them in and out
yy It controls the movements of substances in
and out of the cell
yy It protects the cell

2.

Cytoplasm

## yy It distributes the nutrients within the cell

yy It controls all the activities of the cell

3.

Nucleus

## yy It carries the hereditary characters from one

generation to another

4.

Mitochondria

## yy They provide energy to the cell

yy They secrete enzymes and hormones

Golgi bodies

## yy They store protein

yy They help in formation of Lysosome

6.

Endoplasmic
reticulum

7.

Ribosomes

8.

Lysosome

9.

Centrosome

10.

Vacuoles

11.

Plastids

12.

Cell wall

## yy It helps in protein synthesis

yy It destroys the germs that enter into the cell
yy It helps in intra and extra cellular digestion
yy It helps in cell division
yy They control the intra cellular pressure
yy They store cell sap
yy They help in photosynthesis
yy They give colour to flowers and fruits
yy It gives shape and protection to the plant cell
55

SCIENCE

5.

Unit 1

EVALUATION
1. The structural and functional unit of living organisms is ________.
a) nucleus

b) cell

c) mitochondria d) ribosome

a) telescope

b) microscope

c) binocular

d) periscope

(a)

(c)

(b)

(d)

## 4.The ________ is the power house of the cell

a) mitochondria

b) ribosome c) lysosome

d) nucleus

## 5.The organelle which is known as suicidal bag is ________.

a) dictyosome

b) ribosome c) centrosome

d) lysosome

6.The spherical organelle which controls the activities of the cell is ________.
a) golgi bodies

b) ribosome

c) nucleus

d) lysosome

7. The organelle that involves in destroying the germs which enters into the cell
is ______.
a) dictyosome

b) ribosome

c) centrosome

d) lysosome.

## 8. The organelle which is found only in animal cell is _______.

a) mitochondria
d) chloroplast

b) centrosome

c) plasma membrane

## 9. The cell which contains a large vacuole is __________.

a) cell of onion peel

b) bacteria

c) nerve cell

d) cell of muscle

## 10. The longest cell is ________.

a) bone cell

b) nerve cell

c) cell of a muscle

d) blood cell

II. Who am I?
1. I'm a tiny organelle. Cell respiration occurs in me. I'm otherwise called "Power
house of the cell". Who am I?
56

Cell structure
2. I help in Photosynthesis. I am found only in plants. Who am I?
3.I give shape and protection to the plants. I'm made up of cellulose. I'm found
only in plants. Who am I?
4. I help in cell division. I'm seen only in animal cell. Who am I?
5. Im a colloid, found inbetween the plasma membrane and the nucleus.
I distribute the nutrients within the cell. Who am I ?

## III. Pick the odd one out

1. nucleus, nucleolus, chromatin reticulum, plasma membrane
2.Robert Hooke, Anton
Newton

Van

Leeuwenhoek,

Schleiden

and

Schwann,

## 3. lysosome, centrosome, ribosome, chromosome

4. cell wall, chloroplast, larger vacuole, centrosome

IV. Match:
Cell Organelle

Other names

Functions

Mitochondria

Suicidal bag

protein synthesis

Ribosome

## Power house of the cell

transfer of hereditary
character

Lysosome

## Controlling centre of the cell

production of energy

Nucleus

cell destruction

## V. Draw and label:

1. Nucleus (nuclear membrane, chromatin reticulum, nuclear sap, nucleolus)

VI. Colour the following diagram of the animal cell and label the parts

57

SCIENCE

Unit 1

## VII. Answer the following questions from the diagram given

below:
1. Name the organelle given here.
2. How is this organelle known in a plant cell?
3. What is the function of this organelle?

1.  The leaves appear green due to the presence of green pigment chlorophyll.
A ripened mango appears yellow. Give reason.
2.Nucleus is known as the controlling centre of the cell. Give reason.

IX. Fill in
Lysosome

Cytoplasm

Nucleus

Nuclear
membrane

Vacuole

Plant cell

Further reference
Websites :
www.enchanted learning.com
www.biology4 kids.com
www.teacher vision.fen.com
www.diffen .com

58

Separation of Substances

Separation of Substances

## Ibrahim loves science and always participates in science competitions.

Last
week, he
won the first prize at the Science Talent
Search Competition. Ibrahim found the competition interesting
and
challenging.
Each
participant
was
provided
with
(i) an empty bucket (ii) a bucket full of water (iii) a
bag of sand (iv) gravel and (v) a sieve.
The participants had to fill the empty bucket
with water, sand and gravel. They had to use
all the materials. The participant who filled the
bucket without the water overflowing would be
declared the winner.
Some of them first poured water into the empty
bucket and then added the gravel. Immediately
the water overflowed.
Some put the sand in first and then poured in the water. The bucket
became full and the gravel could not be added.
Do you want to know what Ibrahim did?

Then, Ibrahim was asked to separate the mixture. How did Ibrahim
separate the mixture? First he poured out the water slowly from the bucket,
and spread the wet sand and gravel mixture on a newspaper and dried it.
Then he poured the mixture of gravel and sand on the sieve. The sand fell
through and the gravel remained on the mesh. Thus he separated all three
components.
Discuss and give reasons why the others lost to Ibrahim.
In the above competition Ibrahim
used methods of separation like
decantation and filtration.

## What do we understand from this?

We need to use different methods
of separation

## We drink water after it is boiled and

filtered. We know that before cooking
rice, it is cleaned with water. While
preparing tea, we separate tea leaves
by filtration. We purify rava and wheat
flour by sieving, and rice and pulses
by winnowing.

ff 
to
remove
substances

the

unwanted

## ff to remove substances which are

harmful to our body
ff to obtain the substances which are
useful to us in a pure state.
59

SCIENCE

First he put the gravel in the bucket, then he put the sand gently over it
and poured water slowly over it. The bucket became full and did not overflow.
He used his knowledge of science to fill the bucket with the given materials.

Unit 2

## Let us learn about the different

methods of separation we use in our
daily life.

## Methods used to separate mixture

of solids:
Solid mixtures can be separated
using methods like hand-picking,
winnowing, sieving and magnetic
separation.

Hand-picking

________________________________
________________________________
________________________________

## Hand picking method can be

applied when the quantity is small and
of reasonable size.

Winnowing
Farmers allow the mixture of grain
and husk to fall from a height. Grains,
being heavier fall down and form a
heap. Husk, being lighter is carried
away by wind and forms a separate
heap.

## How do we separate vegetables

at home? We separate them into its
kinds like tomato, chilly etc. by using
our hands. Separation is easier as
they differ in size, colour and shape.

## The method of separating lighter

particles from heavier particles with
the help of wind is called winnowing.

## The method of separating the

substances based on size, colour
and shape using hands is called
handpicking.
1. 
By which method does the
woman in the given picture
separate the substances?
2. 
Mention some substances
which can be separated by this
method.
Lighter particles present in a
mixture can be separated by
winnowing.
60

Separation of Substances

Sieving:

Magnetic separation :

## We can separate the impurities

like bran, husk, stone, worms, stalk
and tiny insects from flour by sieving.
It allows the fine particles to pass
through the pores while the coarser
particles remain on the sieve .

## Insert a magnet into a heap of

sand and take it out. If iron particles
are present in the heap of sand, we
can see them clinging to the ends of
the magnet.
Magnetic separation is used
to separate mixtures containing
components which are attracted by
magnet.
Can we separate iron substances
from water using a magnet?

## Components of a mixture can be

separated by the method of sieving
only when they differ in their size.

Activity 1

I Do

## I take a beaker and fill half of it

with water.
I drop some pins into it.
I hold a magnet over the surface
of water or by the side of the beaker.

My inference:
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________

61

SCIENCE

a magnet

## At construction sites, you would

have seen the separation of pebbles
and stones from sand by sieving using
a sieve.

Unit 2

## Shall we complete the table?

Physical state of the
components
(Solid, Liquid, Gas)

Method of
separation

Mixture
Ragi and pulses
Sand and stone
Rava and Iron particles

Methods of separation
insoluble solids from liquids

of

## Can we separate a mixture of

sand and water by using methods
like hand-picking, sieving, winnowing
or by magnetic separation? No we
can not separate them. why? Since
water is in liquid state, the methods
used to separate solid mixtures
cannot be used here. The method of
separation depends on the nature of
the substances to be separated.

## solid subtances are allowed to settle

down as sediments. This is known as
sedimentation. The clear liquid above
the sediment is called super natant
liquid.
e.g. a mixture of sand and water

Decantation
Transferring the clear liquid
(super natant liquid) into another
container using a glass rod is called
decantation.

## Hence we can separate insoluble

solids from liquids by using the
method of decantation, sedimentation
and filtration.

glass rod

Sedimentation
The mixture of insoluble solids
and liquid is taken in a beaker and the

beaker

Filtration

## Observe the liquid obtained by

decantation and see whether it
contains suspended impurities. Try
to filter the impurities using a clean
cotton cloth. As there are tiny pores
in the cloth(like the pores in a sieve),
the clear water passes through the
pores and the suspended impurities

water
(super natant
liquid)
Sedimentation

Decantation

sand
(sediment)

62

Separation of Substances

## Methods of separation of solid

substances dissolved in liquids

## like sand remain on the cloth. In the

laboratory we use a filter paper instead
of a cloth to purify water. There are
tiny pores in the filter paper also.

## Evaporation and condensation

processes are used to separate solid
substances dissolved in liquids.

## Let us filter the mixture in the

laboratory using a filter paper.

Activity 2

## Take a filter paper and fold it like

a cone. Fix it inside a glass funnel.
Fix the funnel in a stand and place a
beaker below it. Pour the impure liquid
containing suspended impurities into
the funnel. Liquid drains through
pores of the filter paper. The clear
liquid that is collected in the beaker
is known as filtrate. The dust particles
which remain on the filter paper are
called "residue".

We Observe

## Take a small amount of salt

solution in a beaker and place it
over a wire gauze on a tripod stand.
Heat the solution well. After the
complete evaporation of water, see
what is left in the beaker.

## Our observation and

inference:

______________________________
______________________________

Evaporation

cone

first
fold

## Thus we have separated salt from

water by evaporation method.

second
fold

## Evaporation is a process in which

a liquid changes into its vapour on
heating. Evaporation method is used
to separate the dissolved solids from
the liquids.
Salt pan

## filter paper cone in

the funnel

Do you know?
One litre of sea water contains about
3.5 grams of salt. Sea water contains
not only common salt but also more
than 50 other mineral salts. These
salts are industrially important.

stand
filtrate

63

SCIENCE

filter
paper

Unit 2

Condensation
Take a mixture of sand and salt in
a beaker. Add water to this mixture
and stir. Salt gets dissolved. How
can we separate the components
from this mixture? Filter this solution
using a filter paper. The sand can be
separated from the salt solution by
filtration.
I want to get back
both salt and water.
What should I do for
this?

Salt water

Condensation

## Set up the apparatus as shown in

the picture. Take the salt solution in
a conical flask and heat it strongly.
The water vapours pass through the
delivery tube and get collected in a test
tube. The test tube is placed inside a
pack of ice cubes. The water vapours
get cooled and condense into water.
Salt remains as residue in the conical
flask, once the whole water gets
evaporated. When the vapours of a
substance get cooled, they condense
into liquid. This process is known as
condensation.

Ice cubes

water

## Need for applying more than one

method of separation
The various substances which we
use in our life, reach our hand only
after undergoing different methods of
separation and purification.
For example, in the preparation
of sugar from sugarcane juice, the
methods of separation like filtration,
evaporation and crystallization are
used. More than one method of
separation are used to extract metals
like iron, gold, aluminium and copper
in pure state from their ores.

## Shall we complete the table?

Mixture

Method of separation

## Physical state of the

components
(Solid, Liquid, Gas)

## sand and water

rava and water
salt and water
Do you know?
Evaporation and Condensation are the basic processes involved
in the Water cycle. Formation of rain involves these two processes.
64

Separation of Substances

Activity 3

We Do

We are going to separate iron filings, salt and chalk powder from the
given mixture.
We need: bar magnet, beaker, water, filter paper, funnel, tripod stand, glass
rod, watch glass, matchbox, wire gauze, bunsen burner.
1. We take the mixture in a watch glass and stir it using a bar magnet.
Our observation

Substance separated

2. W
 e take the remaining portion of the mixture containing salt and chalk
powder in a beaker. Then we add water and stir it well using a glass
rod. We allow the liquid to remain undisturbed.
Our observation :
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

Our observation

Substance separated

6. We take the beaker containing the salt water and place it over a
wire gauze on a tripod stand. We heat the solution strongly using
a bunsen burner.
Our observation

Substance separated

65

SCIENCE

3. We fold the filter paper into a cone shape and keep it inside a funnel.
4. We keep the funnel on a tripod stand and place a beaker below it.
5. We transfer the liquid mixture slowly into the funnel using a glass rod.

Unit 2

Our inference:
S.No.

Separated substance

## Method used for separation

Facts at a glance:
1. Crude oil is a mixture from which nearly eighty six substances like
petrol, kerosene and naphtha are obtained.
2. Air is a mixture of gases.

Evaluation
1. Suitable method to separate lighter impurities from a mixture

a) winnowing
b) hand-picking

c) evaporation
d) magnetic separation
2. In a mixture, solids of different size can be separated by
a) magnetic separation
b) winnowing

c) sieving d) evaporation
3. The method used to separate the seeds from the fruit juice is

a) filtration
b) sieving

c) crystallization
d) winnowing
4.Separation of common salt from the sea water is by
a) sieving b) evaporation
c) magnetic separation
d) winnowing
5. The method used to separate substances differing in colour, size and
shape from a solid mixture
a) magnetic separation
b) decantation
c) hand-picking d) sieving
II. Encircle the odd one and give reason:
1. hand-picking, evaporation, winnowing, sieving
2. filtration, sedimentation ,decantation, condensation
66

Separation of Substances

## 3. evaporation, magnetic separation, condensation, crystallization

4. filter paper, sieve, funnel, glass rod
III. Write the correct method of separation instead of the wrong method given
in the following statements.
a) We can separate the different kinds of vegetables by winnowing.
b) Lighter particles present in a mixture can be separated by magnetic
separation.
c) The method of converting liquid into vapour by heating is known as
condensation.
d) Sieving method is used to separate a magnetic substance
from a mixture.
IV. Draw and label the apparatus used for filtration in the laboratory.
1. Amudhas family gets drinking water from the nearby pond which is turbid
in nature. Suggest her some methods to convert the water into pure
drinking water.
2. We do not apply the same method of separation to separate a mixture of
chalk powder and water, a mixture of green peas and ground nuts, and
iron objects from garbage. why?
4. You are given a sample of salt solution. You are asked to separate the
salt from it. Filtration method cannot be applied here. Why? Mention the
correct method of separation.
5. Differentiate the following:
a. filtrate and residue
b. winnowing and sieving
6. While preparing lemonade, how will you remove the seeds of the fruit
from the juice? We add ice cubes to get chilled juice. When will you add
sugar to the juice before or after adding ice cubes? Why? When can you
dissolve more amount of sugar?
7. A mixture contains saw dust and iron nails. Which method will the
carpenter use to separate the iron nails from the saw dust?
8. During winter season we see dewdrops on grass and plants. Can you
give reason for this?

67

SCIENCE

## 3. Why is separation of substances necessary in our daily life?

Unit 2

9. Can we separate tiny white stones from 100kg of rice by the method of

## VI. Fill in the boxes with suitable answers:

Crystallization

Filtration

Separation
of dissolved
solids from
liquids

Separation
of insoluble
solids from
liquids

Separation of
substances

Separation of
solid mixture

Sieving

VII. Spot out the different methods of separation in this word puzzle
P
Q
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Q

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68

C
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E

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I
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A
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N

Separation of Substances

Sowing

Cooking

Ploughing

Thrashing

Winnowing

Hand-picking

Eating

Harvesting

1. _____________________________

2. _____________________________

3. _____________________________

4. _____________________________

5. _____________________________

6. _____________________________

7. _____________________________

8. _____________________________

Projects:
1. L
 ist the various methods of separation used in our day-to-day life. Describe
the method and places they are used in. Mention their significance.
2. Discuss in groups how salt is obtained from sea water. Collect relevant
pictures and stick them in your scrapbook. Find out the places of salt pans
.

Further reference
Web sites:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/separation_process
http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761574279_2/evaporation.html.

69

SCIENCE

VIII. Observe the pictures given and arrange them in proper order based on
the activities given in them. Encircle the methods of separation found in
them.

Unit 3

Types of Energy

## A Science conference for high

school students was held on the
terrace of a multi-storeyed building.
Many students took part in this
conference. They use different modes
of transport to reach the building.
(( One student reached the terrace
using a parachute.
(( 
A few students used a boat to
reach their destination as the
building was close to a river.

70

(( 
Few students rode a bicycle to
reach.
(( 
Some took a bus to reach the
building.
 Some students used the lift to reach
the terrace while others climbed the
stairs.
In each case different types of
energy were used. Before we discuss
the different types of energy, let us
learn what energy is.

Types Of Energy

In the given pictures, we see people involved in various activities and the
machines used by them.
We need energy to perform activities like running, walking, cycling, climbing
and jumping. When we are tired and hungry we lack energy to do our work.How
do they perform these activities? Don't they need energy to do these activities?
Where does this energy come from? We get energy from the food we eat.
The bus and the boat get energy to run from fuel while a parachute uses
wind energy and gravitation. Have you seen ants and bees working busily?
They need energy to do work and they get the energy from the food they eat.

SCIENCE

## Energy in day-to-day activities

Activity
Activity1
1(Teacher)

We Observe

Take a pinch of baking soda in a small bottle and add a few drops of
lime juice or vinegar. Close the bottle loosely with a cork. What do you see?
What happens to the cork after sometime?
We see bubbles in the bottle and the cork is ejected from the mouth of the
bottle. Why does this happen? It is because of the bubbles which indicate that
a gas has evolved. The gas pushes the cork out.

71

Unit 3

Activity 2

I Do

List out a few sources from which we get energy to carry out our daily
activities?
My list
Sl.No
Activity
Required energy
1

To dry clothes

To run a bus

## energy from diesel (or) petrol.

3
4
I have inferred
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
From the above activity, we learn
that energy is defined as the capacity
or ability to do work. The unit of energy
is joule.

stretched
rubber band

## Let us learn about the different

types of energy now.
Mechanical
energy,
chemical
energy, light energy, sound energy,
electrical energy, heat energy, wind
energy etc. are some types of energy.

compressed
spring

1. Mechanical energy:
Mechanical energy is the energy
possessed by an object due to its
movement or position. There are
two types of mechanical energy.
i) potential energy ii) Kinetic energy.
i)  Potential energy: Water stored in
a dam, a rock on top of a mountain
and water stored in a tank possess
potential energy due to its position.
Similarly things like a compressed
spring or a stretched rubber band
72

## have potential energy due to its

configuration.
Hence, the energy possessed by
an object with respect to its position
or configuration is called potential
energy.
ii) K
 inetic energy: A flowing river,
a moving bus, a galloping horse
or a freely falling stone possess
mechanical energy due to their
motion.

Types Of Energy

## The energy possessed by a body

by virtue of its motion is called kinetic
energy.

Mechanical energy

Potential
and
kinetic
energy
are
inter
convertible.
In hydro-electric power stations this
property is used to generate electricity.
When water is stored in a dam the
stored water has potential energy.
When this water is allowed to flow
down, it changes into kinetic energy.
This kinetic energy of water is used
to rotate the turbines and generate
electricity.

Uses:

## We also observe that the

mechanical energy of the rotation of
turbines is converted into electrical
energy in a generator.

2. Chemical energy

i) 
Mechanical energy can bring
a moving body to rest or can make
a body at rest move.
ii) Using wind energy we can generate
electricity through wind mills.
The energy released during
a chemical reaction is called chemical
energy. For example, chemical energy
is released due to the chemical
reaction that takes place when wood,
charcoal, petrol etc., are burnt.

SCIENCE

## The food we eat undergoes

chemical reaction and releases
energy to enable us to work.

Chemical energy
"Heat is a form of
energy" - James Joule.
The unit of energy (joule)
is named after him.

## In Mettur and Bhavanisagar, electricity is

generated using
hydroelectric power.

73

Unit 3

Uses:
1. The chemical energy stored in the
food of plants and animals is used
for their growth and function.
2. A battery or a cell converts chemical
energy into electrical energy.
3.While using fuels, chemical energy
is converted into heat energy and
light energy.

3. Electrical energy
Do you know why a fan rotates or
an electric bulb glows when we switch
them on? In an electric bulb, electrical
energy is converted into light energy
and in an electric fan, electrical energy
is converted into mechanical energy.
In a wind mill, the wind energy (kinetic
energy) is converted into electrical
energy.

Uses:
1. In industries, electrical energy is
used to operate machines and is
also used in telecommunication.
2. In cities, electrical energy is used
to run electric trains.

## Wind mill- (Electric power

generation) at Kayathar
(Thirunelveli), Aralvoimozhi
(Kanyakumari) and also in
Coimbatore, Tirupur Districts.
is released when you burn wood or
cooking gas?
The chemical energy stored in
wood and cooking gas is converted
into heat energy. Rub your hands
together and feel your palm. They feel
warm. This heat energy is produced
due to friction. Due to friction and
chemical reaction heat energy is
and find out the various other sources
of heat energy.

Electrical energy

Heat energy

4. Heat energy

## Do you know what the primary

source of heat energy is? It is the Sun.
In your house do you use wood or
cooking gas for cooking? What energy
74

Activity 3

We Observe

## Hold a magnesium ribbon with

tongs and burn it. Observe the
energy changes in it.

Types Of Energy

Uses:
1. We get rain due to the evaporation
of water from water bodies due to
the heat energy from the sun.
2. In a thermal power station electricity
is generated from the heat energy
obtained by burning coal.
3. 
In an electric stove, electric iron
etc., electrical energy is converted
into heat energy.

5. Solar energy
The energy obtained from the sun
is called solar energy. What are the
types of energy obtained directly from
the sun? Can you list that?

Uses:

solar energy

## 1. Solar energy is directly used in solar

heater, solar cooker etc.,

3. 
Solar energy is used to operate
solar vehicles.
Activity 4

We Do

## Let us know how energy is obtained directly from the sun

We need :
Magnifying lens, bits of paper
1. Using the magnifying lens focus the sunlight
on the bits of paper.
2. Observe the changes on the bits of paper after
some time.
We observed and inferred
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
Share what you have observed in this activity with your friends.
75

SCIENCE

Do you know?
ln 212 BC, Archimedes the Greek
scientist, used magnifying glasses
to burn Roman warships with solar
energy.

## 2. Solar cells are used in artificial

satellites and calculators.

Unit 3

## Can we convert one type of energy

into another?
Look at the pictures given below.
What do we understand from them?
We know that most forms of energy
are obtained from the sun.
1. In Tamilnadu at the Neyveli and
Ennore Thermal Power Stations
coal is burnt to generate electricity.
Here the chemical energy of coal is
first converted into heat energy and
then into electrical energy.
2. Loudspeaker converts electrical
energy into sound energy.
3. 
When water stored at a height
flows down, its potential energy
is converted into kinetic energy.
The water rotates the turbines of a
generator and electrical energy is
generated.
4. 
When wood, charcoal, petrol,
diesel and other fuel are burnt,
chemical energy is converted into
heat energy.

76

5. 
During
photosynthesis
plants
convert light energy from the sun
into chemical energy and store it.
6. 
In electric bells and horns of
automobiles electrical energy is
converted into sound energy.
7. In a torch light, the chemical energy
of the cell is first converted into
electrical energy and then into light
energy.
From the above examples, we
learn that one type of energy can be
converted into another type of energy.
We have learnt that when one type
of energy is used, an equal amount
of another energy is released.Thus
in any conversion of energy the total
amount of energy will not change.
Therefore, we say that energy can
neither be created nor destroyed, but
can be transformed from one form
into another. This is called the Law of
Conservation of Energy.

Types Of Energy

Moreover
in any conversion of energy the total amount of energy
will
not be
Activity
5
We
Do
changed.
We discuss in small groups the various uses of solar energy in our daily
life and list them out.
My list
1. To get salt from sea water 2. For rain
3. ____________________
4 . ___________________
5 . ____________________
6. ___________________
Activity
Activity6
6

We Do

## Discuss in small groups how diesel and petrol can be consumed

economically . Present a report.
For example, let us see how the energy conversion is taking place when the
electric motor pumps water.
To operate the electric motor electrical energy is used. This electrical energy
is converted into kinetic energy, sound energy and heat energy.

Activity 7

We Do

## A man carried a heavy load on his head to his house which is

at the top of a mountain. He left the load by the side of his house
and took rest. After sometime he came back and noticed that the
1. From where did he get the energy to lift the load?
2. What energy did the load possess when it was placed on the mountain?
3. From where was the energy obtained for the load to roll down?
4. What energy did the load possess while rolling?
5. What energy did the load possess on reaching the ground?
6. Write down the energy changes in the above activity,in sequential order.

77

SCIENCE

## Electric energy Kinetic energy + Sound energy + Heat energy

(To operate the
(to lift water)
(released when electric motor works)
electric motor)

Unit 3

Shall we discuss and answer the following questions related to this event?
1 . ___________________________________________________
2 . ___________________________________________________
3 . ___________________________________________________
4 . ___________________________________________________
5 . ___________________________________________________
6 . ___________________________________________________
We have learnt
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

Evaluation
I. Choose the correct answer :
1. Energy required to dry clothes quickly ______
a) solar energy

b) sound energy

c) kinetic energy

d) potential energy

a) Volta

b) James Joule

d) Galileo

a) windmill

b) industry

c) bicycle

d) parachute

## 4. The energy that cannot be used to run vehicles

a) solar energy

b) chemical energy

c) electrical energy

d) sound energy

78

Types Of Energy

## 5. When charcoal is burnt, chemical energy is converted into

a) heat energy

b) sound energy

c) mechanical energy

d) solar energy

## II. Tick the correct answer:

1. Energy obtained by wind energy in wind farms
(Chemical energy / Electrical energy)
2. Energy possessed by a rustling leaf
(Kinetic energy / Chemical energy)
3. Energy possessed by a person landing from a parachute
(Kinetic energy of wind / Chemical energy in food)
4. Energy produced by rubbing the two palms of your hands
(Heat energy / Electrical energy)

## III. Match the following

1. Electric bell

: Electrical energy

Solar cooker

: ______________

## 2. The sailing of yacht

: ______________
: potential energy

## 3. For the growth of living things : Chemical energy in food

: Chemical energy in__________

## IV. Say true or false?

1. Energy is the capacity or the ability to do work.
2. Potential energy and kinetic energy are the types of mechanical energy.
3. Electrical energy is released during chemical reaction.
4. Heat energy is released due to friction.
5. One type of energy cannot be converted into another type of energy.

## V. Find out what type of energy, the following possess.

1) sun

2) charcoal

3) water in a lake

4) solar cell

5) waterfalls

6) compressed spring

7) fuel

8) moving cloud

9) firewood

79

SCIENCE

To run vehicles

Unit 3

VI. Find out the change in energy that takes place in the following
1. Torchlight

_________

_________

2.

_________

3. Iron (box)

_________

_________

4. Generator

_________

_________

1. We know that we need energy when we go to school by bicycle , while
playing or doing any work. How do we define the energy used in these
activities? What is its unit?
2. 
The coconut in the picture possesses
three types of energy. Can you find out
what they are?
1. ______________

2. ______________

3. ______________
3. What type of energy is stored in the abject shown in the pictures given
below? In which way this energy is useful to us?

Diesel can

Gas cylinder

(1)

(2)

Plant
(3)

1.__________________________________________________
2.__________________________________________________
3.__________________________________________________
4. We know that water stored in dams like Mettur, Bhavanisagar etc is used
to generate electricity. List the conversion of energy in the hydro electric
power stations.
80

Types Of Energy

5. Observe the given pictures below and write down the energy possessed
by the stone at each level.
a stone is thrown upwards....

energy stored
in the muscles

the stone at
a particular
height

stone moves
up

Chemical energy

## when the stone

falls down
When the stone
hits the ground

_________

_________

_________

Heat energy

1. Differentiate potential energy from kinetic energy.
2. Explain the Law of Conservation of Energy with an example.

## IX. Project work

Write down the names of the gadgets used in your house, the changes in
energy and their uses in the tabular column given below.
S.No
1.

Name of the
Electric bulb

Change in energy
Electric energy into light
energy

Uses
to get light

SCIENCE

2.
3.
4.
5.

FURTHER REFERENCE
Websites
http://www.tutorvista.com
http://www.arvindguptatoys.com
http://www.wikipedia.org
81

## 'I can, I did'

Student's Activity Record
Subject:
Sl.No

Date

Lesson
No.

Topic of the
Lesson

82

Activities

Remarks