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Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Networks are complex environments involving multiple media,
multiple protocols, and interconnections to networks outside
organizations. Well designing, building and maintaining a network
can be challenging task despite improvements in equipment
performance and media capabilities. Throughout the world, the
network has brought tremendous new opportunity for individuals
and their employers to rule in a business and organizations
nowadays. Network helps computing devices to have communication
which can help for sharing informations to one another.
According to Khan F. (2013), network benefits can be divided
into two generic categories: the connectivity and sharing. The
network is allowing computers hence their users to be connected
together with its network card that acts as the interface to the
network. This card has a unique address that identifies each
computer on the network. Which computers allow for the facilitate
sharing of information and resources, and cooperation between the
devices in other ways. Since a modern business depends so much on
the intelligent flow and management of information, this tells a
lot about why networking is so valuable.
According to Perli(2010),a computer network consists of two
or more computing devices connected by a medium allowing the
exchange of electronic information. These computing devices can
be mainframes, workstations, PCs, or specialized computers; they

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can also be connected to a variety of peripherals, including
printers, modems, and CD-ROM towers. Most networks are supported
by a host of specialized software and hardware that makes these
connections possible, including routers, bridges, and gateways,
which help accommodate traffic between unlike systems.
The computer network can be classified into different types;
one of this is the local area network (LAN). It is commonly used
in an office building, school and home because of its coverage
area.
According to Natarajan, Sriram (2012),a high-speed, low
error data network that covers a relatively small geographic
area(up to a few thousand meter). LANs connect workstations,
peripherals, terminals, and other devices in a single building or
other geographically limited area. LAN standards specify cabling
and signaling at the physical and data link layer of the OSI
model. Ethernet, FDDI, and token Ring are widely used LAN
technologies or as many as thousands of users.
According to Lundstrm (2011), networking is an important
activity that plays a central role for companies success is
common sense in todays highly changing environment. However, the
role of third parties operating within the networking
infrastructure has only been research sparingly. As the authors
literature review showed even though we have knowledge about the
network process and attributes of the different actors there is
still a lack of theories to explaining them. For instance, it is
still unknown how the third party can successfully bridge

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structural holes and how its specific characteristics influence
the network. Furthermore, it is unclear how this is affecting the
people and consequently the companies involved in the network.
Step by step analysis of each device or infrastructure
within the wireless network is done in this report and results
were achieved with further suggestion for works on how to better
the deployment.
According to Hassani(2015), service providers which provide
services within customers networks often deal with the issue of
needing to use a large number of VPN accounts and RSA tokens to
access customers networks. One service provider (SP) has solved
this by setting up an inter-organizational communication network
(IOCN) to facilitate access to customer places systems. This
system has out grown its original setup.

Research on network

architectures is abundant but there is very limited research


focusing on IOCNs. The aim of the author has been to contribute
to the lack of that research by intending to redesign the above
mentioned IOCN with focus on ensuring network security and fault
tolerance. This was done by analyzing the existing IOCN,
evaluating its flaws with regards to network security and fault
tolerance and finally suggesting a new setup based on the
original infrastructure. The solution has been generalized to be
adaptable to the needs of any service provider. The
infrastructure has been setup with a cascading firewall structure
increasing security by using generalized rules on the outer
firewalls and specifying rules further in to the network.

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According to Youns (2014), designing an IP network requires
a deep knowledge of both infrastructures, and the performance of
the devices that are used. At the same time how packets are
handled by the devices. In networking infrastructure where there
are multiple branches with lots of redistribution points,
performance is very important thing that a network designer
should consider. A company can have different brunches, where
those brunches use different routing protocols. Branches of the
same company should communicate with each other. The existence of
multiple routing protocols in different branches will require
redistributing those protocols so that, routes from one routing
protocol can be advertised in to another routing protocol. The
main issues, which can affect the performance of a network, are
the results of improper redistribution. These issues, which
affect the network performance, are excessive routing updates,
suboptimal routing and routing loop, which can lead to network
downtime. The author discusses the issues of network performance.
It explains how to overcome these issues using different path
control tools.
In addition according to Baguilod(2012), Baguio Health
Department has a small-sized network with computers capable of
connecting to LAN for communication purposes only. The current
ICT equipment including the hardware, software resources and
other peripherals of the health department are capable to be
networked. Other required ICT equipment for the proposed network
infrastructure plan is deemed necessary according to the

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requirements of the network infrastructure plan. Network
Infrastructure Plan results to a more efficient network
infrastructure. The proposed network infrastructure plan for
Baguio Health Department would be very useful to support its
resources sharing to improve and make jobs more efficient.
According to Salazar(2012), based on their study there
exists set of ICT equipments that the PMA is using in the
conduct of their operational functions. The operational
requirements are fully realized in the development of the network
infrastructure plan for the Melchor Hall, COMMEL and Office of
Cadet Admission focusing on centralization of ICT resources.
Constructing a network infrastructure to meet the requirements or
needs of each laboratory rooms and offices is the goal of this
study. These needs identified the proposed Network Infrastructure
Plan for the Philippine Military Academy with the following
consideration. Network Topology, Structured Cabling and Security
Measures, policies and Guidelines.
According to Allas(2013), based on the findings some
conclusions were drawn. The company has an existing network
infrastructure but cannot support the offices processes.
Moreover, there are computers that are connected and there are no
connections between devices. The company also encounters problems
on the existing network infrastructure that degrades the
efficiency of employee and staff, and limits the processes of the
company especially in the City Office. The Company also needs the

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network infrastructure plan to address the problem encountered in
the existing network infrastructure.
In these days, network should be managed well in order to be
effective and maintain continuous communication, to avoid risk
and to secure resources. Maintained and managed network
infrastructure allows a company to have a reliable and secure
transaction of records.
In this study the researchers discuss the current network
infrastructure setup with Virtual Private Network (VPNs) of
Pines City National High School in Baguio City (PCNHS-Main). The
researchers aim to design a network infrastructure that will
enable other buildings and departments such as: the faculties,
the principals office and Admin Office to be connected in a
network and enforce security to prevent malicious and outside
users in accessing into the network.
Company Profile
Pines City National High School (PCNHS - Main) was founded
on November 19, 1973. Pines City National High School aims to
accommodate the growing high school student population in the
city and to extend its learning system across the city.
In 1980, Pines City National High School separated from
Baguio City National High School. Because of the growing
population of students, Pines City National High School Main had
adapted and created its own annexes.
Vision
We dream of filipinos who passionately love their country
and whose competences and values enable them to realize their

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full potential and contribute meaningfully to building the
nation. we are a learner-centered public institution that
continuously improves itself to pursue its mission.
Mission
To protect and promote the right of every filipino to
equality equability, culture- based and complete basic education
where;
1. Students learn in a child- friendly,gender-sensitive,
safe and motivating environment.
2. Teachers facilitate learning and constantly nurture
every learner
3. Administrators and staff as stewards of the institution,
ensure an enabling and supportive environment for effective
learning to happen.
4. Family, community and other stakeholders are actively
engaged and share responsibility for developing life- long
learners.
Purpose of the Study
The proposed Network Infrastructure for Pines City National
High School (PCNHS-Main) shall provide a useful way of access on
their computers and more effective in service outsourcing with
the aid of technology. To understand the purpose of this study,
the system is expected to benefit the following:
To Pines City National HighSchool(PCNHS-Main).

This study

shall serve as an instrument for the technological advancement


that greatly benefits the school for a better utilization of heir
computer laboratory of Pines City National high School.

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To the Students. This study shall provide a wireless lan for
the students and faculty members of the school within the school
campus.
To the Teachers. This study shall benefit the teachers in
easy access on the computer units in the laboratory and to their
faculty office.
To the Researchers. This study will help the researchers to
improve their skills in designing and improving a well based
network infrastructure.
To the Future Researchers. This study shall serve as a bases
for future researchers in creating their own Network
Infrastructure. This shall also gives them relevant information
on designing a network.
Objectives of the Study
The primary objectives of the study is to design a network
infrastructure and to create a Virtual Private Network for Pines
City National High School (PCNHS- Main).
To attain the primary objectives for this proposal the
researchers must also obtain the following:
1. To identify the current information and communication
technology infrastructure of Pines City National High
School (PCNHS - Main).
2. To plan the logical and physical network design for Pines
City National High School.
3. To develop the security measures for the propose network
infrastructurefor Pines City National High School.
Definition of Terms

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Cable.Cable refers to the wires that connect one device to
another such as a computer to a router. Example of cable that
they are using is the CAT5.
CAT5.CAT5 is a computer cable used to connect network.
Access Point (AP).Access point is a device that allows
wireless devices to connect to a wired network using Wi-Fi it is
usually used by routers.
Switch.Switch is a network device that links network
segments or network devices.
Router.Router is a device that forwards data packets between
computers inside a network. A router can be connected to 2 or
more computers of the network and can also be connected to other
routers and switches.
Server.Server is a device that stores and process daily
transactions of an organization.
Network Security.Network security is a protection of the
network from unauthorized intrusions that are not limited to
virus and computer hacks.
Network Peripherals.Network peripheralsare devices used to
form a network communication like cables, desktop computers,
laptops, routers, switches and hubs.
IP Address.IP address is a unique set of numbers composed of
32bit assigned to each client to act as their physical address.
Firewall.Firewallis a software that is used in order to keep
a network secured for possible security threats.

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Data Sharing.Data sharingis the process where the computers
can easily transfer and share documents or files to another
computer in the network area.
Local Area Network (LAN).Local Area Network is a computer
network that interconnects computers within a limited area such
as a residence, school, laboratory, or office building.
Wide Area Network (WAN).Wide Area Network is a group of LANs
interconnected with each other.
Network Topology.Network topology is the topological
structure of a network, and may be depicted physically or
logically.