COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
TENAGA NASIONAL UNIVERSITY
MALAYSIA
ENGINEERING MEASUREMENT
LAB. MANUAL
MESB 333
Table of Contents
Laboratory Syllabus
Overview
Laboratory Time
Format for Logbook
Format for Formal Report
Lab No.1:
Lab No. 2:
Lab No.3
Lab No.4
Lab No. 5
Lab No. 6
Lab No. 7
Strain Measurement
Prelab Questions
Experiment I: Getting to know the equipment
Experiment II: The Bending System
Experiment III : The Torsion System
Experiment IV : The Tension System
3
4
5
6
7
9
10
16
20
21
26
Temperature Measurement
Prelab Questions
Experiment I: Time Constant
Experiment II: Type K Thermocouple
Experiment III: Humidity Measurement
31
32
39
42
Photo Transducer
Prelab Questions
Experiment I: Photo Diode
Experiment II: Photo Conductive Cell
Experiment II: Photo Transistor
45
51
54
57
60
61
66
67
66
67
Laboratory Syllabus
Lab 1 : Strain Measurement
The experiments are related to the field of mechanics of deformable solid. The 1 st experiment is on
bending of a cantilever beam. The 2nd experiment involves loading weighs on a circular bar to create
torsion. Strain gauge is used to convert the value of body deformation to corresponding electric signal
for analog reading. Simple calculation for strain is required using basic bending theory.
Informal report is required for this lab.
Laboratory Session
Lab Technician : Khairul Anwar Bin Derahman
Tel:
Laboratory Time:
Section 1A:
Section 1B:
Section 2A:
Section 2B:
Section 3A:
Section 3B:
Thursday
Friday
Wednesday
Tuesday
Monday
Tuesday
16001900 (BL0003)
8001100 (BL0003)
8001100 (BL0003)
9001200 (BL0003)
8001100 (BL0003)
15001800 (BL0003)
Attendance:
Please sign attendant sheet upon arrived to lab. Mark will be given depending on time of arrival. Student
who comes 15 minutes after the lab begins will get 0 mark. Absence due to illness should be proven by
medical certificates (MC).
Prelab:
Turn in prelab at the beginning of each lab. No prelab will be accepted 15 minutes after the lab begins.
Prelab will not be return to the students until the end of semester. The purpose of prelab is to encourage
student to read through lab manual before coming to the lab.
Logbook:
Students are required to prepare a logbook for the purpose of recording the data and discussing the
results from each informal experiment. The logbook MUST be presented to the instructor and signed at
the end of each laboratory session. Marks will be given for each experiment done in the session. Collect
the lab front page cover from the lab technician if you are assigned to write a formal report.
Laboratory Assessment:
Students are required to prepare a logbook for the purpose of recording the data and discussing the
results from each experiment. The logbook MUST be presented to the instructor and signed at the end
of each laboratory session. Marks will be given for each experiment done in the session. Collect the lab
front page cover from the lab technician if you are assigned to write a formal report.
Formal Reports:
There are a total of 2 individual formal reports that need to be completed by each student throughout
the course. The formal reports should be written for the following experiments.
Experiment 2: Determining fluid (air) velocity and Discharge Coefficient. Group Report 5%
Experiment 1: Temperature Measurement. Individual Report 7%
Duration of oneweek period is provided for formal report and should be submitted during the next lab.
Report should be submitted to the lab technician personally. Grade will be deducted from the late report
as follows (except with valid reason) : Late submission penalty : Late 1 day : 90%, Late 2 days : 80
%, Late 3 days : 70%, More than 3 days: 50% of earned mark.
Plagiarism is not acceptable. It will result in half of the total grade being deducted or zero grade for
the lab report or for the whole course. In addition, poor report writing will result in meeting the
instructor for improvement in future report writing. Please use the font of Arial or Times New Roman
only.
Before submitting your hardcopy formal report to the instructor, you need to upload your
softcopy report into TURNITIN program, to check for similarity (report with silmilarity higher
than 50% will not be accepted). You will be given ID and password to upload the softcopy of your
formal report by the respective instructors.
Experiment Group:
Students will perform experiment ingroup. Each experiment group consists of 35 students.
Group number consists of Section number, follows with number appointed. For example, the first
group from section 1A will have group number of 1A1; the second group in the same section will be
designated as 1A2 and so on.
Report must be submitted using front page supplied.
Criteria
Title Page
With name, SID, group no., lab no., date performed, date submitted.
Conclusion
Summary of the experiment. Conclusion drawn from results in the light of the
stated objective.
General Instructions:
Font type: Arial or Time New Roman
Paper size: A4
Font size: 12 pt
Spacing: 1.5
No.
Criteria
Title Page
With name, SID, group no., lab no., date performed, date submitted.
Table of Content
Summary/Abstract
The concise overview of the report.
Theory
With brief but clear background and theory related to the experiment.
Equipment
Diagram of the apparatus and specification.
Procedure
A step by step explanation of what was done in the lab and why each step was
performed.
10
Conclusion
Summary of the experiment. Conclusion drawn from results in the light of the
stated objective.
11
5. In measuring the torsion strain, how can the axial or bending strain be eliminated? Sketch to
explain.
Theory
A material will be deformed to certain extend when external forces act on it. This deformation
will cause changes in length and diameter of the material. The strain produced is directly
proportional to the stress at a limited region, which is called the limit of proportionality (i.e. there
is linear relation between the two). The stressstrain graph is a straight line in this region. In this
experiment, we are going to study the performance of an electrical resistance strain gauge as well
as to verify its accuracy on measuring the strain of a bending material.
Hooke's Law, which relates stress and strain, can be applied in the limit of proportionality
region. Young's Modulus of Elasticity is the gradient of straight line in the stressstrain graph. The
mathematical relationship is:
dL
P
(1)
L
EA
E
where,
dL
P
E
:
:
:
:
:
change in length L
strain
force on cross section area A
Youngs Modulus of Elasticity
axial stress
When the length and the diameter of a material change, the electrical resistance of the material
will change too. The relationship between the change in the dimension to the electrical resistance
of the material can be related mathematically as equation shown:
A ..(2)
where,
R
electrical resistance
length
From the relationship, it is clear that the resistance will increase when the material is
stretched. Conversely, compression will cause the resistance to decrease. Strain gauge uses
this principle to measure the strain.
2. Calculation of axial strain
Theoretically, the strain value can be calculated using the theory of bending at the
point of attachment of the strain gauge. For a rectangular crosssectional area cantilever beam,
My
M E
I
y R
I
..(3)
Where,
M
axial stress
modulus of elasticity
bd 3
(Width b and thickness d)
12
=d
dL y
L R
.(4)
From the theory of bending
1 M
R EI
.(5)
Hence, the theoretical strain value is
y My
R
EI
(6)
11
Measurement of the resistance is usually done using the Wheatstone Bridge. The gauge is
attached to the material using a highgrade adhesive. Since temperature will affect the resistance,
this factor must be taken into consideration too
Having studied the use of a strain gauge for measuring tensile(axial) strain and stress,
a more complicated application can now be considered. Reverting to the diagram of
the standard bridge there are further ways of exploiting the measuring technique. In
this experiment, we are going to study the measurement of torsion strain.
Suppose the temperature compensation gauge used as R, can be attached to the structural element
being tested in such a way it is subjected to an equal but opposite strain to the R, gauge. This will double
the meter reading while providing the temperature compensation and is known as reversed active strain
gauging. This could have been done in the case of bending by attaching a strain gauge on the underside
of the cantilever where the compression due to bending equals the tension where the top surface gauge
is fixed. The leads from the underside gauge would then replace the leads from the dummy gauge. Now
consider a hollow round tube used as a cantilever.
Temperature compensation
(2)
(3)
12
The meter will therefore indicate twice the diagonal strain from which the stress can
be derived using the modulus of elasticity.
2.3 Calculation of torsion strain
Hookes Law
E
..(7)
T G
Tr
J r
L
J
..(8)
where
T
Do
outside diameter
Di
inside diameter
: modulus of rigidity
D
32
4
o
D1
13
perpendicular to each other. Hence there are equal direct strains along opposing 450
helices on the surface of the tube given by
q Tr
E EJ
(9)
3 Wheatstone Bridge
B
R1
R2
R4
D
R1 will be the strain gauge attached to the material. It is also called an active gauge. R2 is a similar
strain gauge to R1. But, it is attached to an unstressed part of the material. The effect of temperature
on R1 and R2 will be similar. R3 and R4 are high stability resistors of equal value.
M is a digital voltmeter or a purpose designed high stability high gain amplifier with a digital
meter and a zeroing circuit. Voltage applied to A and C is a constant DC voltage. Normally it is 12 volts. External zeroing is applied in Wheatstone Bridge. External zeroing means the meter M will
show zero reading. This is done by having a variable resistor at D. Zeroing can be done by varying
the variable resistor. Zeroing is required because factor like weight of the material can affect the
results.
Refer to the strain gauge trainer manual in the moodle for more detail
how to perform this experiments.
14
1. Draw a diagram and explain briefly how to measure pressure using pitot tube?
4. Describe three different flow characteristics and what determines each characteristic?
5. What is orifice plate is use for ? Gives 2 examples UNITS for measuring flowrate?
15
1.
Experiment I
Velocity Measurement Using Pitot Tube
1.1. Objective
This experiment allows student to learn the method of measuring air flow velocity using pitot
tube. The student will understand the working principle of pitot tube as well as the importance of
Bernoulli equation in deriving and calculating the velocity.
1.2. Theory
A pitot tube is used to explore the developing boundary layer in the entry length of a pipe which
has air drawn through it. With pitot tube, the velocity distribution profiles can be determined at a
number of crosssections at different locations along a pipe. With pitot tube, air flow velocities in
the pipe can be obtained by first measuring the pressure difference of the moving air in the pipe at
two points, where one of the points is at static velocity. The Bernoulli equation is then applied to
calculate the velocity from the pressure difference.
2p
or
2 gh'
(1)
The pressure difference between the pitot tube and the wall pressure tapping measured using
manometer bank provided (gx where x is the level of fluid used in the manometer).
h The pressure difference expressed as a 'head' of the fluid being measured (air)
The air density at the atmospheric pressure and temperture of that day.(kg/m3)
g gravitational acceleration constant (9.81 m/s2)
When fluid flows past a stationary solid wall, the shear stress set up close to this boundary due to
the relative motion between the fluid and the wall leads to the development of a flow boundary
layer. The boundary layer may be either laminar or turbulent in nature depending on the flow
Reynolds number.
The growth of this boundary layer can be revealed by studying the velocity profiles at selected
crosssections, the core region still outside the boundary layer showing up as an area of more or
less uniform velocity.
16
If velocity profiles for crosssections different distances from the pipe entrance are compared, the
rate of growth of the boundary layer along the pipe length can be determined. Once the boundary
layer has grown to the point where it fills the whole pipe crosssection this is termed "fully
developed pipe flow".
The Reynolds number is a measure of the way in which a moving fluid encounters an obstacle. It's
proportional to the fluid's density, the size of the obstacle, and the fluid's speed, and inversely
proportional to the fluid's viscosity (viscosity is the measure of a fluid's "thickness"for example,
honey has a much larger viscosity than water does).
Re
vd
fluid density
v
: fluid velocity
: obstacle size
coefficient of fluid dynamic viscosity
A small Reynolds number refers to a flow in which the fluid has a low density so that it responds
easily to forces, encounters a small obstacle, moves slowly, or has a large viscosity to keep it
organized. In such a situation, the fluid is able to get around the obstacle smoothly in what is known
as "laminar flow." You can describe such laminar flow as dominated by the fluid's viscosityit's
tendency to move smoothly together as a cohesive material.
A large Reynolds number refers to a flow in which the fluid has a large density so that it doesn't
respond easily to forces, encounters a large obstacle, moves rapidly, or has too small a viscosity
to keep it organized. In such a situation, the fluid can't get around the obstacle without breaking
up into turbulent swirls and eddies. You can describe such turbulent flow as dominated by the
fluid's inertiathe tendency of each portion of fluid to follow a path determined by its own
momentum.
The transition from laminar to turbulent flow, critcal flow, occurs at a particular range of
Reynolds number (usually around 2500). Below this range, the flow is normally laminar; above it,
the flow is normally turbulent.
p = gh
(2)
17
Manometer tubes
1(static pressure*)
2(stagnation pressure)
X1
X2
Angle of inclination, = 0
pressure term is used since this reading is in mm of manometer fluid and not the pressure of unit
Pa.
Therefore the equivalent vertical separation of liquid levels in manometer tubes,
h = (x1  x2)cos
(3)
If k is the density of the kerosene in the manometer, the equivalent pressure difference p is:
p = k gh = k g(x1  x2) cos
(4)
The value for kerosene is k = 787 kg/m3 and g = 9.81 m/s2. If x1 and x2 are read in mm, then:
p = 7.72(x1  x2)cos [N/m2]
(5)
The p obtained is then used in second equation (1) to obtain the velocity.
To use the first equation (1), convert this into a 'head' of air, h. Assuming a value of 1.2 kg/m3 for
this gives:
h'
k ( x1 x2 )
.
. cos
air 1000
[N/m2]
(6)
18
1.5 Apparatus
e)
f)
g)
h)
Five mounting positions are provided for the pitot tube assembly. These are: 54 mm, 294 mm,
774 mm, 1574 mm and 2534 mm from the pipe inlet
Ensure that the standard inlet nozzle is fitted for this experiment and that the orifice plate is
removed from the pipe break line.
Set the manometer such that the inclined position is at 00.
Mount the pitot tube assembly at position 1 (at 54mm, nearest to the pipe inlet). Note that the
connecting tube, the pressure tapping at the outer end of the assembly, is connected to a
convenient manometer tube. Make sure that the tip, the Lshape metal tube of the pitot tube
is facing the incoming flow.
Note that there is a pipe wall static pressure tapping near to the position where the pitot tube
assembly is placed. The static pressure tapping is connected to a manometer tube.
Position the pitot tube with the traverse poisition of 0mm. Start the fan with the outlet throttle
opened.
Starting with the traverse position at 0mm, where the tip is touching the bottom of the pipe,
read and record both manometer tube levels of the wall static and the pitot tube until the
traveverse position touching the top of the pipe.
Repeat the velocity traverse for the same air flow value at the next positon with the pitot tube
assembly. Make sure that the blanking plugs is placed at the holes that are not in use.
19
1.7 Results
Data Sheet for Velocity Measurement Using Pitot Tube
Traverse
Position
(mm)
Pitot Tube at 54 mm
Static 'Pressure' Reading
____________(mm)
Stagnation
'Pressure'
Reading
(mm)
x
(mm)
velocity Stagnation
p
2
'Pressure'
(N/m ) (m/s)
Reading
(mm)
x
(mm)
p
(N/m2)
Velocity
(m/s)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Traverse
Position
(mm)
x
(mm)
velocity Stagnation
p
'Pressure'
(N/m2) (m/s)
Reading
(mm)
x
(mm)
p
(N/m2)
Velocity
(m/s)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
20
Stagnation
'Pressure'
Reading(mm)
x
(mm)
p
(N/m2)
velocity
(m/s)
Calculate air velocity at each point using equations (1), (5) or (6).
Plot the traverse velocity profiles in one graph (Velocity against traverse position). Note
that the boundary layer grows in the pipe to fill the whole crosssection; fully developed
pipe flow most likely occurred by the third or fourth position.
Give your comments on the velocity profiles.
Include error analysis.
21
Experiment II
Determination of Discharge Coefficient
2.1 Objective
This experiment will ask student to determine the discharge coefficients, CD for orifice plate and
the small nozzle.
2.2
Introduction
An orifice plate meter forms an accurate and inexpensive device for measuring the discharge
for the flow of liquids or gases through a pipe. The orifice provided can be inserted into the
suction pipe at the flanged joint approximately half way along its length. The multitube
manometer provided is used to measure the pressure drop across the orifice and this is related to
the discharge determined independently.
In this experiment, we are going to determine the discharge coefficient experimentally for an
orifice plate in an airflow pipe. Also using the static pressure tapings provided, we are
determining the pressure distribution along the pipe downstream of the orifice plate. From the
obtained CD of the orifice plate, we will determine the CD of a small nozzle.
2.3 Theory
The orifice plate meter forms a jet, which expands to fill the whole pipe, some diameter
distance downstream. The pressure difference between the two sides of the plate is related to the
jet velocity, and therefore the discharge, by the energy equation:
Q A jv j AoCc v j AoCc Cv 2gh
where
Q =
Aj =
Ao =
vj =
Cc =
Cv =
g =
h =
discharge (volume/time)
jet crosssection area at minimum contraction (vena contracta)
2
orifice cross/4: d = orifice size)
jet velocity at minimum contraction (vena contracta)
coefficient of contraction of jet
coefficient of velocity of jet
gravitational acceleration (9.81 ms 2)
pressure difference 'head' of air across orifice (refer to equation (6) of Exp. I)
These two coefficients are normally combined to give a single coefficient of discharge: CD = Cc.Cv
Equation (1) now becomes
Q C D Ao 2 gh
(2)
If Q can be determined independently, then the discharge coefficient can be determined as follows:
CD
Q
A o 2gh
(3)
Values of Qi can be determined if the standard nozzle is fitted at the pipe inlet.
Q i A i C ' D 2gh i
(4)
22
If hi = the drop in pressure head across the inlet, the discharge = (k/air )* (xbefore nozzle xafter nozzle):
in which Ai = standard nozzle crosssection area (= d2 /4) and CD assumed to be 0.97. Values of
h I are obtained from the manometer tube levels connected to the pipe inlet pressure tapping and
open to the atmosphere.
Qo
Ao 2 gho
(5)
Where
2.5 Apparatus
Measure the diameter of the orifice plate, and the pipe for computing the cross sectional area
and Reynolds number.
2.7 Results
Table 5.1 Static Pressure Readings when using Standard Nozzle (80 mm)
Damper Openings (% Openings)
0%
25%
Points
50%
75%
100%
mm of kerosene
Room
pressure
After nozzle
54mm
294mm
774mm
Before
Orifice
After Orifice
1574mm
2534mm
Table 5.2 Static Pressure Readings when using Small Nozzle (50 mm)
Damper Openings (% Openings)
0%
Points
25%
50%
75%
100%
mm of kerosene
Room
pressure
After nozzle
54mm
294mm
774mm
Before
Orifice
After Orifice
1574mm
2534mm
24
From table 5.1using equation (4) calculate the Qi, then using equation (3) where Q=Qi
calculate the CD for orifice plate for each damper opening.
For data in table 5.2, using similar procedures, but this time using the value of CD for orifice
found previously, you need to calculate the CD for small orifice for each damper opening.
For each case, plot values of CD obtained against corresponding values of Reynolds number
(Re) obtained using the relationship:
Re
vd
..(6)
where
Also plot longitudinal pressure profiles for both tables from the manometer readings.
(mm kerosene against tapping position)
Discuss what happen as the air flow past through the orifice plate.
Discuss the CD obtained for orifice and small nozzle.
What happen to the CD when you increase the damper opening?
What happen to the manometer reading when the damper opening changes. Discuss.
Any obstruction such as an orifice plate would actually cause a pressure drop but by
analyzing the graph below or from your data you should see that the reading in mm of
kerosene is increased. Explain.
mm Kerosene
Air Flow
25
1. Describe the working principle of a thermistor and resistance thermometer. What are the
differences?
26
Experiment I
Time Constant
1.1
Objective
1.3
Theory
Scale
Melting Ice
Boiling Water
0 0C
100 0C
Fahrenheit
32 0F
212 0F
273 K
373 K
In this experiment you will be familiarized with the following temperature measurement devices:
1.4
a) Resistance thermometer
(TYPE K)
b) Thermistor
(NTC)
thermometer heated to drive off the air. The end is then scaled leaving mercury and mercury
vapour only.
On heating, the mercury expands relative to the glass container and a column is pushed along the
bore of the tube. A scale along the tube, calibrated in units of temperature, gives a direct reading
of temperature. The mercuryinglass thermometer is an accurate device but is very fragile and
care should be exercised in use. This type of thermometer should not be used in applications such
as the food industry where mercury poisoning could occur in the event of breakage.
The mercury may be replaced by other fluids according to the application. For example, alcohol
is cheaper and may be used at lower temperatures than mercury. A mercuryinglass thermometer
is supplied with the Temperature Measurement Bench due to its stable and accurate performance.
For accurate measurement of temperature using a liquid filled thermo meter, it is important that
the thermometer is immersed into the medium being measured by the correct amount. The depth
of immersion is usually stated on the stem of the thermo meter and defines the condition under
which calibration is maintained. The immersion depth may be partial or total and is independent
of filling or range
1.5
1.6
of metals.
This type of thermometer is very robust and has many applications throughout industry where
accuracy of measurement is not imp ortant.
The bi metal thermometer supplied w ith the bench is mounted on th e backboard and gives a
direct reading of ambient air temperature.
1.7
Resistance Thermometer
The resistance of a material changes with temperature. Resistance thermometer uses this
relationship in measuring the temperature. If high accuracy is required, the material used in
resistance thermometer is platinum. Nickel is used in general operation and monitoring. Copper
is also suitable but only in a restricted temperature range of approximately 250oC, because copper
tends to corrode more severely when subjected to oxidation.
Figure 3.1 shows the resistance change of the metals as a function of the temperature T. They
have a positive temperature coefficient . For the purpose of comparison a resistance
characteristics of a thermistor (NTC) was added, which runs much more nonlinearly, and in
contrast to the metals, demonstrates a negative coefficient .
For small temperature ranges we may assume that linear relationships exist between resistance
and temperature. From figure 3.2 one can deduce the temperaturedependent resistance ratio
R(T) caused by the resistance change R is:
R(T) = Ro + R
(1)
Knowing that,
(2)
R(T) = Ro + R, thus:
R(T) = Ro + mT
= Ro (1 + m/Ro T)
= Ro (1 +
R / R o
T)
T
= Ro (1 + 1T)
(3)
where, 1 =
R / R o
T
29
450
400
350
R/W
300
Ni 100
250
Pt100
200
150
Cu100
100
50
0
200
200
400
T/0C
600
800
1000
Figure 3.1
1 is the linear temperature coefficient of the resistive material. It provides the relative change in
resistance (R/ Ro) for a certain temperature change (T), for example 0.4% change in resistance
R(T)
R
Ro = R(To)
per degree.
Figure 3.2
From Figure 3.1 we can see that for large measurement ranges no linear relationship between
resistance R and temperature T can be assumed. In this case we must take into consideration,
apart from the linear temperature coefficient 1 , also the square temperature coefficients 2, and
for very large temperature changes T also the cubic temperature coefficients 3, and if
necessary the biquadratic value 4.
(4)
where, T T To
30
1.8
Thermal Response
The thermal response of a thermo meter to changes in te mperature is probably the most important
characteristic to consider when selecting instrumentat ion f or a particular application.
A thermo meter may be extremely accurate and stable in performance but totally unsuitab le f or
use in a dynamic situation, due to a time lag between system temperature and thermometer
reading.
The d iagra m below shows typical response curves f or a thermo meter when step changes in
temperature are applied .
The response of the thermo meter is def ined by the t ime ta ken f or the te mperature reading to
change by 63.2% of the step change. For any thermometer, this time will be a constant value
irrespective of step change and is def ined as the "t ime constant" f or the thermometer. Th e time
constant and response profile f or a thermometer will change if the system is modif ied. For
example, t he speed of response of a thermometer will be slowed down if it is protected from the
system being measured by a ther mo meter. The response will also be af fected by the thermal
contact between the thermometer and pocket, f luid f illing of the pocket resulting in a reduction in
time constant.
The response of the thermometer is def ined by the t ime taken f or the te mperature reading to change by
63.2% of the step change. For any thermometer, this time will be a constant value irrespective of step
change and is def ined as the "time constant" f or the thermo meter. Th e time constant and re sponse
prof ile for a thermometer will change if the system is modified. For example, the speed of response
of a thermometer will be slowed down if it is protected from the system being measured by a thermometer.
The response will also be af f ected by the thermal contact between the thermometer and pocket, f luid f
illing of the pocket resulting in a reduction in time constant.
31
32
1.9
Apparatus Setup
Note: To discharge the hot water from the pot, request assistant from lab technician.
Base on Figure 3.3, construct the experiment procedure in order to achieve the objective.
33
Experiment II
Type K thermocouple
2.1
Objective
2.2
Thermistor
NTC sensors possess a high sensitivity, which is easily 10 times higher than that of metal
resistance thermometers. The nonlinearity of NTCs and their broad manufacturers' tolerances
exclude them from use for precision instruments. In the temperature range between 60oC and
+150oC they are frequently used in the area of household appliances and medical technology
because of their high sensitivity and corresponding simple circuitry.
The effect of NTCs, whereby the resistance lowers as the temperature increases, is
explained by the semiconductor mechanism. In semiconductors (as opposed to metal
conductors) the valency electrons have relatively strong bonds to the atomic nuclei of the crystal
lattice. A rise in temperature loosens this bond and more and more electrons enter into the
conduction band, where they are available for charge transport (i.e. for increased current), thus
reducing the ohmic resistance.
PTCs behave in the same manner below the threshold temperature. The resistance
lies only somewhat higher than for NTCs, because, due to the mixture of a ferroelectric
material to the semiconductor material an additional resistance of both components
results (series connection). However, with increasing temperature a strong increase in
resistance is observed within a narrow temperature range, which is caused so rapidly by
the sudden cancelling of a uniform orientation of all magnetic forces in the ferroelectric
34
2.4
(5)
The material constant B is given in Kelvin, e.g. B = 3800 K. The constant A gives the
resistance for infinitely high temperature. As the sensor cannot register this temperature,
the constant A cannot be used as a practical parameter. The requirements for practical
application can be better satisfied with the following dependency RT. For this the
reference temperature To = 20oC is used, for which the resistance has its nominal value
Ro. Due to the fact that in the above equation only A is unknown, the equation is then
solved for A, which is inserted into RT:
R(To) = Ro
= AeB/To
A = RoeB/To
(6)
RT = RoeB(1/T  1/To)
(7)
35
Experiment III
Humidity
3.1
Objective
3.2 Introduction
Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. Relative humidity is defined as the ratio of the
partial pressure of water vapor in a parcel of air to the saturated vapor pressure of water vapor at
a prescribed temperature. Humidity may also be expressed as specific humidity. Relative
humidity is an important metric used in forecasting weather. Humidity indicates the likelihood of
precipitation, dew, or fog. High humidity makes people feel hotter outside in the summer because
it reduces the effectiveness of sweating to cool the body by reducing the evaporation of
perspiration from the skin. This effect is calculated in a heat index table
Hygrometers are instruments used for measuring humidity. A simple form of a hygrometer is
specifically known as a psychrometer and consists of two thermometers, one of which includes
a dry bulb and the other of which includes a bulb that is kept wet to measure wetbulb
temperature. Modern electronic devices use temperature of condensation, changes in electrical
resistance, and changes in electrical capacitance to measure humidity changes. Hygrometers
measure humidity while psycrometers measure realative humidity in the air.
In a psychrometer, there are two thermometers, one with a dry bulb and the other with a wet bulb.
Evaporation from the wet bulb lowers the temperature, so that the wetbulb thermometer usually
shows a lower temperature than that of the drybulb thermometer, which measures drybulb
temperature. When the air temperature is below freezing, however, the wet bulb is covered with
a thin coating of ice and yet may be warmer than the dry bulb. Relative humidity is computed
from the ambient temperature as shown by the drybulb thermometer and the difference in
temperatures as shown by the wetbulb and drybulb thermometers. Relative humidity can also
be determined by locating the intersection of the wet and drybulb temperatures on a
psychrometric chart. One device that uses the wet/dry bulb method is the sling psychrometer,
where the thermometers are attached to a handle or length of rope and spun around in the air for
a few minutes.
36
Your are given a whirling hygrometer for humidity measurement apparatus, write down the
procedure to achieve the objectives and to measure the Humidity of the Engineering
Measurement Lab.
37
a.
b.
c.
38
Introduction.
In this lab, the students are to be expose to several type of photo transducer with their
characteristic that are related to Inverse Square Law and Lamberts Cosine Law.
1.1
Objective
To understand the photo transducers effect and its relations with Inverse Square Law and
Lamberts Cosine Law. Students will measure the effect of the incident light on the behavior of
a photodiode, phototransistor and photo conductive cell.
1.2
Theory
When light falls onto certain material, its energy will be given up as being described by the
principle of photoelectric transducer. The energy will become energy in the form of electric
current. Human eyes is an example of a photoelectric transducer. Eyes act as a transducer by
converting light energy to signals that will be sent to the brain for further process.
Experimentally, one can know the intensity of the light falls on an object by measuring the
corresponding electric current caused by the light. In this experiment, you will learn to use photoelectric transducer to measure the intensity of light in relation to the induced current and
resistance.
The variety of colors existing in this world is due to the fact that sunlight has different
components of light. Color of light is determined by its frequency, which in turn proportional to
the reciprocal of its wavelength. The relationship between light frequency, speed of light and
wavelength is given in the equation
v
f
1
f
Where,
= frequency
= wavelength
The spectrum for light with its wavelength has been measured experimentally as shown below.
39
v
f
v
1.3
d2
40
Hence, the illumination on a surface is inversely proportional to the square of its distance from
the source. The illuminance, E (lux) is given as,
Where
1.4
distance (m)
Incident
Light
Figure 4.1
1.5
cos
photons, or the intensity of the incident light, and will be investigated. The colour of the light
will affect the response, due to the different energies of the photons. Small number of charge
carriers are also produced at room temperature by thermal effects, and this will also contribute to
the current.
The physical effects which cause this phenomenon are rather involved, but are given here to
make the study complete. In an intrinsic (pure) semiconductor crystal all the valence electrons
have covalent bonds together with their neighbours. There may be represented on a diagram of
energy bands. It is found that there is a forbidden energy gap of the order of an electron volt
(1eV) between the valence band (where the electrons are bound to their parent atoms) and the
conduction band the electrons are now free charge carriers). This corresponds to the minimum
energy necessary to break a covalent bond and form a hole/electron pair. The electron is raised
into the conduction band and contributes to conduction as well as the hole left in the valence
band. This theory is fully described most standard textbooks. It is of interest to us now if this
energy can be supplied by light photons.
Consider first the effect of impurities in the semiconductor. Very small amounts of the correct
impurities can introduce either extra holes (P type) or extra electrons (N type) because atomic
structure. These will appear on our energy diagram as energy levels just below the conduction
band (doNor Ievel for N type) or just above the valence band (accePtor level for P type). If
photons of the correct energy illuminate such a specimen, several things may happen, as shown
in Fig 4.2
Conduction band
doNor
level
photon
Impurity
excitation
Intrinsic
excitation
Energy gap
Eg
AccePtor
level
Valence band
Figure 4.2 Effect of photons in energy bands of a semiconductor with both P & N type impurities
An electron/'hole pair may be generated by a high energy photon as described above. The
electron jumps the gap into the conduction band. This is called intrinsic excitation.
An electron in the doNor level" (for N type) may be excited into the conduction band.
A valence electron may fill a hole in the accePtor level (for P type).
These last two transitions are known as impurity excitations and require less energy than
intrinsic excitations. However, the density of states in the conduction and valence bands greatly
exceeds the density of impurity states. At room temperature, most of the impurity atoms are
42
ionised in any case. Thus, photoconductivity is due principally to intrinsic excitation. Impurities
however do have advantages as discussed later. Our transducer is actually an Ntype semiconductor.
The carriers generated by the photoexcitation will move if an external voltage is applied to
the device. This superimposes a regular drift on their random diffusion motion colliding with
others. They may however, recombine with an available hole or electron before they reach the
edges of the material. This may affect the response time of the device, cut down the available
current (loss of sensitivity) or introduce nonlinearities. Those carriers remaining will constitute
the device current which thus depends initially on the number of photons.
The actual process is extremely complicated and depends on several factors, including the
density of the states in the energy bands, the probability that a photon will excite an electron, and
other factors, including carrier lifetime and mobility which depends upon recombinations and
trappings. Thermal effects also play a part.
1.6
1. Only plug the banana plug into the banana socket according to the experiment manual when
doing experiment, plugging the plug into the wrong socket may damage the electronics
component inside the control box.
2. Check the wiring connection between banana socket first before turn on the control box.
3. Do not connect the positive terminal of the power supply to negative terminal of the power
supply without connecting to any load between them.
4. Make sure the connection between the measurement point and the measurement meter are in
correct polarity.
5. Make sure the connection of the lamp to the power source are in correct polarity.
6. If the experiment is conducted during day light, take the reading as soon as possible in case
the day light varies. Also keep your hand away from the rig when taking readings in case they
cause unwanted reflections of light onto the transducers.
7. While the lamp is turn on, avoid touching the lamps body.
8. Before using the multimeter to do voltage/current measurement, make sure the correct
measurement range is selected on the multimeter. Also make sure the banana plug is
connected to correct terminal of the multimeter.
Preexperiment procedure
1. Read the safety instruction given before conducting the experiment.
2. Read and understand the theory of photo transducer before lab session.
3. Read and understand the theory of Inverse Square Law and Lamberts Cosine Law before lab
session.
4. Prepare the accessories needed for the experiment.
43
Experiment 1: Photodiode
2.1.
PROCEDURES
5. After finish the experiment, switch off the lamp power supply and the main power supply
switch on the control box.
2.2.
Current (A)
Resistance ()
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
Switch Off the
lamp
For each distance, calculate the resistance of the transducer by applying Ohms law and
dividing the applied voltage by the current flowing, R = Vdc/I
What is the relationship between resistance and distance at constant voltage?
Why the current did not become zero when the lamp is switch off?
How can you relate the result obtained with Inverse Square Law? Plot graph if required?
Plot a graph of current flowing against distance. Label your graph with the value of applied
voltage. Discuss the shape of the graph.
45
Angle (Degrees)
Current (A)
Resistance ()
30 (ACW)
25
20
15
10
5(CCW)
0
5 (CW)
10
15
20
25
30
46
47
1. With the circuit of Part 1 still connected, return the photo transducer box and lamp to their
starting positions.
2. Switch on the lamp again and slowly adjust the potentiometer (VR) until the multimeter
reads about 10mA initial value.
3. Rotate the angular scale shown on the photo transducer box to 30 anticlockwise and
record the reading.
4. Repeat the procedure 3 for the angles as shown in table below.
5. After finish the experiment, switch off the lamp power supply and the main power supply
switch on the control box.
3.2 RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Part 1: Photo Conductive Cell Inverse Square Law
Table 4.4 Experiment Result of Photo Conductive Cell response
Distance (mm)
Current (mA)
Voltage
(Volt)
Device Resistance
()
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
Off of the lamp

48
Angle (Degrees)
Current (A)
Resistance ()
30 (ACW)
25
20
15
10
5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30

49
Experiment 3: Phototransistor
4.1 Procedure
Part 1: Phototransistor  Inverse Square Law
1. Make sure the control boxs main switch is turn off first before start doing wiring
connection.
2. Unplug all the banana plug from the banana terminal first before assembling out the
circuit.
3. Start connecting the circuit using banana plug to respective banana socket, by using
circuit diagram below as reference:
50
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
Voltage
(V)
Current (mA)
0
1
2
5
10
51
Angle (Degrees)
Current (A)
Resistance ()
30
25
20
15
10
5(CCW)
0
5(CW)
10
15
20
25
30
Plot graph and write the analysis according to the objective of the experiment.
52
1. What are the examples of flow measurement techniques that use obstruction.
2. Draw the cross section of a venturi meter and label the throat, upstream, and recovery cone.
4. What is discharge coefficient ? What are Cd for orifice plate and venturi meter ? What
does the Cd value tells us ?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
5. What does smaller discharge coefficient tells us?
53
Objective
In this experiment, students will learn different types of flow meters devices to measure liquid
(water) volume flow rate. The flow meters used on the apparatus are venturi meter, variable area
meter and orifice plate. From these three devices, you will be able to compare the advantages
and accuracy of each device.
1.1
Theory
The theory behind this experiment is similar to the air flow rig in experiment 2. From the
pressure drop on the orifice or the venturi meter, the flowrate of the fluid can be calculated.
Applying Bernoulli equation:
V12
V2 P
P
1 Z1 2 2 Z2
2g g
2g g
V12
V2 P
P
1 2 2
2g g 2g g
P1 P2 V2 V1
g g 2g 2g
1
P1 P2 1 V22 V12
g
2g
For an ideal flow :
Q A1V1 A 2V2
V1
A2
V2
A1
SubstituteV1 int o
1
1
(p1 p 2 )
(V 2 V12 )gives :
g
2g 2
1
1 2 A2 2
V
(p1 p 2 )
V2
2
g
2g
A1
2
2
V
A
p1 p 2 2 1 2
2 A1
V22
V2
2(p1 p 2 )
2
A
1 2
A1
2(p1 p 2 )
2
A2
1
A1
54
Qideal A 2
2(p1 p 2 )
2
A
1 2
A1
The above is for an ideal flow. For venturi tube and the orifice, the equation must be
multiplied with the coefficient of discharge, Cd:
Qactual Cd Qideal
Qactual Cd A 2
Where,
Cd
Q
A2
A1
P
:
:
:
:
:
discharge coefficient
volume flowrate (m 3/s)
throat diameter for venturi, or orifice diameter for orifice plate
upstream pipe diameter
(P1P2) pressure drop across the venturi meter or the orifice (gh)
1.2
2( p1 p 2 )
2
A
1 2
A1
Discharge Coefficient
What is really a discharge coefficient? You have observed in the previous experiments on the
airflow rig where the discharge coefficient is always used in relation to the orifice plate and the
nozzle. Similarly, discharge coefficient will be applied to venturi tube too. Discharge coefficient
basically tells how much the actual flow defers from the ideal flow:
Cd
Qactual
Qideal
A smaller value of discharge coefficient tells that the actual flow is smaller compare
to the ideal or theoretical value. The discharge coefficient for the orifice plate is 0.63
while for the venturi meter it is 0.98. There is more resistance to the flow imposed by the
orifice plate, and subsequently it causes some loses through the meter. This loss can be
observed from the large pressure drop across the orifice compares to the pressure drop
across the venturi meter.
55
1.3 Apparatus
Figure
1
Experiment
apparatus
The hydraulic bench and the apparatus are as shown above. The flow meter apparatus
is set up on top of the hydraulic bench. The apparatus above consists of venturi meter,
variable area meter and orifice plate and 8 bank manometer. Pressure readings of the
water flow will be taken from the 8 bank manometer.
1.3.1 Technical Data:
Venturi meter
Upstream pipe diameter
hence A1
Throat dia.
hence A2
Upstream taper
Downstream taper
1.4
=
=
=
=
=
=
31.75 mm
7.92 x 104 m2
15 mm
1.77 x 104 m2
21 0 inclusive
14 0 inclusive
Orifice plate
Upstream pipe diameter
hence A1
Orifice diameter
=
=
=
hence A2
= 3.14 x 104 m2
31.75 mm
7.92 x 104 m2
20 mm
Procedure
1. Observe that the apparatus is placed on the hydraulic bench. The inlet pipe of the apparatus
is connected to the hydraulic bench supply, while the apparatus outlet pipe is connected to
the pipe going to the volumeter tank.
2. Note that the hydraulic bench inlet valve is in shut position.
3. Switch on the pump then slowly open the hydraulic bench inlet valve.
4. At the same time open the flow control valve, the outlet valve on the apparatus.
5. To disperse air trapped in the flow system, close flow control valve, open air bleed screw and
56
prime manometer and tappings. When done, close back the air bleed screw.
6. Switch off the pump and adjust the levels of the manometer by adjusting the air bleed screw.
Try to get initial manometer level at a comfortable level so that when experiment is carried out
there will be enough room for the water column in the manometer to move up and down. Close
back the air bleed screw when done. Switch on the pump again.
7. Adjust the inlet and outlet valves so that variable meter gives the flow rate of 2 Liter/min.
Record the manometer reading. Increase the flow rate until 22 Liter/min.
8. Measure a certain volume of the reservoir, using stop watch measure the time taken to fill that
portion.
9. Repeat step 7 to get another set of data.
1.5
Results
Get the manometer readings for the respective flow rates of the variable meter.
Table 1 Experiment Result
Variable
Meter
Flow rate
Manometer Readings (mm)
(Liter/min)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
2
5
10
12
15
18
20
22
Seconds
From the readings obtained on the Venturi meter and orifice plate calculate the volume flow
rate using the basic equation with relevant Cd factor.
Note that (p1  p2) in the equation refers to Venturi Reading (Manometer 1 minus Manometer
2), and NOT Loss In Venturi (Manometer 1 minus Manometer 3). Similarly for Orifice Plate, use
Orifice Plate Reading.
Calculate the actual flow rate using the volume and time measured.
Don't forget to change the manometer column readings from mm to m.
Compare these calculated values and the reading on the variable area meter with the actual
flow rate. Use same units.
Calculate the velocity at point 2 (venturi meter) and 7 (orifice plate) (Use formula:
velocity=volume flow rate/cross section area) and discuss.
Also calculate the Reynolds number at these two points. Re d = Dv/,,where = absolute
viscosity = 8.937 x l04 Pa.s and D is the diameter of the holes.
Question for discussion
When calculating (p1  p2) for the venturi meter, why is the reading for p2 is taken at the venturi
throat and not at the tapping after the throat?
How does the variable area meter work?
How to calculate the volume flow rate using stop watch?
What sort of losses do you think occur on the venturi meter and the orifice plate?
Why the heights should different in relation to the others in the manometer?
Why velocity at P2 and P7 are different?
57
Which flow meters devices as the smallest error? Include error analysis.
Venturi
Flowrate
Oriface
Flowrate
m3/s
m3/s
Flowrate
using
stopwatch
m3/s
Venturi
%
Oriface
%
Stopwatch
%
Velocity at
P7
m/s
Reynolds
Number
at
P2
Velocity at
P2
m/s
Reynolds
Number
at
P7
58
Lab No.6
Name: _____________________
3. Describe what do you understand about the control actions: proportional, derivative and Integral.
4. Draw an example of a system response with depict peak overshoot, settling time, rise time and
steady state error.
5. What are the three types of response for a second order system?
47
Lab No.6
Objective
Theory
A. Introduction to Control System
In the industrial world the field of control engineering is very crucial. Control systems are
designed to achieve specified objectives within a given set of constraints. The three common
control strategies are openloop, feed forward and closedloop control. The openloop control
cannot compensate for either disturbances to the system or changes in plant parameters (Figure
7.1). For example an openloop speed control system cannot compensate for load variation
(disturbance) and the bearings friction variation (plant parameter).
Input
(desired behavior)
Control
Output
Process
s
Action
(actual behavior)
Figure 6.1 Open Loop Strategy
Controller
The feedforward control attempts to compensate for disturbances before they have any effect
on the system output (Figure 6.2). This strategy can be effective if the disturbance can be
measured. However it cannot compensate for changes of the plant parameters which cannot be
measured and treated as a disturbance.
Disturbances
Measure Disturbances
Input
(desired behavior)
Controller
Control
Process
Action
Output
(actual behavior)
The most common control strategy is feedback or closed loop control, as illustrated in figure
6.3. Here the process output is monitored, and control actions are taken to counteract deviations
48
Lab No.6
from the required behavior. In the case of motor speed control system, the speed is measured,
and the applied voltage is modified as required. However in practice, feedback and feedforward
are often combined in a single system.
Disturbances
Input
Controller
(desired behavior)
Control
Action
Process
Output
(actual behavior)
Measure
Figure 6.3 the Closedloop (feedback) Control Strategy
B. PID Controller
The term PID controller refers to proportional, integral and derivative controller. PID
controllers are the most common controller used in the industrial process control.
I) Proportional Control Mode
In this mode the output of the controller is proportional to the error between the set point
and the measured value. Proportional control may be expressed as either proportional gain
or proportional band. Mathematically ,
Mp =PG(SPMV)+C = PG e(t) +C
Where,
PG
=
SP
=
MV
=
C
=
e(t)
=
Mp
=
Controller Output
Proportional Gain
Set point
measured value
Output with zero error
Error as a function of time.
The error band where the output is between 0% and 100% is called the proportional band
(PB), and given by PB = 100/PG. Thus the higher the gain the smaller the band. This control
mode rarely produce adequate control, where there usually an offset (permanent error).
II) Integral Mode
This mode of control is often used to remove proportional offsets errors. The integral mode
determines an output based on the history of error. It is calculated by finding the net area under
the error curve versus time and multiplying by a constant called the integral action time (IAT)
in seconds. The controller output equation is:
Mi( t )
PG
e( t )dt
IAT
The integral Action time is defined as the time taken for the integral action to duplicate the
49
Lab No.6
proportional action of the controller, if the error remains constant during this period. It is used
commonly to remove any steady state errors incurred when using a proportional controller.
III) Derivative Control Mode
Derivative control mode is often used to reduce the response time of the system, it is based
on the time rate of the change of error. The time taken for the proportional action to duplicate
Md PG DAT
de( t )
dt
the instantaneous output of the derivative element is called derivative action time (DAT). The
controller output equation is:
The derivative control mode is never used alone as there is no controller output
corresponding to zero rate of change. So it is commonly used with Proportional controller
(PD). However, it can also exaggerate high frequency noise in the system.
C. System Response
Figure 6.4 shows the typical system response of a control system. There are three types of
response for a second order system, which are overdamped, underdamped, and critical
damped response. The system response depends on the PID gains set in the experiment. The
characteristics of the response is shown in Figure 6.5.
Figure 6.4
50
Lab No.6
Figure 6.5
1.2
Apparatus
51
Lab No.6
1.2.2 Description
LEGEND
A  Mains switch
G  Overflow pipe
H  Proportional valve
D  Bypass valve
E  Return valve
K  Water pump
L  Control panel
M  Level foot
52
Lab No.6
SAFETY / PRECAUTION
1. Ensure that there are sufficient water in the bottom reservoir tank before conducting the
experiments.
2. Make sure there are no leakages in the piping system before conducting the experiments.
3. Open the bypass valve before switching on the water pump and close it only after the flow is fully
circulated through the entire system for a brief period.
MANUAL SETUP
1. Place the LS33039 PID Controller Experiment Rig. On a level table and adjust the levelling foot
if necessary.
2. Connect the main power plug to electrical supply.
3. Connect the RS485 cable from the computer to the control box.
4. Run the Data Acquisition Software from the computer
5. Switch on the mains switch on the control box
6. Ensure there is enough water in the bottom reservoir tank before switching on the pump.
7. The LS33039 apparatus is ready to be used.
MAINTENANCE
1. Please check for signs of leakage in the piping system from time to time. Besides that there is no
major maintenance required for this apparatus
2. Kindly seek the assistance from the manufacturer if necessary.
1.2.3 Feedback
Feedback is an essential requirement for the control of any process. It consists of various
transducers measuring the conditions on the rig and feeding this information back to the
controlling microcomputer.
On the Process Control Unit the temperature at the sump, flowline and process tank are
measured using platinum resistance thermometers. The flowrate is measured by an inline
flowmeter. These analogue signals are fed back to the signal conditioners on the Computer
Control Module (CCM) from where they are sampled by the microcomputer via an analogue to
digital converter (ADC). LED meters are used to display the temperatures and flowrate on the
system rig. Indicators are provided for the cooler, tank full sensor and drain/divener solenoids,
giving a status check when the Process Control Unit is in operation.
1.2.4
Flow measurement
The flow rate of the fluid is measured by means of a flow meter of the impeller type. The fluid
flows through the meter rotating the impeller, which has six blades. Mounted either side of the
impeller is an infra red transmitter and receiver producing an infra red beam which is broken by
the rotating impeller. Six pulses are therefore produced for one revolution of the rotor, thus
producing a frequency output 'which is proportional to the flowrate.
53
Lab No.6
Figure 6.8
1.2.5
Pump
The pump used is a centrifugal type. It is not a positive displacement type and thus its output
is not necessarily linearly proportional to speed, though variation in speed will, of course, vary
the output flow rate.
Activating Voltage: 12V D.C; Maximum Continuous Current: 6 Amps
1.2.6
1.3
Software Operation
a) Turn on both the computer system and the process control unit.
b) In the Windows desktop, select the LS330390 PID icon.
c) In the program, follow the instructions in section 1 to familiarize yourself with the program.
54
Lab No.6
1.3.2
Base on Software operation in 1.3, construct the experiment procedure in order to achieve
the objective.
55
Lab No.6
Introduction
In this lab, the students are to be expose to several type of free and damped vibration system with
their characteristic that are related to the theory learn in class.
1.1 Theory
Underdamped Syatem
The displacement solution for this kind of system is:
Note that the displacement amplitude decays exponentially (i.e the natural logarithm of the amplitude ratio
for any two diaplacements seperated in time by a constant ratio is a constant)
56
Lab No.6
The critical damping, Cc can be interpreted as the minimum damping that results in nonperiodic
motion (i.e sample decay). The displacement plot of a criticallydamped system with positive initial
displacement and velocity would appear as,
The displacement decay to a negligible level after one natural period, Tn. Note that if the initial
velocity V0 is negative while the initial displacement X0 is positive, there will exist one overshoot of
the resting position in the displacement plot.
Overdamped System
The displacement solution for this kind of system is:
57
Lab No.6
The motion of an overdamped system is nonperiodic, regardless of the initial conditions. The larger
the damping, the longer the time to decay from an initial disturbance.
If the system is heavily damped, > 1, the displacement solution takes the approximate form:
EXPERIMENT I
1
Objective
To determine the spring coefficient and to investigate the deflection of the spring at certain
load.
1.2
Procedure
1.3
58
Lab No.6
EXPERIMENT II
1.1
Objective
To determine the spring coefficient and the natural frequency of single degree freedom.
1.2
Procedure
1.3
Calculation:
Use the formula below to calculate the natural frequency.
where,
k=stiffness (N/m)
m=mass (kg)
RPM of the motorized chart recorder = 5 rpm
Diameter of drum collector = 27.00mm and the circumference=84.82
Where,
=
59
Lab No.6
1.4
Compare natural frequency of the system between the calculated from plotted graph and formula.
Find out the spring constant, k from Experiment 1.
Repeat the experiment and observe the behaviour of different type of spring.
EXPERIMENT III
1.1
Objective
1. To demonstrate the oscillation of single degree freedom system
2. To investigate the behaviors for free vibration and damped vibration
1.2
1.3
Procedure
Calculation:
Calculate the natural frequency of the system as experiment 2.
,
The damping ratio can be obtained from the formula above
1.3
60
Lab No.6
61
Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.
Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbitpenerbit terkemuka.
Batalkan kapan saja.