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Pendahuluan Hukum II Termodinamika

Termodinamika (bahasa Yunani: thermos = 'panas' and dynamic = 'perubahan') adalah


fisika energi , panas, kerja, entropi dan kespontanan proses. Hukum kedua termodinamika
mengatakan bahwa aliran kalor memiliki arah. Dengan kata lain, tidak semua proses di alam
adalah reversibel (arahnya dapat dibalik). Hukum kedua termodinamika menyatakan bahwa
kalor mengalir secara spontan dari benda bersuhu tinggi ke benda bersuhu rendah dan tidak
pernah mengalir secara spontan dalam arah kebalikannya. Misalnya, jika sebuah kubus kecil
dicelupkan ke dalam secangkir air kopi panas, kalor akan mengalir dari air kopi panas ke
kubus es sampai suhu keduanya sama.
Hukum pertama termodinamika tidak dapat menjelaskan apakah suatu proses mungkin
terjadi ataukah tak mungkin terjadi. Oleh karena itu, muncullah hukum kedua termodinamika
yang disusun tidak lepas dari usaha untuk mencari sifat atau besaran sistem yang merupakan
fungsi keadaan. Ternyata orang yang menemukannya adalah Clausius dan besaran itu disebut
entropi. Hukum kedua ini dapat dirumuskan sebagai berikut:
Proses suatu sistem terisolasi yang disertai dengan penurunan entropi tidak mungkin
terjadi. Dalam setiap proses yang terjadi pada sistem terisolasi, maka entropi sistem tersebut
selalu naik atau tetap tidak berubah.
Hukum kedua termodinamika memberikan batasan dasar pada efisiensi sebuah mesin
atau pembangkit daya. Hukum ini juga memberikan batasan energi masukan minimum yang
dibutuhkan untuk menjalankan sebuah sistem pendingin. Hukum kedua termodinamika juga
dapat dinyatakan dalam konsep entropi yaitu sebuah ukuran kuantitatif derajat ketidakaturan
atau keacakan sebuah sistem.
Dari hasil percobaan para ahli menyimpulkan bahwa mustahil untuk membuat sebuah
mesin kalor yang mengubah panas seluruhnya menjadi kerja, yaitu mesin dengan efisiensi
termal 100%. Kemustahilan ini adalah dasar dari satu pernyataan hukum kedua
termodinamika sebagai berikut :
Adalah mustahil bagi sistem manapun untuk mengaalami sebuah proses di mana
sistem menyerap panas dari reservoir pada suhu tunggal dan mengubah panas seluruhnya
menjadi kerja mekanik, dengan sistem berakhir pada keadaan yang sama seperti keadaan
awalnya.
Pernyataan ini dikenal dengan sebutan pernyataan mesin dari hukum kedua
termodinamika.
Dasar dari hukum kedua termodinamika terletak pada perbedaaan antara sifat alami
energi dalam dan energi mekanik makroskopik. Dalam benda yang bergerak, molekul
memiliki gerakan acak, tetapi diatas semua itu terdapat gerakan terkoordinasi dari setiap
molekul pada arah yang sesuai dengan kecepatan benda tersebut. Energi kinetik dan energi
potensial yang berkaitan dengan gerakan acak menghasilkan energi dalam.
Jika hukum kedua tidak berlaku, seseorang dapat menggerakkan mobil atau pembangkit
daya dengan mendinginkan udara sekitarnya. Kedua kemustahilan ini tidak melanggar hukum
pertama termodinamika. Oleh karena itu, hukum kedua termodinamika bukanlah
penyimpulan dari hukum pertama, tetapi berdiri sendiri sebagai hukum alam yang terpisah.
Hukum pertama mengabaikan kemungkinan penciptaan atau pemusnahan energi. Sedangkan
hukum kedua termodinamika membatasi ketersediaan energi dan cara penggunaan serta
pengubahannya.
Panas mengalir secara spontan dari benda panas ke benda yang lebih dingin, tidak
pernah sebaliknya. Sebuah pendingin mengambil panas dari benda dingin ke benda yang

lebih panas, tetapi operasinya membutuhkan masukan energi mekanik atau kerja. Hal umum
mengenai pengamatan ini dinyatakan sebagai berikut :
Adalah mustahil bagi proses mana pun untuk bekerja sendiri dan menghasilkan
perpindahan panas dari benda dingin ke benda yang lebih panas.
Pernyataan ini dikenal dengan sebutan pernyataan pendingin dari hukum kedua
termodinamika.
Pernyataan pendingin ini mungkin tidak tampak berkaitan sangat dekat dengan
pernyataan mesin. Tetapi pada kenyataannya, kedua pernyataan ini seutuhnya setara.
Sebagai contoh, jika seseorang dapat membuat pendingin tanpa kerja, yang melanggar
pernyataan pendingin dari hukum kedua, seseorang dapat mengabungkannya dengan
sebuah mesin kalor, memompa kalor yang terbuang oleh mesin kembali ke reservoir panas
untuk dipakai kembali. Meski gabungan ini akan melanggar pernyataan mesin dari hukum
kedua, karena selisih efeknya akan menarik selisih panas sejumlah dari reservoir panas dan
mengubah seutuhnya menjadi kerja W.
Perubahan kerja menjadi panas, seperti pada gesekan atau aliran fluida kental (viskos)
dan aliran panas dari panas ke dingin melewati sejumlah gradien suhu, adalah suatu
proses ireversibel. Pernyataan mesin dan pendingin dari hukum kedua menyatakan
bahwa proses ini hanya dapat dibalik sebagian saja. Misalnya, gas selalu mengalami
kebocoran secara spontan melalui suatu celah dari daerah bertekanan tinggi ke daerah
bertekanan rendah. Gas-gas dan cairan-cairan yang dapat bercampur bila dibiarkan akan
selalu tercampur dengan sendirinya dan bukannya terpisah. Hukum kedua termodinamika
adalah sebuah pernyataan dari aspek sifat searah dari proses-proses tersebut dan banyak
proses ireversibel lainnya. Perubahan energi adalah aspek utama dari seluruh kehidupan
tanaman dan hewan serta teknologi manusia, maka hukum kedua termodinamika adalah dasar
terpenting dari dunia tempat makhluk hidup tumbuh dan berkembang.
Dua formulasi dari hukum kedua termodinamika yang berguna untuk memahami
konversi energi panas ke energi mekanik, yaitu formulasi yang dikemukakan oleh KelvinPlanck dan Rudolf Clausius. Adapun hukum kedua termodinamika dapat dinyatakan sebagai
berikut :
1. Formulasi Kelvin-Planck
Tidak mungkin untuk membuat sebuah mesin kalor yang bekerja dalam suatu siklus
yang semata-mata mengubah energi panas yang diperoleh dari suatu sumber pada suhu
tertentu seluruhnya menjadi usaha mekanik. Dengan kata lain, formulasi kelvin-planck
menyatakan bahwa tidak ada cara untuk mengambil energi panas dari lautan dan
menggunakan energi ini untuk menjalankan generator listrik tanpa efek lebih lanjut, misalnya
pemanasan atmosfer. Oleh karena itu, pada setiap alat atau mesin memiliki nilai efisiensi
tertentu. Efisiensi menyatakan nilai perbandingan dari usaha mekanik yang diperoleh dengan
energi panas yang diserap dari sumber suhu tinggi.
2. Formulasi Clausius
Tidak mungkin untuk membuat sebuah mesin kalor yang bekerja dalam suatu siklus
yang semata-mata memindahkan energi panas dari suatu benda dingin ke benda
panas. Dengan kata lain, seseorang tidak dapat mengambil energi dari sumber dingin (suhu
rendah) dan memindahkan seluruhnya ke sumber panas (suhu tinggi) tanpa memberikan
energi pada pompa untuk melakukan usaha. (Marthen Kanginan, 2007: 249-250)

Berbeda dari hukum pertama, hukum kedua ini mempunyai berbagai perumusan.
Kelvin mengetengahkan suatu permasalahan dan Planck mengetengahkan perumusan lain.
Karena pada hakekatnya perumusan kedua orang ini mengenai hal yang sama maka
perumusan itu digabung dan disebut perumusan Kelvin-Planck bagi hukum kedua
termodinamika. Perumusan ini diungkapkan demikian :
Tidak mungkin membuat pesawat yang kerjanya semata-mata menyerap kalor dari sebuah
reservoir dan mengubahnya menjadi usaha
Oleh Clausius, hukum kedua termodinamika dirumuskan dengan ungkapan :
Tidak mungkin membuat pesawat yang kerjanya hanya menyerap kalor dari reservoir
bertemperatur rendah dan memindahkan kalor ini ke reservoir yang bertemperatur tinggi,
tanpa disertai perubahan lain.
2.1 Reservoir Energi Panas (Thermal Energy Reservoir)
Thermal Energy Reservoir atau lebih umum disebut dengan reservoir energi panas
adalah suatu benda atau zat yang mempunyai kapasitas energi panas yang besar. Artinya
reservoir dapat menyerap atau menyuplai sejumlah energi panas yang tidak terbatas tanpa
mengalami perubahan temperatur. Contoh dari benda atau zay besar yang disebut reservoir
adalah samudera, danau, dan sungai untuk benda besar yang berwujud air dan atmosfer untuk
benda berwujud besar di udara. Sistem dua fasa juga dapat dimodelkan sebagau suatu
reservoir, karena sistem dua fasa dapat menyerap dan melepaskan panas tanpa mengalami
perubahan temperatur. Dalam prakteknya, ukuran sebuah reservoir menjadi relatif. Misalnya
sebuah ruangan dapat disebut sebagai sebuah reservoir dalam suatu analisa panas yang
dilepaskan oleh sebuah televisi. Reservoir yang menyuplai energi disebut dengan saurce dan
reservoir yang menyerap energi disebut dengan sink.
RESERVOIR ENERGI PANAS
(Thermal Energy Reservoirs)
Perlu diketahui istilah reservoir energi panas (Thermal Energy Reservoir) atau lebih umum
disebut dengan reservoir. Reservoir mempunyai pengertian adalah suatu benda/zat yang
mempunyai kapasitas energi panas (massa x panas jenis) yang besar. Artinya reservoir dapat
menyerap/ menyuplai sejumlah panas yang tidak terbatas tanpa mengalami perubahan
temperatur. Contoh dari benda/zat besar yang disebut reservoir adalah samudera, danau dan
sungai untuk benda besar berujud air dan atmosfer untuk benda besar berujud udara.Sistem
dua-fasa juga dapat dimodelkan sebagai suatu reservoir, karena sistem dua-fasa dapat
menyerap dan melepaskan panas tanpa mengalami perubahan temperatur.
Dalam praktek, ukuran sebuah reservoir menjadi relatif. Misalnya, sebuah ruangan dapat
disebut sebagai sebuah reservoir dalam suatu analisa panas yang dilepaskan oleh pesawat
televisi.
Reservoir yang menyuplai energi disebut dengan source dan reservoir yang menyerap energi
disebut dengan sink.

hermal Energy Reservoirs

When dealing with the second law of thermodynamics you must describe a thermal
reservoir in your problem; one of each type. There are two types of thermal
reservoirs; a source and a sink. A source is a thermal reservoir that provides
thermal energy to your process, while a sink is a thermal reservoir that removes
heat from your process.

For something to be considered a thermal reservoir its properties must remain


constant. Objects that are large such as a lake, the ocean, or the atmosphere can be
considered thermal reservoirs due to their size. However, size does not dictate
whether something is a thermal reservoir. For example, furnaces or boilers can also
be considered thermal reservoirs a long as their properties are regulated.
Finally, as a side note, since rivers, lakes, and the ocean are common thermal sinks
for plants that have waste energy thermal pollution can become an issue. Thermal
pollution is caused by energy being dumped into the thermal sink to fast so that the
energy cannot disperse fast enough causing the temperature to rise. The rising
temperature can hurt or kill marine life, which means this must be considered when
designing a thermodynamic process for a plant, so that it will comply with
environmental laws
Reservoirs are systems of large quantity of matter which no temperature difference will occur
when finite amount of heat is transferred or removed. Examples of reservoirs are atmosphere,
oceans, seas etc.

hermal Reservoirs

A thermal reservoir is a
specific kind of system
with a large thermal
energy capacity that can
supply or absorb finite
amounts of heat and
always remains at
constant temperature.
Such a system can be
approximated in a
number of ways:

Atmosphere, Land , and Water in a Lake are Examples of Thermal Reservoirs

Source and Sink

Large land
masses

Earth's
atmosphere

Large bodies of
water: oceans,
lakes, or rivers

Any physical
body whose
thermal energy
capacity is large
relative to the
amount of
energy it
supplies or
absorbs, for
example, a large
block of ice

A reservoir that supplies


energy in the form of
heat is called a source
and one that absorbs
energy in the form of
heat is called a sink. For
example, atmospheric
air is a source for heat
pumps and a sink for air
conditioners.

Energy Analysis of
Cycles
When a system in a

given initial state


experiences a series of
quasi-equilibrium
processes and returns to
its initial state, the
system undergoes
a cycle. The energy
balance for any system
undergoing a cycle
takes the form

Ecycle = Qcycle - Wcycle


where
Qcycle = the net
amount of energy
transferred
by heat for
the cycle,
Qcycle = QinQout
Wcycle = the net
amount of energy
transferred
by work for
the cycle,
Wcycle = Wout Win
Notice that the directions
of the heat and work are
indicated by the
subscripts in and out.
Therefore, Qin, Qout, Wout,
and Win are all positive
numbers.

In thermodynamics, a (hypothetical) body with a large thermal


energy capacity that can absorb or supply finite amounts
of heat without undergoing a change intemperature.
A thermal energy reservoir can be as large as the atmosphere, or as
small as the inside of a refrigerator, as long as the reservoir remains
at a constant temperature during the course of the heat
exchange being monitored.
A reservoir that supplies heat energy - say, the sun, a furnace, or a
person in a small room - is called a source.
A reservoir that absorbs energy - say, the room surrounding a
refrigerator, the atmosphere around an incoming spaceship, or the
body of a person who swallows a hot drink - is called a sink.
Thermal reservoirs are much encountered in the study of heat

engines and other forms of heat exchange.

Since the system is


returned to its initial
state after the cycle,
there is no net change in
its energy. Therefore,

Ecycle = 0
Then the equation
reduces to
Qcycle = Wcycle
This expression can
satisfy every
thermodynamic cycle,
regardless of the
sequence of processes
followed by the system
undergoing the cycle or
the nature of the
substances making up
the system.

Power Cycle and Refrigeration and


Heat Pump Cycle
Click to View Movie (72 kB)

If the system undergoing


cycles delivers a net
work to its surroundings
during each cycle, the
cycle is called a power
cycle.
Wcycle = Qin - Qout
On the other hand, if the
system needs work input
from the surroundings to
run each cycle, the cycle
is called a refrigeration
and heat pump cycle.
Wcycle = Qout - Qin
where Wcycle has a
positive value.

heat reservoir is a region of constant temperature that allows either the addition or removal of
heat. Also termed as 'heat bath', a heat reservoir is normally vast enough to absorb heat from or
donate heat to the surroundings without a significant change to its own temperature.

The concept of heat reservoir is in accordance with the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which
states that the total entropy of an isolated thermodynamic system tends to increase over time
and approaches a maximum value. The entropy of a heat reservoir changes though its
temperature does not change. This is because of the large heat capacity. Since the temperature
of a heat reservoir is uniform, the heat exchange that takes place across the reservoir and
another substance is reversible.
[edit]

Types of heat reservoirs


There are two types of heat reservoirs:

Heat source: a heat reservoir is considered a 'heat source' if it is at high temperature


and is capable of transferring heat to the surroundings or to another object.

Heat sink: a heat reservoir is considered a 'heat sink' if it is at low temperature and is
capable of absorbing heat.
[edit]

Common examples of heat reservoir


There are several examples of heat reservoirs found in systems in nature. The atmosphere acts
as a heat reservoir when hot air emerges as exhaust from the internal combustion of a vehicle.
The exhaust air may be at a temperature of several hundred degrees Celsius, but there is a
negligible rise in the temperature of the surrounding air in the atmosphere.
The sea acts as a heat reservoir with the result that coastal tides are set up. Heat that is
absorbed during the day is stored for a long time well into the night. In addition, as the day
progresses, heat is absorbed very slowly by the sea. This results in an equable climate near
coastlines.
Category: Thermodynamics

Calculation of Entropy Change in Some Basic Processes


1. Heat transfer from, or to, a heat reservoir.
A heat reservoir (Figure 5.3) is a constant temperature heat source or
sink. Because the temperature is uniform, there is no heat transfer
across a finite temperature difference and the heat exchange is
reversible. From the definition of entropy (

),

where
is the heat into the reservoir (defined here as positive if
heat flows into the reservoir.)

Figure 5.3: Heat transfer from/to a heat reservoir

2. Heat transfer between two heat reservoirs


The entropy change of the two reservoirs in Figure 5.4 is the sum of
the entropy change of each. If the high temperature reservoir is
at
and the low temperature reservoir is at
change is

, the total entropy

Figure 5.4: Heat transfer between two reservoirs

The second law says that the entropy change must be equal to or
greater than zero. This corresponds to the statement that heat must
flow from the higher temperature source to the lower temperature
source. This is one of the statements of the second law given in
Section 5.1.

Muddy Points
In the single reservoir example, why can the entropy decrease?
(MP 5.6)
Why does the entropy of a heat reservoir change if the temperature
stays the same? (MP 5.7)
How can the heat transfer from or to a heat reservoir be reversible?
(MP 5.8)
How can
be less than zero in any process? Doesn't entropy
always increase? (MP 5.9)
If
for a reservoir, could you add
and still get the same
? (MP 5.10)

to any size reservoir

3. Possibility of obtaining work from a single heat reservoir


We can regard the process proposed in Figure 5.5 as the absorption
of heat,
, by a device or system, operating in a cycle, rejecting no
heat, and producing work. The total entropy change is the sum of the
change in the reservoir, the system or device, and the surroundings.
The entropy change of the reservoir is
. The entropy
change of the device is zero, because we are considering a complete
cycle (return to initial state) and entropy is a function of state. The
surroundings receive work only so the entropy change of the
surroundings is zero. The total entropy change is

Figure 5.5: Work from a single heat reservoir

The total entropy change in the proposed process is thus less than
zero,

which is not possible. The second law thus tells us that we cannot get
work from a single reservoir only. The ``only'' is important; it means
without any other changes occurring. This is the other statement of
the second law we saw in Section 5.1.

Muddy Points
What is the difference between the isothermal expansion of a piston
and the (forbidden) production of work using a single reservoir?
(MP 5.11)
For the ``work from a single heat reservoir'' example, how do we
know there is no

? (MP 5.12)

How does a cycle produce zero


? I thought that the whole thing
about cycles was an entropy that the designers try to minimize.
(MP 5.13)
4. Entropy changes in the ``hot brick problem''

[Temperature equalization of two bricks]

[Reservoirs used

in reversible state transformations]


Figure 5.6: The ``Hot Brick'' Problem

5. We can examine in a more quantitative manner the changes that


occurred when we put the two bricks together, as depicted in
Figure 5.6(a). The process by which the two bricks come to the same
temperature is not a reversible one, so we need to devise a
reversible path. To do this imagine a large number of heat reservoirs
at varying temperatures spanning the range
,
as in Figure 5.6(b). The bricks are put in contact with them
sequentially to raise the temperature of one and lower the
temperature of the other in a reversible manner. The heat exchange
at any of these steps is
the entropy change is:

. For the high temperature brick,

6.
7. where
is the heat capacity of the brick (J/kg). This quantity is less
than zero. For the cold brick,

8.
9. The entropy change of the two bricks is

10.
11.The process is not reversible.
12.
Difference between the free expansion and the reversible
isothermal expansion of an ideal gas

The essential difference between the free expansion in an insulated


enclosure and the reversible isothermal expansion of an ideal gas
can also be captured clearly in terms of entropy changes. For a state
change from initial volume and temperature
and (the same) temperature

to final volume

the entropy change is

or, making use of the equation of state and the fact that
an isothermal process,

for

This is the entropy change that occurs for the free expansion as well
as for the isothermal reversible expansion processes - entropy
changes are state changes and the two system final and end states
are the same for both processes.
For the free expansion:

There is no change in the entropy of the surroundings because there


is no interaction between the system and the surroundings. The total
entropy change is therefore,

There are several points to note from this result:


1.

so the process is not reversible.

2.

; the equality between


is only for a reversible process.

and

3. There is a direct connection between the work needed to


restore the system to the original state and the entropy change:

The quantity
has a physical meaning as ``lost work'' in
the sense of work which we lost the opportunity to utilize.
We will make this connection stronger in Chapter 6.
For the reversible isothermal expansion:
The entropy is a state variable so the entropy change of the system
is the same as before. In this case, however, heat is transferred to
the system from the surroundings (

) so that

The heat transferred from the surroundings, however, is equal to the


heat received by the system:

The total change in entropy (system plus surroundings) is therefore

The reversible process has zero total change in entropy.


https://archive.org/stream/HeatAndThermodynamics/ZemanskyHeatAndThermodynamics#page/n175/mode/2up

Thermal Energy DSreservoir = Q/Treservoir


Reservoirs
Q is measured with respect to the reservoir.

https://books.google.co.id/books?
id=Dd31XXQZLgcC&pg=PA120&lpg=PA120&dq=thermal+energy+reservoir+ex
amples&source=bl&ots=QC7yZykZ8U&sig=Xgv5J9Mr9vfNPR-dUisxFGhfLs&hl=id&sa=X&ved=0CDMQ6AEwA2oVChMIwNDp_8XvyAIV4tmmCh2TkA
s2#v=onepage&q=thermal%20energy%20reservoir%20examples&f=false

METBD 330: Thermodynamics


Chapter 5: SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

Determine if a process is possible

Defines the "direction" a process must follow

EXAMPLE: Hot coffee at 50oC in air at 20oC. Heats up


to 70oC ??
First Law Analysis:

Q - W = U (for a closed, stationary system)

W = 0, so Q = U

if Ucoffee@50C = 500 kJ and Ucoffee@70C = 600 kJ

Q = U2 - U1 = 600 - 500 kJ = +100 kJ

and the First Law of Thermodynamics is satisfied !

BUT, we know heat transfer (Q) occurs FROM a warmer


body TO the cooler surroundings !!!!
We need a way to test the FEASIBILITY of a process
which will come from the SECOND Law of
Thermodynamics.

First, consider where Q comes from or goes to for a


process.

Thermal Energy Reservoirs: can absorb Q without


changing temp. and can supply Q without changing
temp.

Remember the coffee cup. It actually cools off. The


surrounding air in the room absorbs the heat but
remains at 20oC

Thermal Energy Reservoirs need to be "large" with


respect to the system being studied.

SOURCE: a thermal energy reservoir which


SUPPLIES heat

SINK: a thermal energy reservoir which ABSORBS


heat

HEAT ENGINES: Convert heat (Q) into work (W)

Reference: Problem 3-46C: A fan in a closed room


running all day raises the air temperature (Work is
converted to Heat).

If you unplugged the fan and heated the room,


could you add heat and get the fan to turn ????

Steam Power Plant


WIN < WOUT

QNET = QIN - QOUT


WNET,OUT = WOUT - WIN

HEAT ENGINES:

Receive Q from a
high temperature
SOURCE

Convert
some Q to W

Reject some Q to a low temperature SINK

Operate in a CYCLE (U = 0)

The Working Fluid is the substance used in the cycle


(steam, R-134a, air, etc.)
NOTE: Sign convention (all values are positive,
subscript shows direction)

QIN = heat from the SOURCE

QOUT = heat to the SINK

WOUT = work delivered BY the turbine

WIN = work delivered TO the pump.

For the working fluid, Q - W = U (for a cycle, U = 0)


Q-W=0

QIN - QOUT - (WOUT - WIN) = 0


WOUT - WIN = QIN - QOUT
WNET,OUT = QIN - QOUT

[Eqn 5-2]

THERMAL EFFICIENCY, th

[Eqn. 5-3, 5-4 and 5-5]

IF the SOURCE is at temperature TH, and the SINK at


temperature TL,
we define:

QH = the magnitude of heat from the SOURCE at TH

QL = the magnitude of heat from the SINK at TL

(magnitude = always positive numbers)


SO,

[Eqn. 5-6, 5-7, 5-8]

http://engr.bd.psu.edu/davej/classes/thermo/chapter5.html

CHARACTERISTICS OF THERMAL RESERVOIR


Characteristics of Thermal Reservoir (or Thermal Energy Reservoir) : It is a closed system with
following characteristics :
(1) Thermal reservoir has only interaction of heat with the surrounding.
(2) The temperature remains uniform and constant during a process.
(3) Heat transfer to or from thermal reservoir results only in increase or decrease of internal energy
of the system.
(4) Changes within the thermal reservoir are internally reversible.
The mechanical energy reservoir is a large body enclosed by an adiabatic impermeable wall, which
can store work as potential energy or kinetic energy. All exchanges of energy that takes in mechanical
energy reservoir are so slow that they are essentially quasi-static.
Example:
A reversible heat engine operated between temperatures 800 oC and 500oC of thermal reservoirs.
Engine drives a generator and a reversed Carnot engine using the work output from the heat engine
for each unit equality. Reserved Carnot engine abstracts heat from 773 K reservoir and rejects that to
a thermal reservoir at 715 oC. Determine the heat rejected to the reservoir by the reserved engine as a
fraction of heat supplied from 800oC reservoir to the heat engine. Also determine the het rejected per
hour for the generator output of 300 kW.
Solution:Given that:
The reversible heat engine works between 800oC and 500oC.
The reversed Carnot engine works between 773 K and 715 oC.
The work output from heat engine is equally divided to drive a generator and a reversed Carnot
engine. Now, we can draw the schematic arrangement diagram.
For reversible heat engine we have

= Q1 Q2 / Q1
= T1 T2 / T1 = W / Q1
W/Q1 = 1073 773 / 1073
= 0.2795 = 0.28
W = 0.28 Q1

(1)

For reversible reversed Carnot engine working as heat pump


COP = Q4 / Q3 Q4 = Q4 / (W/2) = T3 / T3 T2
Q4 = (0.28 Q1 / 2) 988 / 988 773 = 0.643 Q1

(2)

Q4 / Q1 = 0.643
Power output from generator = 300 kW
Total power developed by Carnot engine:
= 300 2 = 600 kW
Thus from eqn. (1)
0.28 Q1 = 600
Q1 = 2142.85 kJ/sec
Q1 = W + Q 2
Q2 = 2142.85 600 = 1542.85 kJ/sec
Thus, the heat rejected by heat engine for 300 kW output to reservoir at 500 oC is 1542.85 kW or
5.5543 MJ per hour.

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