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University of Engineering & Technology,

Peshawar, Pakistan

CE-409: Introduction to Structural Dynamics and


Earthquake Engineering

MODULE 6
RESPONSE OF LINEAR ELASTIC S.D.O.F SYSTEMS TO
EARTHQUAKE LOADING
Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan &
drakhtarnaeem@nwfpuet.edu.pk

Prof. Dr. Mohammad Javed


mjaved@nwfpuet.edu.pk
1

Earthquake Response of Linear System


In this lecture, we will study the earthquake response of linear
SDOF systems subjected to earthquake excitations.
By definition, linear systems are elastic systems.
They are also referred to as linearly elastic systems to
emphasize both properties. Non-linear inelastic system
fs

Non-linear elastic system


Linear elastic system

fs

No energy is absorbed
by systems

u
CE-409: MODULE 6 (Fall-2013)

Elastic-perfectly plastic
system (Elasto plastic
system)

Area enclosed by
the curve = Energy
absorbed by system

Effective Earthquake Force


Consider a single story frame with lumped mass. Let the frame at
the base displaces by an amount ug due to seismic waves. As a result
lumped mass at the top displaces by an amount ut ,such that:
t

u = u +u g

Where ug= Ground displacement. ut=Total displacement at the top end and u
= Dynamic displacement of lumped mass at the top w.r.t shifted base.
CE-409: MODULE 6 (Fall-2013)

Effective Earthquake Force


The equation of motion for the frame subjected to the
earthquake excitation can be derived by using the
using dynamic equilibrium of forces as:

f I +f D +f S =0

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Effective Earthquake Force


Only the relative motion u between the mass and the base cause
structural deformation which produces elastic and damping forces.

Thus for a linear system the inertial force fI is related to the


t
t
acceleration u of the mass by:

f = mu ;
I

= cu and f s = ku

CE-409: MODULE 6 (Fall-2013)

Effective Earthquake Force


By substituting the value of fI , the equation of motion become:

+ku =0
mu t +cu
or m(u g + u ) + cu + ku = 0
+ku = mu g (t)
or mu +cu
Comparing with

+ku =p(t)
mu +cu

p(t) = p eff (t) = mu g (t)


The term on the right-hand side of the equation may be regarded as
the Effective earthquake force.

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Effective Earthquake Force


p eff ( t ) = mu g (t)

Base moving with u g (t)


Effective earthquake force: horizontal ground motion

Thus the ground motion can be replaced by the effective earthquake


force (indicated by the subscript eff. Since this force is
proportional to the mass, thus, by increasing the mass the structural
designer increases the effective earthquake force
CE-409: MODULE 6 (Fall-2013)

Strong motion record

Typical strong motion record

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Strong motion record


Strong earthquakes can generally be classified into three groups:
1. Practically a single shock: Acceleration, velocity, and displacement
records for one such motion are shown in figure. A motion of this type
occurs only at short distances from the epicenter, only on firm ground, and
only for shallow earthquakes.

CE-409: MODULE 6 (Fall-2013)

Strong motion record


A moderately long, extremely irregular motion : The record of the
earthquake of El Centro, California in 1940, NS component exemplifies
this type of motion. It is associated with moderate distances from the focus
and occurs only on firm ground. On such ground, almost all the major
earthquakes originating along the Circumpacific Belt are of this type.

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Strong motion record


A long ground motion exhibiting pronounced prevailing periods of
vibration: A portion of the accelerogram obtained during the earthquake of
1989 in Loma Prieta is shown in figure to illustrate this type. Such motions
result from the filtering of earthquakes of the preceding types through
layers of soft soil within the range of linear or almost linear soil behavior
and from the successive wave reflections at the interfaces of these layers.

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Strong ground motions recorded in various earthquakes

ug

t
Figure : Ground motions recorded
during several earthquakes.
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Strong ground motion: Near source effect

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Accelerogram used in these lectures


Ground acceleration,

Ground velocity,

ug

u g

Ground displacement, u g

N-S component of horizontal ground acceleration recoded at El Centro, California


during the Imperial Valley earthquake of 1940
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Equation of motion for SDOF system subjected


to EQ excitations

c
k
mu + cu + ku = mu g (t) u + u + u = u g (t)
m
m

Since c = c = ( 2m
cr

) and

k
=
m

+
u +CE-409:
2
n u = u g (t)
MODULE
6 (Fall-2013)
nu
2

Response quantities
Response is the structural system
reaction to a demand coming from
ground acceleration record

Thus a response quantity may be structural displacement,


velocity, acceleration, internal shear, bending moment, axial force
etc.
t

Sometime, the total acceleration, u o , of the mass would be


needed if the structure is supporting sensitive equipment and
the motion imparted to the equipment is to be determined.
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Response quantities
One of the important response quantity is total lateral displacement
t
u
at the top end of structural system, o , required to provide enough
separation between adjacent buildings to prevent their pounding
against each other during an earthquake

Pounding damage, Hotel de carlo, Mexico city, 1985 earthquake


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Solution to equation of motion for SDOF system


subjected to EQ excitation

u +2n u
+ n u =u g (t)
2

The time variation of ground displacement, from the given time


variation of ground acceleration, can be determined by using any
appropriate time stepping numerical method.
Closer the time interval, more accurate will be solution. Typically, the
time interval is chosen to be 1/100 to 1/50 of a second, requiring 1500 to
3000 ordinates to describe the round motion of above given El- Centro ,
18
1940, ground acceleration
record having
a duration of 30 sec.
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Structural disp.,u , due to ground acceleration,ug


El Centro,1940,
ground acceleration

g , g
u
go = 0.319g
u

SDOF system with

T = 0.5sec, = 2%
n

Tn = 0.5sec, = 2%

Corresponding relative
displacement at the top
end of the SDOF frame

u, in

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Influence of Tn and on Peak displacement, uo ,


in a liner elastic SDOF system

u +2 u
+ u = u (t)
2

The above given equation indicates that

u = f(T , )
n

Thus any two systems having the same values of Tn and will have
the same deformation response u(t) even though one system may
be more massive than the other or one may be stiffer than the other

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Effect of Tn on Deformation
response history
u g , g
go = 0.319g
u

El Centro ground acceleration

In general, peak value of


displacement at the top end of a
SDOF increases with the increase
in the time period of the system.
Response of SDOF systems with different values of Tn to
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6 (Fall-2013)
El Centro
ground acceleration

21

21

Effect of Time Period

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Effect of on Deformation
response
history
u g , g
go = 0.319g
u

El Centro ground acceleration

In general, peak value of


displacement at the top end of a
SDOF increases with the decrease
in the damping ratio of the system
Response of SDOF systems with different values of to
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6 (Fall-2013)
El Centro ground
acceleration

23

23

Approximate Periods of Vibration (ASCE 7-05)

Where h is the height of building in ft.

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Approximate Periods of Vibration


Thus, structural systems with Tn=0.5sec, 1 and 2 sec may be considered
as 5, 10 and 20 story height buildings, respectively.
A building with 3 story height can be considered as Multi DOF system
with at least 3 DOFs.
To keep the discussion simple at this stage, it will be a reasonable
assumption
to
state
that
(
out of 3 natural time periods of the 3 story building) we consider only
fundamental natural time period (Tn=0.3 sec) to determine the response
quantities for the building.
Later on we will discuss how all 3 vibration modes (and the
corresponding natural time periods) are calculated and are taken into
account to find the total response of a building with DOF =3
Because the empirical period formula is based on measured response of
buildings, it should not be used to estimate the period for other types of
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MODULE
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structure (bridges,
dams,
towers).6 (Fall-2013)

Response spectrum concept

A plot of the peak value of a response quantity as a function of the


natural vibration period Tn of the system, or a related parameter such
as circular frequency n or cyclic frequency fn, is called the response
spectrum for that quantity.
Response is the structural system reaction to a demand coming
from ground acceleration record (i.e. Accelerogram) and when the
peak response commodities such as structural
system displacement
t
( ,u o ) velocity ( u o ) and acceleration ( u o ) are plotted against the
structural system natural time period (or frequencies) will be called
spectrum
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26

Response spectrum concept


Peak values of response quantities and shape of response
spectrum depends on the accelerogram
Each such plot is for SDOF system having a fixed damping ratio
, and several such plots for different values of are included to
cover the range of damping values encountered in actual structures.
The deformation response spectrum is a plot of uo against Tn for
fixed . A similar plot for u o is the relative velocity response
t

u
spectrum, and for o is the total acceleration response spectrum.

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Deformation response spectrum

Figure on next slide shows the procedure to determine the


deformation response spectrum. The spectrum is developed for
El Centro ground motions, as shown in part (a) of the figure.
The time variation of deformation induced by this ground motion
in three SDF systems is presented in part (b) of the figure
The peak value of deformation D uo, determined for SDF
system with different Tn is determined and shown in part (c) of the
Figure

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28

Construction of deformation
response spectrum

(a) El-centro ground acceleration; (b) Deformation response of three SDF systems
with =2% and TCE-409:
2 sec; (c)
Deformation response spectrum for =2%29
n=0.5,1, and
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29

Pseudo-velocity response spectrum


Consider a quantity V for an SDF system with natural frequency n
related to its peak deformation D uo due to earthquake ground
motion:

2
D =V =
D
T
n

The quantity V has the unit of velocity and is called relative


pseudo- velocity or simply pseudo-velocity. The prefix pseudo is
u o
used because V is not equal to the peak velocity
, although it
has the correct units.

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Pseudo-velocity response spectrum

D
= 2%

V
= 2%

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2
V =D
T
n

Tn

V=D*2/Tn

0.5

2.67

33.6

1.0

5.97

37.5

2.0

7.47

23.5

31

Pseudo-acceleration response spectrum

D
2

2
A = n D = D
Tn
2

= 2%

A
= 2%

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Tn

A=D*(2/Tn)2

0.5

2.6
7

1.09g

1.0

5.9
7

0.61g

2.0

7.4
7

0.191g

32

A caution about Pseudo responses


Please note the following comments regarding pseudo commodities:
1. uo is same as D by definition.
2. Whereas u o is not taken as V, which by definition = nD
t

u
3. Similarly, o is not taken as A which by definition= n2D

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33

Displacement Response Spectra for Different Damping


values
The higher the damping, the lower the relative displacement.
At a period of 2 sec, for example, going from zero to 5%
damping reduces the displacement amplitude by a factor of two.
While higher damping produces further decreases in displacement,
there is a diminishing return.
The % reduction in
displacement by going
from 5 to 20% damping is
much less that that for 0 to
5% damping.

Deformation response spectra f0r 1940 El-centro earthquake for different values of

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34

Pseudo Acceleration Response Spectra for Different


Damping Values
Damping has a similar effect on pseudo acceleration. Note,
however, that the pseudo acceleration at a (near) zero period is the
same for all damping values.
This value is always
equal to the peak ground
acceleration, 0.319g, for
the ground motion in
question. i.e. El-centro
1940 earthquake

Deformation response spectra f0r 1940 El-centro earthquake for different values of

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35

( )

Pseudo acceleration (A) Vs peak total acceleration u o

The term Pseudo shall not be conceived by its meaning (i.e. false as
defined in English dictionaries). In fact it shall be taken as an essence
similar effect to their relevant commodities
It can be observed from below graph that pseudo acceleration , A , and
peak value of true acceleration, u o t have almost same values for systems
with Tn 10 sec and 0.1 .
It is worth mentioning that for elastic system the seldomly exceed 5%
t

u
as such taking A same as o negligible effect

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6 (Fall-2013)
Tn- sec

36

( u o )

Pseudo velocity (V) Vs peak systems velocity

As shown in below graph that V u o for medium rise buildings


(0.2 Tn 1 sec) as long as 0.1 . Similarly V 0.85u o
(0.2 Tn 3 sec) for 0.1

V
u o
V
u
o

V 0.85u o

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37

Combined D-V-A spectrum


The deformation, pseudo-velocity and pseduo-acceleration
spectra are plotted for a wide and practical range of Tn and for a
particular value of .
The above mentioned procedure is repeated for different values
of .
The results for different values of over a wide range of Tn are
combined in a single diagram, called combined D-V-A diagram,
as shown on next slide

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Use of D-V-A spectrum


Refer to slides 29, 31 and 32 for D,V and A, respectively

Figure: Combined D-V-A response spectrum for El Centro ground motion; = 2%.
39
6 (Fall-2013)
Note the values ofCE-409:
D,V andMODULE
A determined
for a SDOF system with T n=2 sec
39

Combined D-V-A spectrum


For a given earthquake, small variations in structural frequency
(period) can produce significantly different results (See V value
for Tn = 0.5 to3 sec for El-centro earthquake)

Combined D-V-ACE-409:
response spectrum
MODULE
for6El(Fall-2013)
Centro ground motion; = 0,5,10 and 20%40 40

Relation between peak Equivalent static force, fso , and


Pseudo acceleration, A
Uo

f so = k.u o
since k = n 2 .m

f so = k.u o = ( n .m).u o
2

= m.( n .u o )
2

f so = m.A

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41

Peak Structural Response from the response spectrum

resultant force acting at structure base is khown to be Base shear

As already discussed on previous slide, peak value of the equivalent


static force fso can be determined as:

f so = kD = mA
The peak value of base shear, Vbo, from equilibrium of above given
diagram can be written as:

Vbo = f so = m.A

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42

Peak Structural Response from the response


spectrum

w
A
or Vbo = .A = .w
g
g
Where w is the weight of the structure and g is the gravitational
acceleration. When written in this form, A/g may be interpreted as
the base shear coefficient or lateral force coefficient . It is used in
building codes to represent the coefficient by which the structural
weight is multiplied to obtain the base shear

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Problem M6.1
The frame for use in a building is to be located on sloping ground s
shown in figure. The cross sections of the two columns are 10 in. square.
Determine the base shears in the two columns at the instant of peak
response due to the El Centro ground motion. Assume the damping ratio
to be 5%. The beam is too stiffer than the columns and can be assumed
to be rigid. Total weight at floor level = 10k

Solution

slopy ground

1st step

9.81*3.28*12=386

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uo is decreasing with increase in Tn

Solution (contd.)
Computing the shear force at the
base of the short and long columns.
u o = D = 0.67 A = ( 2/Tn ) D
2

A = ( 2/0.3) (0.67 / 12)


2

= 24.51 ft/sec 2 = 0.76g

0.67

5% Damped Elastic Displacement Response


Spectrum for El Centro Ground Motion

Comments:
Although both columns go through equal deformation, however, the stiffer column
carries a greater force than the flexible column. The lateral force is distributed to the
elements in proportion to their relative stiffnesses. Sometimes this basic principle , if
not recognized in building design, lead to unanticipated damage of the stiffer elements.
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45

Response Spectrum normalized with peak ground parameters


thereby giving the amplification magnitudes for D,V and A e.g., for a
system with Tn = 0.5 sec and =0.05. The amplification factors for
D,V and A are D 0.2 , V 1.9and A2.3, respectively
Velocity amplification
factor

D= ugo for
Tn>15 sec
Acceleration amplification
factor

u= -ug
Displacement
amplification factor

A u go
u= 0
Very rigid systems

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Very flexible systems

46

Spectral regions in Response Spectrum


A
const. for Tn < Tc
u go
or A = const. * u go (for Tn < Tc )
i.e. A directly varies with
PGA. Therefore region from
Tn = 0 to Tc is defined
Acceleration sensitive region.
Same logic apply in
defining velocity sensitive and
displacement sensitive regions

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47

Design Spectrum
Response spectrum cannot be used for the design of new
structures, or the seismic safety evaluation of existing structures due
to the following reasons:
Response spectrum for a ground motion recorded during the past
is inappropriate for future design or evaluation.
The response spectrum is not smooth and jagged, specially for
lightly damped structures.
The response spectrum for different ground motions recorded in
the past at the same site are not only jagged but the peaks and valley
are not necessarily at the same periods. This can be seen from the
figure given on next slide where the response spectra for ground
motions recorded at the same site during past three earthquakes are
plotted
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Figure: Response spectra for the N-S component of ground motions recorded at the
imperial valley Irrigation district substation, El Centro, California, during earthquakes
49
CE-409:
MODULE
(Fall-2013)
of May 18,1949;Feb
9,1956;and
April68,1968;
= 2%.
49

Design Spectrum
Due to the inappropriateness of response spectrum as stated on
previous slide, the majority of earthquake design spectra are
obtained by averaging a set of response spectra for ground motion
recorded at the site the past earthquakes.
If nothing have been recoded at the site, the design spectrum
should be based on ground motions recorded at other sites under
similar conditions such as magnitude of the earthquake, the
distance of the site from causative fault, the fault mechanism, the
geology of the travel path of seismic waves from the source to the
site, and the local soil conditions at the site.
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Design Spectrum
For practical applications, design spectra are presented as
smooth curves or straight lines.
Smoothing is carried , using statistical analysis, out to eliminate
the peaks and valleys in the response spectra that are not desirable
for design. For this purpose statistical analysis of response spectra is
carried out for the ensemble of ground motions.
Each ground motion, for statistical analysis is normalized (scaled
up or down) so that all ground motions have the same peak ground
acceleration, say u go ;other basis for normalization can be chosen.

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51

Construction of Design Spectrum


Researchers have developed
procedures to construct such design
spectra from ground motion
parameters. One such procedure is
illustrated in given figure.
The recommended period values
Ta = 1/33 sec, Tb = 1/8 sec, Te = 10
sec, and Tf = 33 sec, and the
amplification factors A, V , and D
for the three spectral regions (given
table on next slide), were developed
by the statistical analysis of a larger
ensemble of ground motions
recorded on firm ground (rock, soft
rock, and competent sediments).
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52

Amplification factors for construction of Design


Spectrum

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53

Construction of Design Spectrum (firm soil)


We will now develop the 84.1 percentile design spectrum
for =5%

u go = 1g

For convenience, a peak ground acceleration


is
selected; the resulting spectrum can be scaled by to obtain the
design spectrum corresponding to u go = g
The typical values of

u go

u go

= 48 in./sec/g and u go *

u go

go

=6

, recommended for firm ground, are used. For u go = 1g , these


ratios give u go = 48 in/sec and u go = 36 in

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54

Construction of Design Spectrum (firm soil)


v = 2.3

Using the values on


previous slide and values
given in table 6.9.2 (slide
53) for 84.1 percentile
and =5%, the Pseudovelocity design spectrum
can be dawn as shown in
Figure 6.9.4

A = 2.71

CE-409: MODULE 6 (Fall-2013)

D = 2.01

55

Construction of Design Spectrum (firm soil)


Displacement and Pseudo-acceleration design spectra can be drawn
from pseudo-velocity design spectrum using the relations being
already discussed and reproduced here for the convenience:

V
Tn
D=
=
V
n
2
2
A = V n = V.
Tn
The Pseudo-acceleration and displacement design spectra drawn by
using above given equation are drawn in Figures 6.9.5 and 6.9.6 on
next two slides
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56

Construction of Design Spectrum (firm soil)


Acceleration sensitive region
Velocity sensitive region

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Displacement
sensitive region

57

Construction of Design Spectrum (firm soil)

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58

Design Spectrum for various values of

Pseudo- velocity design spectrum for ground motions with

u go = 1g , u go =
48 in/sec,
and u go
= 36 in.
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MODULE
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59

Design Spectrum for


various values of

Pseudo- acceleration design spectrum (84.1 th percentile) drawn on log scale for ground
60
6 (Fall-2013)
= 1g , u goMODULE
= 48 in/sec,
and u go = 36 in. ; = 1,2,5,10 and 20 %.
motions with u goCE-409:
60

Design Spectrum for various values of

Figure: Pseudo- acceleration design spectrum (84.1 th percentile) drawn on linear


scale for ground motions with u go = 1g , u
go = 48 in/sec, and u go = 36 in. ;

= 1,2,5,10 and CE-409:


20 %. MODULE 6 (Fall-2013)

61

61

Envelope Design spectrum


For some sites a design spectrum is the envelope of two different
elastic design spectra as shown below

Nearby fault producing


moderate EQ

Site

Far away fault


producing largeCE-409:
EQ
MODULE 6 (Fall-2013)

62

Problem M6.2
(a) A full water tank is supported on an 80-ft-high cantilever tower. It is
idealized as an SDF system with weight w = 100 kips, lateral stiffness k =
4 kips/in., and damping ratio = 5%. The tower supporting the tank is to
be designed for ground motion characterized by the design spectrum of
Fig. 6.9.5 scaled to 0.5g peak ground acceleration. Determine the design
values of lateral deformation and base shear.
(b) The deformation computed for the system in part (a) seemed excessive
to the structural designer, who decided to stiffen the tower by increasing
its size. Determine the design values of deformation and base shear for the
modified system if its lateral stiffness is 8 kips/in.; assume that the
damping ratio is still 5%. Comment on how stiffening the system has
affected the design requirements. What is the disadvantage of stiffening
the system?
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Home Assignment M6
Solve following exercise problems (Chopras book, second or
third edition)
1. Problem 6.10
2. Problem 6.15
Further problem for practice:
6.12 to 6.14,6.16 and 6.17

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