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Civil engineering

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Civil engineering

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Peshawar, Pakistan

Earthquake Engineering

MODULE 6

RESPONSE OF LINEAR ELASTIC S.D.O.F SYSTEMS TO

EARTHQUAKE LOADING

Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan &

drakhtarnaeem@nwfpuet.edu.pk

mjaved@nwfpuet.edu.pk

1

In this lecture, we will study the earthquake response of linear

SDOF systems subjected to earthquake excitations.

By definition, linear systems are elastic systems.

They are also referred to as linearly elastic systems to

emphasize both properties. Non-linear inelastic system

fs

Linear elastic system

fs

No energy is absorbed

by systems

u

CE-409: MODULE 6 (Fall-2013)

Elastic-perfectly plastic

system (Elasto plastic

system)

Area enclosed by

the curve = Energy

absorbed by system

Consider a single story frame with lumped mass. Let the frame at

the base displaces by an amount ug due to seismic waves. As a result

lumped mass at the top displaces by an amount ut ,such that:

t

u = u +u g

Where ug= Ground displacement. ut=Total displacement at the top end and u

= Dynamic displacement of lumped mass at the top w.r.t shifted base.

CE-409: MODULE 6 (Fall-2013)

The equation of motion for the frame subjected to the

earthquake excitation can be derived by using the

using dynamic equilibrium of forces as:

f I +f D +f S =0

Only the relative motion u between the mass and the base cause

structural deformation which produces elastic and damping forces.

t

t

acceleration u of the mass by:

f = mu ;

I

= cu and f s = ku

By substituting the value of fI , the equation of motion become:

+ku =0

mu t +cu

or m(u g + u ) + cu + ku = 0

+ku = mu g (t)

or mu +cu

Comparing with

+ku =p(t)

mu +cu

The term on the right-hand side of the equation may be regarded as

the Effective earthquake force.

p eff ( t ) = mu g (t)

Effective earthquake force: horizontal ground motion

force (indicated by the subscript eff. Since this force is

proportional to the mass, thus, by increasing the mass the structural

designer increases the effective earthquake force

CE-409: MODULE 6 (Fall-2013)

Strong earthquakes can generally be classified into three groups:

1. Practically a single shock: Acceleration, velocity, and displacement

records for one such motion are shown in figure. A motion of this type

occurs only at short distances from the epicenter, only on firm ground, and

only for shallow earthquakes.

A moderately long, extremely irregular motion : The record of the

earthquake of El Centro, California in 1940, NS component exemplifies

this type of motion. It is associated with moderate distances from the focus

and occurs only on firm ground. On such ground, almost all the major

earthquakes originating along the Circumpacific Belt are of this type.

10

A long ground motion exhibiting pronounced prevailing periods of

vibration: A portion of the accelerogram obtained during the earthquake of

1989 in Loma Prieta is shown in figure to illustrate this type. Such motions

result from the filtering of earthquakes of the preceding types through

layers of soft soil within the range of linear or almost linear soil behavior

and from the successive wave reflections at the interfaces of these layers.

11

ug

t

Figure : Ground motions recorded

during several earthquakes.

CE-409: MODULE 6 (Fall-2013)

12

13

Ground acceleration,

Ground velocity,

ug

u g

Ground displacement, u g

during the Imperial Valley earthquake of 1940

CE-409: MODULE 6 (Fall-2013)

14

to EQ excitations

c

k

mu + cu + ku = mu g (t) u + u + u = u g (t)

m

m

Since c = c = ( 2m

cr

) and

k

=

m

+

u +CE-409:

2

n u = u g (t)

MODULE

6 (Fall-2013)

nu

2

Response quantities

Response is the structural system

reaction to a demand coming from

ground acceleration record

velocity, acceleration, internal shear, bending moment, axial force

etc.

t

needed if the structure is supporting sensitive equipment and

the motion imparted to the equipment is to be determined.

CE-409: MODULE 6 (Fall-2013)

16

Response quantities

One of the important response quantity is total lateral displacement

t

u

at the top end of structural system, o , required to provide enough

separation between adjacent buildings to prevent their pounding

against each other during an earthquake

CE-409: MODULE 6 (Fall-2013)

17

subjected to EQ excitation

u +2n u

+ n u =u g (t)

2

variation of ground acceleration, can be determined by using any

appropriate time stepping numerical method.

Closer the time interval, more accurate will be solution. Typically, the

time interval is chosen to be 1/100 to 1/50 of a second, requiring 1500 to

3000 ordinates to describe the round motion of above given El- Centro ,

18

1940, ground acceleration

record having

a duration of 30 sec.

CE-409: MODULE

6 (Fall-2013)

18

El Centro,1940,

ground acceleration

g , g

u

go = 0.319g

u

T = 0.5sec, = 2%

n

Tn = 0.5sec, = 2%

Corresponding relative

displacement at the top

end of the SDOF frame

u, in

19

in a liner elastic SDOF system

u +2 u

+ u = u (t)

2

u = f(T , )

n

Thus any two systems having the same values of Tn and will have

the same deformation response u(t) even though one system may

be more massive than the other or one may be stiffer than the other

20

Effect of Tn on Deformation

response history

u g , g

go = 0.319g

u

displacement at the top end of a

SDOF increases with the increase

in the time period of the system.

Response of SDOF systems with different values of Tn to

CE-409: MODULE

6 (Fall-2013)

El Centro

ground acceleration

21

21

22

Effect of on Deformation

response

history

u g , g

go = 0.319g

u

displacement at the top end of a

SDOF increases with the decrease

in the damping ratio of the system

Response of SDOF systems with different values of to

CE-409: MODULE

6 (Fall-2013)

El Centro ground

acceleration

23

23

24

Thus, structural systems with Tn=0.5sec, 1 and 2 sec may be considered

as 5, 10 and 20 story height buildings, respectively.

A building with 3 story height can be considered as Multi DOF system

with at least 3 DOFs.

To keep the discussion simple at this stage, it will be a reasonable

assumption

to

state

that

(

out of 3 natural time periods of the 3 story building) we consider only

fundamental natural time period (Tn=0.3 sec) to determine the response

quantities for the building.

Later on we will discuss how all 3 vibration modes (and the

corresponding natural time periods) are calculated and are taken into

account to find the total response of a building with DOF =3

Because the empirical period formula is based on measured response of

buildings, it should not be used to estimate the period for other types of

CE-409:

MODULE

25

structure (bridges,

dams,

towers).6 (Fall-2013)

natural vibration period Tn of the system, or a related parameter such

as circular frequency n or cyclic frequency fn, is called the response

spectrum for that quantity.

Response is the structural system reaction to a demand coming

from ground acceleration record (i.e. Accelerogram) and when the

peak response commodities such as structural

system displacement

t

( ,u o ) velocity ( u o ) and acceleration ( u o ) are plotted against the

structural system natural time period (or frequencies) will be called

spectrum

CE-409: MODULE 6 (Fall-2013)

26

Peak values of response quantities and shape of response

spectrum depends on the accelerogram

Each such plot is for SDOF system having a fixed damping ratio

, and several such plots for different values of are included to

cover the range of damping values encountered in actual structures.

The deformation response spectrum is a plot of uo against Tn for

fixed . A similar plot for u o is the relative velocity response

t

u

spectrum, and for o is the total acceleration response spectrum.

27

deformation response spectrum. The spectrum is developed for

El Centro ground motions, as shown in part (a) of the figure.

The time variation of deformation induced by this ground motion

in three SDF systems is presented in part (b) of the figure

The peak value of deformation D uo, determined for SDF

system with different Tn is determined and shown in part (c) of the

Figure

28

Construction of deformation

response spectrum

(a) El-centro ground acceleration; (b) Deformation response of three SDF systems

with =2% and TCE-409:

2 sec; (c)

Deformation response spectrum for =2%29

n=0.5,1, and

MODULE

6 (Fall-2013)

29

Consider a quantity V for an SDF system with natural frequency n

related to its peak deformation D uo due to earthquake ground

motion:

2

D =V =

D

T

n

pseudo- velocity or simply pseudo-velocity. The prefix pseudo is

u o

used because V is not equal to the peak velocity

, although it

has the correct units.

30

D

= 2%

V

= 2%

2

V =D

T

n

Tn

V=D*2/Tn

0.5

2.67

33.6

1.0

5.97

37.5

2.0

7.47

23.5

31

D

2

2

A = n D = D

Tn

2

= 2%

A

= 2%

Tn

A=D*(2/Tn)2

0.5

2.6

7

1.09g

1.0

5.9

7

0.61g

2.0

7.4

7

0.191g

32

Please note the following comments regarding pseudo commodities:

1. uo is same as D by definition.

2. Whereas u o is not taken as V, which by definition = nD

t

u

3. Similarly, o is not taken as A which by definition= n2D

33

values

The higher the damping, the lower the relative displacement.

At a period of 2 sec, for example, going from zero to 5%

damping reduces the displacement amplitude by a factor of two.

While higher damping produces further decreases in displacement,

there is a diminishing return.

The % reduction in

displacement by going

from 5 to 20% damping is

much less that that for 0 to

5% damping.

Deformation response spectra f0r 1940 El-centro earthquake for different values of

34

Damping Values

Damping has a similar effect on pseudo acceleration. Note,

however, that the pseudo acceleration at a (near) zero period is the

same for all damping values.

This value is always

equal to the peak ground

acceleration, 0.319g, for

the ground motion in

question. i.e. El-centro

1940 earthquake

Deformation response spectra f0r 1940 El-centro earthquake for different values of

35

( )

The term Pseudo shall not be conceived by its meaning (i.e. false as

defined in English dictionaries). In fact it shall be taken as an essence

similar effect to their relevant commodities

It can be observed from below graph that pseudo acceleration , A , and

peak value of true acceleration, u o t have almost same values for systems

with Tn 10 sec and 0.1 .

It is worth mentioning that for elastic system the seldomly exceed 5%

t

u

as such taking A same as o negligible effect

CE-409: MODULE

6 (Fall-2013)

Tn- sec

36

( u o )

(0.2 Tn 1 sec) as long as 0.1 . Similarly V 0.85u o

(0.2 Tn 3 sec) for 0.1

V

u o

V

u

o

V 0.85u o

37

The deformation, pseudo-velocity and pseduo-acceleration

spectra are plotted for a wide and practical range of Tn and for a

particular value of .

The above mentioned procedure is repeated for different values

of .

The results for different values of over a wide range of Tn are

combined in a single diagram, called combined D-V-A diagram,

as shown on next slide

38

Refer to slides 29, 31 and 32 for D,V and A, respectively

Figure: Combined D-V-A response spectrum for El Centro ground motion; = 2%.

39

6 (Fall-2013)

Note the values ofCE-409:

D,V andMODULE

A determined

for a SDOF system with T n=2 sec

39

For a given earthquake, small variations in structural frequency

(period) can produce significantly different results (See V value

for Tn = 0.5 to3 sec for El-centro earthquake)

Combined D-V-ACE-409:

response spectrum

MODULE

for6El(Fall-2013)

Centro ground motion; = 0,5,10 and 20%40 40

Pseudo acceleration, A

Uo

f so = k.u o

since k = n 2 .m

f so = k.u o = ( n .m).u o

2

= m.( n .u o )

2

f so = m.A

41

static force fso can be determined as:

f so = kD = mA

The peak value of base shear, Vbo, from equilibrium of above given

diagram can be written as:

Vbo = f so = m.A

42

spectrum

w

A

or Vbo = .A = .w

g

g

Where w is the weight of the structure and g is the gravitational

acceleration. When written in this form, A/g may be interpreted as

the base shear coefficient or lateral force coefficient . It is used in

building codes to represent the coefficient by which the structural

weight is multiplied to obtain the base shear

43

Problem M6.1

The frame for use in a building is to be located on sloping ground s

shown in figure. The cross sections of the two columns are 10 in. square.

Determine the base shears in the two columns at the instant of peak

response due to the El Centro ground motion. Assume the damping ratio

to be 5%. The beam is too stiffer than the columns and can be assumed

to be rigid. Total weight at floor level = 10k

Solution

slopy ground

1st step

9.81*3.28*12=386

44

Solution (contd.)

Computing the shear force at the

base of the short and long columns.

u o = D = 0.67 A = ( 2/Tn ) D

2

2

0.67

Spectrum for El Centro Ground Motion

Comments:

Although both columns go through equal deformation, however, the stiffer column

carries a greater force than the flexible column. The lateral force is distributed to the

elements in proportion to their relative stiffnesses. Sometimes this basic principle , if

not recognized in building design, lead to unanticipated damage of the stiffer elements.

CE-409: MODULE 6 (Fall-2013)

45

thereby giving the amplification magnitudes for D,V and A e.g., for a

system with Tn = 0.5 sec and =0.05. The amplification factors for

D,V and A are D 0.2 , V 1.9and A2.3, respectively

Velocity amplification

factor

D= ugo for

Tn>15 sec

Acceleration amplification

factor

u= -ug

Displacement

amplification factor

A u go

u= 0

Very rigid systems

46

A

const. for Tn < Tc

u go

or A = const. * u go (for Tn < Tc )

i.e. A directly varies with

PGA. Therefore region from

Tn = 0 to Tc is defined

Acceleration sensitive region.

Same logic apply in

defining velocity sensitive and

displacement sensitive regions

47

Design Spectrum

Response spectrum cannot be used for the design of new

structures, or the seismic safety evaluation of existing structures due

to the following reasons:

Response spectrum for a ground motion recorded during the past

is inappropriate for future design or evaluation.

The response spectrum is not smooth and jagged, specially for

lightly damped structures.

The response spectrum for different ground motions recorded in

the past at the same site are not only jagged but the peaks and valley

are not necessarily at the same periods. This can be seen from the

figure given on next slide where the response spectra for ground

motions recorded at the same site during past three earthquakes are

plotted

CE-409: MODULE 6 (Fall-2013)

48

Figure: Response spectra for the N-S component of ground motions recorded at the

imperial valley Irrigation district substation, El Centro, California, during earthquakes

49

CE-409:

MODULE

(Fall-2013)

of May 18,1949;Feb

9,1956;and

April68,1968;

= 2%.

49

Design Spectrum

Due to the inappropriateness of response spectrum as stated on

previous slide, the majority of earthquake design spectra are

obtained by averaging a set of response spectra for ground motion

recorded at the site the past earthquakes.

If nothing have been recoded at the site, the design spectrum

should be based on ground motions recorded at other sites under

similar conditions such as magnitude of the earthquake, the

distance of the site from causative fault, the fault mechanism, the

geology of the travel path of seismic waves from the source to the

site, and the local soil conditions at the site.

CE-409: MODULE 6 (Fall-2013)

50

Design Spectrum

For practical applications, design spectra are presented as

smooth curves or straight lines.

Smoothing is carried , using statistical analysis, out to eliminate

the peaks and valleys in the response spectra that are not desirable

for design. For this purpose statistical analysis of response spectra is

carried out for the ensemble of ground motions.

Each ground motion, for statistical analysis is normalized (scaled

up or down) so that all ground motions have the same peak ground

acceleration, say u go ;other basis for normalization can be chosen.

51

Researchers have developed

procedures to construct such design

spectra from ground motion

parameters. One such procedure is

illustrated in given figure.

The recommended period values

Ta = 1/33 sec, Tb = 1/8 sec, Te = 10

sec, and Tf = 33 sec, and the

amplification factors A, V , and D

for the three spectral regions (given

table on next slide), were developed

by the statistical analysis of a larger

ensemble of ground motions

recorded on firm ground (rock, soft

rock, and competent sediments).

CE-409: MODULE 6 (Fall-2013)

52

Spectrum

53

We will now develop the 84.1 percentile design spectrum

for =5%

u go = 1g

is

selected; the resulting spectrum can be scaled by to obtain the

design spectrum corresponding to u go = g

The typical values of

u go

u go

= 48 in./sec/g and u go *

u go

go

=6

ratios give u go = 48 in/sec and u go = 36 in

54

v = 2.3

previous slide and values

given in table 6.9.2 (slide

53) for 84.1 percentile

and =5%, the Pseudovelocity design spectrum

can be dawn as shown in

Figure 6.9.4

A = 2.71

D = 2.01

55

Displacement and Pseudo-acceleration design spectra can be drawn

from pseudo-velocity design spectrum using the relations being

already discussed and reproduced here for the convenience:

V

Tn

D=

=

V

n

2

2

A = V n = V.

Tn

The Pseudo-acceleration and displacement design spectra drawn by

using above given equation are drawn in Figures 6.9.5 and 6.9.6 on

next two slides

CE-409: MODULE 6 (Fall-2013)

56

Acceleration sensitive region

Velocity sensitive region

Displacement

sensitive region

57

58

u go = 1g , u go =

48 in/sec,

and u go

= 36 in.

CE-409:

MODULE

6 (Fall-2013)

59

various values of

Pseudo- acceleration design spectrum (84.1 th percentile) drawn on log scale for ground

60

6 (Fall-2013)

= 1g , u goMODULE

= 48 in/sec,

and u go = 36 in. ; = 1,2,5,10 and 20 %.

motions with u goCE-409:

60

scale for ground motions with u go = 1g , u

go = 48 in/sec, and u go = 36 in. ;

20 %. MODULE 6 (Fall-2013)

61

61

For some sites a design spectrum is the envelope of two different

elastic design spectra as shown below

moderate EQ

Site

producing largeCE-409:

EQ

MODULE 6 (Fall-2013)

62

Problem M6.2

(a) A full water tank is supported on an 80-ft-high cantilever tower. It is

idealized as an SDF system with weight w = 100 kips, lateral stiffness k =

4 kips/in., and damping ratio = 5%. The tower supporting the tank is to

be designed for ground motion characterized by the design spectrum of

Fig. 6.9.5 scaled to 0.5g peak ground acceleration. Determine the design

values of lateral deformation and base shear.

(b) The deformation computed for the system in part (a) seemed excessive

to the structural designer, who decided to stiffen the tower by increasing

its size. Determine the design values of deformation and base shear for the

modified system if its lateral stiffness is 8 kips/in.; assume that the

damping ratio is still 5%. Comment on how stiffening the system has

affected the design requirements. What is the disadvantage of stiffening

the system?

CE-409: MODULE 6 (Fall-2013)

63

Home Assignment M6

Solve following exercise problems (Chopras book, second or

third edition)

1. Problem 6.10

2. Problem 6.15

Further problem for practice:

6.12 to 6.14,6.16 and 6.17

64

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