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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, February 2015)

WORKABILITY, DURABILITY AND COMPRESSIVE


STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF CEMENT MORTAR
CONTAINING FA AND GBS AS PARTIAL REPLACEMENT
MATERIALS UNDER DIFFERENT CURING REGIME
Sunil N Manjunath1, P V Sivapullaiah2, M Prasanna Kumar3
Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, Karnataka, India 576104
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, CV Raman Road, Yeshwanthpura, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
560012
3Asst. Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, Karnataka, India 576104

1M.Tech
2Professor,

1sunilnm09@gmail.com
2siva@civil.iisc.ernet.in
3prasannakumar18186@gmail.com

I.

Abstract - FA of 0%, 25% and 50% alongside GBS of 0%,


25%,50%,75% and 100% were replacement percentages
chosen for cement and sand respectively. Cement mortar in
the ratio 1:3 was prepared and tested for the research study.
To ascertain the water cement ratio, a flow test as per IS 2250
-1981 were performed to get a flow value of 110 +5 on
different mortar combinations. The water cement ratio
increased with increase in replacement of sand by GBS. GBS
can be used up to only in place 50% of sand, in order to avoid
excessive segregation and bleeding. The replacement by FA
up to 50% did not reduce the water cement ratio of normal
cement mortar. Triplicate cube samples of 50mm size were
cast using the flow value test results and cured for 28 days in
water, 10% HCl solution and 10% NaOH solution for 28
days. The initial weight and final weight of the samples
before and after curing were noted down. After 28 days, they
were tested for compressive strength under compressive
testing machine. All 28 days water cured samples showed
reduced compressive strengths in comparison with mortar
samples containing 100% cement and 100% sand. For
durability studies, samples were cured under 10% HCl
solution and 10% NaOH solution for 28 days. Samples
subjected to 10% HCl solution curing showed least
compressive strength while samples subjected to 10% alkali
solution curing had little or no effect on compressive
strength.

INTRODUCTION

The usage of cement in all sorts of constructional activities


has been rising since a number of years. This has several
disadvantages, as such usage is known to cause different
forms of pollution during all phases. Cement being highly
energy intensive it poses several problems during its
production. It hydrates on coming in contact with small
amounts of water and dampness and loses strength which
leads problems of storage. CO2 emissions leading to global
warming are also increased as cement is a major
contributor to these emissions. The demand for Natural
River Sand is escalating quickly and is becoming scarce
with heavy pricing to procure constructional sands for
different applications. In order to abate these problems,
several by-products, recycled materials etc. are being
researched to achieve sustainability and preservation of
natural resources. In this study, we have considered FlyAsh (FA) to replace Ordinary Portland Cement(C) and
Granulated Blast furnace Slag (GBS) to replace natural
Sand(S). Radwan et al (2012) in their research paper had
worked on substitution of Portland cement(C) pastes by
GGBS. Priyanka et al (2013) experimental program
studied the effect of replacement of natural sand by
manufactured sand on the properties of cement mortar.
Swaroop et al (2013) studied on the durability properties
of concrete with the replacement of cement by Fly Ash and
GGBS. Essam et al (2013) carried out a research work on
Effect of calcium chloride on the hydration characteristics
of ground clay bricks cement pastes. Marthong et al.
(2012) conducted a research on effect on use of fly ash as
an additive on concrete properties. Isa et al. (2006) in their
research paper had studied the effect of replacement of
sand by GBS and coal bottom ash in concrete strength and
durability. These earlier studies have shown that GBS and

Keywords - Cement, FA, GBS, mortar, natural sand,


replacements, curing regime.

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, February 2015)
TABLE 1
SIEVE ANALYSIS

FA in mortar and concrete can be used as a substitute


material for sand and cement respectively. Based on the
review, research has been carried out on evaluating
workability, durability and compressive strength
characteristics on substituting FA and GBS in place of
cement and natural sand respectively.
II.

IS sieve
designation
4.75 mm
2.36 mm
1.18 mm
600
300
150

RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE

The objectives of the research are to study the effect of FA


on cement and GBS on sand. They are used in preparation
of mortar with the above replacement materials. Cement
was replaced with FA by 25% and 50%. Sand was
replaced with GBS by 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. The
cement to sand ratio considered was 1:3. The sieve
analysis and workability tests reveal desirable properties
of FA and GBS to be used as substitute materials. GBS
being a newer replacement, researches are low. The
compatibility of materials can also be observed in this
experimental study. Also, mortar should not be defined on
the basis of compressive strength alone. The parameters of
workability and durability are equally important. Thus, the
experimental becomes useful and informative for further
studies, especially in the areas of mortar and concrete.
III.

Cumulative %
wt. passing
SAND
98.4
92.6
73
39.4
20.4
0.8

GBS
99.076
96.016
82.186
31.510
10.406
1.488

IS
383:1970
ZONE 1
90-100
60-95
30-70
15-34
5 to 20
0-10

IS
383:1970
ZONE 2
90-100
75-100
55-90
35-59
8 to 30
0-10

TABLE 2
MATERIAL PROPERTIES

MATERIALS

GBS was collected from KALYAN steel Industry (4.75


mm to 75 micron) which is located in Karnataka. FA
(Class F) was collected from Raichur Thermal Power
Plant which is located in Raichur District in Karnataka.
The sodium chloride and hydrogen chloride used in this
work was collected from locally available chemical
laboratory. The type of sodium chloride used is in the form
of pellets containing more than 97% of NaCl. The
hydrogen chloride used in the study was in form of liquid
which contained HCl 35% weight by volume. The
Superplasticizer used in this research was collected from
locally available concrete admixture store. The type of
Superplasticizer used is chloride free, SNF polymer based.
It was supplied as a brown solution which instantly
disperses in water. It conformed to IS 9103:1999
specifications. OPC 53 Grade was used to prepare the
mixes for the evaluation of all properties. There were no
lumps formed when unpacked and was stored in air tight
containers. It conformed to IS 12269:2013 specifications.
The sand was collected from a nearby construction site
(4.75 mm to 75 micron). It was oven dried for 24 hours to
remove moisture before evaluation of properties and
preparation of mixes. It conformed to IS 650-1991
specifications. Potable water was used in all mixes. Salts
and other organic impurities were absent. The results of
Seive analysis and material properties of GBS and Sand
are given in Table 1, Table 2 and Figure 1.

Sr.
no.
1.
2.
3.

Property

SAND

GBS

Specific gravity
Moisture absorption
Fineness Modulus

2.62
.4%
2.754

2.25
.1%
2.79

4.

Indian standard zone

Zone 2

5.

Fines

.8%

Fluctuates
between
Zone 1 and
Zone 2
1.49%

Figure 1: Sieve Analysis of GBS vs sand

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, February 2015)
IV.

EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

interlock with the cement matrix unlike the sprehical


particles present in sand. Thus a balance needs to
established between good workability and achieving
higher compressive strength. The water absorption of GBS
is lower than sand and hence it can be used as a substitute
material for sand. The specific gravity of GBS being lower
adds to more coverage of surface in plastering etc., for the
same amount of material compared to sand.

FA was added in percentages of 0, 25 and 50 in place of


cement and GBS was added in percentages of 0,25,50,75
and 100 in place of sand to observe the changes in water
cement ratio. Mortar specimens with proportion of 1:3
were prepared and put to flow table test. The mortar
ingredients were dry mixed first. Water and
Superplasticizer were added and hand mixed, followed by
mechanical mixing to get a good homogeneous mix. The
sample was filled in two layers with 20 blows each layer
in a mould placed on flow table. The mould was lifted and
the sample was given 25 drops in 15 seconds. A
Superplasticizer dosage of 2% by mass of cementitious
material was added to all mortar samples. The water
cement ratio for a flow value of 110 to 115 without
appreciable segregation and bleeding was noted down.
This was followed by casting of triplicate 50 mm cube
specimens for the workable mortar combinations. The
mould was filled in 2 layers with 20 blows each layer and
top surface was finished and levelled. The mortar samples
were demoulded after 72 hours of casting to ensure the
proper setting. The initial weight was noted down. The
samples were then placed for curing for a period of 28 days
under different conditions viz. water, 10% HCl solution
and 10%NaOH solution. After the completion of curing
period, they were kept out to dry in open air for 10
minutes, later wiped with a soft cloth. After noting down
the final weight, it was tested using a compression testing
machine within 30 minutes. The load was applied at
1.5KN/sec. The compression strength was then evaluated
using the peak load and surface area in contact with
loading frame.
V.

B. Studies on Scanning electron microscopy images on


Cement and FA.
Figure 2 and Figure 3 shows the SEM images obtained at
50m on cement and FA samples respectively. The
particles in Cement were found to contain many
predominant anomalous shapes and not spherical. This is
mainly because of milling of cement during its
manufacture. FA comprised of cenospheres with varying
texture viz., several dense to hollow spheres.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Figure 2: SEM image of cement

A. Seive analysis, specific gravity and moisture


absorption of GBS and Sand
With reference to Table 1, Table 2 and Figure 1 the particle
size Distribution is one of the significant parameter to
classify and to inspect the strength variations. The zones
of fine aggregate gives us an insight to the fineness present
in the materials. As per IS 383:1970, the zone of sand was
found to be zone 2, while the zone of GBS fluctuated
within zone 1 and zone 2. Thus, GBS is a more coarser
material than sand.
It was found that, to use GBS and sand in mortar, a
superplasticizer was added to achieve higher workability
and relative compressive strength with reduced watercement ratio. GBS leads to bleeding and segregation when
the replacement levels with sand is appreciable owing to
the glassy granular structure compared to spherical
particles in sand. On the contrary, the structure of GBS
may improve compressive strength as the particles

Figure 3: SEM image of FA

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, February 2015)

C. Studies on workability
As evident from the sieve analysis, the use of GBS beyond
50% as a substitute material for Sand was not possible as
it caused bleeding despite the use of Superplasticizer and
cement replacements by FA. Compared to manual mixing,
mechanical mixing lead to better binding of materials and
proper flow of samples. FA when substituted upto 25%
initially increased the water cement ratio. This can be
explained on basis of the overall fineness of cementitious
material and the materials were not much compatible. At
25% replacement levels, the overall fineness did not
increase appreciably. At 50% replacements of cement by
FA reflected same water cement ratios as that of only
cement mortar samples. Therefore use of FA did not
reduce the water cement ratio of any mortar sample. But it
was observed that, the mortar samples achieved the flow
value with no visible segregation or bleeding. Table 3
gives the serial number of the mortar type used in the
research and this numbering will carry forward in the
paper. Table 6 and Figure 7 show the results obtained.
100C and 100S imply 100% Cement and 100% Sand
respectively.

FlOW TABLE TEST RESULTS

1
0.9
0.8

W/C RATIO

0.7

100C+100S

2.

100C+75S+25GBS

3.

100C+50S+50GBS

4.

75C+25FA+100S

5.

75C+25FA+75S+25GBS

6.

75C+25FA+50S+50GBS

7.

50C+50FA+100S

8.

50C+50FA+75S+25GBS

9.

50C+50FA+50S+50GBS

0.1
0
100C

100S

0.55

2.

0.675

3.

0.80

4.

0.575

5.

0.70

6.

0.90

7.

0.55

8.

0.675

9.

0.80

50C+50FA

75S+25GBS

50S+50GBS

Figure 4 : Variation in W/C Ratio on partial replacement of cement


with FA and sand by GBS

D. Studies on initial and final weight after curing


The samples comprising of 25% FA showed lesser initial
weight than the samples with 50%FA. This is due to the
fact that higher water content adds to more pores and also
lesser filling of the material in the mould at the same
compactive effort. Thus there will be more wastage of
material compared to lower water cement samples. The
final weight was observed to increase when cured under
water/alkali for all samples. Higher the percentage
increase in weight for same cement replacement
percentage viz., 0,25% and 50% by FA, lower will be its
compressive strength when cured under water/alkali. This
can be accounted on the facr as there will be higher amount
of pores developed due to coarser GBS particles. On the
other hand, acid resistance increased with increase in
percentage weight of sample for same cement replacement
percentages. The possible explanation for this behaviour
in the samples could be lesser amount of material loss on
acid action due to better bonding of materials within the
mortar sample. The initial weight of the samples had a
standard deviation(S.D.) of less than 5, indicating that the
samples cast were of uniform compostion and
homegeniety. The explanation given was in reference
with Table 5, 6, 7, 8 and Figure 5 and 6.

W/C RATIO OBTAINED

1.

25C+75FA
MORTAR TYPE

TABLE 4
FLOW TABLE TEST RESULTS

Sr.no.

0.4

0.2

MORTAR TYPE

1.

0.5

0.3

TABLE 3
MORTAR COMBINATIONS

Sr.no.

0.6

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, February 2015)
TABLE 5
AVERAGE INITIAL WEIGHT IN gms.

28 WATER

28 HCl

28 NaOH

S.D.

9.37

-6.62

11.53

271.13

3.66

2.58

1.28

4.53

255.89

258.87

2.91

4.29

0.80

5.66

248.86

248.66

248.71

0.13

5.92

0.72

7.14

253.05

251.15

251.73

251.98

0.97

243.76

246.20

247.04

245.67

1.70

PERCENTAGE VARIATION IN WEIGHTS AFTER CURING


PERIOD

236.10

234.92

237.64

236.22

1.36

12.00

262.77

261.95

259.03

261.25

1.97

10.00

248.00

248.07

247.09

247.72

0.55

242.16

241.66

240.88

241.57

0.65

Sr.no.

28
HCl

28
NaOH

MEAN

266.97

272.56

273.85

261.70

259.01

248.61

PERCENTAGE VARIATION IN AVERAGE WEIGHT

Sr.no.

28
WATER

TABLE 6
AVERAGE FINAL WEIGHT IN gms.

Sr.no.

28 WATER

28 HCl

28 NaOH

274.73

260.03

284.42

273.15

241.79

266.20

266.49

224.49

270.04

265.24

244.23

268.16

264.30

234.94

265.69

258.23

219.36

265.03

269.56

265.30

270.76

258.65

250.05

261.08

256.50

243.40

258.08

28 WATER

28 HCl

28 NaOH

2.91

-4.60

3.86

4.38

-6.65

4.03

7.19

-9.79

8.60

4.82

-2.76

6.53

8.43

-4.57

7.55

6.00
4.00
2.00

0.00
-2.00

-4.00
-6.00
-8.00
-10.00

SR NO.
28 WATER

28 HCl

28 NaOH

Figure 5: Plot of Percentage variation in average weight after 28 days curing

E. Studies on durability and compressive strength


In reference with Table 8 and Figure 6, it can be noted that
replacing sand by GBS decreases the compressive strength in
all cases of curing. It is evident that 28 days of curing of
samples under water, samples containing only cement
showed higher strengths for same GBS replacements when
compared to samples containing cement replaced by FA.
Samples containing cement replacements with FA showed
strength decrease when cured only under water owing to
presence of higher silica content. Cement is known for its
weak acid resistance and same trend followed in our study as
well. The resistance continue to decrease with sand
replacements by GBS. Samples containing FA showed very
good acid resistance in comparison with only cement
samples. Samples containing 50% FA showed the best acid
resistance amongst all samples. The compressive strength
containing 25% and 50% FA showed similar strength upto
25% GBS replacements. The curing of samples under alkali
showed similar or better compressive strength thus giving us

TABLE 7
PERCENTAGE VARIATION IN AVERAGE WEIGHTS
AFTER CURING FOR 28 DAYS

Sr.no.

8.00

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, February 2015)

a hint on geopolmerisation alongwith good resistance to


alkali action. Sample with 50% FA and 50% GBS had the
least compressive strength when cured under water but it was
also least affected by acid and alkali attack. The decrease in
compressive strength of samples containing GBS is
invariably due to higher water cement ratio than reference
mortars containing only sand. On the contrary there is better
acid resistance. In a nut shell, depending upon the application,
a suitable combination can be selected keeping in mind about
reduced compressive strength under normal curing under
water and alkali on usage of FA and GBS.

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH IN MPa

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

30

TABLE 8

20
15
10
5
0

AVERAGE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH IN MPa

Sr.no.

28 WATER

28 HCl

28 NaOH

28.4

14.8

28

24.4

10

26.4

18

8.4

19.6

24

18.4

24

20.4

16.4

23.6

20

13.6

20.6

24.8

18.4

24.8

19.8

16.8

20

16

15.2

17

3.

5.

2.

-14.08

-32.43

-5.71

3.

-36.62

-43.24

-30.00

4.

-15.49

24.32

-14.29

5.

-28.17

10.81

-15.71

6.

-29.58

-8.11

-26.43

7.

-12.68

24.32

-11.43

8.

-30.28

13.51

-28.57

9.

-43.66

2.70

-39.29

28 HCl

28 NaOH

CONCLUSIONS

1.
2.

STRENGTH WITH REFERENCE TO 1.

28 NaOH

Figure 6: Plot of compressive strength under different curing regime of


various mortar samples

TABLE 9

28 HCl

28 WATER

PERCENTAGE VARIATION OF COMPRESSIVE

28 WATER

SR NO.

4.

Sr.no.

25

6.

7.

8.

9.

GBS is a coarser material than sand.


The use of GBS increases the water cement ratio and
therefore a reduction in compressive strength and
durability.
For achieving workability at lower water cement ratio,
invariably higher amount of superplasticizer dosage has
to be given which increases the cost.
The reduction in compressive strength after curing under
water alone for a 25% replacement of sand by GBS can
be accounted to be around 15% and suitable changes can
be done during the design if only cement is used in the
application.
If FA is used in combination with GBS about 30%
reduced compressive strength will be achieved for 25%
replacement level in sand by GBS.
The use of GBS has to be limited to 20% to achieve
workability, durability and compressible similar to
mortar containing only sand.
The use of FA also posed a similar result with reduced
compressive strength. But the acid resistance showed an
increase on use of FA. Therefore it can be stated that use
of FA should be done for applications involving acid
resistance.
The percentage variation in the initial and final weight of
the samples gives us a valuable insight on the
relationship between percentage variation and
compressive strength.
All samples showed excellent alkali resistance and
compressive strength were similar to or better than the
samples cured in water alone.

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, February 2015)

10. The samples cast had a standard deviation value of less


than 5 which shows the experimental samples were of
good homogeneity and composition.
11. FA and GBS have lower specific gravity compared to
cement and sand samples.
12. FA and GBS provide a valuable alternative to the rising
demand of cement and sand. The various other
applications need to researched on these materials and
made suitable for use to abate pollution and conserve
natural resources along with reduced cost of production
and usage depending on the availability of these
materials.

[10]. Association, T. B. (n.d.). Technical notes on Brick


Constructions. Retrieved September 25, 2014,
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