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Chemistry Investigatory

project

Name: shashank
Class: XII-D
Board rollno. :

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This project was very innovative and
exciting

for

me.

could

bring

it

out

successfully and so I am thankful to a


couple of people.
First of all I am highly obliged to my
Chemistry teacher, Ms. Chitra Gopalan who
approved me for this topic and guided me
throughout.

I am thankful to St. Pauls

school laboratory and lab assistant who


helped

me

to

successfully

carry

out

titrations and taught me how to handle the


chemicals carefully. I would also like to
thank my friends and family, for supporting
me morally. Last but not the least; I would
like to thank my institution for allowing me
to do this project and for providing me with
all

the

necessary

chemicals

that

were

required. It is all due to the support and


concern of the above people and institution
that

could

complete

my

investigator

project satisfactorily, without which things


would have ever gone well.

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that this project is submitted by
SHASHANK student of class XII in the academic
year 2015-16 of St. Pauls School and given
satisfactory account of it. I have examined the
project and hereby accord my approval of it as a
study carried out and presented in the manner
required for its acceptance. This does not necessarily
endorse or accept every statement made or
opinion expressed or conclusion drawn, but
only signifies the acceptance of the project for
the purpose it is submitted for.

Date:
Teacher

Principal

(Signature)

(Signature)

CONTENTS
S.N

Topic

o.
1.

INTRODUCTION

2.

BENEFITS AND USES OF GUAVA

3.

PROPERTIES / ACTIONS DOCUMENTED BY

4.

RESEARCH
FOOD VALUE

5.

PORTION
ACID BASE TITRATION

6.

REDOX TITRATION

7.

TO STUDY THE PRESENCE OF OXALATE ION

PER

100

OF

EDIBLE

IN GUAVA FRUIT AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF


8.

RIPENING
BIBLIOGRAPHY

INTRODUCTION
Guava or psidum guajava is one of the various
mystaceous trees or shrubs of the genus psidum.
When ripe, it has dark or light green-colored peel
which turns light yellow on ripening, the pulp of
the fruit is cream colored with many seeds
embedded in it.
Guava has the highest percentage of vitamin C
among all citrus fruit. It also contains oxalates,
amount of which varies during ripening of fruit.
During the process of removal of two equivalent
hydrogen of vitamin C. (Ascorbic acid) molecules
take

place.

Dehydroascorbic

acid

is

oxidized to oxalic acid in alkaline medium.

further

BENEFITS AND USES OF


GUAVA
1.

Guavas are an excellent source of vitamin C


and also contain iron calcium, and
phosphorus. The guava fruit contains the
highest vitamin C content out of all the citrus
fruits with as much as 180 mg per 100 g if
fruit.

2.

Older children and adults, a cup once or


twice daily of a leaf decoction is the tropical
herbal medicine standard.

3.

A guava leaf decoction is taken to relieve


colds and bronchitis.

4.

The roots, bark, leaves and immature fruits,


because of their astringency, are commonly
employed to halt gastroenteritis, diarrhea,
dysentery and vomiting in cholera patients.

5.

It also has hypoglycemic and anti-bacterial


properties. The fruit, when eaten whole helps
reduce both, high blood pressure and
cholesterol levels.

6.

Guava benefits in battling diabetes, combats


cancer and protects prostate.

7.

Guava can improve heart health by helping


to control blood pressure and cholesterol.

8.

Guava is highly
constipation.

effective

in

removing

PROPERTIES / ACTIONS
DOCUMENTED BY RESEARCH
Guava fruit acts as a : Amebicide,
analgesic
anticandidal,
antimalarial,
antiulcerous,

(pain

reliever),

antibacterial,

antidysenteric,
antioxidant,
cardio

antifungal,
antispasmodic,

depressant,

cardiotonic

(tones, balances, strengthens the heart), central


nervous system depressant, cough suppressant,

gastrototonic (tones, balances, strengthens the


gastric

tract),

hypotensive

(lowers

blood

pressure), sedative, vasoconstrictor).

Other

Properties/Actions

Documented by Traditional Use


Guava fruit also has the following effects on
human

health:

Anti-anxiety,

anticonvulsant,

antiseptic, astringent, blood cleanser, digestive


stimulant,

menstrual

stimulant,

neervine

(balances / calms nerves), vermifuge (expels


worms).

Main Actions (in order) : Antidysenteric,


antiseptic, antibacterial, antispasmodic, cardio
tonic (tones, balances, strengthens the heart ).

Drug Interactions :

None reported, however excessive or chronic


consumption of guava may potentiate some
heart medications.

Contraindications :
1.

Guava has recently demonstrated cardiac


depressant activity and should be used with
caution by those on heart medications.

2.

Guava fruit has shown to lower blood sugar


levels and it should be avoided by people
with hypoglycemia.

FOOD VALUE PER 100 g OF


EDIBLE PORTION

ACID BASE TITRATION

When an acid base reaction is used, the process


is called acid-base titration. When a redox
reaction is used, the process is called a redox
titration. Titration is also called volumetric
analysis, which is type of quantitative chemical
analysis.
Titration is a laboratory technique by which we
can determine the concentration of an unknown
reagent

using

standard

concentration

of

another reagent that chemically reacts with the


unknown. This standard solution is referred to as
the titrant. We have to have some way to
determine when the reaction is complete that we
are using. This is referred to as the end point or
more technically the equivalence point. At that
point, the entire unknown has been reacted with
the standard titrant and some kind of chemical

indicator must let us know when that point has


been arrived at.
Generally, we know the Normality of the titrant
since it is a standard solution. We also premeasure the volume of the unknown. We then
titrate with the standard from a burette into the
container with the measured unknown and the
chemical indicator until the indicator either turns
color or a precipitate indicates that the end point
or the equivalence point has been reached.
Having the initial and final readings of the titrant
burette gives us the volume of the titrant used.
The only unknown in the above equation is the
Normality of the unknown.
Molarities of acidic and basic solutions are often
used to convert back and forth between moles of
solutes and volumes of their solutions, but how
were

the

molarities

of

these

solutions

determined? This section describes a procedure


called titration, which can be used to find the
molarity of a solution of an acid or a base.

In titration, one solution (solution #1) is added to


another solution (solution # 2) until a chemical
reaction

between

the

components

in

the

solutions has run to completion. Solution #1 is


called the titrant, and we say that it is used to
titrate solution #2. The completion of reaction is
usually shown by a change of color caused by a
substance called an indicator.
A solution of a substance that reacts with the
solute in solution #2 is added to a burette. (A
burette is a laboratory instrument used to add
measured

volumes

of

solutions

to

other

containers). This solution in the burette, which


has a known concentration, is the titrant. The
burette is set up over the Erlenmeyer flask so the
titrant can be added in a controlled manner to
the solution to be titrated (figure 1). For example
a 0.115 M NaOH solution might be added to a
burette, which is set up over the Erlenmeyer flask
containing the nitric acid solution.

REDOX TITRATION
Redox titration (also called oxidation reduction
titration) is a type of titration based on a redox
reaction between the analyte and titrant.
It is a titration of a reducing agent by an oxidizing
agent between the analyte and titrant.
Redox reaction may involve the use of a redox
indicator.
This experiment involves the use of potassium
permanganate which is the oxidizing agent as
well as the indicator.
Permanganate ion is a powerful oxidizing agent,
especially in acidic solution, which can be used to
analyze (by titration) solutions containing many
different species. In these titration reactions, the
intensely colored MnO-4 ion is reduced to form the
colorless Mn

+2

ion.

An advantage of using the permanganate ion in


the titration of colorless unknown solutions is

that it is self-indicating. As long as the reducing


agent remains present in the sample, the color of
MnO-4 quickly disappears as it is reduced to Mn +2.
However, at the endpoint, all the reducing agent
has been used up so the next drop of MnO -4
solution is sufficient to cause an easily detected
color change colorless (faint, permanent peach /
pink). So we know that at the endpoint, the
oxidizing agent (MnO-4) and reducing agent (H2O2
or Fe
their

+2

) have reacted in exactly in proportion to

stoichiometry

in

the

balanced

redox

equation. If we know how much of the oxidizing


agent we added, then we can figure out exactly
how much reducing agent was present in the
unknown!

TO STUDY THE PRESENCE OF


OXALATE ION IN GUAVA FRUIT
AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF
RIPENING

REQUIREMENTS
100ml

measuring

flask,

pestle

and

mortar,

beaker, titration flask, funnel burette, weight box,


filter paper, dilute H2SO4 N\20 KMNo4, guava
fruits at different stages of ripening.

THEORY Oxalate ions are extracted from fruit by boiling


pulp with dil.H2 SO4. Then oxalate ions are
estimated volumetrically by titrating the solution
with standard KMnO4 solution.

PROCEDURE
1.

Weigh 50.0 gram of fresh guava and crush it


to a fine pulp using pestle mortar.

2.

Transfer the crushed pulp to a beaker and


add about 5o ml dilute H2 SO4 to it. Boil he
contents for about 10 minutes.

3.

Cool and filter the contents in a 100 ml


measuring flask. Make the volume up to
100ml by adding distilled water.

4.

Take

20

ml

of

the

solution

from

the

measuring flask into a. Titration flask and add


20 ml of dilute sulphuric acid to it. Heat the
mixture to about 60
N\20 KMnO4.

C and titrate it against

Taken in a burette. The end

point is appearance of permanent light pink


color.
5.

Repeat the above experiment with 50.0


grams of 1, 2 and 3 days old guava fruit.

OBSERVATIONS :
Weight of guava fruit taken each time

50.0grams
Volume of guava extract taken in
each titration

= 20.0 ml

Normality of KMnO4 solution

= 1\20

OBSERVATION TABLE
Guava extract
from

Burette readings Concord


ant
volume
of N\20
KMnO4
solution
used.
Initial
Final

Fresh guava
One
day
guava
Two
days
guava
Three day
guava

O ml

4.8ml

4.8ml

old

O ml

4.1ml

4.1ml

old

O ml

3.6ml

3.6ml

old

O ml

3.0ml

3.0ml

The strength of guava fruit at


different stages of ripening -

Guava extract from

Strength

Fresh
One day old

1.056 g/liters
0.902g /liters

Two days old

0.792g/liters

Three days old

0.66g/liters

RESULT:
It is concluded from above experiment that
the amount of oxalate ion in guava at
different stages of ripening decreases.

PRECAUTIONS:
1.)

The apparatus must be clean.

2.)

Handle acid with care.

3.)

Balance should be accurate.

4.)

Mix the content well.

5.)

Take reading of lower meniscus.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Chemistry Practical Manual
www.google.com
PRADEEPS CHEMISTRY
BRITANNICA ENCYCLOPEDIA
CHEMISTRY TODAY