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ABHISEK PANDA
3.6

SUPER STRUCTURE DESIGN:

3.6.1 AVAILABLE DATA:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

Effective span of T-beam bridge: 18.33m


Total length of bridge: 55m
Clear width of carriage way 7.5m (IRC 5: 1998 & IRC 6: 2014)
Kerb width: 600mm (both side, pedestrians are allowed)
Parapet: 1000 mm 150 mm 150 mm @ 1.5m c/c with 3-cast iron pipes as
railing
Camber: 1 in 100 (37.5 mm at center linearly varying to zero at kerbs)
Wearing coat: 80mm
Kerb height above pavement: 200mm (insurmountable type)
Kerb type: full safety ensured
Total kerb height above deck slab: 280 mm
Clear depth of Longitudinal girders: 1400 mm
Width of longitudinal girder: 400mm
Width of cross girder: 300mm
Clear depth of cross girder: 1400 mm
Deck slab thickness: 250 mm
Cantilever slab: 400 mm at girder face; linearly varying @ 0.11 to ends i.e.
200 mm
Total overall depth of the super structure: 1800mm
c/c spacing of longitudinal girders: 2500 mm
c/c spacing of cross girders: 4507.50 mm
clear distance of cantilever span from face of girder: 1800mm
Grade of concrete: M35
Design strength: fcd = 0.67fck/mMPa (Annex A2 of IRC 112: 2011)
Grade of steel : Fe415 (IS 1786 : 2000)
Design strength of steel : f y/1.15 = 0.87fy MPa (clause-15.2.3.3 of IRC
112:2011)
Poissons ratio: = 0.2 (Annex-B; B-3-1 of IRC 112:2011 )
Analysis of deck slab: Piegauds curve

3.6.2 DESIGN OF INTERIOR SLAB PANEL:


The slab is supported on four sides by longitudinal and cross girders which c/c
spacing is as shown in the figure above. The slab thickness is 250 mm and breadth
and length respectively are 2.5m and 4.5075 m. the effective span will be taken as
the clear span of the slabs since these are the continuous slabs. So effective width
Beff = 2.1m and effective length Leff = 4.2075m.

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ABHISEK PANDA

Fig-7 (Interior Slab Panel with one wheel of Tracked Vehicle)


3.6.2.1

Bending Moment of the Slab Panel due to Dead Load:

Weight of slab = 0.25 1 1 25 = 6.25 kN/m2


Weight of wearing coat = 0.080 22 1 1 = 1.76 kN/m2
Weight of camber = 0.45 kN/m2
Total dead weight = 8.46 kN/m2
As Pieguads curve is used in design,
hence K = B/L = 2.5/4.5075 = 0.55
Also dead load moment is to be computed and hence u/B = 1.0 and v/L = 1.0
Using Pieguads curve for K=0.5, u/B = 1.0 and v/L=1.0,
m1=0.047 and m2=0.004
Also for K=0.6, u/B = 1.0 and v/L = 1.0,
m1=0.047 and m2 = 0.016
After interpolation, we find that m1=0.047 and m2=0.0145
Total dead load on the slab is given by = 8.46 2.54.5075 = 95.33
Short span moment is MB = 95.33 (0.047+0.200.0145) = 4.76 kN-m
Long span moment is ML = 95.33 (0.0145+0.200.047) = 2.28 kN-m
Since these are continuous slabs, a continuity factor of 0.8 will be multiplied. So
final end moment is given by MBF = 3.81 kN-m and MBL = 1.824 kN-m
3.6.2.2
1

Bending Moment due to Live Load:

IRC class AA tracked Vehicle:

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ABHISEK PANDA
The wheel is placed at the center of the slab as shown in the figure previously. For
maximum bending moment to be occurred, the load dispersion is taken to be
occurring through wearing coat only. The load is disperses at 45 0 through the
wearing coat as per Annex-B of IRC 112:2011.
Hence u = 0.85+20.080 = 1.01m and v = 3.60 + 20.080 = 3.76m
Hence u/B = 0.404 , v/L = 0.8342 and K = B/L = 2.5/4.5075 = 0.55.
Referring to Pieguads curve,
For K = 0.5, and for above u/B and v/L values,
m1 = 0.084 , m2 = 0.009
Similarly for K = 0.6, we get
m1 = 0.095 and m2 = 0.03
After interpolating, we get
m1 = 0.089 and m2 = 0.019
Short span bending moment is given by, (taking continuity into account)
MB = 0.8350(0.089+0.20.019) = 25.984 kN-m
ML = 0.8 350(0.019+0.20.089) = 10.304 kN-m
As per IRC 6:2010, clause 208.3, for tracked vehicles, the impact factor is 10% for
spans up to 40m.
So MB = 28.58 kN-m and ML = 11.334 kN-m
2

IRC class-AA wheeled vehicle:

Following different references and guides on bridge engineering, its clearly


understood that though tracked vehicle gives the severest effect along short
span/direction but along long span, the wheeled vehicle gives severest effect. By
going through Essentials of Bridge Engineering: D.J Victor and R.C.C design: B.C.
Punmia, A.K Jain and A.K Jain we find the following load positioning gives the
severest effect among other combinations.

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ABHISEK PANDA

Fig-8 (Loading of wheeled vehicle for severest effect)


Also as per IRC 6:2014 specifications, no other vehicles can come on to the panel
during the above arrangement.
Bending Moment calculation due to Wheel Load -2:
Tyre contact dimension : 300 mm 150 mm
So u = 0.3+20.080 = 0.460 m and v = 0.15+20.080 = 0.310 m
The value of u/B = 0.184 , v/L = 0.069 and B/L = 0.55
Using Pieguads curve, m1 = 0.22 and m2 = 0.20
Hence MB1 = 62.5 (0.22+0.20.2) = 16.25 kN-m and M L1 = 62.5(0.2+0.220.2) =
15.25 kN-m
Bending Moment due to Wheel Load -1
Since Pieguads curve is applicable to only symmetrical loading pattern, it cannot be
used directly for unsymmetrical loading. In order to calculate the moment, a dummy
load having equal magnitude will be arranged at equal distance as per real load
from the center of slab or from the vertical axis of the slab. The arrangement is
shown in the figure.

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ABHISEK PANDA

Fig-9 (Bending moment calculation due to Wheel Load-1)


So u = 2(u1 + x) = 2(0.46+0.37) = 1.66m and v = 0.31m
Load intensity = 37.5/(.31.46) = 262.973 kN/m2
K = B/L = 0.55, u/B = 0.664 and v/L = 0.069
Hence m1 = 0.12 and m2 = 0.14
MB = (0.12+0.20.14)262.9731.660.31 = 20.03 kN-m
Similarly ML = 22.193 kN-m

1
Now u = 2x = 20.37 = 0.74 and v = 0.31
K = 0.55, u/B = 0.296 and v/L = 0.069
From Pieguads curve, m1 = 0.184 and m2 = 0.189
MB = 13.38 kN-m and ML = 13.622 kN-m
Hence total moment is given by,
MB2 = (20.03 13.38) 0.5 kN-m = 3.325 kN-m
ML2 = (22.193 13.622) 0.5 kN-m = 4.285 kN-m
Bending Moment due to Wheel Load-3:
2

Now in this case u = 2(0.46+0.77) = 2.46m , v = 0.31 m

Load intensity is 62.5/(.31.46) = 438.3 kN/m2


K = 0.55, u/B = 0984 and v/L = 0.069
From Pieguads curve, m1 = 0.09 and m2 = 0.09
MB = 36.10 kN-m and ML = 36.10 kN-m
3

Taking u = 2x = 20.77 = 1.54 and v = 0.31,

K = 0.55, u/B = 0.616 and v/L = 0.069

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ABHISEK PANDA
Hence m1 = 0.125 and m2 = 0.14
MB = 32.01 kN-m and ML= 34.52 kN-m
MB3 = [36.10 - 32.01] 0.5 = 2.045 kN-m
ML3 = [36.10 - 34.52] 0.5 = 0.79 kN-m
Bending Moment due to Wheel Load at - 5:
4
u =0.46m, v = 2(v1+x) = 2(0.31 + 1.045) = 2.71m
Load intensity = 62.5/(0.460.31) = 438.3 kN/m2
K = 0.55, u/B = 0.184, v/L = 0.60
So m1 = 0.125 and m2 = 0.0306
MB = 71.57 kN-m and ML = 30.35 kN-m
5
u = 0.46m and v = 2x = 21.045 = 2.09m
K = 0.55, u/B = 0.184 and v/L = 0.464
From Pieguads curve, m1 = 0.1441 and m2 = 0.043
MB = 64.30 kN-m and ML = 30.25 kN-m
So MB = 3.635 kN-m and ML = 0.05 kN-m
Bending Moment due to wheel Load at 4:
6

u = 2(u1+x) = 2(0.46+0.37) = 1.66m and v = 2(v1+y) = 2(0.31+1.045) =


2.71m

K = 0.55, u/B = 0.664 and v/L = 0.601


Coefficient m1 = 0.09205 and m2 = 0.027
After multiplying with (u1+x)(v1+y) with both coefficients,
m1 = 0.1015 and m2 = 0.0304
7

u = 2x = 20.37 = 0.74m, v = 2y = 21.045 = 2.09m

K = 0.588, u/B = 0.296 and v/L = 0.464


So m1 = 0.134 and m2 = 0.0405
Multiplying with xy,
we get m1=0.052 and m2 = 0.016
8

u = 0.74m, v = 2.71m

K = 0.55, u/B = 0.296 and v/L = 0.601


m1 = 0.12 and m2 = 0.03 and multiplying with x(v1+y) = 0.5013,
m1 = 0.060 and m2=0.015

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ABHISEK PANDA
9

u =1.66 m and v = 2.09m

K = 0.55, u/B = 0.664 and v/L = 0.464


m1 = 0.095 and m2 = 0.038
Multiplying with y(u1+x) = 0.87,
m1=0.083 and m2 =0.033
So m1 = [(0.1015+0.052)-(0.060+0.083)] = 0.0105
m2 = [(0.0304+0.016)-(0.015+0.033)] 0
MB4 =

37.5
0.46 0.31 [0.0105+0.20] = 2.761 kN-m

ML4 =

37.5
0.46 0.31 [0.20.0105+0] = 0.552 kN-m

Bending Moment due to Wheel Load at -6:


10

1 u = 2[u1+x] = 2[0.46+0.77] = 2.46 m and v = 2[v1+x] = 2[0.31+1.045] =


2.71 m
K = 0.55, u/B = 0.984 and v/L = 0.601
m1 = 0.068, m2 = 0.02
[u1+x][v1+y] = 1.231.355 = 1.67
m1=0.113 and m2 = 0.0334
11
2 u = 2x =1.54m and v = 2y = 2.09m
K=0.55, u/B = 0.616 and v/L = 0.464
m1 = 0.097, m2 = 0.038
xy = 0.804
Hence m1 = 0.078 and m2 = 0.0305
12
3 u = 2[u1+x] = 2.46m and v = 2y =2.09m
K = 0.55, u/B = 0984 and v/L = 0.464
m1 =0.074 and m2 = 0.03
y(u1+x) = 1.285
m1 = 0.095 and m2=0.038
13
4 u = 2x = 1.54m and v = 2(v1+y) = 2.71m
K = 0.55, u/B = 0.616 and v/L = 0.6012
m1 = 0.092 and m2 = 0.025
Multiplying x(v1+y) = 1.043 with above coefficients,
m1 = 0.096 and m2 = 0.026
So final coefficients are,
m1 = [(0.113+0.078)-(0.095+0.096)] = 0
m2 = [(0.0334+0.0305)-(0.038+0.026)] 0
The resulting moment is given by,
MB6 = ML6 = 0 kN-m

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ABHISEK PANDA
Total bending moment is given by,
MB= 16.25+3.325+2.045+3.635+2.761 = 28.016 kN-m
ML = 15.25+4.285+0.79+0.05+0.552 = 20.93 kN-m
Applying continuity and impact,
MB = 28.016 0.8 1.18 = 26.45 kN-m
ML = 20.93 0.8 1.18 = 19.76 kN-m
The impact factor is taken as 18% as per clause-208.4 of IRC 6: 2014. It can be seen
that the moment along short span for tracked load is greater while the wheel load
bending moment along the longer span is severer. Hence the moment for tracked
load will be taken along shorter direction and moment along longer direction will be
considered from wheel load in the design of deck slab.
3.6.3 WIND LOAD ANALYSIS:
Since the structure is open in longitudinal cross section and it has all possibilities
that it will be drowned inside water up to HFL level during storm; as the storm
occurs in the tropical region especially in India during rainy season most of the
times. Hence there is no need to consider the lateral wind force. But still considering
worst condition, lets calculate the uplift force. IS 875 (part-III) : 1987 will be used
for this purpose.
As per clause-5.3, IS 875 (part - III):1987 says that
design wind speed is given by , Vz = Vbk1k2k3
Vb = 50 m/sec (Appendix -A) = 180 kmph (for Bhubaneswar zone)
As per clause 5.3, the wind speed is considered constant up to the height of 10m
of any structure.
k1 = 1.08 (Table-1), k2 = 1.00 (Table-2, Category -2, class - A) and k3 = 1 ( = 00,
clause 5.3.3.1)
Hence Vz = 180 1.08 1.00 1.00 = 194.40 kmph 200kmph = 55.56 m/sec
Using clause- 5.4,
pz = 0.6Vz2 = 0.6 (55.56)2 = 1852.15 N/m2 = 1.85 kN/m2
The solidity ratio is equal to 00 in our case. Hence = 00
From table-7 (page -19), taking = 00and = 00 ,
C1 = (-)1.4 = 1.4 (suction)
As per clause 6.2.2.7 (page - 27) for overhangs sloping upward, C 2 = 0.75 and the
positive sign indicates that this will be acting downward. Hence total pressure force

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ABHISEK PANDA
per unit run on the slab will be calculated separately for the cantilever and
intermediate road way section.

Fig-10 (Wind load on Super Structure)


The
pressure
distribution
is
as
shown
in
the
figure.
Fuplift/m run = C1pzA = 1.4 .85 4.2 18.33/18.33 = 10.878 kN/m
Fdownward/m run = C2pzA = 0.75 1.85 3.6 18.33/18.33 = 4.995 kN/m 5kN/m
Hence it can be seen that the cantilever section will not be experiencing any uplift
force and the wind pressure will be in the same direction as that of the live load.
Also it can be noted that as per clause 212.5 of IRC 6: 2014, no live load will be
considered on the deck when wind speed exceeds 130 kmph.
Now the longitudinal girders can be seen as loaded as below figure for intermediate
spans.

Fig-11 (Wind load acting Longitudinally on Super Structure)

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ABHISEK PANDA
Total
upward
force
acting
on
one
slab
panel
is
given
by,
10.878 4.2075 = 45.77 kN << 95.33 0.8 = 76.264 kN (dead load of slab panel).
Hence it can be concluded that since uplift pressure is lesser than the dead weight
of slab panel itself, no danger of negative suction and hence wind pressure need not
be considered. Also as the elevated area of the slab panel is quite less, there is no
danger of lateral pressure. Hence this can be omitted.
3.6.4 SHEAR FORCE CALCULATION FOR INTERIOR SLAB PANEL:
3.6.4.1

Wheel Load Shear:

Following IRC-112:2011 (B-3.3, Annex- B-3), the dispersion of load through wearing
coat & slab will be at 45.
Hence dispersion of load is given by 0.85+2(0.08+0.25) =1.51m.
For maximum shear to occur , the load dispersion should be within face of girder.
So wheel load will be kept at least 1.51/2=0.755m from the longitudinal girder face;
as shown in the figure.

Fig-12 (Load dispersion through deck slab)


Referring IRC-112:2011,clause-B 3.2(page-278),
bef =a( 1a / l0)+b1
b/l0 =

4.2075
2.1

= 2.003 > 2.00

=2.6
l0=2.1
a=0.755m

b1=3.6+2

0.08=3.76m

be=2.6 0.755( 10.755 /2.1 )+3.76


=5.017m
Load per meter width is

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ABHISEK PANDA

350
5.017

= 69.763

Maximum shear force =

69.763 (2.10.755)
2.1

=44.681 kN/m
Shear force with impact due to tracked vehicle = 49.15 kN/m
3.6.4.2
Dead load shear:
Total dead weight= 8.46 KN/m2
Total dead load shear=

8.46 2.1
2

= 8.883 kN/m

3.6.5 DESIGN BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR FORCE:


Toal MB = 3.81+28.58=32.39 KN-m
Ml = 1.824+19.76=21.584 KN-m
Total shear force=(8.883+49.15) KN/m
=58.03 KN/m
Since we have considered limit state method the above load values will be 1.5 times
that of calculated as per Anex A2 of IRC: 112-2011
So MB = 48.585

50 kN-m

Ml = 32.376

33 kN-m

Vu = 87.045 kN/m
Minimum effective depth as per maximum bending moment is given by
d =

50 106
(0.36 35 0.48 10 3 ( 10.416 0.48 ))

= 101.635 mm
As per table 14.2, clause 14.3.2.1 (page 142) of IRC112: 2011,
Clear cover =40+8=48 mm
So, d = 250 48 =202 mm > 101.63 mm (ok)
Using 16 mm-

bars,cover for short span = 210 8 =202mm and cover for

long span =202 16=186 mm.


3.6.6 REINFORCEMENT DETAILS FOR INTEROIR SLAB PANEL:
(i)Area of steel along short direction

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ABHISEK PANDA

0.5 35
4.6 50 106
1 1
103 202
(Ast)B =
3
2
415
35 10 202
As per clause -16.6.1.1 of IRC:112-2011

f ctm

bd
(Ast)min = 0.26
t
f yk

From table -6.5 (Page-38)of IRC :112-2011


Fctm=2.8 N/mm2
Fyk= 415 N/mm2
Bt=1000 mm
D = 202 mm
(Ast)min=354.351 mm2
Also same clause specified
(Ast)min=0.0013btd
= 262.6mm2
(Ast)max=0.025Ac
=0.025 250 1000=6250 mm2

Spacing of bars as per clause-16.6.1.1(4) of IRC-2011 is,


smax< 2h = 2 250 = 500 mm
In our case,spacing of 16 mm
S

1000 / 4 16
716.008

bars is

=280.811mm> 250 mm
Also as per clause-15.2.1 (2) of IRC:112-2011,
The clear distance between the parallel main reinforcing bars should not be less
than dg+10=20+10=30 mm and 20 mm , whichever is greater
Dg= aggregate size = assumed 20mm for slabs, providing 16 mm-

bars @

225mm c/c
((Ast)B)provided =

1000 /4 16 2
225

=893.61 mm2
Also as per clause -12.2.2, page 120 of IRC:112-2011, under rare combination of
loads,the maximum tensile stress limits to 0.8 f y is to avoid inelastic strain,
undesirable cracking/deformation of structure and also to account for long term
creep.
We have calculated the steel area taking f yd=0.87fyk ( as per cl-15.2.3.3 IRC:1122011)

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ABHISEK PANDA
Considering the worst case i.e rare combination of loads, additional steel area

0.8

required =1 0.87

= 0.080 = 8% of required steel area.

8
716.005 = 57.28 mm2
So 8% of (Ast)required = 100
Ast to be provided=716.005+57.28=773.28
(Ast)Bprov. =893.61 mm2

mm 2<

893.61

mm2

(ii) Area of steel along long direction


Providing 12mm-

(Ast)L =

bars,

0.5 35
4.6 33 106
1 1
103 190
415
35 103 1902
f ctm

(Ast)min=0.26 f

yk

b f d

= 480.53 mm2

( cl-16.6.1,IRC:112-2011)

Fctm= 2.8 N/m2 (table-6.5 of IRC:112-2011)


(Ast)min =0.26

2.8
1000 190
415

=333.301 mm2

Also as per same clause ,


(Ast)min =0.0013btd=247 mm2
(Ast)max= 0.025Ac=0.025 250 1000

=6250 mm2

Spacing of bars as per clause-16.6.1.1(4 of IRC:112-2011 is,


Smax

2h=2 250=

1000 /4 122
S=
480.53

500 mm or 250mm ( smaller value is taken)

=235.36mm

(ok)

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ABHISEK PANDA

bars

Hence providing spacing of bars @175 mm c/c & using 12mm

1000 /4 122
((Ast)l)provided =
175

=646.30 mm2

Also as per clause-15.2.1(2) of IRC:112-2011, the clear distance between the


parallel main reinforcing bars should not be less than d g+10=20+10=30 mm or 20
mm (larger value is taken).
Also asper clause-12.2.2,P-120 of loads ,the max tensile stress in steel is limited to
0.8fyk to avoid inelastic stain ,undesirable cracking/deformation of structure & also to
account for long term creep.
Hence more area required is = (1

0.8
0.87 )(Ast)required

=0.08 480.53=38.44 mm2


(Astl)required for creep cracking =480.53 + 38.44 =518.97 mm2< 646.30 mm2
(Ast)L.prov=646.30 mm2
1

For detailed reinforcement provision, please refer to Appendix B attached


with this thesis.

3.6.7 SHEAR CHECK IN INTERIOR DECK SLAB PANEL:


Vu87.045 KN/m = VEd.
Vrdc =

[ 0.12 k (80 1 f ck)0.33 +0.15 cp ]

VRdc =(Vmin+0.15

K=1+

200
d

cp )b d
w

= 1+

bwd

(clause- 10.3.2, IRC:112-2011)

(minimum)

200
250 =1.894 < 2.0 (ok)

Vmin= 0.031K3/2fck1/2 =0.031 1.995

3 /2

350.5

=0.478 and

cp =0

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ABHISEK PANDA

1=

A st
0.02
bw d

Asl =( Ast)B /2

=893.61/2=446.80 mm2

bw =1000, d = 202

1 = 2.21 103 =0.00221 < 0.02


VRdc=

(ok)

[ 0.12 1.894 (80 0.00221 35)0.33 ] 1000 250

=103.684 KN/m

(VRdc)min=119.50 KN/m
So minimum shear resistance isVRdc= 119.5 KN/m
No shear reinforcement is necessary in slabs.
3.6.8 DESIGN OF CANTILEVER SLAB:

Fig-13 (Cantilever portion of Slab)

V = 87.045 KN/m
Ed

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ABHISEK PANDA
3.6.8.1

Dead load Moment:

Hand rail (lump sum)=2 KN


Lever arm = 1.725m
Mla = 2 1.725

=3.45 kN-m

R.C.C post = 0.15 0.15 1 25

=0.562 kN

Lever arm = 1.725m


MRP= 0.97 KN-m
Kerb = 075 0.28 1 25

=5.25 kN

Lever arm=1.425 m
Mkerb=7.48 KN-m
R.C.C slab =0.3 1.8 25 =13.5 KN
Lever arm=0.9 m
MRS=12.15 KN-m
Wearing coat = 0.080 1.05 22 =1.85 KN
Lever arm=0.525m
Mwc=25.02 KN-m
Total dead load moment
Mdc=25.02 KN-m
3.6.8.2

Live load on Kerb:

L.L =400 kg/m2=4 KN/m2


Lateral load due to live load is =750 kg/m=7.5 KN/m
L.L=4 0.6=2.4 KN/m
Lateral L.L =7.5 KN/m

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ABHISEK PANDA
L.L moment =2.4 1.35= 3.24 KN-m
Lateral L.L moment=7.5 0.58 = 4.35 KN-m
3.6.8.3

(cl- 209 of IRC:6-2000)

Moment due to wheel load:

As per IRC-6:2010, only IRC-class A & IRC-class-B


Vehicles can come to the cantilever portion,since it can have a minimum distance
150 mm from kerb .

Fig-14 (Wheel load on cantilever slab)


Using IRC-112:2011,
Annexure:B-3(2),Page-279,
effective depth (Bef)= 1.2a+b1
a=0.65 m
b1= 0.25+2 0.080
Bef=1.2 0.65+ 0.41

=0.41 m
=1.19 m

Live load per meter width including impact is

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ABHISEK PANDA
=(0.57 1.5 )/1.19=71.85 kN-m
Wheel load moment(Mwc)= 71.85 0.65
= 46.70 KN-m

drequired =

119 106
3
0.36 35 0.48 10 ( 10.416 0.48)

=156.80 mm
Providing 40 mm clear cover &16 mm

bars,

Effective depth provided is


dprovided =400-(40+8)=352 mm

156.80

(ok)

3.6.9 REINFORCEMENT IN CANTILEVER SLAB:


Main reinforcement is given by

(Ast)main =

0.5 35
4.6 119 106
3
1 1
10 352
3
2
415
35 10 352
=968.4056 mm 2

Spacing of 16 mm-

bars is given by

16 2
=1000
4

Providing 16 mm-

=207.6 mm

bars @ 190 mm c/c,

(Ast)main = 1058.22 mm2


Distribution moment is given by
Mdc = 1.5 [ 0.3 56.043+0.2 25.02 ]

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA
=31.941 kN-m
Distribution reinforcement is
(Ast)dc = 349.2 mm2; Providing 12mm- bars @ 175 mm c/c
[(Ast)dc]provided =646.27 mm2
2

349.2 mm2

(ok)

Detailing of reinforcement is done in Appendix-B

3.6.10

CHECK FOR SHEAR IN CANTILEVER PORTION:

Total shear=dead load shear + liveload shear

5.7

+2.4=97.411
= 23.162 + 1.5
1.19
(where 1.19= b ef (Annex-B3,IRC:112-2011))
Design shear = 1.5 97.41 = 146.115 kN=VEd
As per clause-10.3.2(2) of IRC:112-2011,
Shear resistance of a structure is given by
1/ 3

VRdc =[0.12k (80 1 f ck ) +(0.15 cp ) b w d


Subject to min VRdc=(Vmin+0.15

K=1+

200
d

=1+

200
400

cp )b d
w

= 1.7

2.0

(ok)

Vmin=0.031k3/2fck1/2
3 /2

=0.031 1.71

A sl
1

= bw d

351 /2
1058.22

= 1000 400

=0.41
3

= 2.645 10

VRdc=[0.12 1.71 ( 80 2.645 10 35 )

1 /3

] 10 400

=158.93 kN

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA
(VRdc)min=0.41 1000 400

=164 kN

VEd =146.15 kN

VRdc =164 kN

(ok)

Also IRC:112-2011,cl-10.3.2(5) specified the following criteria.


Ved 0.5bwdvfcd

f ck
V=0.6[1 310 ]
35
=0.6[1 310 ]=0.532
So 0.5bwdvfcd= 0.5 1000 400 0.532 0.36 35
=1340.64 KN

VEd

(ok)

The live load applied is 0.65 m from the edge of support. The same clause specifies
that is the applied load is at av i.e 0.5d to 2d (200mm to 800mm ),then there will be
reduction factor multiplied to V ed.So in our case the dead load shear will be as its i.e
23.162 KN

57

But live load shear will be (1.5


1.19 )

= reduction factor=av/2d

av= 650 mm

650

= 2 400 =0.8125

Vls=1.5

57
0.8125
1.19

=58.377KN
Total shear=84 kN

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA
Ved=126 KN
VRdc=164 KN
1

126 kN

(ok)

It may be noted that the downward wind force will be only 5 1.8=9 KN
against live load 86.22 KN. Hence, there is no need of combination of loads
taking wind effect in to account.

3.6.11
DEFLECTION CHECK FOR CANTILEVER SLAB:
The deflection will be checked as per is 456:2000.since we have different loading at
different positions,we have to consider them separate
3.6.11.1

First Trail (Annex-c of is 456:2000):

Short term deflection

b d 3 1000 2003
=
=6.67 108 mm4
(Igr)end=
12
12
8

(Igr)mid = 22.5 10 mm , ( I gr ) at 0.65 m=29.35 10 m m

Fcr = 0.7 f ck=4.141 N /m m

4.141 6.67 108


=27.6 kN m
(Mr)end=
100
8

4.141 22.5 10
=62.115 kNm
(Mr)mid =
150
(Mr)0.65m=74.158 kN-m
4

Ec = 5000 f ck =2.958 10 N /m m
Es =

2 105

N
Es
, m=
=6.76
2
Ec
mm

Transformed area of compression steel =(m-1)A sc =3427.93mm2


Transformed area of tension steel=mAst = 7152.08 mm
Let x be the depth of neutral axis
At end
Or

x
1000 x + 3427.93 ( x 46 )=7152.08(152x)
2

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

Or

500 x2 +10580.01 x 1459363.34=0

Or x=44.47mm

500 x2 +10580.01 x 1960008.94=0

At mid,

X=52.92mm
At 0.65m,

500 x2 +10580.01 x 2158693.7=0

X=55.97mm

Fig-15 (Area of Reinforcement in different section of cantilever slab)

(Ir)end= 3

1000 ( 44.47 ) +3427.93 ( 44.4746 ) + 7152.08 ( 15244.47 )


8

= 1.117 10 m m

(Ir)mid = 3.1264 10 m m
8

(Ir)at 0.65m = 5.58 10 mm

z= lever arm iend=0.9d=136mm,zmid=226mm,zat 0.65m=251mm


(M)end=kerb+port&railing+l.due
pedestrian=7.48+3.45+0.97+4.35+3.24=19.49kn-m
(Mmid)=w.c+R.C slab=13.12kn-m
M0.65m=wheel laod=46.70kn-m

to

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

i
m
(Ieff)end=

1.2

( r )end z end
x
b
1.117 108

1 end ( w )
( m)end
d end
d end b = 1.2 27.6 136 ( 1 44.47 ) =
19.49 152
152
( r)end

3.67 10 m m
I
I
I
( gr)end (ok )
( eff )end <
( r) end <

I
( r )mid
( eff )mid =

So

I
I
( r )mid =3.1264 108 m m4
( eff )mid =

(Ieff )at 0.5 m= 88.84 10 m m > (Igr)at 0.65m


8

So (Ieff )at 0.65 m= 29.35 10 mm

10212 ( 1800 )
w l3

=
=1.83 mm
1
(
)end= 3 E c I r 3 ( 2.958 104 ) (3.67 10 8)
15350 (1800 )3

=1.21 mm
( 1 )mid = 8 ( 2.958 104 ) (3.1264 108)

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

1 1.15 w l w l

+
=0.64 mm
( 1 )At 0.65m = E I
2
3
c r
Total deflection due to short tern loading =3.68mm
Deflection due to shrinkage
acs=k3csl2
k3=0.5(for cantilever)
pt=0.7% ,pc=0.4%

pt pc
=0.26<1.0
k4=0.72
pt
0.25 pt p c =0.3<1.0(ok)
7

(cs )end= 3.9 10

acs=0.63mm
Note-:here at other points,the cs will give much lesser value relating least
shrinkage deflection.
Deflection due to creep

Ec

Ece = 1+

=1.6(for 28-days strength)


4

Ece = 1.1377 10 N /m m

m =Es/Ec = 17.58
Transformed area for compression steel (m-1)A sc = 9864.7 mm2
Transformed area for tension steel mAst = 18598.93 mm2
Let x-be the depth of neutral axis.
At End:

1000x 2

+ 9864.7(x-46) = 18598.93(152-x)

Or 500x2+28463.63x 3280813.56 = 0
Or x = 57.40 mm
At mid:
500x2 + 28463.63x 5140706.56 = 0
Or x = 76.853mm
At 0.65 m:
500x2 + 28463.63x 5657384.835 = 0
Or x = 81.65 mm

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA
Same lever arm as used before will be used.

So
Similarly Ir.mid = 7.3108 mm4 and Ir at 0.65m = 9.22108 mm4

= 2.30108 mm4

So
Ir.end< Ieff.end< Igr.end (OK)
8

Similarly (Ieff)mid= 4.17 10 m m < (Ir)mid


8

(Ieff)mid = 7.3 10 mm

(Ieff)at 0.65m = 29.35 10 mm

But in this case ,for calculating perm. Creep using above equations & E ce,only
permanent load will be taken care of .no live load will be there
So (W)end=kerb +R.C pol&railing=5.25+2.562=7.812 kN/m
(W)mid =W.C+R.C slab=1.85+13.5=15.35 kn/m
3

(W end )l (W m id ) l
(ai.cc)perm= 3 E I + 8 E I
ce
eff
ce
eff

=(2.39+1.35)mm=3.74mm
Short term deflection due to permanent load

7 . 81210 3 1800 3
15. 35 103 18003
ai.perm = 3 2. 958 10 4 3 .67 108 + 8 2 . 958 104 3 .1264 108 =1.4+1.21=2.61mm
So deflection due to creep is given by
3.74-2.61=1.13mm
Total deflection is =3.68+0.63+1.13
=5.44mm
However this deflection will be lesser in practical as more accurate calculations will
reveal the result
As per clause 12.4.1 of IRC:112-2011,the deflection should be limited to =

cantilever span
375
=

1800
=4.8 mm<5.44 mm
375

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA
2
Now lets check it as per cl-23.2 of is:456-2000
fs=220.27, pt=0.7%
Modification factor=1.2(fig-4,p-38)
pc=0.4%
Modification factor=1.12
Basic

span
=7 (for cantilever)
depth
span
depth =71.121.2=9.408

Modified

Our

span
depth = 6<9.408(ok)

But revising the section as providing 16 bars 225mm c/c & 12mm
bars@225mm alternatively&rechecking,the defection criteria is satisfied. Hence
total reinforcement provided is given by 1396 mm 2.
3.6.11.2 Second Trail- Rechecking of deflection for Cantilever Slab(Annex
c of IS-456:2000):
Short term deflection
3

b d 1000 200
=
=6.67 108 mm4
(Igr)end=
12
12
8

(Igr)mid = 22.5 10 mm , ( I gr ) .65m=29.35 10 mm


Fcr = 0.7 f ck=4.141 n /m m

4.141 6.67 108


=27.6 kN m
(Mr)end=
100
4.141 22.5 108
=62.115 kNm
(Mr)mid =
150
(Mr)0.65m=74.158 kn-m
4

Ec = 5000 f ck =2.958 10 N /m m
5

Es =

2 10

n
Es
, m=
=6.76
2
Ec
mm

Transformed area of compression steel =(m-1)A sc =3720.96mm2


2

Transformed area of tension steel=mAst = 9436.96 m m

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA
Let x be the depth of neutral axis
At end
=

x
1000 x + 3720.96 ( x46 )=9436.96 (152x )
2
2

= 500 x +13157.92 x 1605582.08=0


=x=45.02mm
At mid
2

= 500 x +13157.92 x 2549278.08=0


X=59.45mm
At 0.65m
2

= 500 x +13157.92 x 2811436.83=0


X=62.97mm

(Ir)end= 3

1000 ( 45.02 )3+3720.96 ( 45.0246 )2 +9436.96 ( 15245.02 )2


8

= 1.38 10 mm

(Ir)mid = 4.2 10 m m

(Ir)at 0.65m = 5.27 10 m m

z= lever arm. zend=0.9d=136mm,zmid=226mm,zat 0.65m=251mm


(M)end=kerb+port&railing+l.due
pedestrian=7.48+3.45+0.97+4.35+3.24=19.49KN-m
(Mmid)=w.c+R.C slab=13.12KN-m
M0.65m=wheel laod=46.70KN-m

i
m
( r )end z end
x
1.2

1 end
( m)end
d end
d end
(Ieff)end=
( r )end

= 4.5 10 m m

to

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

I
I
I
( gr)end (ok )
( eff )end <
( r) end <

I
8
4
( r )mid =4.210 m m
( eff )mid =

(Ieff )at 0.65 m= 54.44 10 m m < (Igr)at 0.65m= 29.35 10 mm

w l3

( 1 )end= 3 E c I r =1.5 mm , ( 1 )mid

= 0.9 mm ,

1.15 w l 2 w l 3
+
=0.64 mm
Ec Ir
2
3
1

Total deflection due to short tern loading =3.04mm


Deflection due to shrinkage
acs=k3csl2
k3=0.5(for cantilever)
pt=0.92% ,pc=0.425%
k4 0.37<1.0
0.25 pt p c =0.495<1.0(ok)
7

(cs )end= 5.55 10

acs=0.9mm
Deflection due to creep-:

Ec
Ece = 1+
=1.6(for 28-days strength)

1 )
At

0.65m

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

Ece =

1.1377 104

Es

N
mm2

,m= E ce =17.58

Transformed area of compression steel =(m-1)A sc =10710.68mm2


Transformed area of tension steel=mAst = 24541.68 mm
Depth of neutral axis at different section
At end
at mid
X=63.2mm
x=85.566mm
8

(Ir)end= 2.80 10 mm
8

(Ir)0.65m= 2.80 10 mm

at 0.65m
x=91.08mm
8

(Ir)mid= 9.03 10 m m

(Ieff)mid= 5.63 10 m m < (Ir)mid


8

(Ieff)end = 6.08 10 mm

(Ieff)at 0.65m = 47.80 10 m m


(W)end=7.812 kN/m,

; which should not be greater than Igr at 0.65m

(W)mid =15.35 kN/m

(W end )l (W mid ) l3
(ai.cc)perm= 3 E I + 8 E I
ce
eff
ce
eff
=(2.2+1.1)mm=3.3mm
Short term deflection due to permanent load
3

7.812 10 1800
15.35 10 1800
ai.perm = 3 2.958 104 3.67 108 + 8 2.958 10 4 3.1264 10 8 =1.4+1.21=2.61mm
Deflection due to creep = 0.69mm 0.70mm
Hence total deflection = 3.04 + 0.9+0.7 = 4.64 mm < 4.8 mm (ok)
3.6.12

ANCHORAGE LENGTH OF BARS:

3.6.12.1

Intermediate Deck Slab Panel:

In short direction:

main bars = 16 mm @ 225 mm c/c

A st req

a
b
(lb.net)B=
A st provided

(page no-152, cl-15.2.4.3, of IRC:112-2011)

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

A st req
A st provided

716.005
893.61

=0.865

a =1 (for straight bars)


lb =k

0.87 f y
=
4 f bd

16 0.87 415
4 30

( f bd=3.0 N/mm2 table-15.3 of page -150,IRC:112-

2011)
=481.4 mm
Also k=30
lb = 30 16

[ for M 35 concrete of table-15.4 of IRC:112-2011]


= 480 mm

lets take lb=480mm


(lb.net)B =1 480 0.865
=415.0 mm

420 mm

lb.min =0.3lb =144 mm

(for tension anchorage)

lb.min =0.6lb=288 mm

( for compression anchorage)

lb.min=10 =160 mm or 100 mm


lb.net lb.min
2

(ok)

In long direction:

A st . req
A st . provided

480.53

= 646.30 =0.743

0.75

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

a =1

(for straight bars)

lb =k
=30 12 =360mm

12 0.87 415
4

or lb=

= 361.05 mm

So lb = 360 mm
lb.net =1 360 0.75

= 270 mm

lb.min =0.3lb=108 mm

(tension anchor)

=0.6 lb=216 mm
lb.min =10

(compression anchor)

=120 mm or 100 mm

lb.net lb.min
3.6.12.2

A st . req

Cantilever slab:

872.56

A st . provided

= 1058.22

=0.824

(cl-15.2.4.3 of IRC:112-2011)

a =1
lb=k

=30 12=360 mm

lb.net =0.824 360=296.64


3.6.13

300 mm

CANTILEVER SLAB STIFFENING:

As per clause -16.6.1.4-(1)(a)&(b) of IRC:112-2011,the unsupported edge of a slab


parallel to traffic &beyond the clear road width &having varying depth shall be
stiffened at any particular point to the resisting moment of 500mm adjacent strip at
that particular point.

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

93.61
2
=446.805 mm
2

[(Ast B)0.5m strip]in main slab between girder =


[(Ast B)0.5m strip]in cantilever section =

1396.26
2
2
=698.132m m > 446.805 mm (ok )
2

[(Ast l)0.5m strip]in main slab between girder =

646.27
=323.135 mm2
2

[(Ast L)0.5m strip]cantilever slab between girder =


3.6.14

646.27
=323.135 mm2
2

DESIGN OF LONGITUDINAL GIRDER:

Effective span=18.33 m
rid width=400mm
slab thickness=250 mm
Main beam spacing=2.5 m
Depth of rib = 1400 mm
Total depth =1400+250+150=1800mm=D
1

REACTION FACTOR:

Courbons method can be applied to our design since span to depth ratio is greater
than 2. Arrangement of class-AA tracked load for maximum eccentricity is as given
below.

Fig-16 (Arrangement of class-AA tracked load for maximum eccentricity)


As per Courbons formula ,

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

Rx=

w
n

[1

+ I

d x2

dxe]

Rx=Reaction factor
It may be noted that RA=Rc since the same loading can be reversed in two cases.

2 W1
3I
2.5 1.1
RA=
[1+ 2 2.5 2 I
]
3
n= no of girders =3
dx=spacing of girders=2.5 m
W1=350 KN

w
3 1.1

RA=Rc= 3 [1+ 2 2.5 ]

( W=700 kN = total axle load )

RB = 2W1/3[1+0]
= 2W1/3 =0.33W
2

DEAD LOAD:

From cantilever slab:


Weight of parapet railing=2 kN/m
Wearing coat=0.080 1.05

22=1.848 kN/m

Cantilever slab=0.3 1.8 25 = 13.5 kN/m


Kerb=0.28 0.75 25

= 5.25 kN/m

Parapet = 0.40 kN/m


Total dead load from cantilever slab =23kN/m
Total deck slab load =2 23+8.46 5.4 =91.684 kN/m
Live load due to pedestrian=4

2=8 kN/m

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA
It is assumed that all loads are equally distributed to 3 girders
So deck slab dead load/girder=99.684/3 =33.228 kN/m
T-beam rib dead load:
0.4 1.4 25

= 15.50 kN/m

Total weight per girder = (33.23+15.5)=48.78 49 kN/m

Cross girder:
Dead weight of one cross girder is=0.3 1.4 25 =10.50 kN/m
This load expands up to 2.5 m both sides on intermediate girder
Hence reaction from cross girder = 10.50 2.5=26.25 kN
The end cross beams will not be considered since their loads will be directly
transferred to support through piers. Hence end reactions need not be considered.
The presentation is as follows

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

Fig-17 (Reaction from Cross Girder on Longitudinal Girders)

Maximum dead load bending moment at center of span is,


2

49 18.33 26.25 18.33 26.25 18.33


+
+
(Mmax)dead load =
8
4
4

=2300 kN-m

Total dead load shear at support is


(Vdead)s=
3

49 18.33 26.25 2 26.25


+
+
=488.46
2
2
2

489kN

LIVE LOAD BENDING MOMENT IN GIRDER:

Span =18.33 m, Impact =10%; for maximum bending moment to occur,


the live load is placed centrally on the span as shown below.

Fig-18 (Position of Class-AA tracked Load for maximum bending moment)

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

Live load bending moment is given by

1
3.6825+4.5825 )_ 700=2892.75 KN
2 (

-m 2893 kN m
Bending

moment

with

impact

&

reaction

factor

(Ml)outer girder=0.553 1.10 2893=1759.812 KN m1760 kN m

is

given

by

(Ml)inner girder=0.333 1.10 2893=1059.711060 kN m


4

LIVE LOAD SHEAR:

For shear force to be maximum,the loading should be arranged as shown below.

Fig-19 (Live load arrangement for maximum shear force )


Wheel load placed at starting will be giving maximum shear i.e. starting point of
either end; either A or B . Again one wheel has to be placed on one girder to give
severe effect as the distribution load will occur only for one wheel load.
Reaction of w2 on girder-B is given by 350

Reaction of W2 on girder-A is given by 350

0.45
2.5 =63 kN

2.05
2.50

=287 kN

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA
Total load on girder B =350+63 = 413 KN
Maximum reaction on support of girder B is =

413 16.53
18.33

= 372.44 kN

Maximum live load shear including impact =1.1 372.44=409.68 410 kN

TABLE-4(Design Bending Moment and Shear force on Girders)

Bending
D.L
Moment/Girde Bending
r
Moment

L.L Bending Total Bending Unit


Moment
Moment

Outer Girder

2300

1760

4060

kN-m

Inner Girder

2300

1060

3360

kN-m

Shear
Force/Girder

D.L Shear

L.L Shear

Total Shear

Unit

Outer Girder

489

410

899

kN

Inner Girder

489

410

899

kN

CALCULATION
METHOD:

12
A =( 4

OF

BENDING

nE I r
EI
) L 3 )

()

2
CJ
h
2
n
F=
) ( L )( E I r )

c=

E I1
E I2

=1

L= span of bridge deck = 18.33 m

MOMENT

USING

HENDRY-JAEGAR

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA
h = spacing of longitudinal girders = 2.5 m
n = number of cross girders = 5
EI = flexural rigidity of longitudinal girder
CJ = torsional rigidity of longitudinal girder
E

I 1 & E I 2 = flexural rigidities of the outer & inner longitudinal girders

Ir

= flexural rigidity of one cross beam .

Fig-20 (Simplified T-beam Longitudinalgirder section)


As per clause 7.6.1.2 of IRC :112-2011 , the effective flange width will be
calculated.
Beff. 1 = 0.2

b 1+ 0.1l 0

=0.2 1.05+0.1 18.33=2.043 m


0.2l0=3.66m > 2.043 m
Bw=0.4 m
Beff=2 2.043+0.4
=4.486 m
B= 2.5 m< 4.488 m
beff=2.5m

(ok)

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

Fig-21 (Simplified T-beam Cross girder section)


beff.1=0.2b1+0.1l0
=0.2 2.1037+ 0.1 0.7 2.5
0.2l0 =0.2 0.7 2.5=0.35> 0.596 m
beff.1=0.35 m
beff=2 0.35+ 0.3=1 m
b =4.5075 m>1m

(ok)

Longitudinal girder:

A 1+ A
A x +A x
x = 1 1 2 2

2.5 0.25 0.125+1.55 0.4 1.025


2.5 0.25+1.55 0.4

=0.57 m

3
2.5 0.253 (
2 0.4 1.55
)
(
)
+
2.5

0.25

0.448
+
+ ( 0.4 1.35 ) 0.4522=0.3795 m4
IL=
12
12

Cross girder:

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

x =

A 1 X 1+ A 2 X 2
A 1+ A 2

Ir =

1 0.25 0.125+0.3 1.55 1.025


1 0.25+ 0.3 1.55

=0.710 m

1 0.253
0.3 1.553
+1 0.25 0.5852+
+0.3 1.55 0.3152
12
12

0.2261 m 4

A=

18.33
2.5
5 E 0.2261

=144.64
)3
12
E 0.3795

4
3

J=R a b

b 2500
=
=10
a 250

R=0.312

( Table-7.3 of N. Krishna Raju ,Design of

Bridges )

b 1550
=
=3.875
a 400

R=0.2787
3

J = Ra3 b = 0.312 0.25 2.5+ 0.2787 0.4 1.55

F=

= 0.0398

m4

2
2.5
0.43 E 0.0398

=0.0102 0
2 5 18.33
E 0.2261

Two extreme values of F can be taken into analysis i.e. F = 0 or F =

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

(F A )

M 0 )
Taking F = 0 for analysis , (
(3+ F A)
M F =M O +

MF

M O=

O ; M =0.83 ( For outer girder , F=0 )


O

0.36 (For inner girder, F = 0)

Design moment for exterior girder :


Dead load moment = 2300 kN-m
Live load moment

= 2893 1.1 0.83

Total moment = 4941.00 kN-m

= 2641.31 kN-m

4060 k N-m as calculated using Courbons method

Interior girder:
Dead load moment = 2300 kN-m
Live load moment = 2893 1.1 0.36
Total moment = 3445.63 kN-m

=1145.63 kN-m

3446 kN m> 3360 kNm as calculated by Courbon

s method
6

MODIFIED COURBONS METHOD:

Ref : International Journal of scientific & Engineering research Volume 4 , Issue 3


,March 2013 (ISSN 2229 -5518)
Study of Effectiveness of Courbon s Theory in the Analysis of T beam bridges

By: M.G. Kalyan & hetti &R. P. Shriram


As per journal, they have studied the 4-lane & 6-lane bridge of spans varying 15m35 for minimum 3-longitudinal girders varying number of girders. They have
combined Courbons method &grillage method (STAAD pro) to get the results.

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA
As per journal,

Pi =

correction factor

Or
=
We have calculated
Ra = Rc=ROuter girder =0.553w
Rb=Rinner girder=0.333w
Correction factor is given by,
Y= correction factor,x= span of bridge
X=18.33m

= 0.9214 (rounded up to 4 decimal)


RA=RC= (Router girder) corrected=0.5530.9214=0.5095
RB=(R inner girder) corrected=0.3330.9214=0.3068
Total bending moment
Outer girder=2300+28931.100.5095=3921.40 KN-m
Inner girder=2300+28931.100.3068=3276.33 KN-m
Out of all 3-analysis, Hendry-Jaegar method gives the highest moment
Design momentOuter longitudinal girder=1.54771.31=7411.50=7412 KN-m
Intermediate girder=1.53276=5169 kN-m
Design shear
Shear force =8711.5=1348.50 kN
7

DESIGN OF REINFORCEMENT OF OUTER GIRDER:

Lets assume 32mm bars as main reinforcement bars in 4 rows, the clear spacing
between bars is 32mm &hence c/c distance is 64mm
Lets take clear cover =40mm( clause-14.3.2,table-14.2,severe condition)
Assuming 10mm dia stirrups& surface reinforcement(as cl-16.5.4)
Effective cover=40+10+12+30+10+15+120=235mm
Hence effective depth= 1800-235=1565mm
Lets take d=1560mm
Df= 250mm
Df /d=0.1602 <0.2
Bf = 2.5m (as calculated earlier)
Xumax =0.481600=768mm

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA
Lets check the actual neutral axis depth
Lets take xu =Df =250mm

Mu =0.36 35 2500 (1600)2


=11781kN-m
Imposed moment calculated =7412 kN-m=M a
Mu >>Ma (hence neutral axis lies inside flange section)

(Ast)required =
=13740.20 mm 2
providing 30mm dia bars as main reinforcing bars,

Total bars required =


Lets provide 20 numbers of 30mm- bars at 5 rows each containing 4 bars

So (Ast)provided=
The spacing between longitudinal bars is
As per IS 456:2000, clause-26.3.2, the spacing should be minimum of following
Diameter of bars =30mm
5mm more than nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate =20+5=25mm
Our spacing is 35.33 is satisfactory.
3
For detailing of reinforcement, please refer to Appendix-Battached with this
thesis.
8
DESIGN REINFORCEMENT FOR INNER GIRDER:
d = 1600 mm, Df = 250mm and bf = 2.5m
Assuming neutral axis to be within the flanges, M u = 1178 kN-m
Applied moment = Mu applied = 5169 kN-m << Mu

So Ast.req =
= 9453.60 mm2
Providing 16- 28 mm bars in 4- rows, (Ast)provided = 9852.03 mm2
4
For detailing of reinforcement, please refer to Appendix-B attached with this
thesis.
9
CALCULATION OF ANCHORAGE LENGTH:
Clause -15.2.4.3 of IRC:112-2011
Outer girder

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

a
a
( s) provided l bmin
Lb.net=
( s) reqd

a lb

Lets assume

So
lb=

A
A
( st) provided
=1 at a section
( st) reqd

a =1
f yd

( 4 ) ( f )
bd

30 0.87 415

=902.625 903 mm
4
3

Or lb=k=3030=900mm
lb.net =lb=903mm
lb.min=0.3lb=288.9mm or 100mm or 10=300mm
Inner girder
lb=

28 0.87 415

=842.45 843 mm
4
3

lb.net =843mm
Length of bearing =

2
3 lb.net(16.5.1.4. of IRC :112-2011)

=602mm(outer girder)
=562mm(inner girder)
10

BAR CURTAILMENT:

As we know when the load is divided in the same ratio as the span is divided at a
point where B.Moment to be calculated, maximum B.M is obtained. In ILD. Lets
consider following cases.

(i) Load at quarter span/ at 4.5825 m from ends of girder

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

Fig-22.1 (Bar curtailment-Wheel load at quarter span)


The load arrangement is as shown in the figure taking ILD into consideration.
Wheel load moment:

= 2

[ 3.44 +2.764 ] 700=2171.40 kNm

Dead load moment:


2

= 488.46 4.582549 4.5825 0.5=1724 kN m


As

per

H-J

method,

wheel

load

BM

including

impact

&

coefficient

=
Total design moment on outer girder= 1.5(1982.5+1724=5560 kN m)
Total design moment on inner girder= 1.5 (1724 +1.1 2171.40 0.36 ) =3876 kN-m
(ii) Loads at a distance 6.874m from ends of girder

Fig-22.2 (Bar curtailment-Wheel load at 6.874m from end of girder)


Wheel load moment= 700 [ 3.45+4.3 ] 0.5=2712.5 kN m
Deadload moment= 488.46 6.874 [ 49 0.5 6.874 + 26.25 2.2165 ]
2

=2142kN-m

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA
Total

design

b.m

on

outer

girder

due

to

impact

and

H.J

coefficient

2712.5 1.1 0.83+2142=6928 kNm


1.5
Total

design

b.m

on

inner

girders

due

to

impact

and

H.J

coefficient=

2712.5 1.1 0. 36+2142=4825 kNm


1.5
(iii)Load at a distance 2.29125 m from ends of girder

Fig-22.3 (Bar curtailment-Wheel load at 2.29125m from girder end)


Wheel load moment= 700 [ 1.6112+2.005 ] 0.5 =1266kN-m
Dead load moment= 488.46 2.2912549 0.5 ( 2.29125 )=991kN m
Total design moment on outer girder= 1.5 ( 991+ 1.1 0.83 1266 )=3220.30 kN m
Total design moment on inner girder= 1.5 ( 991+ 1.1 0.36 1266 ) =2238.50 kNm
11

REQUIRED STEEL AREA AS PER BAR CURTAILMENT:

(1)Load at quarter span/ at 4.5825 m from ends of girder

Outer girder:

Providing 16-30mm bars ,(Ast.reqd)O.G=


Note-:4-bars are curtailed beyond the section providing development l b.net extension
i.e at 3.6795m from ends of girders.
Inner girder:

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

A st . req

Providing 12-28mmdia bars ,


Note-:4-bars are curtailed beyond the section providing development l b.net
extension i.e at 3.7395m from ends of girders
(2)Loads at a distance 6.874m from ends of girder
Outer girder :

A 12804.965mm

st .req

A st . prov

Providing 19-30mm dia bars , =

Note-:1-bars are curtailed at a distance of 5.971m from ends of support


Inner girder:

A st . req

A st . prov

Providing 15-28mm dia bars=

Note-:1-bars are curtailed at a distance of 6.031m from ends of support


(3) Load at a distance 2.29125 m from ends of girder
Outer girder:

A st . reqd

A st . prov

Providing 10-30mm dia bars,=

Note -:10-30mm dia bars are curtailed from 1.388m from ends of support

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA
Inner girder:

A st . req

Providing 8mm bars ,

A st . prov

Note -:8-28mm bars are curtailed from 1.44825m from ends of girder
(at this section 12-30 bars are actually required
against 16-30 bars from further calculation)

903 mm
903 mm
9.165m

903mm
= lb.net

9.165m

6.388m
10.971 m
15.554 m
4.5825 m

(OUTER GIRDER)
(at this section actually 10-28 bars will be required
against 12-28 bars provided)

843
mm

843 mm

9.165m

843 mm
= lb.net

9.165m
6.268m
10.851 m
15.4335 m

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

(INNER GIRDER)
Fig-23 (Bar curtailment Presentation for Longitudinal Girders)
12
1

CALCULATION OF INDUCED SHEAR AT DIFFERENT SECTIONS:


Wheel load at starting

Fig-24.1 (Shear force calculation-Wheel load at starting)

350 350

0.45
413kN
2.5

Applying impact, total shear =454.3kN

454.3
Again reaction at support is =

16.53
410kN
18.33

49 18.33 26.25 2 26.25

489kN
2
2
2

Dead load shear =


Total shear=899kN 900 kN
2
Shear at 9.165 from end of girder
0.3036
0.5

Fig-24.2 (Shear force calculation-Wheel load at middle)

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

Track shear force at middle is =

1
[0.5 0.3036] 413 1.1 182.54kN
2

489 (49 9.165 26.25) 13.665kN


Dead load shear=
Total shear=196.205200kN
3
Shear at 4.5825 from end of girder
0.5536
0.75

4.5825

Fig-24.3 (Shear force calculation-Wheel load at quarter span)

Track s.f at 4.5825m= 2

[ 0.75+ 0.5536 ] 413 1.1=296.113 kN

Dead load shear= 489( 49 4.5825 )=264.46 kN


Total shear=561kN
(iv) Shear at 1.95m from end of girder
0.894

0.6972

1.95m

Fig-24.4 (Shear force calculation-Wheel load at 1.95 m from end)


L.L shear=361.441kN
D.l shear = 489 ( 49 1.95 )=393.45 kN
Total shear=755kN

(v)

Shear at 3.0m from end of girder


0.8363
0.64

3m

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA
Fig-24.5 (Shear force calculation-Wheel load at 3.0 m from end)
L.L shear=335.34kN
D.L shear=489-(493)=342kN
Total shear=678kN
(vi)
Shear at 6.87375m from end of girder
0.625
0.4286

Fig-24.6 (Shear force calculation-Wheel load at 6.87375m from end)


L.L shear=239.325kN
D.L shear= 489 ( 49 6.87375+ 26.25 )=126 kN
Total shear=366 kN
(vii) Shear at 4.3825 m from end of girder
0.564
0.761

4.3825m

Fig-24.7 (Shear force calculation-Wheel load at 4.3825 m from end)


Track shear at 4.3825 m = 0.5 [0.761+0.564]1.10413 = 301 kN
Dead load shear = 489 (494.3825) = 275 kN
Total shear force = 576 kN
(viii) Assuming bearing =450mm & fan like compression field at an angle 45,total
depth up to which shear reinforcement is not necessary is given by,
450+1560=2010=2.01m
Hence shear at 2.01m from end of girder is
0.8903
0.694

2.01m

Fig-24.8 (Shear force calculation-Wheel load at 2.01m from end)

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA
L.l shear= 413 1.1 0.5 (0.8903+0.694)=360 kN
D.d shear= 489( 49 2.01 ) =390.51 kN
Total shear=750.51KN 751 kN
13
SHEAR RESISTANCE CHECK:
Lets provide 1bent up bar at 4.5825m & at 645mm interval up to 2.00m as shown
below
Maximum spacing of bent up bars

s bmax =0.6 d (1+cot ) clause16.5.2 ( 8 ) of IRC :1122011


]

= 0.6 1560 2=1.872> 0.645(ok )

Now

A sw =1

&

302 =706 mm2 (outer girder )


4

282=615 m m2 (inner girder )


4

As per clause 10.3.3.3 of IRC:112-2011,


Now

v rds =

asw
z f ywd (cot +cot ) sin
s

s=0.645m
z=0.9d=0.91560=1440mm

f ywd =0.8415=332 N /mm2


706
1
1404 332 2 =721.55 kN
(V Rds )O.G =
645
2
V Rd . max = cw bw v 1 f cd z ( cot+ cot)/(1+ cot 2 )
=14000.915600.60.36352/2
=4245.696>>721.55 KN (ok)

615
1
1404 332 2
(V Rds )I .G =
645
2
=628.543<< 4245.696 kN (ok)
Design shear resistance of member without shear reinforcement is given by
VRdc = [0.12k ( 80 1 f ck )

0.33

+0.15 cp ] b w d (cl10.3 .2of IRC :1122011)

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

cp =0
3

vmin= 0.031 k 2 f ck 2
K= 1+

200
200
=1+
=1.358<2(ok )
d
1560

vmin=0.29

( v min +0.15 cp ) bw d

(VRdc)min=

=0.294001560=181.105 kN
Now

1=

A st
bw d

Since half reinforcement is always available throughout,

( 1 )O.G=

0.5 14137.167
=0.01133< 0.02
400 1560

( 1 )I.G =

0.5 9852.03
3
=7.89 10 <0.02
400 1560

(VRdc)O.G =

[ 0.12 1.358 ( 80 0.01133 35 )0.33 ] 400 1560

318 kN > v Rdc . min ( ok )


(VRdc)I.G=

[ 0.12 1.358 ( 80 7.89 10

0.33

35 )

] 400 1560

= 282 kN > v Rdc . min ( ok )


14

SHEAR REINFORCEMENT DISTRIBUTION ON OUTER GIRDER:

Total shear at face of support= 900kN


However as its simply supported & a bearing of 450mm is provided,a fan like
compression field will exist having steepest angle =45 up to which no shear
reinforcement will be necessary. so the effective section for shear will be at
0.45+1.560=2.01m from end of girder
Total shear at 2.01m=751kN
Design shear=1.5751=1126.50 kN
Shear resisted by girder without shear reinforcement = (V Rdc)O.G=318 kN
Hence design shear for which shear reinforcement will be provided=V Ed
=(1126.50-318)KN=808.50 kN

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA
The shear resisting capacity of available bent up bars at that section is 721.55 kN
But as per clause -10.3.3.3(2)& clause-16.5.2(3)
of IRC :112-2011,only 50% of the shear will be resisted by the bent up bars
Hence shear to be resisted by links/stirrups

808.50
=404.25 kn
2

By

0.5 10 0.6 0.36 35 400 645


=4154.21 mm2 >706 mm2 ( ok )
1
[check:(asw.max)bent up bars=
0.8 415
2
>615mm2(ok)
Lets provide 4-legged 8mm vertical stirrups
Asw =

82=201.062m m2 =201m m2
4

Using clause-10.3.3.2 of IRC:112-2011,

f cd

Vrd.max= cw bw v 1 f cd z (cot +tan)

1 400 0.9 1560 0.6

0.36 35
2

=2122.848kN>>404.25 kN (ok)
As per same clause ,spacing of vertical stirrups given by

asw f ywd z cot


v rds

S=

201 0.9 1560 0.8 415 1


=231.766 mm
3
404.25 10

Let;s provide 4-legged 8mm vertical stirrups@ 200mm c/c starting/end of


girders.
As per cl-16.5.2 of irc:112-2011,
Min. Shear reinforcement ratio is

w.min=

0.072 f ck 0.072 35
=
=1.026 103
f yk
415

Provided shear reinforcement ratio is


(

A sw

201

=
=2.125 10 > (
w)=
s bw sin 200 400

)(ok)

w.min

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA
Shear force at 4.5825m from ends of girder 561kN. Here no bent up bars are
available
Design shear=841.5kN
(Asl)o.g=

18

302=12723.45 m m2
4

)o.g=0.02039 > 0.02,

8620.53

)i.g= 400 1560

(vrdc)o.g = 0.12 1.358 ( 80 0.02 35 )

0.33

(vrdc)i.g = 0.12 1.358 ( 80 0.0138 35 )

=0.0138 0.02

400 1560=383.855 383 kN

0.33

400 1560=339.615 339 kN

Shear to be resisted by stirrups is


(841.5-383) kN =458.5 kN
VRd.max=2122.848>458.50 kN(ok)
Spacing of stirrups is
S=

201 0.9 1560 0.8 415 1


=204.344 mm
458.50 103

Lets provide 4-legged 8mm vertical stirrups@190mm c/c up to 6.87375m from


girder end on both sides. Shear force at 6.87375m from end of girder is 366kN
factored shear=549kN
Shear resistance=383 kN
Total shear to be resisted by stirrups is 549-383=166 kN
Spacing of same 4-legged 8mm vertical stirrups is given by
s=

201 0.9 1560 0.8 415 1


=564.408 mm
3
166 10

As per cl-16.5.2(7) of IRC:112-2011,


Slmax =0.75d(1+cot)=0.7515601=1170mm>564.408mm(ok)
But As per cl-16.5.3(3,4) of IRC:112-2011, specifies for torsion criteria to be
satisfied,the minimum spacing should be 350mm or

1
1
3200=400 m }(lesser of two)
[outer
perimeter
of
the
member]=
8
8
So provide 4-legged -8mm vertical stirrups @360mm c/c in the middle strip band
of length 4.5825m
Again it should satisfy (
(

w min

= 1.026 10

w min

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

w prov

201

= 350 400

=1.436 10 >( w )min ( ok )

15
SHEAR REINFORCEMENT DISTRIBUTION ON INNER GIRDER:
0.45+1.56=2.01m from girder end
Total design shear=1126.50kN
(VRdc)I.G=282 kN
Design shear for which shear reinforcement will be provided=844.50kn
Bent up bars shear resistance is
(VRds)I.G =628.543 kN
But it will be taking only

844.50
=422.25 kN
2

Rest 422.25kn will be taken care of by the vertical stirrups.


Providing 8mm -4 legged stirrups,
Asw=201 mm

Cl-10.3.3.2 of IRC:112-2011 specifies


Vrd.max=2122.848kN >> 422.25kN(ok)
Following same clause, spacing of stirrups,

201 0.9 1560 0.8 415 1


=221.88mm
S=
422.25 103
Provide 8mm-4legged stirrups @200mmc/c up to 4.3825m from end of girder on
both sides (

w min

201

= 1.026 10

w)prov = 200 400

=2.5125 103 >( w )min (ok )

Shear at 4.3825m is given by 576 kN.


Design shear=1.5576=864kN
No bent up bars are available here.
(VRdc)I.G=339 kN
Shear to be resisted by stirrups=525kN
VR d.max=2122.84kN >>525kN
Spacing of stirrups is given by
S=

201 0.9 1560 0.8 415 1


=178.46 mm
3
302.50 10

Provide 8mm-4legged stirrups @160mmc/c up to 6.87375m


Shear at 6.87375m from end of girder is; Design shear=1.5360=549kN

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

(Ast)available=

16

2
2
28 =9852.035 mm
4

9852.035

)I.G= 400 1560

=0.016< 0.02

(VRdc)I.G=356.604 kN
Shear to b resisted by links and/stirrups
(549-356.604)kn=192.396kn 193 kN
Providing minimum shear reinforcement spacing of 350mm c/c,

201 0.9 1560 0.8 415 1


=267.691kN > 193 kn(ok )
350

VRds=

So Provide 8mm-4legged stirrups @350mmc/c in middle strip-band of length


4.5825m
(

w min

w prov

16

= 1.026 10

= 350 400 1

201

=1.436 10 >( w )min ( ok )

SURFACE REINFORCEMENT:

Fig-25 (Surface Reinforcement provision)


Surface reinforcement will be provided taking a surface area of the cover portion
outside of the stirrups.
Surface area on one face of girder=871400=121800mm 2
0.01 Act.ext =1218mm2

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA
We have side face reinforcement of approximately 5-12mm dia bars which provide
565.5mm2
Providing 10mm bars @150mmc/c,total steel area provided per unit run is

=
Total reinforcement=1274.976>1218mm2(OK)
Surface area on lower end i.e at foot of girder=92400=36800
=0.01 Act.ext=368mm2
Provision of 4-16mm bars will be giving

=
Also stirrups will be giving

=
Total area provided=976.25mm2>368mm2(ok)
1
All the surface reinforcement bars are perfectly anchored&hence will be
serving as shear reinforcement also appear same clause(5) also
2
Also side face longitudinal bars will be serving as side face reinforcement for
stability as per clause-26.5.1.3 of IS-456:2000
17

CHECK FOR BAR CURTAILMENT ADEQUACY AS PER CURTAILMENT OF


GIRDER BARS:
The check will be done as per clause 16.5.1.3 off IRC:-112-2011(page -176)& clause16.5.1.4 off IRC:112-2011(page -177)
Before checking,it may be noted that the longitudinal bar curtailment rule as per
figure-16.2 of IRC:112-2011(page -177) will be taken care of for end sections only
since at end of girders,there is maximum shear &minimum reinforcement is acting
upon all other sections will be found safer if automatically if end section are found
safer
Frs=tensile capacity of reinforcement

n=numbers of bars at ends, d=diameter of bars

=2552.112kN

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

(Frs)I.G=

2
28 0.87 415=2778.54 kN
4

The above Frs should be greater that Fs+

Effective shear will occur at 2.01m from end &its value is 1126.50kN
Fs=0.451126.50 507kN
At ends Med 0

Ftd=0.5 VEd(

M ed
=0
z

cotcot

=0.51126.501=563.25kN
Also another value of Fs appear fig-16.2(A) is

M Ed
+ N Ed =0
z
Fs+ Ftd =563.25+507=1070.25kn<2552.112 kn=(FRs)o.g
At middle,

M ed
M edmax
=
z
z
M ed
7412 106
=5280 kN
(
z )O.G= 0.9 1560
6
M ed
5169 10
=3682kN
(
z )I.G= 0.9 1560

(Fs)O.G=5280kn,(Fs)i.g=3682kN

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

( VEd=0& also

M Edmax
z
Ftd<
)

(FRS)O.G=2552.1122=5104.224kN
(FRS)I.G=1778.542=3557.08kN
As per clause -16.5.4(5) of irc:112-2011,4-16mm bars which are provided as side
face reinforcement will be serving as resisting bars for bending of girder section. So

tensile capacity of total 4-16mm bars is given by,


So (FRS)O.G=5104.224+290.374=6394.60 kN >(ok)
(FRS)I.G=3847.454kN >3682kN (ok)
3.6.15
DESIGN OF CROSS GIRDER:
Self-weight=0.31.425=10.5 kN/m
Slab load will be distributed as shown below

Fig-26 (Dead load distribution from slab onCross Girder)


Dead load from slab =20.52.51.258.46=26.4375
So udl load =

26.4375
=10.575 kN /m
2.5

Total load (dead weight) =21.075kN/m


Assuming rigid cross girder,

Reaction on longitudinal girder is =

21.075 5
=35.125 kN
3

For max. Bending moment, the loads should be kept at equal distance from
intermediate longitudinal girder of both sides of cross girder.

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

Fig-27 (Wheel load arrangement for maximum bending moment on Cross


Girder)
Now for calculating load, following diagram may be provided at beneficial
Load on cross girder from one wheel

350

= 2 2

( 4.50750.9)
=280.12 kN
4.5078

Reaction on each longitudinal girder

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA

280.12 2
=186.75 kN
3

Max. Bending moment on cross girder under load =186.751.475=275.456 kN-m


In checking impact, Mc =303kN-m
Dead load moment under wheel load ,
2

= 35.125 1.47521.075

( 1.475)
=28.884 kN m
2

Total design moment=332kN-m


Ultimate moment = Mu =498kN-m
Since the cross girder fixed at intermediate girder,(-)ve moment will exist.
As per D.J victor, Essential Bridges Engineering, referring to Morrice-Little method,
distribution coefficient=0.416
So negative moment =0.146 49873 kN-m
Since its flange d beam,assuming neutral axis in side flange,
Mu =21241.143kN-m>>>>>498kN-m

498 106
(Ast )+ve= 0.87 415 1660 (10.416 250 )
1600

=886.45 mm2

Providing 4-20mm bars


(Ast )provided=1256.64mm2
Provision of 4-16-mm bars at top will give
(Ast )-ve=804.25mm2>(Ast )required =135.152mm2
Provide 4-12mm bars each face uniformly as side reinforcement.
3.6.15.1

SHEAR CHECK FOR CROSS GIRDERS:

Cl-10.3.2 of IRC:112-2011
K=1.33
vmin=0.281
cp=0

1 =2.61810-3
VRdc=[0.121.33(802.61810-335)0.333001600=147.831 kN
VRdc.min=0.2813001600=134.880 kN
Design shear VEd =1.5[186.75+35.125]=332.8125 kN
Extra shear to be resisted by stirrups is =184.98 185 kN
Providing 8mm dia -4 legged stirrups
Asw =201mm2
Spacing(s)= 519.43mm,8mm 4-legged @300mm c/c

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA
Again shear reinforcement ratio

w =

s b w sin

(cl-16.5.2 of IRC 112:2000)


A

=1.289910-3

0.072 35
=1.026 103
( w) =
415

Assumimg

)min ,

201

s= 300 11.026 103

=653.021mm> 300 mm(ok )

Fig-28 (Reinforcement detailing of Cross Girder)


Clause -16.5.2 of IRC:112-2011(6, 7, 8,9,) specifies that
smin=dg+10=30mm
40mm
2s=28=16mm
Smax=0.75d(1+cot)=0.75(1+0)=1245mm
As per the Clause -16.5.3 of IRC:112-2011,
The links will not to be of greater spacing of following
1/8 (perimeter of member)=487.5mm
or 350mm
Our provision of 300m (okay)

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA
3.6.16
MODIFIED ANCHORAGE FOR BARS AT THE ENDS OF GIRDERS:
At the ends of girders,bearing available is only 450mm.hence standard 90 bend as
per fig 15.2 of irc:112-2011 will be provided.
So modified lb.net will be
lb.net =0.7lb1=0.7lb
lb =903mm(for 30mm bars)
lb =843mm(for 28mm bars)
(lb.net)O.G =632mm
(lb.net)I.G =590mm

REFERENCES:
1

IRC:112-2011; CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES, INDIAN


ROAD CONGRESS

IRC:6-2014; STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS AND CODE OF PRACTICE FOR ROAD


BRIDGES; SECTION : II LOADS AND STRESSES

IRC:6-2010; STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS AND CODE OF PRACTICE FOR ROAD


BRIDGES; SECTION : II LOADS AND STRESSES

IRC-SP-13; GUIDELINES FOR THE DESIN OF SMALL BRIDGES AND CULVERTS

BY:
ABHISEK PANDA
5

IS 456 : 2000; INDIAN STANDARD PLAIN AND REINFORCED CONCRETE CODE


OF PRACTICE

IS-SP-16; DESIGN AIDS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE TO IS : 456-1978

IS : 875 1987; INDIAN STANDARD CODE OF PRACTICE FOR DESIGN LOADS


(OTHER THAN EARTHQUAKE) FOR BUILDINGS AND STRUCUTRES

IS-SP : 34(S&T)-1987; HANDBOOK ON CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT AND


DETAILING

ESSENTIALS OF BRIDGE ENGINEERING; VICTOR D.J; OXFORD&IBH


PUBLICATION

10

DESIGN OF BRIDGES; RAJU N.K; OXFORD&IBH PUBLICATION

11

R.C.C DESIGNS ; PUNMIA B.C, JAIN A.K AND JAIN A.K; LAXMI PUBLICATIONS

12

REINFORCED CONCRETE VOL.I; SHAH H.J; CHAROTAR PUBLICATIONS

13

LIMIT STATE DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE; VARGHESE P.C; PHI


LEARNING

14

THEORY OF STRUCTURES; RAMAMRUTHAM S. AND NARAYAN R.; DHANPATRAI


PUBLISHING COMPANY

15

HIGHWAY ENGINEERING; KHANNA S.K. AND JUSTO C.E.G.

16

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & ENGINEERING RESEARCH VOLUME


4 , ISSUE 3 ,MARCH 2013 (ISSN 2229 -5518) STUDY OF EFFECTIVENESS OF
COURBON S THEORY IN THE ANALYSIS OF T BEAM BRIDGES
KALYAN & HETTI &R. P. SHRIRAM

BY: M.G.